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ZSHALL(1)										ZSHALL(1)

NAME
       zshall - the Z shell meta-man page

OVERVIEW
       Because	zsh  contains  many features, the zsh manual has been split into a number of sec-
       tions.  This manual page includes all the separate manual pages in the following order:

       zshroadmap   Informal introduction to the manual
       zshmisc	    Anything not fitting into the other sections
       zshexpn	    Zsh command and parameter expansion
       zshparam     Zsh parameters
       zshoptions   Zsh options
       zshbuiltins  Zsh built-in functions
       zshzle	    Zsh command line editing
       zshcompwid   Zsh completion widgets
       zshcompsys   Zsh completion system
       zshcompctl   Zsh completion control
       zshmodules   Zsh loadable modules
       zshcalsys    Zsh built-in calendar functions
       zshtcpsys    Zsh built-in TCP functions
       zshzftpsys   Zsh built-in FTP client
       zshcontrib   Additional zsh functions and utilities

DESCRIPTION
       Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive login shell  and  as	a
       shell  script  command  processor.  Of the standard shells, zsh most closely resembles ksh
       but includes many enhancements.	Zsh has command line editing,  builtin	spelling  correc-
       tion, programmable command completion, shell functions (with autoloading), a history mech-
       anism, and a host of other features.

AUTHOR
       Zsh was originally written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.org>.  Zsh is  now  maintained  by  the
       members	of  the  zsh-workers mailing list <zsh-workers@zsh.org>.  The development is cur-
       rently coordinated by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  The coordinator can be contacted at
       <coordinator@zsh.org>, but matters relating to the code should generally go to the mailing
       list.

AVAILABILITY
       Zsh is available from the following anonymous FTP sites.  These mirror sites are kept fre-
       quently	up to date.  The sites marked with (H) may be mirroring ftp.cs.elte.hu instead of
       the primary site.

       Primary site
	      ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub/
	      http://www.zsh.org/pub/

       Australia
	      ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub/
	      http://www.zsh.org/pub/
	      http://mirror.dejanseo.com.au/pub/zsh/

       Hungary
	      ftp://ftp.cs.elte.hu/pub/zsh/
	      http://www.cs.elte.hu/pub/zsh/

	      The up-to-date source code is available via anonymous CVS and Git from Sourceforge.
	      See  http://sourceforge.net/projects/zsh/  for  details.	A summary of instructions
	      for the CVS and Git archives can be found at http://zsh.sourceforget.net/.

MAILING LISTS
       Zsh has 3 mailing lists:

       <zsh-announce@zsh.org>
	      Announcements about releases, major changes in the shell and the monthly posting of
	      the Zsh FAQ.  (moderated)

       <zsh-users@zsh.org>
	      User discussions.

       <zsh-workers@zsh.org>
	      Hacking, development, bug reports and patches.

       To  subscribe  or  unsubscribe, send mail to the associated administrative address for the
       mailing list.

       <zsh-announce-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-subscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-announce-unsubscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-unsubscribe@zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-unsubscribe@zsh.org>

       YOU ONLY NEED TO JOIN ONE OF THE MAILING LISTS AS THEY ARE  NESTED.   All  submissions  to
       zsh-announce  are  automatically forwarded to zsh-users.  All submissions to zsh-users are
       automatically forwarded to zsh-workers.

       If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any of the mailing lists, send  mail  to
       <listmaster@zsh.org>.	The   mailing	lists	are   maintained   by	Karsten  Thygesen
       <karthy@kom.auc.dk>.

       The mailing lists are archived; the  archives  can  be  accessed  via  the  administrative
       addresses  listed  above.   There  is  also  a hypertext archive, maintained by Geoff Wing
       <gcw@zsh.org>, available at http://www.zsh.org/mla/.

THE ZSH FAQ
       Zsh has a list of  Frequently  Asked  Questions	(FAQ),	maintained  by	Peter  Stephenson
       <pws@zsh.org>.	 It  is  regularly  posted  to	the  newsgroup	comp.unix.shell  and  the
       zsh-announce mailing list.  The latest version can be found at any of the Zsh  FTP  sites,
       or  at  http://www.zsh.org/FAQ/.   The contact address for FAQ-related matters is <faqmas-
       ter@zsh.org>.

THE ZSH WEB PAGE
       Zsh has a web page which is located at http://www.zsh.org/.  This is maintained by Karsten
       Thygesen  <karthy@zsh.org>,  of SunSITE Denmark.  The contact address for web-related mat-
       ters is <webmaster@zsh.org>.

THE ZSH USERGUIDE
       A userguide is currently in preparation.  It is intended to complement  the  manual,  with
       explanations  and  hints  on  issues where the manual can be cabbalistic, hierographic, or
       downright mystifying (for example, the word `hierographic' does not  exist).   It  can  be
       viewed in its current state at http://zsh.sourceforge.net/Guide/.  At the time of writing,
       chapters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new completion system  were
       essentially complete.

THE ZSH WIKI
       A  `wiki'  website  for	zsh  has been created at http://www.zshwiki.org/.  This is a site
       which can be added to and modified directly by users without any special permission.   You
       can add your own zsh tips and configurations.

INVOCATION
       The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked to determine where the shell
       will read commands from:

       -c     Take the first argument as a command to execute, rather than reading commands  from
	      a  script  or standard input.  If any further arguments are given, the first one is
	      assigned to $0, rather than being used as a positional parameter.

       -i     Force shell to be interactive.  It is still possible to specify a  script  to  exe-
	      cute.

       -s     Force  shell  to	read  commands	from  the  standard input.  If the -s flag is not
	      present and an argument is given, the first argument is taken to be the pathname of
	      a script to execute.

       If  there  are any remaining arguments after option processing, and neither of the options
       -c or -s was supplied, the first argument is taken as the file name of a script containing
       shell  commands	to be executed.  If the option PATH_SCRIPT is set, and the file name does
       not contain a directory path (i.e. there is no `/' in the name), first the current  direc-
       tory and then the command path given by the variable PATH are searched for the script.  If
       the option is not set or the file name contains a `/' it is used directly.

       After the first one or two arguments  have  been  appropriated  as  described  above,  the
       remaining arguments are assigned to the positional parameters.

       For  further  options,  which  are  common  to  invocation and the set builtin, see zshop-
       tions(1).

       Options may be specified by name using the  -o  option.	 -o  acts  like  a  single-letter
       option, but takes a following string as the option name.  For example,

	      zsh -x -o shwordsplit scr

       runs  the  script  scr, setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding letter `-x' and the
       SH_WORD_SPLIT option by name.  Options may be turned off by name by using  +o  instead  of
       -o.   -o  can  be  stacked  up  with  preceding single-letter options, so for example `-xo
       shwordsplit' or `-xoshwordsplit' is equivalent to `-x -o shwordsplit'.

       Options may also be specified by name in GNU long  option  style,  `--option-name'.   When
       this  is  done,	`-' characters in the option name are permitted: they are translated into
       `_', and thus ignored.  So, for	example,  `zsh	--sh-word-split'  invokes  zsh	with  the
       SH_WORD_SPLIT  option turned on.  Like other option syntaxes, options can be turned off by
       replacing  the  initial	`-'  with  a  `+';  thus  `+-sh-word-split'  is   equivalent   to
       `--no-sh-word-split'.   Unlike  other  option  syntaxes,  GNU-style long options cannot be
       stacked with any other options, so for example `-x-shwordsplit' is an error,  rather  than
       being treated like `-x --shwordsplit'.

       The  special  GNU-style	option	`--version'  is  handled; it sends to standard output the
       shell's version information, then exits successfully.  `--help' is also handled; it  sends
       to  standard output a list of options that can be used when invoking the shell, then exits
       successfully.

       Option processing may be finished, allowing following arguments that start with `-' or `+'
       to  be treated as normal arguments, in two ways.  Firstly, a lone `-' (or `+') as an argu-
       ment by itself ends option processing.  Secondly, a special option `--' (or  `+-'),  which
       may  be	specified  on  its own (which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be stacked with
       preceding options (so `-x-' is equivalent to `-x --').  Options are not	permitted  to  be
       stacked	after  `--' (so `-x-f' is an error), but note the GNU-style option form discussed
       above, where `--shwordsplit' is permitted and does not end option processing.

       Except when the sh/ksh emulation single-letter options are in effect, the option `-b'  (or
       `+b')  ends  option  processing.   `-b'	is  like  `--', except that further single-letter
       options can be stacked after the `-b' and will take effect as normal.

COMPATIBILITY
       Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or  ksh	respectively;  more  pre-
       cisely,	it  looks  at the first letter of the name by which it was invoked, excluding any
       initial `r' (assumed to stand for `restricted'), and if that is `s' or `k' it will emulate
       sh or ksh.  Furthermore, if invoked as su (which happens on certain systems when the shell
       is executed by the su command), the shell will try to find an alternative  name	from  the
       SHELL environment variable and perform emulation based on that.

       In  sh  and  ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not special and not ini-
       tialized by the shell: ARGC, argv, cdpath, fignore, fpath, HISTCHARS,  mailpath,  MANPATH,
       manpath, path, prompt, PROMPT, PROMPT2, PROMPT3, PROMPT4, psvar, status, watch.

       The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed.  Login shells source /etc/profile
       followed by $HOME/.profile.  If the ENV environment variable is set on invocation, $ENV is
       sourced	after the profile scripts.  The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion,
       command substitution, and arithmetic expansion before being  interpreted  as  a	pathname.
       Note that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution of startup files.

       The  following  options	are  set  if  the  shell is invoked as sh or ksh: NO_BAD_PATTERN,
       NO_BANG_HIST, NO_BG_NICE, NO_EQUALS,  NO_FUNCTION_ARGZERO,  GLOB_SUBST,	NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT,
       NO_HUP,	  INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS,    KSH_ARRAYS,	  NO_MULTIOS,	 NO_NOMATCH,   NO_NOTIFY,
       POSIX_BUILTINS,	  NO_PROMPT_PERCENT,	RM_STAR_SILENT,    SH_FILE_EXPANSION,	 SH_GLOB,
       SH_OPTION_LETTERS, SH_WORD_SPLIT.  Additionally the BSD_ECHO and IGNORE_BRACES options are
       set if zsh is invoked as sh.   Also,  the  KSH_OPTION_PRINT,  LOCAL_OPTIONS,  PROMPT_BANG,
       PROMPT_SUBST and SINGLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh.

RESTRICTED SHELL
       When the basename of the command used to invoke zsh starts with the letter `r' or the `-r'
       command line option is supplied at invocation, the shell  becomes  restricted.	Emulation
       mode is determined after stripping the letter `r' from the invocation name.  The following
       are disabled in restricted mode:

       o      changing directories with the cd builtin

       o      changing or unsetting the PATH, path, MODULE_PATH,  module_path,	SHELL,	HISTFILE,
	      HISTSIZE,  GID,  EGID,  UID, EUID, USERNAME, LD_LIBRARY_PATH, LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH,
	      LD_PRELOAD and  LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters

       o      specifying command names containing /

       o      specifying command pathnames using hash

       o      redirecting output to files

       o      using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another command

       o      using jobs -Z to overwrite the shell process' argument and environment space

       o      using the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external commands

       o      turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED

       These restrictions are enforced after processing the startup  files.   The  startup  files
       should  set up PATH to point to a directory of commands which can be safely invoked in the
       restricted environment.	They may also add  further  restrictions  by  disabling  selected
       builtins.

       Restricted  mode  can  also  be activated any time by setting the RESTRICTED option.  This
       immediately enables all the restrictions described above even if the shell still  has  not
       processed all startup files.

STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES
       Commands are first read from /etc/zshenv; this cannot be overridden.  Subsequent behaviour
       is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options; the former affects all startup files, while
       the  second only affects global startup files (those shown here with an path starting with
       a /).  If one of the options is unset at any point, any subsequent startup file(s) of  the
       corresponding  type  will  not  be  read.   It  is also possible for a file in $ZDOTDIR to
       re-enable GLOBAL_RCS. Both RCS and GLOBAL_RCS are set by default.

       Commands are then read from $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv.  If the shell is a login shell, commands are
       read  from  /etc/zprofile and then $ZDOTDIR/.zprofile.  Then, if the shell is interactive,
       commands are read from /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc.  Finally, if the  shell  is	a
       login shell, /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin are read.

       When  a	login  shell  exits,  the files $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout and then /etc/zlogout are read.
       This happens with either an explicit exit via the exit or logout commands, or an  implicit
       exit  by  reading  end-of-file from the terminal.  However, if the shell terminates due to
       exec'ing another process, the logout files are not read.  These are also affected  by  the
       RCS  and  GLOBAL_RCS options.  Note also that the RCS option affects the saving of history
       files, i.e. if RCS is unset when the shell exits, no history file will be saved.

       If ZDOTDIR is unset, HOME is used instead.  Files listed above as being in /etc may be  in
       another directory, depending on the installation.

       As  /etc/zshenv	is run for all instances of zsh, it is important that it be kept as small
       as possible.  In particular, it is a good idea to put code that does not need  to  be  run
       for  every  single  shell behind a test of the form `if [[ -o rcs ]]; then ...' so that it
       will not be executed when zsh is invoked with the `-f' option.

       Any of these files may be  pre-compiled	with  the  zcompile  builtin  command  (see  zsh-
       builtins(1)).  If a compiled file exists (named for the original file plus the .zwc exten-
       sion) and it is newer than the original file, the compiled file will be used instead.

ZSHROADMAP(1)									    ZSHROADMAP(1)

NAME
       zshroadmap - informal introduction to the zsh manual

       The Zsh Manual, like the shell itself, is large and often complicated.	This  section  of
       the  manual provides some pointers to areas of the shell that are likely to be of particu-
       lar interest to new users, and indicates where in the rest of the manual the documentation
       is to be found.

WHEN THE SHELL STARTS
       When  it  starts,  the  shell  reads commands from various files.  These can be created or
       edited to customize the shell.  See the section Startup/Shutdown Files in zsh(1).

       If no personal initialization files exist for the current user, a function is run to  help
       you  change  some  of the most common settings.	It won't appear if your administrator has
       disabled the zsh/newuser module.  The function is designed to  be  self-explanatory.   You
       can  run  it by hand with `autoload -Uz zsh-newuser-install; zsh-newuser-install -f'.  See
       also the section User Configuration Functions in zshcontrib(1).

INTERACTIVE USE
       Interaction with the shell uses the builtin Zsh Line Editor, ZLE.  This	is  described  in
       detail in zshzle(1).

       The  first decision a user must make is whether to use the Emacs or Vi editing mode as the
       keys for editing are substantially different.  Emacs editing mode is probably more natural
       for beginners and can be selected explicitly with the command bindkey -e.

       A history mechanism for retrieving previously typed lines (most simply with the Up or Down
       arrow keys) is available; note that, unlike other shells, zsh will not  save  these  lines
       when the shell exits unless you set appropriate variables, and the number of history lines
       retained by default is quite small (30 lines).  See the description of the shell variables
       (referred  to  in the documentation as parameters) HISTFILE, HISTSIZE and SAVEHIST in zsh-
       param(1).

       The shell now supports the UTF-8 character set (and also others if supported by the  oper-
       ating  system).	 This  is  (mostly) handled transparently by the shell, but the degree of
       support in terminal emulators is variable.  There is some discussion of this in the  shell
       FAQ,  http://zsh.dotsrc.org/FAQ/ .  Note in particular that for combining characters to be
       handled the option COMBINING_CHARS needs to be set.  Because the shell is now more  sensi-
       tive  to the definition of the character set, note that if you are upgrading from an older
       version of the shell you should ensure that the	appropriate  variable,	either	LANG  (to
       affect  all  aspects of the shell's operation) or LC_CTYPE (to affect only the handling of
       character sets) is set to an appropriate value.	This is true even if you are using a sin-
       gle-byte  character  set  including extensions of ASCII such as ISO-8859-1 or ISO-8859-15.
       See the description of LC_CTYPE in zshparam(1).

   Completion
       Completion is a feature present in many shells. It allows the user to  type  only  a  part
       (usually the prefix) of a word and have the shell fill in the rest.  The completion system
       in zsh is programmable.	For example, the shell can be set to complete email addresses  in
       arguments  to  the  mail command from your ~/.abook/addressbook; usernames, hostnames, and
       even remote paths in arguments to scp, and so on.  Anything that  can  be  written  in  or
       glued  together with zsh can be the source of what the line editor offers as possible com-
       pletions.

       Zsh has two completion systems, an old, so called  compctl  completion  (named  after  the
       builtin	command  that  serves  as  its	complete and only user interface), and a new one,
       referred to as compsys, organized as library of builtin and user-defined  functions.   The
       two  systems  differ  in  their interface for specifying the completion behavior.  The new
       system is more customizable and is supplied with completions for many commonly  used  com-
       mands; it is therefore to be preferred.

       The completion system must be enabled explicitly when the shell starts.	For more informa-
       tion see zshcompsys(1).

   Extending the line editor
       Apart from completion, the line editor is highly extensible by means of	shell  functions.
       Some useful functions are provided with the shell; they provide facilities such as:

       insert-composed-char
	      composing characters not found on the keyboard

       match-words-by-style
	      configuring what the line editor considers a word when moving or deleting by word

       history-beginning-search-backward-end, etc.
	      alternative ways of searching the shell history

       replace-string, replace-pattern
	      functions for replacing strings or patterns globally in the command line

       edit-command-line
	      edit the command line with an external editor.

       See the section `ZLE Functions' in zshcontrib(1) for descriptions of these.

OPTIONS
       The  shell  has	a  large  number  of options for changing its behaviour.  These cover all
       aspects of the shell; browsing the full documentation is  the  only  good  way  to  become
       acquainted with the many possibilities.	See zshoptions(1).

PATTERN MATCHING
       The  shell  has a rich set of patterns which are available for file matching (described in
       the documentation as `filename generation' and also known for historical reasons as `glob-
       bing') and for use when programming.  These are described in the section `Filename Genera-
       tion' in zshexpn(1).

       Of particular interest are the following patterns that are not commonly supported by other
       systems of pattern matching:

       **     for matching over multiple directories

       ~, ^   the ability to exclude patterns from matching when the EXTENDED_GLOB option is set

       (...)  glob  qualifiers,  included  in parentheses at the end of the pattern, which select
	      files by type (such as directories) or attribute (such as size).

GENERAL COMMENTS ON SYNTAX
       Although the syntax of zsh is in ways similar  to  the  Korn  shell,  and  therefore  more
       remotely  to  the  original  UNIX  shell, the Bourne shell, its default behaviour does not
       entirely correspond to those shells.  General shell syntax is introduced  in  the  section
       `Shell Grammar' in zshmisc(1).

       One  commonly  encountered  difference is that variables substituted onto the command line
       are not split into words.  See the description of the shell option  SH_WORD_SPLIT  in  the
       section	`Parameter  Expansion'	in zshexpn(1).	In zsh, you can either explicitly request
       the splitting (e.g. ${=foo}) or use an array when you want a variable to  expand  to  more
       than one word.  See the section `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

PROGRAMMING
       The  most  convenient  way  of  adding enhancements to the shell is typically by writing a
       shell function and arranging for it to be autoloaded.  Functions are described in the sec-
       tion  `Functions' in zshmisc(1).  Users changing from the C shell and its relatives should
       notice that aliases are less used in zsh as they don't perform argument substitution, only
       simple text replacement.

       A  few  general	functions, other than those for the line editor described above, are pro-
       vided with the shell and are described in zshcontrib(1).  Features include:

       promptinit
	      a prompt theme system for changing prompts easily, see the section `Prompt Themes'

       zsh-mime-setup
	      a MIME-handling system which dispatches commands according to the suffix of a  file
	      as done by graphical file managers

       zcalc  a calculator

       zargs  a version of xargs that makes the find command redundant

       zmv    a command for renaming files by means of shell patterns.

ZSHMISC(1)									       ZSHMISC(1)

NAME
       zshmisc - everything and then some

SIMPLE COMMANDS &; PIPELINES
       A  simple  command is a sequence of optional parameter assignments followed by blank-sepa-
       rated words, with optional redirections interspersed.  The first word is the command to be
       executed,  and  the  remaining  words, if any, are arguments to the command.  If a command
       name is given, the parameter assignments modify the environment of the command when it  is
       executed.  The value of a simple command is its exit status, or 128 plus the signal number
       if terminated by a signal.  For example,

	      echo foo

       is a simple command with arguments.

       A pipeline is either a simple command, or a sequence of two or more simple commands  where
       each  command  is separated from the next by `|' or `|&'.  Where commands are separated by
       `|', the standard output of the first command is connected to the standard  input  of  the
       next.   `|&'  is  shorthand  for `2>&1 |', which connects both the standard output and the
       standard error of the command to the standard input of the next.  The value of a  pipeline
       is the value of the last command, unless the pipeline is preceded by `!' in which case the
       value is the logical inverse of the value of the last command.  For example,

	      echo foo | sed 's/foo/bar/'

       is a pipeline, where the output (`foo' plus a newline) of the first command will be passed
       to the input of the second.

