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Test Your Knowledge in Computers #765
Difficulty: Medium
Cache read misses from an instruction cache generally cause the longest delays because the processor, and in particular the thread of execution, has to wait until the instruction is fetched from main memory.
True or False?
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bup(1) [debian man page]

bup(1)							      General Commands Manual							    bup(1)

bup - Backup program using rolling checksums and git file formats SYNOPSIS
bup [global options...] <command> [options...] DESCRIPTION
bup is a program for making backups of your files using the git file format. Unlike git(1) itself, bup is optimized for handling huge data sets including individual very large files (such a virtual machine images). However, once a backup set is created, it can still be accessed using git tools. The individual bup subcommands appear in their own man pages. GLOBAL OPTIONS
--version print bup's version number. Equivalent to bup-version(1) -d, --bup-dir=BUP_DIR use the given BUP_DIR parameter as the bup repository location, instead of reading it from the $BUP_DIR environment variable or using the default ~/.bup location. COMMONLY USED SUBCOMMANDS
bup-fsck(1) Check backup sets for damage and add redundancy information bup-ftp(1) Browse backup sets using an ftp-like client bup-fuse(1) Mount your backup sets as a filesystem bup-help(1) Print detailed help for the given command bup-index(1) Create or display the index of files to back up bup-on(1) Backup a remote machine to the local one bup-restore(1) Extract files from a backup set bup-save(1) Save files into a backup set (note: run "bup index" first) bup-web(1) Launch a web server to examine backup sets RARELY USED SUBCOMMANDS
bup-damage(1) Deliberately destroy data bup-drecurse(1) Recursively list files in your filesystem bup-init(1) Initialize a bup repository bup-join(1) Retrieve a file backed up using bup-split(1) bup-ls(1) Browse the files in your backup sets bup-margin(1) Determine how close your bup repository is to armageddon bup-memtest(1) Test bup memory usage statistics bup-midx(1) Index objects to speed up future backups bup-newliner(1) Make sure progress messages don't overlap with output bup-random(1) Generate a stream of random output bup-server(1) The server side of the bup client-server relationship bup-split(1) Split a single file into its own backup set bup-tick(1) Wait for up to one second. bup-version(1) Report the version number of your copy of bup. SEE ALSO
git(1) and the README file from the bup distribution. The home of bup is at <>. AUTHORS
Avery Pennarun <>. Bup unknown- bup(1)

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bup-random(1)						      General Commands Manual						     bup-random(1)

bup-random - generate a stream of random output SYNOPSIS
bup random [-S seed] [-fv] DESCRIPTION
bup random produces a stream of pseudorandom output bytes to stdout. Note: the bytes are not generated using a cryptographic algorithm and should never be used for security. Note that the stream of random bytes will be identical every time bup random is run, unless you provide a different seed value. This is intentional: the purpose of this program is to be able to run repeatable tests on large amounts of data, so we want identical data every time. bup random generates about 240 megabytes per second on a modern test system (Intel Core2), which is faster than you could achieve by read- ing data from most disks. Thus, it can be helpful when running microbenchmarks. OPTIONS
the number of bytes of data to generate. Can be used with the suffices k, M, or G to indicate kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes, respectively. -S, --seed=seed use the given value to seed the pseudorandom number generator. The generated output stream will be identical for every stream seeded with the same value. The default seed is 1. A seed value of 0 is equivalent to 1. -f, --force generate output even if stdout is a tty. (Generating random data to a tty is generally considered ill-advised, but you can do if you really want.) -v, --verbose print a progress message showing the number of bytes that has been output so far. EXAMPLES
$ bup random 1k | sha1sum 2108c55d0a2687c8dacf9192677c58437a55db71 - $ bup random -S1 1k | sha1sum 2108c55d0a2687c8dacf9192677c58437a55db71 - $ bup random -S2 1k | sha1sum f71acb90e135d98dad7efc136e8d2cc30573e71a - $ time bup random 1G >/dev/null Random: 1024 Mbytes, done. real 0m4.261s user 0m4.048s sys 0m0.172s $ bup random 1G | bup split -t --bench Random: 1024 Mbytes, done. bup: 1048576.00kbytes in 18.59 secs = 56417.78 kbytes/sec 1092599b9c7b2909652ef1e6edac0796bfbfc573 BUP
Part of the bup(1) suite. AUTHORS
Avery Pennarun <>. Bup unknown- bup-random(1)

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