       If  a  pipeline	is preceded by `coproc', it is executed as a coprocess; a two-way pipe is
       established between it and the parent shell.  The shell can read  from  or  write  to  the
       coprocess  by  means  of  the `>&p' and `<&p' redirection operators or with `print -p' and
       `read -p'.  A pipeline cannot be preceded by both `coproc' and `!'.   If  job  control  is
       active,	the  coprocess can be treated in other than input and output as an ordinary back-
       ground job.

       A sublist is either a single pipeline, or a sequence of two or more pipelines separated by
       `&&'  or  `||'.	 If  two pipelines are separated by `&&', the second pipeline is executed
       only if the first succeeds (returns a zero status).  If two  pipelines  are  separated  by
       `||',  the  second  is  executed only if the first fails (returns a nonzero status).  Both
       operators have equal precedence and are left associative.  The value of the sublist is the
       value of the last pipeline executed.  For example,

	      dmesg | grep panic && print yes

       is  a  sublist consisting of two pipelines, the second just a simple command which will be
       executed if and only if the grep command returns a zero status.	If it does not, the value
       of  the sublist is that return status, else it is the status returned by the print (almost
       certainly zero).

       A list is a sequence of zero or more sublists, in which each sublist is terminated by `;',
       `&',  `&|',  `&!',  or a newline.  This terminator may optionally be omitted from the last
       sublist in the list when the list appears as a complex command inside `(...)' or  `{...}'.
       When  a	sublist  is terminated by `;' or newline, the shell waits for it to finish before
       executing the next sublist.  If a sublist is terminated by a `&', `&|', or `&!', the shell
       executes  the  last  pipeline  in it in the background, and does not wait for it to finish
       (note the difference from other shells which execute the whole sublist in the background).
       A backgrounded pipeline returns a status of zero.

       More  generally,  a  list can be seen as a set of any shell commands whatsoever, including
       the complex commands below; this is implied wherever the  word  `list'  appears	in  later
       descriptions.  For example, the commands in a shell function form a special sort of list.

PRECOMMAND MODIFIERS
       A  simple  command may be preceded by a precommand modifier, which will alter how the com-
       mand is interpreted.  These modifiers are shell builtin commands  with  the  exception  of
       nocorrect which is a reserved word.

       -      The command is executed with a `-' prepended to its argv[0] string.

       builtin
	      The  command word is taken to be the name of a builtin command, rather than a shell
	      function or external command.

       command [ -pvV ]
	      The command word is taken to be the name of an  external	command,  rather  than	a
	      shell  function  or  builtin.    If the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will
	      also be executed but certain special properties of them are suppressed. The -p flag
	      causes  a  default  path to be searched instead of that in $path. With the -v flag,
	      command is similar to whence and with -V, it is equivalent to whence -v.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ]
	      The following command together with any arguments is run in place  of  the  current
	      process,	rather	than  as a sub-process.  The shell does not fork and is replaced.
	      The shell does not invoke TRAPEXIT, nor does it source zlogout files.  The  options
	      are provided for compatibility with other shells.

	      The -c option clears the environment.

	      The  -l option is equivalent to the - precommand modifier, to treat the replacement
	      command as a login shell; the command is executed with a - prepended to its argv[0]
	      string.  This flag has no effect if used together with the -a option.

	      The  -a  option  is  used to specify explicitly the argv[0] string (the name of the
	      command as seen by the process itself) to be used by the replacement command and is
	      directly equivalent to setting a value for the ARGV0 environment variable.

       nocorrect
	      Spelling	correction  is not done on any of the words.  This must appear before any
	      other precommand modifier, as it is interpreted immediately, before any parsing  is
	      done.  It has no effect in non-interactive shells.

       noglob Filename generation (globbing) is not performed on any of the words.

COMPLEX COMMANDS
       A complex command in zsh is one of the following:

       if list then list [ elif list then list ] ... [ else list ] fi
	      The  if  list  is  executed, and if it returns a zero exit status, the then list is
	      executed.  Otherwise, the elif list is executed and if its status is zero, the then
	      list  is executed.  If each elif list returns nonzero status, the else list is exe-
	      cuted.

       for name ... [ in word ... ] term do list done
	      where term is at least one newline or ;.	Expand the list of  words,  and  set  the
	      parameter  name  to each of them in turn, executing list each time.  If the in word
	      is omitted, use the positional parameters instead of the words.

	      More than one parameter name can appear before the list of words.  If N  names  are
	      given, then on each execution of the loop the next N words are assigned to the cor-
	      responding parameters.  If there are more names than remaining words, the remaining
	      parameters are each set to the empty string.  Execution of the loop ends when there
	      is no remaining word to assign to the first name.  It is only possible  for  in  to
	      appear as the first name in the list, else it will be treated as marking the end of
	      the list.

       for (( [expr1] ; [expr2] ; [expr3] )) do list done
	      The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first  (see	the  section  `Arithmetic
	      Evaluation').   The  arithmetic  expression  expr2 is repeatedly evaluated until it
	      evaluates to zero and when non-zero, list is executed and the arithmetic expression
	      expr3  evaluated.  If any expression is omitted, then it behaves as if it evaluated
	      to 1.

       while list do list done
	      Execute the do list as long as the while list returns a zero exit status.

       until list do list done
	      Execute the do list as long as until list returns a nonzero exit status.

       repeat word do list done
	      word is expanded and treated as an arithmetic expression, which must evaluate to	a
	      number n.  list is then executed n times.

	      The  repeat syntax is disabled by default when the shell starts in a mode emulating
	      another shell.  It can be enabled with the command `enable -r repeat'

       case word in [ [(] pattern [ | pattern ] ... ) list (;;|;&|;|) ] ... esac
	      Execute the list associated with the first pattern that matches word, if any.   The
	      form  of	the  patterns  is the same as that used for filename generation.  See the
	      section `Filename Generation'.

	      If the list that is executed is terminated with ;& rather than  ;;,  the	following
	      list is also executed.  The rule for the terminator of the following list ;;, ;& or
	      ;| is applied unless the esac is reached.

	      If the list that is executed is terminated with ;| the shell continues to scan  the
	      patterns looking for the next match, executing the corresponding list, and applying
	      the rule for the corresponding terminator ;;, ;& or ;|.	Note  that  word  is  not
	      re-expanded; all applicable patterns are tested with the same word.

       select name [ in word ... term ] do list done
	      where  term  is  one or more newline or ; to terminate the words.  Print the set of
	      words, each preceded by a number.  If the in word is omitted,  use  the  positional
	      parameters.   The PROMPT3 prompt is printed and a line is read from the line editor
	      if the shell is interactive and that is active, or else standard	input.	 If  this
	      line  consists of the number of one of the listed words, then the parameter name is
	      set to the word corresponding to this number.  If this line is empty, the selection
	      list  is printed again.  Otherwise, the value of the parameter name is set to null.
	      The contents of the line read from standard input is saved in the parameter  REPLY.
	      list is executed for each selection until a break or end-of-file is encountered.

       ( list )
	      Execute  list  in  a  subshell.	Traps  set by the trap builtin are reset to their
	      default values while executing list.

       { list }
	      Execute list.

       { try-list } always { always-list }
	      First execute try-list.  Regardless of errors, or break, continue, or  return  com-
	      mands  encountered  within try-list, execute always-list.  Execution then continues
	      from the result of the execution of try-list; in other words, any error, or  break,
	      continue,  or  return  command is treated in the normal way, as if always-list were
	      not present.  The two chunks of code are referred to as the  `try  block'  and  the
	      `always block'.

	      Optional	newlines  or  semicolons may appear after the always; note, however, that
	      they may not appear between the preceding closing brace and the always.

	      An `error' in this context is a condition such as a syntax error which  causes  the
	      shell  to  abort execution of the current function, script, or list.  Syntax errors
	      encountered while the shell is parsing the code do not cause the always-list to  be
	      executed.  For example, an erroneously constructed if block in try-list would cause
	      the shell to abort during parsing, so that always-list would not be executed, while
	      an  erroneous  substitution  such  as  ${*foo*} would cause a run-time error, after
	      which always-list would be executed.

	      An error condition can be tested	and  reset  with  the  special	integer  variable
	      TRY_BLOCK_ERROR.	 Outside  an  always-list the value is irrelevant, but it is ini-
	      tialised to -1.  Inside always-list, the value is 1 if an  error	occurred  in  the
	      try-list, else 0.  If TRY_BLOCK_ERROR is set to 0 during the always-list, the error
	      condition caused by the try-list is reset, and shell execution  continues  normally
	      after the end of always-list.  Altering the value during the try-list is not useful
	      (unless this forms part of an enclosing always block).

	      Regardless of TRY_BLOCK_ERROR, after the end of always-list the normal shell status
	      $?  is  the value returned from always-list.  This will be non-zero if there was an
	      error, even if TRY_BLOCK_ERROR was set to zero.

	      The following executes the given code, ignoring any errors it causes.  This  is  an
	      alternative  to  the  usual convention of protecting code by executing it in a sub-
	      shell.

		     {
			 # code which may cause an error
		       } always {
			 # This code is executed regardless of the error.
			 (( TRY_BLOCK_ERROR = 0 ))
		     }
		     # The error condition has been reset.

	      An exit command (or a return command executed at the outermost function level of	a
	      script)  encountered  in	try-list  does	not  cause  the execution of always-list.
	      Instead, the shell exits immediately after any EXIT trap has been executed.

       function word ... [ () ] [ term ] { list }
       word ... () [ term ] { list }
       word ... () [ term ] command
	      where term is one or more newline or ;.  Define a function which is  referenced  by
	      any  one	of word.  Normally, only one word is provided; multiple words are usually
	      only useful for setting traps.  The body of the function is the list between the	{
	      and }.  See the section `Functions'.

	      If  the  option SH_GLOB is set for compatibility with other shells, then whitespace
	      may appear between between the left and right parentheses when there  is	a  single
	      word;   otherwise, the parentheses will be treated as forming a globbing pattern in
	      that case.

       time [ pipeline ]
	      The pipeline is executed, and timing statistics are reported on the standard  error
	      in the form specified by the TIMEFMT parameter.  If pipeline is omitted, print sta-
	      tistics about the shell process and its children.

       [[ exp ]]
	      Evaluates the conditional expression exp and return a zero exit  status  if  it  is
	      true.  See the section `Conditional Expressions' for a description of exp.

ALTERNATE FORMS FOR COMPLEX COMMANDS
       Many  of  zsh's	complex  commands  have  alternate forms.  These are non-standard and are
       likely not to be obvious even to seasoned shell programmers; they should not be used  any-
       where that portability of shell code is a concern.

       The  short  versions  below  only  work	if  sublist  is  of the form `{ list }' or if the
       SHORT_LOOPS option is set.  For the if, while and until commands, in both these cases  the
       test  part  of the loop must also be suitably delimited, such as by `[[ ... ]]' or `(( ...
       ))', else the end of the test will not be recognized.   For  the  for,  repeat,	case  and
       select  commands no such special form for the arguments is necessary, but the other condi-
       tion (the special form of sublist or use of the SHORT_LOOPS option) still applies.

       if list { list } [ elif list { list } ] ... [ else { list } ]
	      An alternate form of if.	The rules mean that

		     if [[ -o ignorebraces ]] {
		       print yes
		     }

	      works, but

		     if true {	# Does not work!
		       print yes
		     }

	      does not, since the test is not suitably delimited.

       if list sublist
	      A short form of the alternate `if'.  The same limitations on the form of list apply
	      as for the previous form.

       for name ... ( word ... ) sublist
	      A short form of for.

       for name ... [ in word ... ] term sublist
	      where term is at least one newline or ;.	Another short form of for.

       for (( [expr1] ; [expr2] ; [expr3] )) sublist
	      A short form of the arithmetic for command.

       foreach name ... ( word ... ) list end
	      Another form of for.

       while list { list }
	      An  alternative  form of while.  Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned
	      above.

       until list { list }
	      An alternative form of until.  Note the limitations on the form of  list	mentioned
	      above.

       repeat word sublist
	      This is a short form of repeat.

       case word { [ [(] pattern [ | pattern ] ... ) list (;;|;&|;|) ] ... }
	      An alternative form of case.

       select name [ in word term ] sublist
	      where term is at least one newline or ;.	A short form of select.

RESERVED WORDS
       The following words are recognized as reserved words when used as the first word of a com-
       mand unless quoted or disabled using disable -r:

       do done esac then elif else fi for case if while function repeat time until select  coproc
       nocorrect foreach end ! [[ { }

       Additionally,  `}'  is  recognized in any position if neither the IGNORE_BRACES option nor
       the IGNORE_CLOSE_BRACES option is set.

ERRORS
       Certain errors are treated as fatal by the shell: in an interactive shell, they cause con-
       trol to return to the command line, and in a non-interactive shell they cause the shell to
       be aborted.  In older versions of zsh, a non-interactive shell running a script would  not
       abort  completely,  but	would  resume  execution  at the next command to be read from the
       script, skipping the remainder of any functions or shell constructs such as loops or  con-
       ditions;  this  somewhat  illogical  behaviour can be recovered by setting the option CON-
       TINUE_ON_ERROR.

       Fatal errors found in non-interactive shells include:
       Failure to parse shell options passed when invoking the shell
       Failure to change options with the set builtin
       Parse errors of all sorts, including failures to parse
	      mathematical expressions
       Failures to set or modify variable behaviour with typeset,
	      local, declare, export, integer, float
       Execution of incorrectly positioned loop control structures
	      (continue, break)
       Attempts to use regular expression with no regular expression
	      module available
       Disallowed operations when the RESTRICTED options is set
       Failure to create a pipe needed for a pipeline
       Failure to create a multio
       Failure to autoload a module needed for a declared shell feature
       Errors creating command or process substitutions
       Syntax errors in glob qualifiers
       File generation errors where not caught by the option BAD_PATTERN
       All bad patterns used for matching within case statements
       File generation failures where not caused by NO_MATCH or
       All file generation errors where the pattern was used to create a
	      multio
       Memory errors where detected by the shell
       Invalid subscripts to shell variables
       Attempts to assign read-only variables
       Logical errors with variables such as assignment to the wrong type
       Use of invalid variable names
       Errors in variable substitution syntax
       Failure to convert characters in $'...' expressions
	      similar options

       If the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, more errors associated with  shell	builtin  commands
       are treated as fatal, as specified by the POSIX standard.

COMMENTS
       In  non-interactive  shells, or in interactive shells with the INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option
       set, a word beginning with the third character of the histchars parameter (`#' by default)
       causes that word and all the following characters up to a newline to be ignored.

ALIASING
       Every  token in the shell input is checked to see if there is an alias defined for it.  If
       so, it is replaced by the text of the alias if it is in command position (if it	could  be
       the  first  word of a simple command), or if the alias is global.  If the text ends with a
       space, the next word in the shell input is treated as though it were in	command  position
       for  purposes  of  alias  expansion.   An alias is defined using the alias builtin; global
       aliases may be defined using the -g option to that builtin.

       Alias expansion is done on the shell input  before  any	other  expansion  except  history
       expansion.   Therefore,	if  an	alias is defined for the word foo, alias expansion may be
       avoided by quoting part of the word, e.g. \foo.	Any form of quoting works, although there
       is  nothing  to	prevent  an alias being defined for the quoted form such as \foo as well.
       For use with completion, which would remove an initial backslash followed by  a	character
       that  isn't special, it may be more convenient to quote the word by starting with a single
       quote, i.e. 'foo; completion will automatically add the trailing single quote.

       There is a commonly encountered problem with aliases illustrated by the following code:

	      alias echobar='echo bar'; echobar

       This prints a message that the command echobar could not be found.  This  happens  because
       aliases	are expanded when the code is read in; the entire line is read in one go, so that
       when echobar is executed it is too late to expand the newly defined alias.  This is  often
       a  problem  in  shell  scripts, functions, and code executed with `source' or `.'.  Conse-
       quently, use of functions rather than aliases is recommended in non-interactive code.

       Note also the unhelpful interaction of aliases and function definitions:

	      alias func='noglob func'
	      func() {
		  echo Do something with $*
	      }

       Because aliases are expanded in function definitions, this causes the following command to
       be executed:

	      noglob func() {
		  echo Do something with $*
	      }

       which  defines  noglob  as  well as func as functions with the body given.  To avoid this,
       either quote the name func or use  the  alternative  function  definition  form	`function
       func'.	Ensuring  the alias is defined after the function works but is problematic if the
       code fragment might be re-executed.

QUOTING
       A character may be quoted (that is, made to stand for itself) by preceding it with a  `\'.
       `\' followed by a newline is ignored.

       A  string  enclosed between `$'' and `'' is processed the same way as the string arguments
       of the print builtin, and the resulting string is considered to	be  entirely  quoted.	A
       literal `'' character can be included in the string by using the `\'' escape.

       All characters enclosed between a pair of single quotes ('') that is not preceded by a `$'
       are quoted.  A single quote cannot appear within single quotes unless the option RC_QUOTES
       is  set,  in which case a pair of single quotes are turned into a single quote.	For exam-
       ple,

	      print ''''

       outputs nothing apart from a newline if RC_QUOTES is not set, but one single quote  if  it
       is set.

       Inside  double  quotes  (""), parameter and command substitution occur, and `\' quotes the
       characters `\', ``', `"', and `$'.

REDIRECTION
       If a command is followed by & and job control is not active,  then  the	default  standard
       input  for  the	command  is the empty file /dev/null.  Otherwise, the environment for the
       execution of a command contains the file descriptors of the invoking shell as modified  by
       input/output specifications.

       The  following  may appear anywhere in a simple command or may precede or follow a complex
       command.  Expansion occurs before word or digit is used except as  noted  below.   If  the
       result  of  substitution  on  word produces more than one filename, redirection occurs for
       each separate filename in turn.

       < word Open file word for reading as standard input.

       <> word
	      Open file word for reading and writing as standard input.  If  the  file	does  not
	      exist then it is created.

       > word Open  file word for writing as standard output.  If the file does not exist then it
	      is created.  If the file exists, and the CLOBBER option is unset,  this  causes  an
	      error; otherwise, it is truncated to zero length.

       >| word
       >! word
	      Same  as	>, except that the file is truncated to zero length if it exists, even if
	      CLOBBER is unset.

       >> word
	      Open file word for writing in append mode as standard output.  If the file does not
	      exist,  and  the CLOBBER option is unset, this causes an error; otherwise, the file
	      is created.

       >>| word
       >>! word
	      Same as >>, except that the file is created if it does not exist, even  if  CLOBBER
	      is unset.

       <<[-] word
	      The  shell  input  is  read  up  to  a  line  that  is  the  same as word, or to an
	      end-of-file.  No parameter expansion, command substitution or  filename  generation
	      is  performed on word.  The resulting document, called a here-document, becomes the
	      standard input.

	      If any character of word is quoted with single or double quotes or a `\', no inter-
	      pretation  is placed upon the characters of the document.  Otherwise, parameter and
	      command substitution occurs, `\' followed by a newline is removed, and `\' must  be
	      used to quote the characters `\', `$', ``' and the first character of word.

	      Note  that word itself does not undergo shell expansion.	Backquotes in word do not
	      have their usual effect; instead they behave similarly  to  double  quotes,  except
	      that  the backquotes themselves are passed through unchanged.  (This information is
	      given for completeness and it is not recommended that backquotes be used.)   Quotes
	      in  the  form $'...' have their standard effect of expanding backslashed references
	      to special characters.

	      If <<- is used, then all leading tabs are stripped from word and from the document.

       <<< word
	      Perform shell expansion on word and pass the result to  standard	input.	 This  is
	      known  as  a  here-string.   Compare the use of word in here-documents above, where
	      word does not undergo shell expansion.

       <& number
       >& number
	      The standard input/output is duplicated from file descriptor number (see dup2(2)).

       <& -
       >& -   Close the standard input/output.

       <& p
       >& p   The input/output from/to the coprocess is moved to the standard input/output.

       >& word
       &> word
	      (Except where `>& word' matches one of the above syntaxes; `&>' can always be  used
	      to  avoid this ambiguity.)  Redirects both standard output and standard error (file
	      descriptor 2) in the manner of `> word'.	Note that this does  not  have	the  same
	      effect as `> word 2>&1' in the presence of multios (see the section below).

       >&| word
       >&! word
       &>| word
       &>! word
	      Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner
	      of `>| word'.

       >>& word
       &>> word
	      Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner
	      of `>> word'.

       >>&| word
       >>&! word
       &>>| word
       &>>! word
	      Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner
	      of `>>| word'.

       If one of the above is preceded by a digit, then the file descriptor referred to  is  that
       specified by the digit instead of the default 0 or 1.  The order in which redirections are
       specified is significant.  The shell evaluates each redirection	in  terms  of  the  (file
       descriptor, file) association at the time of evaluation.  For example:

	      ... 1>fname 2>&1

       first  associates file descriptor 1 with file fname.  It then associates file descriptor 2
       with the file associated with file descriptor 1 (that is, fname).  If the order	of  redi-
       rections  were reversed, file descriptor 2 would be associated with the terminal (assuming
       file descriptor 1 had been) and then file descriptor  1	would  be  associated  with  file
       fname.

       The  `|&'  command  separator  described in Simple Commands & Pipelines in zshmisc(1) is a
       shorthand for `2>&1 |'.

       The various forms of process  substitution,  `<(list)',	and  `=(list())'  for  input  and
       `>(list)'  for  output, are often used together with redirection.  For example, if word in
       an output redirection is of the form `>(list)' then the output is  piped  to  the  command
       represented by list.  See Process Substitution in zshexpn(1).

OPENING FILE DESCRIPTORS USING PARAMETERS
       When  the  shell  is parsing arguments to a command, and the shell option IGNORE_BRACES is
       not set, a different form of redirection is allowed: instead of a digit before the  opera-
       tor  there is a valid shell identifier enclosed in braces.  The shell will open a new file
       descriptor that is guaranteed to be at least 10 and set the parameter named by the identi-
       fier  to  the  file descriptor opened.  No whitespace is allowed between the closing brace
       and the redirection character.  For example:

	      ... {myfd}>&1

       This opens a new file descriptor that is a duplicate of file descriptor	1  and	sets  the
       parameter  myfd	to the number of the file descriptor, which will be at least 10.  The new
       file descriptor can be written to using the syntax >&$myfd.

       The syntax {varid}>&-, for example {myfd}>&-, may be  used  to  close  a  file  descriptor
       opened  in this fashion.  Note that the parameter given by varid must previously be set to
       a file descriptor in this case.

       It is an error to open or close a file descriptor in this fashion when  the  parameter  is
       readonly.   However,  it is not an error to read or write a file descriptor using <&$param
       or >&$param if param is readonly.

       If the option CLOBBER is unset, it is an error to open a file descriptor using a parameter
       that  is  already  set  to an open file descriptor previously allocated by this mechanism.
       Unsetting the parameter before using it for allocating a file descriptor avoids the error.

       Note that this mechanism merely allocates or closes a file descriptor; it does not perform
       any  redirections  from	or to it.  It is usually convenient to allocate a file descriptor
       prior to use as an argument to exec.  The syntax does not  in  any  case  work  when  used
       around  complex commands such as parenthesised subshells or loops, where the opening brace
       is interpreted as part of a command list to be executed in the current shell.

       The following shows a typical sequence of allocation, use, and closing of a file  descrip-
       tor:

	      integer myfd
	      exec {myfd}>~/logs/mylogfile.txt
	      print This is a log message. >&$myfd
	      exec {myfd}>&-

       Note  that the expansion of the variable in the expression >&$myfd occurs at the point the
       redirection is opened.  This is after the expansion of command  arguments  and  after  any
       redirections to the left on the command line have been processed.

MULTIOS
       If  the	user  tries to open a file descriptor for writing more than once, the shell opens
       the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies its input to all the specified out-
       puts, similar to tee, provided the MULTIOS option is set, as it is by default.  Thus:

	      date >foo >bar

       writes  the date to two files, named `foo' and `bar'.  Note that a pipe is an implicit re-
       direction; thus

	      date >foo | cat

       writes the date to the file `foo', and also pipes it to cat.

       If the MULTIOS option is set, the word after a redirection operator is also  subjected  to
       filename generation (globbing).	Thus

	      : > *

       will truncate all files in the current directory, assuming there's at least one.  (Without
       the MULTIOS option, it would create an empty file called `*'.)  Similarly, you can do

	      echo exit 0 >> *.sh

       If the user tries to open a file descriptor for reading more than once,	the  shell  opens
       the  file  descriptor  as  a pipe to a process that copies all the specified inputs to its
       output in the order specified, similar to cat, provided the MULTIOS option is set.  Thus

	      sort <foo <fubar

       or even

	      sort <f{oo,ubar}

       is equivalent to `cat foo fubar | sort'.

       Expansion of the redirection argument occurs at the point the redirection  is  opened,  at
       the point described above for the expansion of the variable in >&$myfd.

       Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection; thus

	      cat bar | sort <foo

       is equivalent to `cat bar foo | sort' (note the order of the inputs).

       If  the	MULTIOS  option  is unset, each redirection replaces the previous redirection for
       that file descriptor.  However, all files redirected to are actually opened, so

	      echo foo > bar > baz

       when MULTIOS is unset will truncate bar, and write `foo' into baz.

       There is a problem when an output multio is attached to an  external  program.	A  simple
       example shows this:

	      cat file >file1 >file2
	      cat file1 file2

       Here, it is possible that the second `cat' will not display the full contents of file1 and
       file2 (i.e. the original contents of file repeated twice).

       The reason for this is that the multios are spawned after the cat process is  forked  from
       the  parent  shell,  so	the  parent shell does not wait for the multios to finish writing
       data.  This means the command as shown can exit before  file1  and  file2  are  completely
       written.   As  a workaround, it is possible to run the cat process as part of a job in the
       current shell:

	      { cat file } >file >file2

       Here, the {...} job will pause to wait for both files to be written.

REDIRECTIONS WITH NO COMMAND
       When a simple command consists of one or more  redirection  operators  and  zero  or  more
       parameter assignments, but no command name, zsh can behave in several ways.

       If  the parameter NULLCMD is not set or the option CSH_NULLCMD is set, an error is caused.
       This is the csh behavior and CSH_NULLCMD is set by default when emulating csh.

       If the option SH_NULLCMD is set, the builtin `:' is inserted as a command with  the  given
       redirections.  This is the default when emulating sh or ksh.

       Otherwise,  if  the parameter NULLCMD is set, its value will be used as a command with the
       given redirections.  If both NULLCMD and READNULLCMD are set, then the value of the latter
       will  be used instead of that of the former when the redirection is an input.  The default
       for NULLCMD is `cat' and for READNULLCMD is `more'. Thus

	      < file

       shows the contents of file on standard output, with paging if that is a terminal.  NULLCMD
       and READNULLCMD may refer to shell functions.

COMMAND EXECUTION
       If a command name contains no slashes, the shell attempts to locate it.	If there exists a
       shell function by that name, the function is invoked as described in  the  section  `Func-
       tions'.	If there exists a shell builtin by that name, the builtin is invoked.

       Otherwise,  the	shell  searches  each element of $path for a directory containing an exe-
       cutable file by that name.  If the search is unsuccessful, the shell prints an error  mes-
       sage and returns a nonzero exit status.

       If  execution  fails  because  the file is not in executable format, and the file is not a
       directory, it is assumed to be a shell script.  /bin/sh is spawned to execute it.  If  the
       program is a file beginning with `#!', the remainder of the first line specifies an inter-
       preter for the program.	The shell will execute the  specified  interpreter  on	operating
       systems that do not handle this executable format in the kernel.

       If  no external command is found but a function command_not_found_handler exists the shell
       executes this function with all command line arguments.	The function should return status
       zero if it successfully handled the command, or non-zero status if it failed.  In the lat-
       ter case the standard handling is applied: `command not	found'	is  printed  to  standard
       error  and  the	shell exits with status 127.  Note that the handler is executed in a sub-
       shell forked to execute an external command, hence changes to directories,  shell  parame-
       ters, etc. have no effect on the main shell.

FUNCTIONS
       Shell  functions  are defined with the function reserved word or the special syntax `func-
       name ()'.  Shell functions are read in and stored internally.  Alias  names  are  resolved
       when the function is read.  Functions are executed like commands with the arguments passed
       as positional parameters.  (See the section `Command Execution'.)

       Functions execute in the same process as the caller and share all files and present  work-
       ing directory with the caller.  A trap on EXIT set inside a function is executed after the
       function completes in the environment of the caller.

       The return builtin is used to return from function calls.

       Function identifiers can be listed with the functions builtin.  Functions can be undefined
       with the unfunction builtin.

AUTOLOADING FUNCTIONS
       A  function  can  be  marked as undefined using the autoload builtin (or `functions -u' or
       `typeset -fu').	Such a function has no body.  When the function is  first  executed,  the
       shell  searches	for  its  definition  using  the elements of the fpath variable.  Thus to
       define functions for autoloading, a typical sequence is:

	      fpath=(~/myfuncs $fpath)
	      autoload myfunc1 myfunc2 ...

       The usual alias expansion during reading will be suppressed if the autoload builtin or its
       equivalent  is  given the option -U. This is recommended for the use of functions supplied
       with the zsh distribution.  Note that for functions precompiled with the zcompile  builtin
       command	the  flag -U must be provided when the .zwc file is created, as the corresponding
       information is compiled into the latter.

       For each element in fpath, the shell looks for three possible files, the newest	of  which
       is used to load the definition for the function:

       element.zwc
	      A  file created with the zcompile builtin command, which is expected to contain the
	      definitions for all functions in the directory named element.  The file is  treated
	      in  the  same  manner as a directory containing files for functions and is searched
	      for the definition of the function.   If the definition is not  found,  the  search
	      for a definition proceeds with the other two possibilities described below.

	      If  element  already  includes  a .zwc extension (i.e. the extension was explicitly
	      given by the user), element is searched for the definition of the function  without
	      comparing  its  age  to that of other files; in fact, there does not need to be any
	      directory named element without the suffix.  Thus  including  an	element  such  as
	      `/usr/local/funcs.zwc'  in  fpath  will speed up the search for functions, with the
	      disadvantage that functions included must be explicitly recompiled by  hand  before
	      the shell notices any changes.

       element/function.zwc
	      A file created with zcompile, which is expected to contain the definition for func-
	      tion.  It may include other function definitions as well,  but  those  are  neither
	      loaded  nor  executed; a file found in this way is searched only for the definition
	      of function.

       element/function
	      A file of zsh command text, taken to be the definition for function.

       In summary, the order of searching is, first, in the parents of directories in  fpath  for
       the newer of either a compiled directory or a directory in fpath; second, if more than one
       of these contains a definition for the function that is sought, the leftmost in the  fpath
       is  chosen;  and  third, within a directory, the newer of either a compiled function or an
       ordinary function definition is used.

       If the KSH_AUTOLOAD option is set, or the file contains only a simple  definition  of  the
       function, the file's contents will be executed.	This will normally define the function in
       question, but may also perform initialization, which is executed in  the  context  of  the
       function  execution,  and  may  therefore  define local parameters.  It is an error if the
       function is not defined by loading the file.

       Otherwise, the function body (with no surrounding `funcname() {...}') is taken to  be  the
       complete  contents  of the file.  This form allows the file to be used directly as an exe-
       cutable shell script.  If processing of the file results in the function being re-defined,
       the  function itself is not re-executed.  To force the shell to perform initialization and
       then call the function defined, the file should contain initialization code (which will be
       executed  then  discarded)  in  addition  to a complete function definition (which will be
       retained for subsequent calls to the function), and a call to the shell function,  includ-
       ing any arguments, at the end.

       For example, suppose the autoload file func contains

	      func() { print This is func; }
	      print func is initialized

       then  `func; func' with KSH_AUTOLOAD set will produce both messages on the first call, but
       only the message `This is func' on the second and subsequent calls.  Without  KSH_AUTOLOAD
       set,  it  will produce the initialization message on the first call, and the other message
       on the second and subsequent calls.

       It is also possible to create a function that is not marked as autoloaded, but which loads
       its  own  definition  by  searching fpath, by using `autoload -X' within a shell function.
       For example, the following are equivalent:

	      myfunc() {
		autoload -X
	      }
	      myfunc args...

       and

	      unfunction myfunc   # if myfunc was defined
	      autoload myfunc
	      myfunc args...

       In fact, the functions command outputs `builtin autoload -X' as the body of an  autoloaded
       function.  This is done so that

	      eval "$(functions)"

       produces  a  reasonable result.	A true autoloaded function can be identified by the pres-
       ence of the comment `# undefined' in the body, because all  comments  are  discarded  from
       defined functions.

       To load the definition of an autoloaded function myfunc without executing myfunc, use:

	      autoload +X myfunc

ANONYMOUS FUNCTIONS
       If  no  name  is given for a function, it is `anonymous' and is handled specially.  Either
       form of function definition may be used: a `()' with no preceding name,	or  a  `function'
       with  an  immediately  following  open brace.  The function is executed immediately at the
       point of definition and is not stored for  future  use.	 The  function	name  is  set  to
       `(anon)'.

       Arguments  to  the function may be specified as words following the closing brace defining
       the function, hence if there are none no arguments (other than $0) are  set.   This  is	a
       difference  from  the  way  other functions are parsed: normal function definitions may be
       followed by certain keywords such as `else' or `fi', which will be treated as arguments to
       anonymous functions, so that a newline or semicolon is needed to force keyword interpreta-
       tion.

       Note also that the argument list of any enclosing script or function is hidden  (as  would
       be the case for any other function called at this point).

       Redirections  may  be  applied  to  the anonymous function in the same manner as to a cur-
       rent-shell structure enclosed in braces.  The main use of anonymous functions is  to  pro-
       vide  a	scope  for local variables.  This is particularly convenient in start-up files as
       these do not provide their own local variable scope.

       For example,

	      variable=outside
	      function {
		local variable=inside
		print "I am $variable with arguments $*"
	      } this and that
	      print "I am $variable"

       outputs the following:

	      I am inside with arguments this and that
	      I am outside

       Note that function definitions with arguments that expand to nothing, for example  `name=;
       function  $name	{  ...	}',  are  not  treated as anonymous functions.	Instead, they are
       treated as normal function definitions where the definition is silently discarded.

SPECIAL FUNCTIONS
       Certain functions, if defined, have special meaning to the shell.

   Hook Functions
       For the functions below, it is possible to define an array that has the same name  as  the
       function with `_functions' appended.  Any element in such an array is taken as the name of
       a function to execute; it is executed in the same context and with the same  arguments  as
       the  basic  function.   For example, if $chpwd_functions is an array containing the values
       `mychpwd', `chpwd_save_dirstack',  then	the  shell  attempts  to  execute  the	functions
       `chpwd',  `mychpwd'  and `chpwd_save_dirstack', in that order.  Any function that does not
       exist is silently ignored.  A function found by this mechanism is referred to elsewhere as
       a  `hook  function'.   An error in any function causes subsequent functions not to be run.
       Note further that an error in a precmd hook causes an immediately following periodic func-
       tion not to run (though it may run at the next opportunity).

       chpwd  Executed whenever the current working directory is changed.

       periodic
	      If  the  parameter  PERIOD is set, this function is executed every $PERIOD seconds,
	      just before a prompt.  Note that if multiple functions are defined using the  array
	      periodic_functions only one period is applied to the complete set of functions, and
	      the scheduled time is not reset if the list of functions is altered.  Hence the set
	      of functions is always called together.

       precmd Executed	before	each  prompt.  Note that precommand functions are not re-executed
	      simply because the command line is redrawn, as happens, for example, when a notifi-
	      cation about an exiting job is displayed.

       preexec
	      Executed	just  after  a command has been read and is about to be executed.  If the
	      history mechanism is active (and the line was not discarded from the  history  buf-
	      fer),  the string that the user typed is passed as the first argument, otherwise it
	      is an empty string.  The actual command that will be executed  (including  expanded
	      aliases)	is  passed  in two different forms: the second argument is a single-line,
	      size-limited version of the command (with things like function bodies elided);  the
	      third argument contains the full text that is being executed.

       zshaddhistory
	      Executed	when  a  history  line has been read interactively, but before it is exe-
	      cuted.  The sole argument is the complete history line  (so  that  any  terminating
	      newline will still be present).

	      If  any  of the hook functions return a non-zero value the history line will not be
	      saved, although it lingers in the history until the next line is executed allow you
	      to reuse or edit it immediately.

	      A hook function may call `fc -p ...' to switch the history context so that the his-
	      tory is saved in a different file from the that in the global  HISTFILE  parameter.
	      This  is handled specially: the history context is automatically restored after the
	      processing of the history line is finished.

	      The following example function first adds the history line to  the  normal  history
	      with  the  newline  stripped,   which  is  usually  the correct behaviour.  Then it
	      switches the history context so that the line will be written to a history file  in
	      the current directory.

		     zshaddhistory() {
		       print -sr -- ${1%%$'\n'}
		       fc -p .zsh_local_history
		     }

       zshexit
	      Executed	at the point where the main shell is about to exit normally.  This is not
	      called by exiting subshells, nor when the exec precommand modifier is  used  before
	      an external command.  Also, unlike TRAPEXIT, it is not called when functions exit.

   Trap Functions
       The functions below are treated specially but do not have corresponding hook arrays.

       TRAPNAL
	      If  defined and non-null, this function will be executed whenever the shell catches
	      a signal SIGNAL, where NAL is a signal name as specified for the kill builtin.  The
	      signal number will be passed as the first parameter to the function.

	      If  a function of this form is defined and null, the shell and processes spawned by
	      it will ignore SIGNAL.

	      The return status from the function is handled specially.  If it is zero, the  sig-
	      nal  is assumed to have been handled, and execution continues normally.  Otherwise,
	      the shell will behave as interrupted except that the return status of the  trap  is
	      retained.

	      Programs	terminated  by	uncaught signals typically return the status 128 plus the
	      signal number.  Hence the following causes the handler for SIGINT to print  a  mes-
	      sage, then mimic the usual effect of the signal.

		     TRAPINT() {
		       print "Caught SIGINT, aborting."
		       return $(( 128 + $1 ))
		     }

	      The  functions  TRAPZERR,  TRAPDEBUG  and  TRAPEXIT are never executed inside other
	      traps.

       TRAPDEBUG
	      If the option DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set (as it is by default), executed  before  each
	      command;	otherwise  executed  after each command.  See the description of the trap
	      builtin in zshbuiltins(1) for details of	additional  features  provided	in  debug
	      traps.

       TRAPEXIT
	      Executed when the shell exits, or when the current function exits if defined inside
	      a function.  The value of $? at the start of execution is the exit  status  of  the
	      shell or the return status of the function exiting.

       TRAPZERR
	      Executed	whenever  a command has a non-zero exit status.  However, the function is
	      not executed if the command occurred in a sublist followed by `&&'  or  `||';  only
	      the  final  command  in a sublist of this type causes the trap to be executed.  The
	      function TRAPERR acts the same as TRAPZERR on systems  where  there  is  no  SIGERR
	      (this is the usual case).

       The  functions  beginning `TRAP' may alternatively be defined with the trap builtin:  this
       may be preferable for some uses.  Setting a trap with one form removes  any  trap  of  the
       other  form  for the same signal; removing a trap in either form removes all traps for the
       same signal.  The forms

	      TRAPNAL() {
	       # code
	      }

       ('function traps') and

	      trap '
	       # code
	      ' NAL

       ('list traps') are equivalent in most ways, the exceptions being the following:

       o      Function traps have all the properties of normal functions, appearing in	the  list
	      of  functions and being called with their own function context rather than the con-
	      text where the trap was triggered.

       o      The return status from function traps is special, whereas a return from a list trap
	      causes the surrounding context to return with the given status.

       o      Function	traps  are  not reset within subshells, in accordance with zsh behaviour;
	      list traps are reset, in accordance with POSIX behaviour.

JOBS
       If the MONITOR option is set, an interactive shell associates a job  with  each	pipeline.
       It  keeps  a  table  of	current jobs, printed by the jobs command, and assigns them small
       integer numbers.  When a job is started asynchronously with `&', the shell prints  a  line
       to standard error which looks like:

	      [1] 1234

       indicating  that  the  job  which  was started asynchronously was job number 1 and had one
       (top-level) process, whose process ID was 1234.

       If a job is started with `&|' or `&!', then  that  job  is  immediately	disowned.   After
       startup,  it does not have a place in the job table, and is not subject to the job control
       features described here.

       If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the key ^Z  (control-Z)
       which  sends  a	TSTP  signal  to  the current job:  this key may be redefined by the susp
       option of the external stty command.  The shell will then normally indicate that  the  job
       has been `suspended', and print another prompt.	You can then manipulate the state of this
       job, putting it in the background with the bg command, or run some other commands and then
       eventually  bring  the  job back into the foreground with the foreground command fg.  A ^Z
       takes effect immediately and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread  input
       are discarded when it is typed.

       A job being run in the background will suspend if it tries to read from the terminal.

       Note  that  if  the  job running in the foreground is a shell function, then suspending it
       will have the effect of causing the shell to fork.  This  is  necessary	to  separate  the
       function's  state  from	that  of the parent shell performing the job control, so that the
       latter can return to the command line prompt.  As a result, even if fg is used to continue
       the  job the function will no longer be part of the parent shell, and any variables set by
       the function will not be visible in the parent shell.  Thus  the  behaviour  is	different
       from  the  case	where the function was never suspended.  Zsh is different from many other
       shells in this regard.

       The same behaviour is found when the shell is executing code as the right hand side  of	a
       pipeline  or  any  complex shell construct such as if, for, etc., in order that the entire
       block of code can be managed as a single job.  Background jobs  are  normally  allowed  to
       produce	output, but this can be disabled by giving the command `stty tostop'.  If you set
       this tty option, then background jobs will suspend when they try to  produce  output  like
       they do when they try to read input.

       When a command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins, zsh restores
       tty modes that were in effect when it was suspended.  This (intentionally) does not  apply
       if the command is continued via `kill -CONT', nor when it is continued with bg.

       There  are  several  ways  to refer to jobs in the shell.  A job can be referred to by the
       process ID of any process of the job or by one of the following:

       %number
	      The job with the given number.
       %string
	      Any job whose command line begins with string.
       %?string
	      Any job whose command line contains string.
       %%     Current job.
       %+     Equivalent to `%%'.
       %-     Previous job.

       The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state.  It  normally  informs  you
       whenever  a  job  becomes  blocked so that no further progress is possible.  If the NOTIFY
       option is not set, it waits until just before it prints a prompt before	it  informs  you.
       All  such  notifications  are sent directly to the terminal, not to the standard output or
       standard error.

       When the monitor mode is on, each background job that completes triggers any trap set  for
       CHLD.

       When  you  try  to leave the shell while jobs are running or suspended, you will be warned
       that `You have suspended (running) jobs'.  You may use the jobs command to see  what  they
       are.   If you do this or immediately try to exit again, the shell will not warn you a sec-
       ond time; the suspended jobs will be terminated, and the  running  jobs	will  be  sent	a
       SIGHUP signal, if the HUP option is set.

       To  avoid  having  the shell terminate the running jobs, either use the nohup command (see
       nohup(1)) or the disown builtin.

SIGNALS
       The INT and QUIT signals for an invoked command are ignored if the command is followed  by
       `&'  and  the MONITOR option is not active.  The shell itself always ignores the QUIT sig-
       nal.  Otherwise, signals have the values inherited by the shell from its parent	(but  see
       the TRAPNAL special functions in the section `Functions').

ARITHMETIC EVALUATION
       The shell can perform integer and floating point arithmetic, either using the builtin let,
       or via a substitution of the form $((...)).  For integers, the shell is	usually  compiled
       to use 8-byte precision where this is available, otherwise precision is 4 bytes.  This can
       be tested, for example, by giving the command `print - $(( 12345678901 ))'; if the  number
       appears	unchanged,  the  precision is at least 8 bytes.  Floating point arithmetic always
       uses the `double' type with whatever corresponding precision is provided by  the  compiler
       and the library.

       The let builtin command takes arithmetic expressions as arguments; each is evaluated sepa-
       rately.	Since many of the arithmetic operators, as well as spaces,  require  quoting,  an
       alternative form is provided: for any command which begins with a `((', all the characters
       until a matching `))' are treated as a quoted expression  and  arithmetic  expansion  per-
       formed as for an argument of let.  More precisely, `((...))' is equivalent to `let "..."'.
       The return status is 0 if the arithmetic value of the expression is non-zero, 1 if  it  is
       zero, and 2 if an error occurred.

       For example, the following statement

	      (( val = 2 + 1 ))

       is equivalent to

	      let "val = 2 + 1"

       both assigning the value 3 to the shell variable val and returning a zero status.

       Integers  can  be  in  bases  other  than 10.  A leading `0x' or `0X' denotes hexadecimal.
       Integers may also be of the form `base#n', where base is a decimal number between two  and
       thirty-six  representing  the arithmetic base and n is a number in that base (for example,
       `16#ff' is 255 in hexadecimal).	The base# may also be omitted, in which case base  10  is
       used.  For backwards compatibility the form `[base]n' is also accepted.

       An  integer  expression or a base given in the form `base#n' may contain underscores (`_')
       after the leading digit for visual guidance; these are ignored in  computation.	 Examples
       are 1_000_000 or 0xffff_ffff which are equivalent to 1000000 and 0xffffffff respectively.

       It  is  also  possible  to specify a base to be used for output in the form `[#base]', for
       example `[#16]'.  This is used when outputting arithmetical substitutions or when  assign-
       ing  to	scalar	parameters, but an explicitly defined integer or floating point parameter
       will not be affected.  If an integer variable  is  implicitly  defined  by  an  arithmetic
       expression, any base specified in this way will be set as the variable's output arithmetic
       base as if the option `-i base' to the typeset builtin had been used.  The expression  has
       no  precedence  and  if	it  occurs  more than once in a mathematical expression, the last
       encountered is used.  For clarity it is recommended that it appear at the beginning of  an
       expression.  As an example:

	      typeset -i 16 y
	      print $(( [#8] x = 32, y = 32 ))
	      print $x $y

       outputs first `8#40', the rightmost value in the given output base, and then `8#40 16#20',
       because y has been explicitly declared to have output base 16, while x (assuming  it  does
       not already exist) is implicitly typed by the arithmetic evaluation, where it acquires the
       output base 8.

       If the C_BASES option is set, hexadecimal numbers in the standard C  format,  for  example
       0xFF  instead  of the usual `16#FF'.  If the option OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by
       default), octal numbers will be treated similarly and hence appear  as  `077'  instead  of
       `8#77'.	 This  option  has  no	effect	on the output of bases other than hexadecimal and
       octal, and these formats are always understood on input.

       When an output base is specified using the `[#base]' syntax, an	appropriate  base  prefix
       will be output if necessary, so that the value output is valid syntax for input.  If the #
       is doubled, for example `[##16]', then no base prefix is output.

       Floating point constants are recognized by the presence of a decimal point or an exponent.
       The decimal point may be the first character of the constant, but the exponent character e
       or E may not, as it will be taken for a parameter name.	All  numeric  parts  (before  and
       after  the  decimal  point  and in the exponent) may contain underscores after the leading
       digit for visual guidance; these are ignored in computation.

       An arithmetic expression uses nearly the same syntax and associativity of  expressions  as
       in C.

       In the native mode of operation, the following operators are supported (listed in decreas-
       ing order of precedence):

       + - ! ~ ++ --
	      unary plus/minus, logical NOT, complement, {pre,post}{in,de}crement
       << >>  bitwise shift left, right
       &      bitwise AND
       ^      bitwise XOR
       |      bitwise OR
       **     exponentiation
       * / %  multiplication, division, modulus (remainder)
       + -    addition, subtraction
       < > <= >=
	      comparison
       == !=  equality and inequality
       &&     logical AND
       || ^^  logical OR, XOR
       ? :    ternary operator
       = += -= *= /= %= &= ^= |= <<= >>= &&= ||= ^^= **=
	      assignment
       ,      comma operator

       The operators `&&', `||', `&&=', and `||=' are short-circuiting, and only one of the  lat-
       ter  two  expressions in a ternary operator is evaluated.  Note the precedence of the bit-
       wise AND, OR, and XOR operators.

       With the option C_PRECEDENCES the precedences (but no other properties) of  the	operators
       are  altered  to  be  the  same as those in most other languages that support the relevant
       operators:

       + - ! ~ ++ --
	      unary plus/minus, logical NOT, complement, {pre,post}{in,de}crement
       **     exponentiation
       * / %  multiplication, division, modulus (remainder)
       + -    addition, subtraction
       << >>  bitwise shift left, right
       < > <= >=
	      comparison
       == !=  equality and inequality
       &      bitwise AND
       ^      bitwise XOR
       |      bitwise OR
       &&     logical AND
       ^^     logical XOR
       ||     logical OR
       ? :    ternary operator
       = += -= *= /= %= &= ^= |= <<= >>= &&= ||= ^^= **=
	      assignment
       ,      comma operator

       Note the precedence of exponentiation in both cases is  below  that  of	unary  operators,
       hence `-3**2' evaluates as `9', not -9.	Use parentheses where necessary: `-(3**2)'.  This
       is for compatibility with other shells.

       Mathematical functions can be called with the  syntax  `func(args)',  where  the  function
       decides	if  the  args is used as a string or a comma-separated list of arithmetic expres-
       sions. The shell currently defines no mathematical functions by default,  but  the  module
       zsh/mathfunc  may  be  loaded with the zmodload builtin to provide standard floating point
       mathematical functions.

       An expression of the form `##x' where x is any character sequence such as  `a',	`^A',  or
       `\M-\C-x' gives the value of this character and an expression of the form `#foo' gives the
       value of the first character of the contents of the parameter foo.  Character  values  are
       according  to  the  character set used in the current locale; for multibyte character han-
       dling the option MULTIBYTE must be set.	Note that this form is different from `$#foo',	a
       standard  parameter  substitution  which  gives	the length of the parameter foo.  `#\' is
       accepted instead of `##', but its use is deprecated.

       Named parameters and subscripted arrays can be referenced by  name  within  an  arithmetic
       expression without using the parameter expansion syntax.  For example,

	      ((val2 = val1 * 2))

       assigns twice the value of $val1 to the parameter named val2.

       An  internal integer representation of a named parameter can be specified with the integer
       builtin.  Arithmetic evaluation is performed on the value of each assignment  to  a  named
       parameter  declared integer in this manner.  Assigning a floating point number to an inte-
       ger results in rounding down to the next integer.

       Likewise, floating point numbers can be declared with the float	builtin;  there  are  two
       types,  differing  only in their output format, as described for the typeset builtin.  The
       output format can be bypassed by using arithmetic substitution instead  of  the	parameter
       substitution,  i.e.  `${float}'	uses  the defined format, but `$((float))' uses a generic
       floating point format.

       Promotion of integer to floating point values is performed where necessary.  In	addition,
       if  any	operator which requires an integer (`~', `&', `|', `^', `%', `<<', `>>' and their
       equivalents with assignment) is given a floating  point	argument,  it  will  be  silently
       rounded down to the next integer.

       Scalar variables can hold integer or floating point values at different times; there is no
       memory of the numeric type in this case.

       If a variable is first assigned in a numeric context without previously being declared, it
       will be implicitly typed as integer or float and retain that type either until the type is
       explicitly changed or until the end of the scope.  This can have unforeseen  consequences.
       For example, in the loop

	      for (( f = 0; f < 1; f += 0.1 )); do
	      # use $f
	      done

       if f has not already been declared, the first assignment will cause it to be created as an
       integer, and consequently the operation `f += 0.1' will always  cause  the  result  to  be
       truncated to zero, so that the loop will fail.  A simple fix would be to turn the initial-
       ization into `f = 0.0'.	It is therefore best to declare numeric variables  with  explicit
       types.

CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS
       A  conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command to test attributes of files
       and to compare strings.	Each expression can be constructed from one or more of	the  fol-
       lowing unary or binary expressions:

       -a file
	      true if file exists.

       -b file
	      true if file exists and is a block special file.

       -c file
	      true if file exists and is a character special file.

       -d file
	      true if file exists and is a directory.

       -e file
	      true if file exists.

       -f file
	      true if file exists and is a regular file.

       -g file
	      true if file exists and has its setgid bit set.

       -h file
	      true if file exists and is a symbolic link.

       -k file
	      true if file exists and has its sticky bit set.

       -n string
	      true if length of string is non-zero.

       -o option
	      true if option named option is on.  option may be a single character, in which case
	      it is a single letter option name.  (See the section `Specifying Options'.)

       -p file
	      true if file exists and is a FIFO special file (named pipe).

       -r file
	      true if file exists and is readable by current process.

       -s file
	      true if file exists and has size greater than zero.

       -t fd  true if file descriptor number fd is open and associated with  a	terminal  device.
	      (note: fd is not optional)

       -u file
	      true if file exists and has its setuid bit set.

       -w file
	      true if file exists and is writable by current process.

       -x file
	      true  if file exists and is executable by current process.  If file exists and is a
	      directory, then the current process has permission to search in the directory.

       -z string
	      true if length of string is zero.

       -L file
	      true if file exists and is a symbolic link.

       -O file
	      true if file exists and is owned by the effective user ID of this process.

       -G file
	      true if file exists and its group matches the effective group ID of this process.

       -S file
	      true if file exists and is a socket.

       -N file
	      true if file exists and its access time is not newer than its modification time.

       file1 -nt file2
	      true if file1 exists and is newer than file2.

       file1 -ot file2
	      true if file1 exists and is older than file2.

       file1 -ef file2
	      true if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file.

       string = pattern
       string == pattern
	      true if string matches pattern.  The `==' form is the preferred one.  The `='  form
	      is for backward compatibility and should be considered obsolete.

       string != pattern
	      true if string does not match pattern.

       string =~ regexp
	      true  if string matches the regular expression regexp.  If the option RE_MATCH_PCRE
	      is set regexp is tested as a PCRE regular expression  using  the	zsh/pcre  module,
	      else  it	is tested as a POSIX extended regular expression using the zsh/regex mod-
	      ule.  Upon successful match, some variables  will  be  updated;  no  variables  are
	      changed if the matching fails.

	      If the option BASH_REMATCH is not set the scalar parameter MATCH is set to the sub-
	      string that matched the pattern and the integer parameters MBEGIN and MEND  to  the
	      index  of  the  start  and  end, respectively, of the match in string, such that if
	      string is contained in variable var the expression `${var[$MBEGIN,$MEND]}' is iden-
	      tical  to  `$MATCH'.  The setting of the option KSH_ARRAYS is respected.	Likewise,
	      the array match is set to the substrings that matched parenthesised  subexpressions
	      and  the	arrays	mbegin	and  mend  to the indices of the start and end positions,
	      respectively, of the substrings within string.  The arrays are  not  set	if  there
	      were no parenthesised subexpresssions.  For example, if the string `a short string'
	      is matched against the regular expression  `s(...)t',  then  (assuming  the  option
	      KSH_ARRAYS  is  not set) MATCH, MBEGIN and MEND are `short', 3 and 7, respectively,
	      while match, mbegin and mend are single entry arrays containing the strings  `hor',
	      `4' and `6, respectively.

	      If  the  option  BASH_REMATCH is set the array BASH_REMATCH is set to the substring
	      that matched the pattern followed by the substrings that matched parenthesised sub-
	      expressions within the pattern.

       string1 < string2
	      true if string1 comes before string2 based on ASCII value of their characters.

       string1 > string2
	      true if string1 comes after string2 based on ASCII value of their characters.

       exp1 -eq exp2
	      true  if	exp1  is numerically equal to exp2.  Note that for purely numeric compar-
	      isons use of the ((...)) builtin described in the section  `ARITHMETIC  EVALUATION'
	      is more convenient than conditional expressions.

       exp1 -ne exp2
	      true if exp1 is numerically not equal to exp2.

       exp1 -lt exp2
	      true if exp1 is numerically less than exp2.

       exp1 -gt exp2
	      true if exp1 is numerically greater than exp2.

       exp1 -le exp2
	      true if exp1 is numerically less than or equal to exp2.

       exp1 -ge exp2
	      true if exp1 is numerically greater than or equal to exp2.

       ( exp )
	      true if exp is true.

       ! exp  true if exp is false.

       exp1 && exp2
	      true if exp1 and exp2 are both true.

       exp1 || exp2
	      true if either exp1 or exp2 is true.

       Normal  shell  expansion  is  performed on the file, string and pattern arguments, but the
       result of each expansion is constrained to be a single word, similar to the effect of dou-
       ble  quotes.   Filename generation is not performed on any form of argument to conditions.
       However, pattern metacharacters are active for the pattern arguments; the patterns are the
       same as those used for filename generation, see zshexpn(1), but there is no special behav-
       iour of `/' nor initial dots, and no glob qualifiers are allowed.

       In each of the above expressions, if file is of the form `/dev/fd/n', where n is an  inte-
       ger,  then  the	test  applied  to the open file whose descriptor number is n, even if the
       underlying system does not support the /dev/fd directory.

       In the forms which do numeric comparison, the expressions exp undergo arithmetic expansion
       as if they were enclosed in $((...)).

       For example, the following:

	      [[ ( -f foo || -f bar ) && $report = y* ]] && print File exists.

       tests  if  either  file	foo  or file bar exists, and if so, if the value of the parameter
       report begins with `y'; if the complete condition is true, the message `File  exists.'  is
       printed.

EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES
       Prompt  sequences  undergo  a  special  form of expansion.  This type of expansion is also
       available using the -P option to the print builtin.

       If the PROMPT_SUBST option is set, the prompt  string  is  first  subjected  to	parameter
       expansion, command substitution and arithmetic expansion.  See zshexpn(1).

       Certain escape sequences may be recognised in the prompt string.

       If  the	PROMPT_BANG option is set, a `!' in the prompt is replaced by the current history
       event number.  A literal `!' may then be represented as `!!'.

       If the PROMPT_PERCENT option is set, certain escape sequences  that  start  with  `%'  are
       expanded.  Many escapes are followed by a single character, although some of these take an
       optional integer argument that should appear between the `%' and the next character of the
       sequence.   More  complicated escape sequences are available to provide conditional expan-
       sion.

SIMPLE PROMPT ESCAPES
   Special characters
       %%     A `%'.

       %)     A `)'.

   Login information
       %l     The line (tty) the user is logged in on,	without  `/dev/'  prefix.   If	the  name
	      starts with `/dev/tty', that prefix is stripped.

       %M     The full machine hostname.

       %m     The  hostname  up  to  the first `.'.  An integer may follow the `%' to specify how
	      many components of the hostname are desired.  With  a  negative  integer,  trailing
	      components of the hostname are shown.

       %n     $USERNAME.

       %y     The  line  (tty)	the  user is logged in on, without `/dev/' prefix.  This does not
	      treat `/dev/tty' names specially.

   Shell state
       %#     A `#' if the shell is running  with  privileges,	a  `%'	if  not.   Equivalent  to
	      `%(!.#.%%)'.   The  definition  of `privileged', for these purposes, is that either
	      the effective user ID is zero, or, if POSIX.1e capabilities are supported, that  at
	      least  one  capability  is raised in either the Effective or Inheritable capability
	      vectors.

       %?     The return status of the last command executed just before the prompt.

       %_     The status of the parser, i.e. the shell constructs (like `if' and `for') that have
	      been started on the command line. If given an integer number that many strings will
	      be printed; zero or negative or no integer means print as many as there are.   This
	      is most useful in prompts PS2 for continuation lines and PS4 for debugging with the
	      XTRACE option; in the latter case it will also work non-interactively.

       %d
       /      Current working directory.  If an integer follows the `%', it specifies a number of
	      trailing	components of the current working directory to show; zero means the whole
	      path.  A negative integer specifies leading components,  i.e.  %-1d  specifies  the
	      first component.

       %~     As  %d  and  %/,	but if the current working directory has a named directory as its
	      prefix, that part is replaced by a `~' followed by the name of the  directory.   If
	      it starts with $HOME, that part is replaced by a `~'.

       %h
       %!     Current history event number.

       %i     The  line  number  currently  being  executed in the script, sourced file, or shell
	      function given by %N.  This is most useful for debugging as part of $PS4.

       %I     The line number currently being executed in the file %x.	This is  similar  to  %i,
	      but the line number is always a line number in the file where the code was defined,
	      even if the code is a shell function.

       %j     The number of jobs.

       %L     The current value of $SHLVL.

       %N     The name of the script, sourced file, or shell function that zsh is currently  exe-
	      cuting,  whichever was started most recently.  If there is none, this is equivalent
	      to the parameter $0.  An integer may follow the `%' to specify a number of trailing
	      path  components	to  show; zero means the full path.  A negative integer specifies
	      leading components.

       %x     The name of the file containing the source code  currently  being  executed.   This
	      behaves  as  %N  except that function and eval command names are not shown, instead
	      the file where they were defined.

       %c
       %.
       %C     Trailing component of the current working directory.  An integer may follow the `%'
	      to  get  more  than  one component.  Unless `%C' is used, tilde contraction is per-
	      formed first.  These are deprecated as %c and %C are equivalent  to  %1~	and  %1/,
	      respectively, while explicit positive integers have the same effect as for the lat-
	      ter two sequences.

   Date and time
       %D     The date in yy-mm-dd format.

       %T     Current time of day, in 24-hour format.

       %t
       %@     Current time of day, in 12-hour, am/pm format.

       %*     Current time of day in 24-hour format, with seconds.

       %w     The date in day-dd format.

       %W     The date in mm/dd/yy format.

       %D{string}
	      string is formatted using the strftime function.	See strftime(3) for more details.
	      Various  zsh extensions provide numbers with no leading zero or space if the number
	      is a single digit:

	      %f     a day of the month
	      %K     the hour of the day on the 24-hour clock
	      %L     the hour of the day on the 12-hour clock

	      The GNU extension that a `-' between the % and the format character causes a  lead-
	      ing  zero  or  space to be stripped is handled directly by the shell for the format
	      characters d, f, H, k, l, m, M, S and y; any other format characters  are  provided
	      to  strftime()  with any leading `-', present, so the handling is system dependent.
	      Further GNU extensions are not supported at present.

   Visual effects
       %B (%b)
	      Start (stop) boldface mode.

       %E     Clear to end of line.

       %U (%u)
	      Start (stop) underline mode.

       %S (%s)
	      Start (stop) standout mode.

       %F (%f)
	      Start (stop) using a different foreground colour, if  supported  by  the	terminal.
	      The  colour  may be specified two ways: either as a numeric argument, as normal, or
	      by a sequence in braces following the %F, for example %F{red}.  In the latter  case
	      the values allowed are as described for the fg zle_highlight attribute; see Charac-
	      ter Highlighting in zshzle(1).  This means that numeric colours are allowed in  the
	      second format also.

       %K (%k)
	      Start  (stop) using a different bacKground colour.  The syntax is identical to that
	      for %F and %f.

       %{...%}
	      Include a string as a literal escape sequence.  The string within the braces should
	      not change the cursor position.  Brace pairs can nest.

	      A  positive numeric argument between the % and the { is treated as described for %G
	      below.

       %G     Within a %{...%} sequence, include a `glitch': that is, assume that a single  char-
	      acter  width will be output.  This is useful when outputting characters that other-
	      wise cannot be correctly handled by the shell, such as the alternate character  set
	      on  some	terminals.   The  characters in question can be included within a %{...%}
	      sequence together with the appropriate number of %G sequences to indicate the  cor-
	      rect  width.   An integer between the `%' and `G' indicates a character width other
	      than one.  Hence %{seq%2G%} outputs seq and assumes it takes up the  width  of  two
	      standard characters.

	      Multiple	uses  of  %G accumulate in the obvious fashion; the position of the %G is
	      unimportant.  Negative integers are not handled.

	      Note that when prompt truncation is in use it is advisable to divide up output into
	      single  characters  within  each %{...%} group so that the correct truncation point
	      can be found.

CONDITIONAL SUBSTRINGS IN PROMPTS
       %v     The value of the first element of the psvar array  parameter.   Following  the  `%'
	      with  an integer gives that element of the array.  Negative integers count from the
	      end of the array.

       %(x.true-text.false-text)
	      Specifies a ternary expression.  The character following the x  is  arbitrary;  the
	      same character is used to separate the text for the `true' result from that for the
	      `false' result.  This separator may not appear in the true-text, except as part  of
	      a  %-escape  sequence.   A `)' may appear in the false-text as `%)'.  true-text and
	      false-text may both contain arbitrarily-nested escape sequences, including  further
	      ternary expressions.

	      The  left  parenthesis  may  be preceded or followed by a positive integer n, which
	      defaults to zero.  A negative integer will be multiplied by -1.  The test character
	      x may be any of the following:

	      !      True if the shell is running with privileges.
	      #      True if the effective uid of the current process is n.
	      ?      True if the exit status of the last command was n.
	      _      True if at least n shell constructs were started.
	      C
	      /      True  if  the  current absolute path has at least n elements relative to the
		     root directory, hence / is counted as 0 elements.
	      c
	      .
	      ~      True if the current path, with prefix replacement, has at least  n  elements
		     relative to the root directory, hence / is counted as 0 elements.
	      D      True if the month is equal to n (January = 0).
	      d      True if the day of the month is equal to n.
	      g      True if the effective gid of the current process is n.
	      j      True if the number of jobs is at least n.
	      L      True if the SHLVL parameter is at least n.
	      l      True if at least n characters have already been printed on the current line.
	      S      True if the SECONDS parameter is at least n.
	      T      True if the time in hours is equal to n.
	      t      True if the time in minutes is equal to n.
	      v      True if the array psvar has at least n elements.
	      V      True if element n of the array psvar is set and non-empty.
	      w      True if the day of the week is equal to n (Sunday = 0).

       %<string<
       %>string>
       %[xstring]
	      Specifies  truncation behaviour for the remainder of the prompt string.  The third,
	      deprecated, form is equivalent to `%xstringx', i.e. x  may  be  `<'  or  `>'.   The
	      numeric  argument,  which  in  the third form may appear immediately after the `[',
	      specifies the maximum permitted length of the various strings that can be displayed
	      in  the  prompt.	The string will be displayed in place of the truncated portion of
	      any string; note this does not undergo prompt expansion.

	      The forms with `<' truncate at the left of the string, and the forms with `>' trun-
	      cate  at	the  right  of	the  string.   For  example,  if the current directory is
	      `/home/pike', the prompt `%8<..<%/' will expand to `..e/pike'.  In this string, the
	      terminating character (`<', `>' or `]'), or in fact any character, may be quoted by
	      a preceding `\'; note when using print -P, however, that this must  be  doubled  as
	      the  string  is also subject to standard print processing, in addition to any back-
	      slashes removed by a double quoted string:  the worst case is therefore  `print  -P
	      "%<\\\\<<..."'.

	      If  the  string  is  longer than the specified truncation length, it will appear in
	      full, completely replacing the truncated string.

	      The part of the prompt string to be truncated runs to the end of the string, or  to
	      the  end	of the next enclosing group of the `%(' construct, or to the next trunca-
	      tion encountered at the same grouping level (i.e. truncations  inside  a	`%('  are
	      separate),  which ever comes first.  In particular, a truncation with argument zero
	      (e.g. `%<<') marks the end of the range of the string to be truncated while turning
	      off truncation from there on. For example, the prompt '%10<...<%~%<<%# ' will print
	      a truncated representation of the current directory, followed by a `%' or `#', fol-
	      lowed by a space.  Without the `%<<', those two characters would be included in the
	      string to be truncated.

ZSHEXPN(1)									       ZSHEXPN(1)

NAME
       zshexpn - zsh expansion and substitution

DESCRIPTION
       The following types of expansions are performed in the indicated order in five steps:

       History Expansion
	      This is performed only in interactive shells.

       Alias Expansion
	      Aliases are expanded immediately before the command line	is  parsed  as	explained
	      under Aliasing in zshmisc(1).

       Process Substitution
       Parameter Expansion
       Command Substitution
       Arithmetic Expansion
       Brace Expansion
	      These  five are performed in one step in left-to-right fashion.  After these expan-
	      sions, all unquoted occurrences of the characters `\', `'' and `"' are removed.

       Filename Expansion
	      If the SH_FILE_EXPANSION option is set, the order of expansion is modified for com-
	      patibility  with	sh and ksh.  In that case filename expansion is performed immedi-
	      ately after alias expansion, preceding the set of five expansions mentioned above.

       Filename Generation
	      This expansion, commonly referred to as globbing, is always done last.

       The following sections explain the types of expansion in detail.

HISTORY EXPANSION
       History expansion allows you to use words from previous command lines in the command  line
       you  are  typing.   This simplifies spelling corrections and the repetition of complicated
       commands or arguments.  Immediately before execution, each command is saved in the history
       list, the size of which is controlled by the HISTSIZE parameter.  The one most recent com-
       mand is always retained in any case.  Each saved command in the history list is	called	a
       history	event  and is assigned a number, beginning with 1 (one) when the shell starts up.
       The history number that you may see in your prompt (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT  SEQUENCES  in
       zshmisc(1)) is the number that is to be assigned to the next command.

   Overview
       A  history  expansion begins with the first character of the histchars parameter, which is
       `!' by default, and may occur anywhere on the command  line;  history  expansions  do  not
       nest.   The `!' can be escaped with `\' or can be enclosed between a pair of single quotes
       ('') to suppress its special meaning.  Double quotes will not work  for	this.	Following
       this  history  character  is an optional event designator (see the section `Event Designa-
       tors') and then an optional word designator (the section `Word Designators');  if  neither
       of these designators is present, no history expansion occurs.

       Input  lines containing history expansions are echoed after being expanded, but before any
       other expansions take place and before the command is executed.	It is this expanded  form
       that is recorded as the history event for later references.

       By  default,  a history reference with no event designator refers to the same event as any
       preceding history reference on that command line; if it is the only history reference in a
       command,  it refers to the previous command.  However, if the option CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is
       set, then every history reference with no event specification always refers to the  previ-
       ous command.

       For example, `!' is the event designator for the previous command, so `!!:1' always refers
       to the first word of the previous command, and `!!$' always refers to the last word of the
       previous  command.   With CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY set, then `!:1' and `!$' function in the same
       manner as `!!:1' and `!!$', respectively.  Conversely,  if  CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY  is  unset,
       then  `!:1'  and  `!$'  refer to the first and last words, respectively, of the same event
       referenced by the nearest other history reference preceding them on  the  current  command
       line, or to the previous command if there is no preceding reference.

       The  character  sequence  `^foo^bar'  (where  `^'  is actually the second character of the
       histchars parameter) repeats the last command, replacing the string foo	with  bar.   More
       precisely,  the sequence `^foo^bar^' is synonymous with `!!:s^foo^bar^', hence other modi-
       fiers  (see  the  section  `Modifiers')	may  follow  the  final  `^'.	 In   particular,
       `^foo^bar^:G' performs a global substitution.

       If the shell encounters the character sequence `!"' in the input, the history mechanism is
       temporarily disabled until the current list (see zshmisc(1)) is fully parsed.  The `!"' is
       removed from the input, and any subsequent `!' characters have no special significance.

       A  less	convenient but more comprehensible form of command history support is provided by
       the fc builtin.

   Event Designators
       An event designator is a reference to a command-line entry in the history  list.   In  the
       list below, remember that the initial `!' in each item may be changed to another character
       by setting the histchars parameter.

       !      Start a history expansion, except when followed by a blank, newline,  `='  or  `('.
	      If  followed immediately by a word designator (see the section `Word Designators'),
	      this forms a history reference with no event designator  (see  the  section  `Over-
	      view').

       !!     Refer to the previous command.  By itself, this expansion repeats the previous com-
	      mand.

       !n     Refer to command-line n.

       !-n    Refer to the current command-line minus n.

       !str   Refer to the most recent command starting with str.

       !?str[?]
	      Refer to the most recent command containing str.	The trailing `?' is necessary  if
	      this  reference is to be followed by a modifier or followed by any text that is not
	      to be considered part of str.

       !#     Refer to the current command line typed in so far.  The line is treated  as  if  it
	      were complete up to and including the word before the one with the `!#' reference.

       !{...} Insulate a history reference from adjacent characters (if necessary).

   Word Designators
       A word designator indicates which word or words of a given command line are to be included
       in a history reference.	A `:' usually separates the event  specification  from	the  word
       designator.   It  may  be omitted only if the word designator begins with a `^', `$', `*',
       `-' or `%'.  Word designators include:

       0      The first input word (command).
       n      The nth argument.
       ^      The first argument.  That is, 1.
       $      The last argument.
       %      The word matched by (the most recent) ?str search.
       x-y    A range of words; x defaults to 0.
       *      All the arguments, or a null value if there are none.
       x*     Abbreviates `x-$'.
       x-     Like `x*' but omitting word $.

       Note that a `%' word designator works only when used in one of `!%', `!:%' or  `!?str?:%',
       and  only  when used after a !? expansion (possibly in an earlier command).  Anything else
       results in an error, although the error may not be the most obvious one.

   Modifiers
       After the optional word designator, you can add a sequence of one or more of the following
       modifiers,  each  preceded  by a `:'.  These modifiers also work on the result of filename
       generation and parameter expansion, except where noted.

       a      Turn a file name into an absolute path:  prepends the current directory, if  neces-
	      sary,  and resolves any use of `..' and `.' in the path.	Note that the transforma-
	      tion takes place even if the file or any intervening directories do not exist.

       A      As `a', but also resolve use of symbolic links where possible.  Note  that  resolu-
	      tion  of	`..' occurs before resolution of symbolic links.  This call is equivalent
	      to a unless your system has the realpath system call (modern systems do).

       c      Resolve a command name into an absolute path by searching the command path given by
	      the  PATH  variable.   This  does not work for commands containing directory parts.
	      Note also that this does not usually work as a glob qualifier unless a file of  the
	      same name is found in the current directory.

       e      Remove  all but the part of the filename extension following the `.'; see the defi-
	      nition of the filename extension in the description of the r modifier below.   Note
	      that  according to that definition the result will be empty if the string ends with
	      a `.'.

       h      Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving the head.  This works like `dirname'.

       l      Convert the words to all lowercase.

       p      Print the new command but do not execute it.  Only works with history expansion.

       q      Quote the substituted words, escaping further substitutions.   Works  with  history
	      expansion  and  parameter expansion, though for parameters it is only useful if the
	      resulting text is to be re-evaluated such as by eval.

       Q      Remove one level of quotes from the substituted words.

       r      Remove a filename extension leaving the root name.  Strings with no filename exten-
	      sion  are  not  altered.	 A  filename extension is a `.' followed by any number of
	      characters (including zero) that are neither `.' nor `/' and that continue  to  the
	      end  of  the  string.   For  example,  the  extension  of `foo.orig.c' is `.c', and
	      `dir.c/foo' has no extension.

       s/l/r[/]
	      Substitute r for l as described below.  The substitution is done only for the first
	      string  that  matches  l.   For arrays and for filename generation, this applies to
	      each word of the expanded text.  See below for further notes on substitutions.

	      The forms `gs/l/r' and `s/l/r/:G'  perform  global  substitution,  i.e.  substitute
	      every  occurrence  of  r	for  l.  Note that the g or :G must appear in exactly the
	      position shown.

	      See further notes on this form of substitution below.

       &      Repeat the previous s substitution.  Like s, may be preceded immediately	by  a  g.
	      In  parameter expansion the & must appear inside braces, and in filename generation
	      it must be quoted with a backslash.

       t      Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.  This works  like  `base-
	      name'.

       u      Convert the words to all uppercase.

       x      Like  q,	but  break into words at whitespace.  Does not work with parameter expan-
	      sion.

       The s/l/r/ substitution works as follows.  By default the left-hand side of  substitutions
       are  not  patterns,  but character strings.  Any character can be used as the delimiter in
       place of `/'.  A backslash quotes the delimiter character.   The  character  `&',  in  the
       right-hand-side	r,  is	replaced  by  the text from the left-hand-side l.  The `&' can be
       quoted with a backslash.  A null l uses the previous string either from the previous l  or
       from  the  contextual scan string s from `!?s'.	You can omit the rightmost delimiter if a
       newline immediately follows r; the rightmost `?' in a context scan can similarly be  omit-
       ted.   Note  the  same record of the last l and r is maintained across all forms of expan-
       sion.

       Note that if a `&' is used within glob qualifers an extra backslash is needed as a & is	a
       special character in this case.

       If  the	option	HIST_SUBST_PATTERN  is	set,  l is treated as a pattern of the usual form
       described in the section FILENAME GENERATION below.  This can be used in  all  the  places
       where  modifiers  are available; note, however, that in globbing qualifiers parameter sub-
       stitution has already taken place, so parameters  in  the  replacement  string  should  be
       quoted  to  ensure they are replaced at the correct time.  Note also that complicated pat-
       terns  used  in	globbing  qualifiers  may  need  the  extended	glob  qualifier  notation
       (#q:s/.../.../)	in  order  for the shell to recognize the expression as a glob qualifier.
       Further, note that bad patterns in the substitution are not subject to the  NO_BAD_PATTERN
       option so will cause an error.

       When  HIST_SUBST_PATTERN  is  set,  l may start with a # to indicate that the pattern must
       match at the start of the string to be substituted, and a % may appear  at  the	start  or
       after  an # to indicate that the pattern must match at the end of the string to be substi-
       tuted.  The % or # may be quoted with two backslashes.

       For example, the following piece  of  filename  generation  code  with  the  EXTENDED_GLOB
       option:

	      print *.c(#q:s/#%(#b)s(*).c/'S${match[1]}.C'/)

       takes  the  expansion  of  *.c  and applies the glob qualifiers in the (#q...) expression,
       which consists of a substitution modifier anchored to the start and end of each word (#%).
       This  turns on backreferences ((#b)), so that the parenthesised subexpression is available
       in the replacement string as ${match[1]}.  The replacement string is quoted  so	that  the
       parameter is not substituted before the start of filename generation.

       The following f, F, w and W modifiers work only with parameter expansion and filename gen-
       eration.  They are listed here to provide a single point of reference for all modifiers.

       f      Repeats the immediately (without a colon) following modifier  until  the	resulting
	      word doesn't change any more.

       F:expr:
	      Like  f, but repeats only n times if the expression expr evaluates to n.	Any char-
	      acter can be used instead of the `:'; if `(', `[', or `{' is used  as  the  opening
	      delimiter, the closing delimiter should be ')', `]', or `}', respectively.

       w      Makes the immediately following modifier work on each word in the string.

       W:sep: Like w but words are considered to be the parts of the string that are separated by
	      sep. Any character can be used instead of the `:'; opening parentheses are  handled
	      specially, see above.

PROCESS SUBSTITUTION
       Each  part  of a command argument that takes the form `<(list)', `>(list)' or `=(list)' is
       subject to process substitution.  The expression may be	preceded  or  followed	by  other
       strings	except that, to prevent clashes with commonly occurring strings and patterns, the
       last form must occur at the start of a command argument, and the forms are  only  expanded
       when  first  parsing  command  or assignment arguments.	Process substitutions may be used
       following redirection operators; in this case, the substitution must appear with no trail-
       ing string.

       In  the	case  of the < or > forms, the shell runs the commands in list as a subprocess of
       the job executing the shell command line.  If the system supports the  /dev/fd  mechanism,
       the  command  argument  is the name of the device file corresponding to a file descriptor;
       otherwise, if the system supports named pipes (FIFOs), the  command  argument  will  be	a
       named pipe.  If the form with > is selected then writing on this special file will provide
       input for list.	If < is used, then the file passed as an argument will	be  connected  to
       the output of the list process.	For example,

	      paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) |
	      tee >(process1) >(process2) >/dev/null

       cuts  fields  1	and  3	from  the  files file1 and file2 respectively, pastes the results
       together, and sends it to the processes process1 and process2.

       If =(...) is used instead of <(...), then the file passed as an argument will be the  name
       of  a  temporary file containing the output of the list process.  This may be used instead
       of the < form for a program that expects to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the input file.

       There is an optimisation for substitutions of the form =(<<<arg),  where  arg  is  a  sin-
       gle-word argument to the here-string redirection <<<.  This form produces a file name con-
       taining the value of arg after any substitutions have been  performed.	This  is  handled
       entirely  within  the  current shell.  This is effectively the reverse of the special form
       $(<arg) which treats arg as a file name and replaces it with the file's contents.

       The = form is useful as both the /dev/fd and the named pipe implementation of <(...)  have
       drawbacks.   In the former case, some programmes may automatically close the file descrip-
       tor in question before examining the file on the command line,  particularly  if  this  is
       necessary  for security reasons such as when the programme is running setuid.  In the sec-
       ond case, if the programme does not actually open the file,  the  subshell  attempting  to
       read from or write to the pipe will (in a typical implementation, different operating sys-
       tems may have different behaviour) block for ever and have to be  killed  explicitly.   In
       both  cases,  the shell actually supplies the information using a pipe, so that programmes
       that expect to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the file will not work.

       Also note that the previous example can be more compactly and  efficiently  written  (pro-
       vided the MULTIOS option is set) as:

	      paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) \
	      > >(process1) > >(process2)

       The shell uses pipes instead of FIFOs to implement the latter two process substitutions in
       the above example.

       There is an additional problem with >(process); when this is attached to an external  com-
       mand,  the  parent shell does not wait for process to finish and hence an immediately fol-
       lowing command cannot rely on the results being complete.  The problem  and  solution  are
       the same as described in the section MULTIOS in zshmisc(1).  Hence in a simplified version
       of the example above:

	      paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) > >(process)

       (note that no MULTIOS are involved), process will be run asynchronously as far as the par-
       ent shell is concerned.	The workaround is:

	      { paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) } > >(process)

       The  extra processes here are spawned from the parent shell which will wait for their com-
       pletion.

       Another problem arises any time a job with a substitution that requires a  temporary  file
       is  disowned  by  the shell, including the case where `&!' or `&|' appears at the end of a
       command containing a subsitution.  In that case the temporary file will not be cleaned  up
       as  the shell no longer has any memory of the job.  A workaround is to use a subshell, for
       example,

	      (mycmd =(myoutput)) &!

       as the forked subshell will wait for the command to finish then remove the temporary file.

       A general workaround to ensure a process substitution endures for an appropriate length of
       time  is  to  pass it as a parameter to an anonymous shell function (a piece of shell code
       that is run immediately with function scope).  For example, this code:

	      () {
		 print File $1:
		 cat $1
	      } =(print This be the verse)

       outputs something resembling the following

	      File /tmp/zsh6nU0kS:
	      This be the verse

       The temporary file created by the process substitution will be deleted when  the  function
       exits.

PARAMETER EXPANSION
       The  character  `$'  is	used  to  introduce  parameter expansions.  See zshparam(1) for a
       description of parameters, including arrays, associative arrays, and subscript notation to
       access individual array elements.

       Note  in particular the fact that words of unquoted parameters are not automatically split
       on whitespace unless the option SH_WORD_SPLIT is set; see references to this option  below
       for more details.  This is an important difference from other shells.

       In  the	expansions discussed below that require a pattern, the form of the pattern is the
       same as that used for filename generation; see the section  `Filename  Generation'.   Note
       that  these patterns, along with the replacement text of any substitutions, are themselves
       subject to parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion.	In  addi-
       tion to the following operations, the colon modifiers described in the section `Modifiers'
       in the section `History Expansion' can be applied:  for example, ${i:s/foo/bar/}  performs
       string substitution on the expansion of parameter $i.

       ${name}
	      The  value,  if any, of the parameter name is substituted.  The braces are required
	      if the expansion is to be followed by a letter, digit, or underscore that is not to
	      be  interpreted  as part of name.  In addition, more complicated forms of substitu-
	      tion usually require the braces to be present; exceptions, which only apply if  the
	      option KSH_ARRAYS is not set, are a single subscript or any colon modifiers appear-
	      ing after the name, or any of the characters `^', `=', `~', `#'  or  `+'	appearing
	      before the name, all of which work with or without braces.

	      If name is an array parameter, and the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set, then the value
	      of each element of name is substituted,  one  element  per  word.   Otherwise,  the
	      expansion  results  in one word only; with KSH_ARRAYS, this is the first element of
	      an array.  No field splitting is done on the result unless the SH_WORD_SPLIT option
	      is set.  See also the flags = and s:string:.

       ${+name}
	      If name is the name of a set parameter `1' is substituted, otherwise `0' is substi-
	      tuted.

       ${name-word}
       ${name:-word}
	      If name is set, or in the second form is non-null, then substitute its value;  oth-
	      erwise substitute word.  In the second form name may be omitted, in which case word
	      is always substituted.

       ${name+word}
       ${name:+word}
	      If name is set, or in the second form is non-null, then substitute word;	otherwise
	      substitute nothing.

       ${name=word}
       ${name:=word}
       ${name::=word}
	      In  the  first  form,  if name is unset then set it to word; in the second form, if
	      name is unset or null then set it to word; and in the third  form,  unconditionally
	      set name to word.  In all forms, the value of the parameter is then substituted.

       ${name?word}
       ${name:?word}
	      In  the  first  form, if name is set, or in the second form if name is both set and
	      non-null, then substitute its value; otherwise, print word and exit from the shell.
	      Interactive  shells instead return to the prompt.  If word is omitted, then a stan-
	      dard message is printed.

       In any of the above expressions that test a variable and  substitute  an  alternate  word,
       note that you can use standard shell quoting in the word value to selectively override the
       splitting done by the SH_WORD_SPLIT option and the  =  flag,  but  not  splitting  by  the
       s:string: flag.

       In the following expressions, when name is an array and the substitution is not quoted, or
       if the `(@)' flag or the name[@] syntax is used, matching and replacement is performed  on
       each array element separately.

       ${name#pattern}
       ${name##pattern}
	      If  the  pattern	matches  the  beginning of the value of name, then substitute the
	      value of name with the matched portion  deleted;	otherwise,  just  substitute  the
	      value  of  name.	In the first form, the smallest matching pattern is preferred; in
	      the second form, the largest matching pattern is preferred.

       ${name%pattern}
       ${name%%pattern}
	      If the pattern matches the end of the value of name, then substitute the	value  of
	      name  with  the  matched	portion  deleted; otherwise, just substitute the value of
	      name.  In the first form, the smallest matching pattern is preferred; in the second
	      form, the largest matching pattern is preferred.

       ${name:#pattern}
	      If  the pattern matches the value of name, then substitute the empty string; other-
	      wise, just substitute the value of name.	If name is an array  the  matching  array
	      elements are removed (use the `(M)' flag to remove the non-matched elements).

       ${name:|arrayname}
	      If  arrayname  is the name (N.B., not contents) of an array variable, then any ele-
	      ments contained in arrayname are removed from the substitution  of  name.   If  the
	      substitution  is scalar, either because name is a scalar variable or the expression
	      is quoted, the elements of arrayname are instead tested against the entire  expres-
	      sion.

       ${name:*arrayname}
	      Similar  to  the	preceding subsitution, but in the opposite sense, so that entries
	      present in both the original substitution and as elements of arrayname are retained
	      and others removed.

       ${name:offset}
       ${name:offset:length}
	      This   syntax   gives  effects  similar  to  parameter  subscripting  in	the  form
	      $name[start,end], but is compatible with other shells; note that	both  offset  and
	      length are interpreted differently from the components of a subscript.

	      If  offset  is  non-negative,  then if the variable name is a scalar substitute the
	      contents starting offset characters from the first character of the string, and  if
	      name  is	an array substitute elements starting offset elements from the first ele-
	      ment.  If length is given, substitute that many characters or  elements,	otherwise
	      the entire rest of the scalar or array.

	      A positive offset is always treated as the offset of a character or element in name
	      from the first character or element of the array (this is different from native zsh
	      subscript  notation).   Hence 0 refers to the first character or element regardless
	      of the setting of the option KSH_ARRAYS.

	      A negative offset counts backwards from the end of the scalar or array, so that  -1
	      corresponds to the last character or element, and so on.

	      When  positive, length counts from the offset position toward the end of the scalar
	      or array.  When negative, length counts back from the end.  If this  results  in	a
	      position smaller than offset, a diagnostic is printed and nothing is substituted.

	      The  option MULTIBYTE is obeyed, i.e. the offset and length count multibyte charac-
	      ters where appropriate.

	      offset and length undergo the same set of shell substitutions as for scalar assign-
	      ment;  in  addition,  they  are  then subject to arithmetic evaluation.  Hence, for
	      example

		     print ${foo:3}
		     print ${foo: 1 + 2}
		     print ${foo:$(( 1 + 2))}
		     print ${foo:$(echo 1 + 2)}

	      all have the same effect, extracting the string starting at the fourth character of
	      $foo  if	the  substution would otherwise return a scalar, or the array starting at
	      the fourth element if $foo would return  an  array.   Note  that	with  the  option
	      KSH_ARRAYS  $foo	always returns a scalar (regardless of the use of the offset syn-
	      tax) and a form such as $foo[*]:3 is required to extract elements of an array named
	      foo.

	      If  offset  is negative, the - may not appear immediately after the : as this indi-
	      cates the ${name:-word} form of substitution.  Instead, a  space	may  be  inserted
	      before  the -.  Furthermore, neither offset nor length may begin with an alphabetic
	      character or & as these are used to indicate history-style modifiers.   To  substi-
	      tute a value from a variable, the recommended approach is to precede it with a $ as
	      this signifies the intention (parameter substitution can easily be rendered unread-
	      able);  however,	as  arithmetic	substitution  is performed, the expression ${var:
	      offs} does work, retrieving the offset from $offs.

	      For further compatibility with other shells there is a special case for array  off-
	      set  0.	This usually accesses to the first element of the array.  However, if the
	      substitution refers the positional parameter array, e.g. $@ or $*,  then	offset	0
	      instead  refers to $0, offset 1 refers to $1, and so on.	In other words, the posi-
	      tional parameter array is effectively extended by prepending  $0.   Hence  ${*:0:1}
	      substitutes $0 and ${*:1:1} substitutes $1.

       ${name/pattern/repl}
       ${name//pattern/repl}
	      Replace the longest possible match of pattern in the expansion of parameter name by
	      string repl.  The first form replaces just the first occurrence,	the  second  form
	      all  occurrences.  Both pattern and repl are subject to double-quoted substitution,
	      so that expressions like ${name/$opat/$npat} will work, but  note  the  usual  rule
	      that pattern characters in $opat are not treated specially unless either the option
	      GLOB_SUBST is set, or $opat is instead substituted as ${~opat}.

	      The pattern may begin with a `#', in which case the pattern must match at the start
	      of  the  string,	or  `%', in which case it must match at the end of the string, or
	      `#%' in which case the pattern must match the entire string.  The repl  may  be  an
	      empty  string, in which case the final `/' may also be omitted.  To quote the final
	      `/' in other cases it should be preceded by a single backslash; this is not  neces-
	      sary if the `/' occurs inside a substituted parameter.  Note also that the `#', `%'
	      and `#% are not active if they occur inside a substituted parameter,  even  at  the
	      start.

	      The  first  `/' may be preceded by a `:', in which case the match will only succeed
	      if it matches the entire word.  Note also the effect  of	the  I	and  S	parameter
	      expansion flags below; however, the flags M, R, B, E and N are not useful.

	      For example,

		     foo="twinkle twinkle little star" sub="t*e" rep="spy"
		     print ${foo//${~sub}/$rep}
		     print ${(S)foo//${~sub}/$rep}

	      Here,  the  `~' ensures that the text of $sub is treated as a pattern rather than a
	      plain string.  In the first case, the longest match for t*e is substituted and  the
	      result  is `spy star', while in the second case, the shortest matches are taken and
	      the result is `spy spy lispy star'.

       ${#spec}
	      If spec is one of the above substitutions, substitute the length in  characters  of
	      the  result  instead of the result itself.  If spec is an array expression, substi-
	      tute the number of elements of the result.  Note that `^',  `=',	and  `~',  below,
	      must appear to the left of `#' when these forms are combined.

       ${^spec}
	      Turn  on	the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option for the evaluation of spec; if the `^' is dou-
	      bled, turn it off.   When  this  option  is  set,  array	expansions  of	the  form
	      foo${xx}bar,  where  the	parameter  xx  is  set	to  (a b c), are substituted with
	      `fooabar foobbar foocbar' instead of the default `fooa b cbar'.  Note that an empty
	      array will therefore cause all arguments to be removed.

	      Internally,  each  such  expansion  is converted into the equivalent list for brace
	      expansion.  E.g.,  ${^var}  becomes  {$var[1],$var[2],...},  and	is  processed  as
	      described  in  the  section  `Brace Expansion' below.  If word splitting is also in
	      effect the $var[N] may themselves be split into different list elements.

       ${=spec}
	      Perform word splitting using the rules for SH_WORD_SPLIT during the  evaluation  of
	      spec,  but regardless of whether the parameter appears in double quotes; if the `='
	      is doubled, turn it off.	This forces parameter expansions to be split  into  sepa-
	      rate  words before substitution, using IFS as a delimiter.  This is done by default
	      in most other shells.

	      Note that splitting is applied to word in the assignment forms of spec  before  the
	      assignment to name is performed.	This affects the result of array assignments with
	      the A flag.

       ${~spec}
	      Turn on the GLOB_SUBST option for the evaluation of spec; if the	`~'  is  doubled,
	      turn it off.  When this option is set, the string resulting from the expansion will
	      be interpreted as a pattern anywhere that is possible, such as in  filename  expan-
	      sion and filename generation and pattern-matching contexts like the right hand side
	      of the `=' and `!=' operators in conditions.

	      In nested substitutions, note that the effect of the ~ applies to the result of the
	      current  level  of substitution.	A surrounding pattern operation on the result may
	      cancel it.  Hence, for example, if the parameter foo is set to  *,  ${~foo//\*/*.c}
	      is  substituted  by  the pattern *.c, which may be expanded by filename generation,
	      but ${${~foo}//\*/*.c} substitutes to the string *.c, which  will  not  be  further
	      expanded.

       If  a  ${...}  type  parameter expression or a $(...) type command substitution is used in
       place of name above, it is expanded first and the result is used as if it were  the  value
       of  name.   Thus it is possible to perform nested operations:  ${${foo#head}%tail} substi-
       tutes the value of $foo with both `head' and `tail' deleted.   The  form  with  $(...)  is
       often  useful  in combination with the flags described next; see the examples below.  Each
       name or nested ${...} in a parameter expansion may also be followed by a subscript expres-
       sion as described in Array Parameters in zshparam(1).

       Note  that double quotes may appear around nested expressions, in which case only the part
       inside is treated as quoted; for example, ${(f)"$(foo)"} quotes the result of $(foo),  but
       the  flag `(f)' (see below) is applied using the rules for unquoted expansions.	Note fur-
       ther that quotes are themselves nested in this context; for example, in "${(@f)"$(foo)"}",
       there  are two sets of quotes, one surrounding the whole expression, the other (redundant)
       surrounding the $(foo) as before.

   Parameter Expansion Flags
       If the opening brace is directly followed by an opening parenthesis, the string up to  the
       matching closing parenthesis will be taken as a list of flags.  In cases where repeating a
       flag is meaningful, the repetitions need not be consecutive; for example, `(q%q%q)'  means
       the same thing as the more readable `(%%qqq)'.  The following flags are supported:

       #      Evaluate	the resulting words as numeric expressions and output the characters cor-
	      responding to the resulting integer.  Note that this form is entirely distinct from
	      use of the # without parentheses.

	      If  the  MULTIBYTE  option  is  set and the number is greater than 127 (i.e. not an
	      ASCII character) it is treated as a Unicode character.

       %      Expand all % escapes in the resulting words in the same  way  as	in  prompts  (see
	      EXPANSION  OF  PROMPT  SEQUENCES	in zshmisc(1)). If this flag is given twice, full
	      prompt expansion is done on the resulting words, depending on the  setting  of  the
	      PROMPT_PERCENT, PROMPT_SUBST and PROMPT_BANG options.

       @      In  double quotes, array elements are put into separate words.  E.g., `"${(@)foo}"'
	      is equivalent to `"${foo[@]}"' and `"${(@)foo[1,2]}"' is	the  same  as  `"$foo[1]"
	      "$foo[2]"'.   This  is  distinct from field splitting by the f, s or z flags, which
	      still applies within each array element.

       A      Create an array parameter with `${...=...}', `${...:=...}' or  `${...::=...}'.   If
	      this flag is repeated (as in `AA'), create an associative array parameter.  Assign-
	      ment is made before sorting or padding.  The name part may be a  subscripted  range
	      for  ordinary  arrays;  the word part must be converted to an array, for example by
	      using `${(AA)=name=...}' to activate field splitting, when creating an  associative
	      array.

       a      Sort  in	array  index  order;  when  combined with `O' sort in reverse array index
	      order.  Note that `a' is therefore equivalent to the default but `Oa' is useful for
	      obtaining an array's elements in reverse order.

       c      With ${#name}, count the total number of characters in an array, as if the elements
	      were concatenated with spaces between them.

       C      Capitalize the resulting words.  `Words'	in  this  case	refers	to  sequences  of
	      alphanumeric  characters	separated  by non-alphanumerics, not to words that result
	      from field splitting.

       D      Assume the string or array elements contain directories and attempt  to  substitute
	      the  leading part of these by names.  The remainder of the path (the whole of it if
	      the leading part was not subsituted) is then quoted so that the whole string can be
	      used  as	a shell argument.  This is the reverse of `~' substitution:  see the sec-
	      tion FILENAME EXPANSION below.

       e      Perform parameter expansion, command substitution and arithmetic expansion  on  the
	      result. Such expansions can be nested but too deep recursion may have unpredictable
	      effects.

       f      Split the result of the expansion at newlines. This is a shorthand for `ps:\n:'.

       F      Join the words of arrays together using newline as a separator.  This is	a  short-
	      hand for `pj:\n:'.

       g:opts:
	      Process  escape  sequences  like	the echo builtin when no options are given (g::).
	      With the o option, octal escapes don't take a leading zero.   With  the  c  option,
	      sequences  like  `^X'  are also processed.  With the e option, processes `\M-t' and
	      similar sequences like the print builtin.  With  both  of  the  o  and  e  options,
	      behaves  like  the  print builtin except that in none of these modes is `\c' inter-
	      preted.

       i      Sort case-insensitively.	May be combined with `n' or `O'.

       k      If name refers to an associative array, substitute the keys (element names)  rather
	      than the values of the elements.	Used with subscripts (including ordinary arrays),
	      force indices or keys to be substituted even if the subscript form refers  to  val-
	      ues.  However, this flag may not be combined with subscript ranges.

       L      Convert all letters in the result to lower case.

       n      Sort  decimal  integers  numerically; if the first differing characters of two test
	      strings are not digits, sorting is lexical.   Integers with more initial zeroes are
	      sorted  before  those  with  fewer  or none.  Hence the array `foo1 foo02 foo2 foo3
	      foo20 foo23' is sorted into the order shown.  May be combined with `i' or `O'.

       o      Sort the resulting words in ascending order; if this appears on its own the sorting
	      is  lexical  and	case-sensitive	(unless  the locale renders it case-insensitive).
	      Sorting in ascending order is the default for other forms of sorting,  so  this  is
	      ignored if combined with `a', `i' or `n'.

       O      Sort  the resulting words in descending order; `O' without `a', `i' or `n' sorts in
	      reverse lexical order.  May be combined with `a', `i' or `n' to reverse  the  order
	      of sorting.

       P      This  forces the value of the parameter name to be interpreted as a further parame-
	      ter name, whose value will be used where appropriate.  Note that flags set with one
	      of  the  typeset	family	of  commands (in particular case transformations) are not
	      applied to the value of name used in this fashion.

	      If used with a nested parameter or command substitution, the result of that will be
	      taken  as a parameter name in the same way.  For example, if you have `foo=bar' and
	      `bar=baz', the strings ${(P)foo},  ${(P)${foo}},	and  ${(P)$(echo  bar)}  will  be
	      expanded to `baz'.

       q      Quote  characters  that  are special to the shell in the resulting words with back-
	      slashes; unprintable or invalid characters are quoted using the $'\NNN' form,  with
	      separate quotes for each octet.

	      If this flag is given twice, the resulting words are quoted in single quotes and if
	      it is given three times, the words are quoted in double quotes; in these	forms  no
	      special handling of unprintable or invalid characters is attempted.  If the flag is
	      given four times, the words are quoted in single quotes preceded by a $.	Note that
	      in  all three of these forms quoting is done unconditionally, even if this does not
	      change the way the resulting string would be interpreted by the shell.

	      If a q- is given (only a single q may appear), a minimal form of single quoting  is
	      used  that  only	quotes the string if needed to protect special characters.  Typi-
	      cally this form gives the most readable output.

       Q      Remove one level of quotes from the resulting words.

       t      Use a string describing the type of the parameter where the value of the	parameter
	      would  usually appear. This string consists of keywords separated by hyphens (`-').
	      The first keyword in the string describes the main type, it can be one of `scalar',
	      `array',	`integer', `float' or `association'. The other keywords describe the type
	      in more detail:

	      local  for local parameters

	      left   for left justified parameters

	      right_blanks
		     for right justified parameters with leading blanks

	      right_zeros
		     for right justified parameters with leading zeros

	      lower  for parameters whose value is  converted  to  all	lower  case  when  it  is
		     expanded

	      upper  for  parameters  whose  value  is	converted  to  all  upper case when it is
		     expanded

	      readonly
		     for readonly parameters

	      tag    for tagged parameters

	      export for exported parameters

	      unique for arrays which keep only the first occurrence of duplicated values

	      hide   for parameters with the `hide' flag

	      special
		     for special parameters defined by the shell

       u      Expand only the first occurrence of each unique word.

       U      Convert all letters in the result to upper case.

       v      Used with k, substitute (as two consecutive words) both the key and  the	value  of
	      each  associative  array element.  Used with subscripts, force values to be substi-
	      tuted even if the subscript form refers to indices or keys.

       V      Make any special characters in the resulting words visible.

       w      With ${#name}, count words in arrays or strings; the s flag may be used  to  set	a
	      word delimiter.

       W      Similar  to  w with the difference that empty words between repeated delimiters are
	      also counted.

       X      With this flag, parsing errors occurring with the Q, e and # flags or  the  pattern
	      matching	forms  such  as `${name#pattern}' are reported.  Without the flag, errors
	      are silently ignored.

       z      Split the result of the expansion into words using shell parsing to find the words,
	      i.e.  taking  into account any quoting in the value.  Comments are not treated spe-
	      cially but as ordinary strings, similar to interactive  shells  with  the  INTERAC-
	      TIVE_COMMENTS option unset (however, see the Z flag below for related options)

	      Note that this is done very late, even later than the `(s)' flag. So to access sin-
	      gle words in the result use nested expansions as in `${${(z)foo}[2]}'. Likewise, to
	      remove the quotes in the resulting words use `${(Q)${(z)foo}}'.

       0      Split the result of the expansion on null bytes.	This is a shorthand for `ps:\0:'.

       The  following flags (except p) are followed by one or more arguments as shown.	Any char-
       acter, or the matching pairs `(...)', `{...}', `[...]', or `<...>', may be used	in  place
       of  a  colon  as  delimiters,  but  note  that when a flag takes more than one argument, a
       matched pair of delimiters must surround each argument.

       p      Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in string arguments to any
	      of the flags described below that follow this argument.

       ~      Force string arguments to any of the flags below that follow within the parentheses
	      to be treated as patterns.  Compare with a ~ outside parentheses, which forces  the
	      entire substituted string to be treated as a pattern.  Hence, for example,
	      [[ "?" = ${(~j.|.)array} ]]
       with  the  EXTENDED_GLOB option set succeeds if and only if $array contains the string `?'
       as an element.  The argument may be repeated to toggle  the  behaviour;	its  effect  only
       lasts to the end of the parenthesised group.

       j:string:
	      Join  the  words	of  arrays  together using string as a separator.  Note that this
	      occurs before field splitting by the s:string: flag or the SH_WORD_SPLIT option.

       l:expr::string1::string2:
	      Pad the resulting words on the left.  Each word will be truncated if  required  and
	      placed in a field expr characters wide.

	      The arguments :string1: and :string2: are optional; neither, the first, or both may
	      be given.  Note that the same pairs of delimiters must be  used  for  each  of  the
	      three  arguments.   The space to the left will be filled with string1 (concatenated
	      as often as needed) or spaces if string1 is not given.  If both string1 and string2
	      are given, string2 is inserted once directly to the left of each word, truncated if
	      necessary, before string1 is used to produce any remaining padding.

	      If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, the flag m may also be given, in  which  case
	      widths  will be used for the calculation of padding; otherwise individual multibyte
	      characters are treated as occupying one unit of width.

	      If the MULTIBYTE option is not in effect, each byte in the  string  is  treated  as
	      occupying one unit of width.

	      Control  characters  are always assumed to be one unit wide; this allows the mecha-
	      nism to be used for generating repetitions of control characters.

       m      Only useful together with one of the flags l or r or with  the  #  length  operator
	      when  the  MULTIBYTE  option is in effect.  Use the character width reported by the
	      system in calculating how much of the string it occupies or the overall  length  of
	      the  string.   Most  printable characters have a width of one unit, however certain
	      Asian character sets and certain special effects use  wider  characters;	combining
	      characters  have	zero  width.  Non-printable characters are arbitrarily counted as
	      zero width; how they would actually be displayed will vary.

	      If the m is repeated, the character either counts zero (if it has zero width), else
	      one.  For printable character strings this has the effect of counting the number of
	      glyphs (visibly separate characters), except for the case where  combining  charac-
	      ters themselves have non-zero width (true in certain alphabets).

       r:expr::string1::string2:
	      As l, but pad the words on the right and insert string2 immediately to the right of
	      the string to be padded.

	      Left and right padding may be used together.  In this case the strategy is to apply
	      left padding to the first half width of each of the resulting words, and right pad-
	      ding to the second half.	If the string to be padded has odd width the  extra  pad-
	      ding is applied on the left.

       s:string:
	      Force  field  splitting at the separator string.	Note that a string of two or more
	      characters means that all of them must match in sequence;  this  differs	from  the
	      treatment  of two or more characters in the IFS parameter.  See also the = flag and
	      the SH_WORD_SPLIT option.  An empty string may also be given in  which  case  every
	      character will be a separate element.

	      For  historical reasons, the usual behaviour that empty array elements are retained
	      inside double quotes is disabled for arrays generated by splitting; hence the  fol-
	      lowing:

		     line="one::three"
		     print -l "${(s.:.)line}"

	      produces	two  lines  of	output	for one and three and elides the empty field.  To
	      override this behaviour, supply the "(@)" flag as well, i.e.  "${(@s.:.)line}".

       Z:opts:
	      As z but takes a combination of option letters between a following pair  of  delim-
	      iter characters.	With no options the effect is identical to z.  (Z+c+) causes com-
	      ments to be parsed as a string and retained;  any  field	in  the  resulting  array
	      beginning  with an unquoted comment character is a comment.  (Z+C+) causes comments
	      to be parsed and removed.  The rule for comments is standard:  anything  between	a
	      word  starting  with  the  third character of $HISTCHARS, default #, up to the next
	      newline is a comment.  (Z+n+) causes unquoted newlines to be  treated  as  ordinary
	      whitespace,  else  they  are  treated as if they are shell code delimiters and con-
	      verted to semicolons.  Options are combined within the same set of delimiters, e.g.
	      (Z+Cn+).

       _:flags:
	      The  underscore  (_)  flag is reserved for future use.  As of this revision of zsh,
	      there are no valid flags; anything following an underscore,  other  than	an  empty
	      pair of delimiters, is treated as an error, and the flag itself has no effect.

       The  following  flags are meaningful with the ${...#...} or ${...%...} forms.  The S and I
       flags may also be used with the ${.../...} forms.

       S      Search substrings as well as beginnings or ends; with # start  from  the	beginning
	      and  with  % start from the end of the string.  With substitution via ${.../...} or
	      ${...//...}, specifies non-greedy matching, i.e. that the shortest instead  of  the
	      longest match should be replaced.

       I:expr:
	      Search the exprth match (where expr evaluates to a number).  This only applies when
	      searching for substrings, either with the S flag,  or  with  ${.../...}  (only  the
	      exprth  match  is  substituted)  or ${...//...} (all matches from the exprth on are
	      substituted).  The default is to take the first match.

	      The exprth match is counted such that there is either one or zero matches from each
	      starting	position in the string, although for global substitution matches overlap-
	      ping previous replacements are ignored.  With the ${...%...} and ${...%%...} forms,
	      the  starting  position  for  the  match	moves backwards from the end as the index
	      increases, while with the other forms it moves forward from the start.

	      Hence with the string
		     which switch is the right switch for Ipswich?
	      substitutions of the form ${(SI:N:)string#w*ch} as N increases from  1  will  match
	      and remove `which', `witch', `witch' and `wich'; the form using `##' will match and
	      remove `which switch is the right switch for Ipswich', `witch is the  right  switch
	      for  Ipswich',  `witch  for Ipswich' and `wich'. The form using `%' will remove the
	      same matches as for `#', but in reverse order, and the form using `%%' will  remove
	      the same matches as for `##' in reverse order.

       B      Include the index of the beginning of the match in the result.

       E      Include the index of the end of the match in the result.

       M      Include the matched portion in the result.

       N      Include the length of the match in the result.

       R      Include the unmatched portion in the result (the Rest).

   Rules
       Here  is  a  summary  of  the rules for substitution; this assumes that braces are present
       around the substitution, i.e. ${...}.  Some particular examples	are  given  below.   Note
       that  the  Zsh  Development Group accepts no responsibility for any brain damage which may
       occur during the reading of the following rules.

       1. Nested substitution
	      If multiple nested ${...} forms are present, substitution  is  performed	from  the
	      inside outwards.	At each level, the substitution takes account of whether the cur-
	      rent value is a scalar or an array, whether the whole  substitution  is  in  double
	      quotes,  and  what flags are supplied to the current level of substitution, just as
	      if the nested substitution were the outermost.  The flags are not propagated up  to
	      enclosing  substitutions; the nested substitution will return either a scalar or an
	      array as determined by the flags, possibly adjusted for quoting.	All the following
	      steps take place where applicable at all levels of substitution.	Note that, unless
	      the `(P)' flag is present, the flags and any subscripts apply directly to the value
	      of  the  nested  substitution; for example, the expansion ${${foo}} behaves exactly
	      the same as ${foo}.

	      At each nested level of substitution, the substituted words undergo  all	forms  of
	      single-word  substitution (i.e. not filename generation), including command substi-
	      tution, arithmetic expansion and filename expansion (i.e. leading ~ and =).   Thus,
	      for example, ${${:-=cat}:h} expands to the directory where the cat program resides.
	      (Explanation: the internal substitution has no parameter but a default value  =cat,
	      which is expanded by filename expansion to a full path; the outer substitution then
	      applies the modifier :h and takes the directory part of the path.)

       2. Internal parameter flags
	      Any parameter flags set by one of the typeset family of commands, in particular the
	      L,  R, Z, u and l flags for padding and capitalization, are applied directly to the
	      parameter value.	Note these flags are options to the command, e.g.  `typeset  -Z';
	      they are not the same as the flags used within parameter substitutions.

       3. Parameter subscripting
	      If  the value is a raw parameter reference with a subscript, such as ${var[3]}, the
	      effect of subscripting is applied directly to the parameter.  Subscripts are evalu-
	      ated  left  to  right;  subsequent  subscripts  apply  to the scalar or array value
	      yielded by the previous subscript.  Thus if var is an array,  ${var[1][2]}  is  the
	      second  character  of  the  first word, but ${var[2,4][2]} is the entire third word
	      (the second word of the range of words two through four  of  the	original  array).
	      Any number of subscripts may appear.

       4. Parameter name replacement
	      The  effect  of any (P) flag, which treats the value so far as a parameter name and
	      replaces it with the corresponding value, is applied.

       5. Double-quoted joining
	      If the value after this process is an array, and the substitution appears in double
	      quotes, and no (@) flag is present at the current level, the words of the value are
	      joined with the first character of the parameter $IFS, by default a space,  between
	      each  word (single word arrays are not modified).  If the (j) flag is present, that
	      is used for joining instead of $IFS.

       6. Nested subscripting
	      Any remaining subscripts (i.e. of a nested  substitution)  are  evaluated  at  this
	      point,  based  on  whether the value is an array or a scalar.  As with 3., multiple
	      subscripts  can  appear.	 Note  that  ${foo[2,4][2]}   is   thus   equivalent   to
	      ${${foo[2,4]}[2]}  and  also  to	"${${(@)foo[2,4]}[2]}"	(the  nested substitution
	      returns an array in both cases), but not to "${${foo[2,4]}[2]}" (the nested substi-
	      tution returns a scalar because of the quotes).

       7. Modifiers
	      Any  modifiers, as specified by a trailing `#', `%', `/' (possibly doubled) or by a
	      set of modifiers of the form :... (see the section `Modifiers' in the section `His-
	      tory Expansion'), are applied to the words of the value at this level.

       8. Character evaluation
	      Any (#) flag is applied, evaluating the result so far numerically as a character.

       9. Length
	      Any initial # modifier, i.e. in the form ${#var}, is used to evaluate the length of
	      the expression so far.

       10. Forced joining
	      If the `(j)' flag is present, or no `(j)' flag is present but the string is  to  be
	      split as given by rule 11., and joining did not take place at step 5., any words in
	      the value are joined together using the given string or the first character of $IFS
	      if none.	Note that the `(F)' flag implicitly supplies a string for joining in this
	      manner.

       11. Simple word splitting
	      If one of the `(s)' or `(f)' flags are present, or the `='  specifier  was  present
	      (e.g. ${=var}), the word is split on occurrences of the specified string, or (for =
	      with neither of the two flags present) any of the characters in $IFS.

	      If no `(s)', `(f)' or `=' was given, but the word is  not  quoted  and  the  option
	      SH_WORD_SPLIT  is set, the word is split on occurrences of any of the characters in
	      $IFS.  Note this step, too, takes place at all levels of a nested substitution.

       12. Case modification
	      Any case modification from one of the flags (L), (U) or (C) is applied.

       13. Escape sequence replacement
	      First any replacements from the (g) flag are performed, then any prompt-style  for-
	      matting from the (%) family of flags is applied.

       14. Quote application
	      Any quoting or unquoting using (q) and (Q) and related flags is applied.

       15. Directory naming
	      Any directory name substitution using (D) flag is applied.

       16. Visibility enhancement
	      Any modifications to make characters visible using the (V) flag are applied.

       17. Lexical word splitting
	      If  the  '(z)'  flag  or one of the forms of the '(Z)' flag is present, the word is
	      split as if it were a shell  command  line,  so  that  quotation	marks  and  other
	      metacharacters  are  used  to  decide  what  constitutes a word.	Note this form of
	      splitting is entirely distinct from that described by rule 11.:  it  does  not  use
	      $IFS, and does not cause forced joining.

       18. Uniqueness
	      If  the  result  is an array and the `(u)' flag was present, duplicate elements are
	      removed from the array.

       19. Ordering
	      If the result is still an array and one of the `(o)' or `(O)'  flags  was  present,
	      the array is reordered.

       20. Re-evaluation
	      Any `(e)' flag is applied to the value, forcing it to be re-examined for new param-
	      eter substitutions, but also for command and arithmetic substitutions.

       21. Padding
	      Any padding of the value by the `(l.fill.)' or `(r.fill.)' flags is applied.

       22. Semantic joining
	      In contexts where expansion semantics requires a single word to result,  all  words
	      are  rejoined  with  the first character of IFS between.	So in `${(P)${(f)lines}}'
	      the value of ${lines} is split at newlines, but then must be  joined  again  before
	      the P flag can be applied.

	      If a single word is not required, this rule is skipped.

       23. Empty argument removal
	      If  the  substitution  does  not appear in double quotes, any resulting zero-length
	      argument, whether from a scalar or an element of an array, is elided from the  list
	      of arguments inserted into the command line.

	      Strictly	speaking,  the removal happens later as the same happens with other forms
	      of substitution; the point to note here is simply that it occurs after any  of  the
	      above parameter operations.

   Examples
       The  flag  f  is  useful to split a double-quoted substitution line by line.  For example,
       ${(f)"$(<file)"} substitutes the contents of file divided so that each line is an  element
       of the resulting array.	Compare this with the effect of $(<file) alone, which divides the
       file up by words, or the same inside double quotes, which makes the entire content of  the
       file a single string.

       The  following  illustrates  the rules for nested parameter expansions.	Suppose that $foo
       contains the array (bar baz):

       "${(@)${foo}[1]}"
	      This produces the result b.  First, the inner substitution "${foo}", which  has  no
	      array  (@)  flag,  produces a single word result "bar baz".  The outer substitution
	      "${(@)...[1]}" detects that this is a scalar, so that (despite the `(@)' flag)  the
	      subscript picks the first character.

       "${${(@)foo}[1]}"
	      This  produces  the result `bar'.  In this case, the inner substitution "${(@)foo}"
	      produces the array `(bar baz)'.  The outer substitution  "${...[1]}"  detects  that
	      this  is	an  array  and	picks the first word.  This is similar to the simple case
	      "${foo[1]}".

       As an example of the rules for word splitting and joining, suppose $foo contains the array
       `(ax1 bx1)'.  Then

       ${(s/x/)foo}
	      produces the words `a', `1 b' and `1'.

       ${(j/x/s/x/)foo}
	      produces `a', `1', `b' and `1'.

       ${(s/x/)foo%%1*}
	      produces `a' and ` b' (note the extra space).  As substitution occurs before either
	      joining or splitting, the operation  first generates the modified  array	(ax  bx),
	      which  is  joined  to  give  "ax bx", and then split to give `a', ` b' and `'.  The
	      final empty string will then be elided, as it is not in double quotes.

COMMAND SUBSTITUTION
       A command enclosed in parentheses preceded by a dollar sign, like `$(...)', or quoted with
       grave  accents, like ``...`', is replaced with its standard output, with any trailing new-
       lines deleted.  If the substitution is not enclosed in double quotes, the output is broken
       into  words using the IFS parameter.  The substitution `$(cat foo)' may be replaced by the
       equivalent but faster `$(<foo)'.  In either case, if the option	GLOB_SUBST  is	set,  the
       output is eligible for filename generation.

ARITHMETIC EXPANSION
       A  string  of  the form `$[exp]' or `$((exp))' is substituted with the value of the arith-
       metic expression exp.  exp is subjected to parameter expansion, command	substitution  and
       arithmetic expansion before it is evaluated.  See the section `Arithmetic Evaluation'.

BRACE EXPANSION
       A  string  of  the form `foo{xx,yy,zz}bar' is expanded to the individual words `fooxxbar',
       `fooyybar' and `foozzbar'.  Left-to-right order	is  preserved.	 This  construct  may  be
       nested.	Commas may be quoted in order to include them literally in a word.

       An  expression  of the form `{n1..n2}', where n1 and n2 are integers, is expanded to every
       number between n1 and n2 inclusive.  If either number begins with a zero, all the  result-
       ing  numbers  will  be  padded with leading zeroes to that minimum width, but for negative
       numbers the - character is also included in the width.  If the numbers are  in  decreasing
       order the resulting sequence will also be in decreasing order.

       An  expression  of the form `{n1..n2..n3}', where n1, n2, and n3 are integers, is expanded
       as above, but only every n3th number starting from n1 is output.  If n3	is  negative  the
       numbers	are  output  in reverse order, this is slightly different from simply swapping n1
       and n2 in the case that the step n3 doesn't evenly divide the range.  Zero padding can  be
       specified in any of the three numbers, specifying it in the third can be useful to pad for
       example `{-99..100..01}' which is not possible to specify by putting a 0 on either of  the
       first two numbers (i.e. pad to two characters).

       If  a  brace  expression matches none of the above forms, it is left unchanged, unless the
       option BRACE_CCL (an abbreviation for `brace character class') is set.  In that	case,  it
       is  expanded  to  a  list  of the individual characters between the braces sorted into the
       order of the characters in the ASCII character set (multibyte characters are not currently
       handled).   The	syntax	is  similar  to a [...] expression in filename generation: `-' is
       treated specially to denote a range of characters, but `^' or `!' as the  first	character
       is treated normally.  For example, `{abcdef0-9}' expands to 16 words 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a
       b c d e f.

       Note that brace expansion is not part of filename  generation  (globbing);  an  expression
       such  as */{foo,bar} is split into two separate words */foo and */bar before filename gen-
       eration takes place.  In particular, note that this is liable  to  produce  a  `no  match'
       error  if  either  of  the  two	expressions does not match; this is to be contrasted with
       */(foo|bar), which is treated as a single pattern but otherwise has similar effects.

       To combine brace expansion with array expansion, see the ${^spec} form  described  in  the
       section Parameter Expansion above.

FILENAME EXPANSION
       Each  word is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted `~'.	If it does, then the word
       up to a `/', or the end of the word if there is no `/', is checked to see  if  it  can  be
       substituted  in	one of the ways described here.  If so, then the `~' and the checked por-
       tion are replaced with the appropriate substitute value.

       A `~' by itself is replaced by the value of $HOME.  A `~' followed by a `+' or  a  `-'  is
       replaced by current or previous working directory, respectively.

       A  `~' followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory
       stack.  `~0' is equivalent to `~+', and `~1' is the top of the stack.  `~+' followed by	a
       number  is  replaced  by  the directory at that position in the directory stack.  `~+0' is
       equivalent to `~+', and `~+1' is the top of the stack.	`~-'  followed	by  a  number  is
       replaced  by the directory that many positions from the bottom of the stack.  `~-0' is the
       bottom of the stack.  The PUSHD_MINUS option exchanges the effects of `~+' and `~-'  where
       they are followed by a number.

   Dynamic named directories
       If  the function zsh_directory_name exists, or the shell variable zsh_directory_name_func-
       tions exists and contains an array of function names,  then  the  functions  are  used  to
       implement  dynamic  directory  naming.  The functions are tried in order until one returns
       status zero, so it is important that functions test whether they can handle  the  case  in
       question and return an appropriate status.

       A  `~'  followed  by a string namstr in unquoted square brackets is treated specially as a
       dynamic directory name.	Note that the first unquoted closing square bracket always termi-
       nates  namstr.	The  shell  function is passed two arguments: the string n (for name) and
       namstr.	It should either set the array reply to a single element which is  the	directory
       corresponding  to  the  name  and  return status zero (executing an assignment as the last
       statement is usually sufficient), or it should return status non-zero.  In the former case
       the  element  of  reply	is  used as the directory; in the latter case the substitution is
       deemed to have failed.  If all functions fail and the option  NOMATCH  is  set,	an  error
       results.

       The  functions  defined	as above are also used to see if a directory can be turned into a
       name, for example when printing the directory stack or when expanding %~ in  prompts.   In
       this case each function is passed two arguments: the string d (for directory) and the can-
       didate for dynamic naming.  The function should either  return  non-zero  status,  if  the
       directory  cannot be named by the function, or it should set the array reply to consist of
       two elements: the first is the dynamic name for the  directory  (as  would  appear  within
       `~[...]'), and the second is the prefix length of the directory to be replaced.	For exam-
       ple,  if  the  trial  directory	is  /home/myname/src/zsh  and  the   dynamic   name   for
       /home/myname/src (which has 16 characters) is s, then the function sets

	      reply=(s 16)

       The  directory  name  so  returned is compared with possible static names for parts of the
       directory path, as described below; it is used if the prefix length  matched  (16  in  the
       example) is longer than that matched by any static name.

       It  is  not  a  requirement that a function implements both n and d calls; for example, it
       might be appropriate for certain dynamic forms of expansion not to be contracted to names.
       In  that  case  any  call  with	the first argument d should cause a non-zero status to be
       returned.

       The completion system calls `zsh_directory_name c' followed by equivalent  calls  to  ele-
       ments  of  the  array  zsh_directory_name_functions,  if  it  exists, in order to complete
       dynamic names for directories.  The code for this should be as for  any	other  completion
       function as described in zshcompsys(1).

       As a working example, here is a function that expands any dynamic names beginning with the
       string p: to directories below /home/pws/perforce.  In this simple case a static name  for
       the directory would be just as effective.

	      zsh_directory_name() {
		emulate -L zsh
		setopt extendedglob
		local -a match mbegin mend
		if [[ $1 = d ]]; then
		  # turn the directory into a name
		  if [[ $2 = (#b)(/home/pws/perforce/)([^/]##)* ]]; then
		    typeset -ga reply
		    reply=(p:$match[2] $(( ${#match[1]} + ${#match[2]} )) )
		  else
		    return 1
		  fi
		elif [[ $1 = n ]]; then
		  # turn the name into a directory
		  [[ $2 != (#b)p:(?*) ]] && return 1
		  typeset -ga reply
		  reply=(/home/pws/perforce/$match[1])
		elif [[ $1 = c ]]; then
		  # complete names
		  local expl
		  local -a dirs
		  dirs=(/home/pws/perforce/*(/:t))
		  dirs=(p:${^dirs})
		  _wanted dynamic-dirs expl 'dynamic directory' compadd -S\] -a dirs
		  return
		else
		  return 1
		fi
		return 0
	      }

   Static named directories
       A  `~'  followed  by anything not already covered consisting of any number of alphanumeric
       characters or underscore (`_'), hyphen (`-'), or dot (`.') is looked up as a named  direc-
       tory,  and  replaced by the value of that named directory if found.  Named directories are
       typically home directories for users on the system.  They may also be defined if the  text
       after the `~' is the name of a string shell parameter whose value begins with a `/'.  Note
       that trailing slashes will be removed from the path to the directory (though the  original
       parameter is not modified).

       It is also possible to define directory names using the -d option to the hash builtin.

       In  certain  circumstances  (in	prompts, for instance), when the shell prints a path, the
       path is checked to see if it has a named directory as its prefix.  If so, then the  prefix
       portion is replaced with a `~' followed by the name of the directory.  The shortest way of
       referring to the directory is used, with ties broken in favour of using a named directory,
       except when the directory is / itself.  The parameters $PWD and $OLDPWD are never abbrevi-
       ated in this fashion.

   `=' expansion
       If a word begins with an unquoted `=' and the EQUALS option is set, the remainder  of  the
       word  is  taken	as  the name of a command.  If a command exists by that name, the word is
       replaced by the full pathname of the command.

   Notes
       Filename expansion is performed on the right hand side of a parameter assignment,  includ-
       ing  those  appearing  after commands of the typeset family.  In this case, the right hand
       side will be treated as a colon-separated list in the manner of	the  PATH  parameter,  so
       that a `~' or an `=' following a `:' is eligible for expansion.	All such behaviour can be
       disabled by quoting the `~', the `=', or the whole expression (but not simply the  colon);
       the EQUALS option is also respected.

       If  the	option MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST is set, any unquoted shell argument in the form `identi-
       fier=expression' becomes eligible for file expansion as described in  the  previous  para-
       graph.  Quoting the first `=' also inhibits this.

FILENAME GENERATION
       If  a word contains an unquoted instance of one of the characters `*', `(', `|', `<', `[',
       or `?', it is regarded as a pattern for filename generation, unless  the  GLOB  option  is
       unset.	If the EXTENDED_GLOB option is set, the `^' and `#' characters also denote a pat-
       tern; otherwise they are not treated specially by the shell.

       The word is replaced with a list of sorted filenames that match the pattern.  If no match-
       ing  pattern  is  found,  the shell gives an error message, unless the NULL_GLOB option is
       set, in which case the word is deleted; or unless the NOMATCH option is	unset,	in  which
       case the word is left unchanged.

       In  filename generation, the character `/' must be matched explicitly; also, a `.' must be
       matched explicitly at the beginning of a pattern or after  a  `/',  unless  the	GLOB_DOTS
       option  is  set.   No filename generation pattern matches the files `.' or `..'.  In other
       instances of pattern matching, the `/' and `.' are not treated specially.

   Glob Operators
       *      Matches any string, including the null string.

       ?      Matches any character.

       [...]  Matches any of the enclosed characters.  Ranges of characters can be  specified  by
	      separating two characters by a `-'.  A `-' or `]' may be matched by including it as
	      the first character in the list.	There are also several named classes  of  charac-
	      ters,  in  the  form `[:name:]' with the following meanings.  The first set use the
	      macros provided by the operating system to test for the  given  character  combina-
	      tions, including any modifications due to local language settings, see ctype(3):

	      [:alnum:]
		     The character is alphanumeric

	      [:alpha:]
		     The character is alphabetic

	      [:ascii:]
		     The  character is 7-bit, i.e. is a single-byte character without the top bit
		     set.

	      [:blank:]
		     The character is either space or tab

	      [:cntrl:]
		     The character is a control character

	      [:digit:]
		     The character is a decimal digit

	      [:graph:]
		     The character is a printable character other than whitespace

	      [:lower:]
		     The character is a lowercase letter

	      [:print:]
		     The character is printable

	      [:punct:]
		     The character is printable but neither alphanumeric nor whitespace

	      [:space:]
		     The character is whitespace

	      [:upper:]
		     The character is an uppercase letter

	      [:xdigit:]
		     The character is a hexadecimal digit

	      Another set of named classes is handled internally by the shell and is  not  sensi-
	      tive to the locale:

	      [:IDENT:]
		     The  character  is  allowed  to  form  part of a shell identifier, such as a
		     parameter name

	      [:IFS:]
		     The character is used as an input field separator, i.e. is contained in  the
		     IFS parameter

	      [:IFSSPACE:]
		     The character is an IFS white space character; see the documentation for IFS
		     in the zshparam(1) manual page.

	      [:WORD:]
		     The character is treated as part of a word; this test is  sensitive  to  the
		     value of the WORDCHARS parameter

	      Note  that  the  square brackets are additional to those enclosing the whole set of
	      characters, so to test for a single alphanumeric character you need  `[[:alnum:]]'.
	      Named character sets can be used alongside other types, e.g. `[[:alpha:]0-9]'.

       [^...]
       [!...] Like [...], except that it matches any character which is not in the given set.

       <[x]-[y]>
	      Matches  any  number  in the range x to y, inclusive.  Either of the numbers may be
	      omitted to make the range open-ended; hence `<->' matches  any  number.	To  match
	      individual digits, the [...] form is more efficient.

	      Be  careful when using other wildcards adjacent to patterns of this form; for exam-
	      ple, <0-9>* will actually match any number whatsoever at the start of  the  string,
	      since  the  `<0-9>'  will match the first digit, and the `*' will match any others.
	      This is a trap for the unwary, but is in fact an inevitable consequence of the rule
	      that   the   longest   possible	match	always	succeeds.   Expressions  such  as
	      `<0-9>[^[:digit:]]*' can be used instead.

       (...)  Matches the enclosed pattern.  This is used for grouping.  If the  KSH_GLOB  option
	      is  set,	then a `@', `*', `+', `?' or `!' immediately preceding the `(' is treated
	      specially, as detailed below. The option SH_GLOB	prevents  bare	parentheses  from
	      being used in this way, though the KSH_GLOB option is still available.

	      Note  that grouping cannot extend over multiple directories: it is an error to have
	      a `/' within a group (this only applies for patterns used in filename  generation).
	      There  is  one exception:  a group of the form (pat/)# appearing as a complete path
	      segment can match a sequence of directories.  For  example,  foo/(a*/)#bar  matches
	      foo/bar, foo/any/bar, foo/any/anyother/bar, and so on.

       x|y    Matches either x or y.  This operator has lower precedence than any other.  The `|'
	      character must be within parentheses, to avoid interpretation as a pipeline.

       ^x     (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)  Matches anything except the pattern	x.   This
	      has  a  higher  precedence  than	`/', so `^foo/bar' will search directories in `.'
	      except `./foo' for a file named `bar'.

       x~y    (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)  Match anything that matches the pattern x  but
	      does  not  match	y.   This  has	lower precedence than any operator except `|', so
	      `*/*~foo/bar' will search for all files in all directories in `.'  and then exclude
	      `foo/bar'  if  there  was  such  a  match.   Multiple  patterns  can be excluded by
	      `foo~bar~baz'.  In the exclusion pattern (y), `/' and `.' are not treated specially
	      the way they usually are in globbing.

       x#     (Requires  EXTENDED_GLOB	to be set.)  Matches zero or more occurrences of the pat-
	      tern x.  This operator has high precedence; `12#' is equivalent to `1(2#)',  rather
	      than  `(12)#'.  It is an error for an unquoted `#' to follow something which cannot
	      be repeated; this includes an empty string, a pattern already followed by `##',  or
	      parentheses  when part of a KSH_GLOB pattern (for example, `!(foo)#' is invalid and
	      must be replaced by `*(!(foo))').

       x##    (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)  Matches one or more occurrences of the pattern
	      x.   This  operator  has	high precedence; `12##' is equivalent to `1(2##)', rather
	      than `(12)##'.  No more than two active `#' characters may appear together.   (Note
	      the  potential  clash with glob qualifiers in the form `1(2##)' which should there-
	      fore be avoided.)

   ksh-like Glob Operators
       If the KSH_GLOB option is set, the effects of parentheses can be modified by  a	preceding
       `@',  `*',  `+', `?' or `!'.  This character need not be unquoted to have special effects,
       but the `(' must be.

       @(...) Match the pattern in the parentheses.  (Like `(...)'.)

       *(...) Match any number of occurrences.	(Like `(...)#'.)

       +(...) Match at least one occurrence.  (Like `(...)##'.)

       ?(...) Match zero or one occurrence.  (Like `(|...)'.)

       !(...) Match anything but the expression in parentheses.  (Like `(^(...))'.)

   Precedence
       The precedence of the operators given above is (highest) `^', `/', `~', `|' (lowest);  the
       remaining  operators  are  simply treated from left to right as part of a string, with `#'
       and `##' applying to the shortest possible preceding unit (i.e. a character, `?', `[...]',
       `<...>',  or  a	parenthesised expression).  As mentioned above, a `/' used as a directory
       separator may not appear inside parentheses, while a `|' must do so; in patterns  used  in
       other  contexts than filename generation (for example, in case statements and tests within
       `[[...]]'), a `/' is not special; and `/' is also not special after a `~'  appearing  out-
       side parentheses in a filename pattern.

   Globbing Flags
       There  are various flags which affect any text to their right up to the end of the enclos-
       ing group or to the end of the pattern; they require the EXTENDED_GLOB  option.	All  take
       the form (#X) where X may have one of the following forms:

       i      Case  insensitive:   upper  or  lower case characters in the pattern match upper or
	      lower case characters.

       l      Lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower  case  characters;  upper
	      case characters in the pattern still only match upper case characters.

       I      Case sensitive:  locally negates the effect of i or l from that point on.

       b      Activate backreferences for parenthesised groups in the pattern; this does not work
	      in filename generation.  When a  pattern	with  a  set  of  active  parentheses  is
	      matched,	the  strings  matched  by  the groups are stored in the array $match, the
	      indices of the beginning of the matched parentheses in the array $mbegin,  and  the
	      indices  of the end in the array $mend, with the first element of each array corre-
	      sponding to the first parenthesised group, and so on.  These arrays are not  other-
	      wise  special  to the shell.  The indices use the same convention as does parameter
	      substitution, so that elements of $mend and $mbegin may be used in subscripts;  the
	      KSH_ARRAYS  option  is respected.  Sets of globbing flags are not considered paren-
	      thesised groups; only the first nine active parentheses can be referenced.

	      For example,

		     foo="a string with a message"
		     if [[ $foo = (a|an)' '(#b)(*)' '* ]]; then
		       print ${foo[$mbegin[1],$mend[1]]}
		     fi

	      prints `string with a'.  Note that the first parenthesis is  before  the	(#b)  and
	      does not create a backreference.

	      Backreferences  work with all forms of pattern matching other than filename genera-
	      tion,  but  note	that  when  performing	matches  on  an  entire  array,  such  as
	      ${array#pattern},  or  a	global substitution, such as ${param//pat/repl}, only the
	      data for the last match remains available.  In the case of global replacements this
	      may still be useful.  See the example for the m flag below.

	      The numbering of backreferences strictly follows the order of the opening parenthe-
	      ses from left to right in the pattern string, although sets of parentheses  may  be
	      nested.  There are special rules for parentheses followed by `#' or `##'.  Only the
	      last match of the parenthesis is remembered: for example, in `[[ abab = (#b)([ab])#
	      ]]',  only the final `b' is stored in match[1].  Thus extra parentheses may be nec-
	      essary to match the complete segment: for example, use `X((ab|cd)#)Y'  to  match	a
	      whole  string  of  either  `ab'  or  `cd'  between  `X' and `Y', using the value of
	      $match[1] rather than $match[2].

	      If the match fails none of the parameters is altered, so in some cases  it  may  be
	      necessary  to  initialise  them  beforehand.  If some of the backreferences fail to
	      match -- which happens if they are in an alternate branch which fails to match,  or
	      if  they are followed by # and matched zero times -- then the matched string is set
	      to the empty string, and the start and end indices are set to -1.

	      Pattern matching with backreferences is slightly slower than without.

       B      Deactivate backreferences, negating the effect of the b flag from that point on.

       cN,M   The flag (#cN,M) can be used anywhere that the # or ## operators can be used except
	      in  the expressions `(*/)#' and `(*/)##' in filename generation, where `/' has spe-
	      cial meaning; it cannot be combined with other globbing flags  and  a  bad  pattern
	      error  occurs  if  it  is misplaced.  It is equivalent to the form {N,M} in regular
	      expressions.  The previous character or group is required to match between N and	M
	      times,  inclusive.  The form (#cN) requires exactly N matches; (#c,M) is equivalent
	      to specifying N as 0; (#cN,) specifies that there is no maximum limit on the number
	      of matches.

       m      Set  references to the match data for the entire string matched; this is similar to
	      backreferencing and does not work in filename generation.   The  flag  must  be  in
	      effect at the end of the pattern, i.e. not local to a group. The parameters $MATCH,
	      $MBEGIN and $MEND will be set to the string matched  and	to  the  indices  of  the
	      beginning  and  end  of the string, respectively.  This is most useful in parameter
	      substitutions, as otherwise the string matched is obvious.

	      For example,

		     arr=(veldt jynx grimps waqf zho buck)
		     print ${arr//(#m)[aeiou]/${(U)MATCH}}

	      forces all the matches (i.e. all	vowels)  into  uppercase,  printing  `vEldt  jynx
	      grImps wAqf zhO bUck'.

	      Unlike  backreferences, there is no speed penalty for using match references, other
	      than the extra substitutions required for the replacement strings in cases such  as
	      the example shown.

       M      Deactivate the m flag, hence no references to match data will be created.

       anum   Approximate  matching: num errors are allowed in the string matched by the pattern.
	      The rules for this are described in the next subsection.

       s, e   Unlike the other flags, these have only a local effect, and each must appear on its
	      own:  `(#s)' and `(#e)' are the only valid forms.  The `(#s)' flag succeeds only at
	      the start of the test string, and the `(#e)' flag succeeds only at the end  of  the
	      test  string; they correspond to `^' and `$' in standard regular expressions.  They
	      are useful for matching path segments in patterns other than those in filename gen-
	      eration  (where  path  segments  are in any case treated separately).  For example,
	      `*((#s)|/)test((#e)|/)*' matches a path segment `test'  in  any  of  the	following
	      strings: test, test/at/start, at/end/test, in/test/middle.

	      Another  use  is in parameter substitution; for example `${array/(#s)A*Z(#e)}' will
	      remove only elements of an array which match the complete pattern `A*Z'.	There are
	      other  ways  of performing many operations of this type, however the combination of
	      the substitution operations `/' and `//' with the `(#s)' and `(#e)' flags  provides
	      a single simple and memorable method.

	      Note that assertions of the form `(^(#s))' also work, i.e. match anywhere except at
	      the  start  of  the  string,  although  this  actually  means  `anything	except	a
	      zero-length  portion  at	the  start of the string'; you need to use `(""~(#s))' to
	      match a zero-length portion of the string not at the start.

       q      A `q' and everything up to the  closing  parenthesis  of	the  globbing  flags  are
	      ignored  by the pattern matching code.  This is intended to support the use of glob
	      qualifiers, see below.  The result is that the pattern `(#b)(*).c(#q.)' can be used
	      both  for  globbing  and	for  matching  against a string.  In the former case, the
	      `(#q.)' will be treated as a glob qualifier and the  `(#b)'  will  not  be  useful,
	      while  in  the  latter case the `(#b)' is useful for backreferences and the `(#q.)'
	      will be ignored.	Note that colon modifiers in the glob  qualifiers  are	also  not
	      applied in ordinary pattern matching.

       u      Respect the current locale in determining the presence of multibyte characters in a
	      pattern, provided the shell was compiled with  MULTIBYTE_SUPPORT.   This	overrides
	      the  MULTIBYTE  option; the default behaviour is taken from the option.  Compare U.
	      (Mnemonic: typically multibyte characters are from Unicode in the  UTF-8	encoding,
	      although any extension of ASCII supported by the system library may be used.)

       U      All  characters  are considered to be a single byte long.  The opposite of u.  This
	      overrides the MULTIBYTE option.

       For example, the test string fooxx can be matched by the pattern  (#i)FOOXX,  but  not  by
       (#l)FOOXX,  (#i)FOO(#I)XX or ((#i)FOOX)X.  The string (#ia2)readme specifies case-insensi-
       tive matching of readme with up to two errors.

       When using the ksh syntax for grouping both KSH_GLOB and EXTENDED_GLOB must be set and the
       left  parenthesis should be preceded by @.  Note also that the flags do not affect letters
       inside [...] groups, in other  words  (#i)[a-z]	still  matches	only  lowercase  letters.
       Finally,  note  that when examining whole paths case-insensitively every directory must be
       searched for all files which match, so that a pattern  of  the  form  (#i)/foo/bar/...  is
       potentially slow.

   Approximate Matching
       When  matching  approximately,  the  shell keeps a count of the errors found, which cannot
       exceed the number specified in the (#anum) flags.  Four types of error are recognised:

       1.     Different characters, as in fooxbar and fooybar.

       2.     Transposition of characters, as in banana and abnana.

       3.     A character missing in the target string, as  with  the  pattern	road  and  target
	      string rod.

       4.     An extra character appearing in the target string, as with stove and strove.

       Thus,  the  pattern  (#a3)abcd  matches dcba, with the errors occurring by using the first
       rule twice and the second once, grouping the string as [d][cb][a] and [a][bc][d].

       Non-literal parts of the pattern must match exactly,  including	characters  in	character
       ranges:	hence  (#a1)???   matches  strings of length four, by applying rule 4 to an empty
       part of the pattern, but not strings of length two, since all the  ?  must  match.   Other
       characters  which  must	match exactly are initial dots in filenames (unless the GLOB_DOTS
       option is set), and all slashes in filenames, so that a/bc is two errors  from  ab/c  (the
       slash  cannot  be transposed with another character).  Similarly, errors are counted sepa-
       rately for non-contiguous strings in the pattern, so that (ab|cd)ef  is	two  errors  from
       aebf.

       When  using  exclusion  via the ~ operator, approximate matching is treated entirely sepa-
       rately for the excluded part and must be activated separately.  Thus,  (#a1)README~READ_ME
       matches READ.ME but not READ_ME, as the trailing READ_ME is matched without approximation.
       However, (#a1)README~(#a1)READ_ME does not match any pattern of the form  READ?ME  as  all
       such forms are now excluded.

       Apart  from exclusions, there is only one overall error count; however, the maximum errors
       allowed may be altered locally, and this can  be  delimited  by	grouping.   For  example,
       (#a1)cat((#a0)dog)fox  allows  one error in total, which may not occur in the dog section,
       and the pattern (#a1)cat(#a0)dog(#a1)fox is equivalent.	Note that the point at	which  an
       error is first found is the crucial one for establishing whether to use approximation; for
       example, (#a1)abc(#a0)xyz will not match abcdxyz, because the error  occurs  at	the  `x',
       where approximation is turned off.

       Entire  path  segments  may  be	matched  approximately,  so  that  `(#a1)/foo/d/is/avail-
       able/at/the/bar' allows one error in any path segment.  This is much less  efficient  than
       without the (#a1), however, since every directory in the path must be scanned for a possi-
       ble approximate match.  It is best to place the (#a1) after any path  segments  which  are
       known to be correct.

   Recursive Globbing
       A  pathname  component  of  the	form  `(foo/)#' matches a path consisting of zero or more
       directories matching the pattern foo.

       As a shorthand, `**/' is equivalent to `(*/)#'; note that this therefore matches files  in
       the current directory as well as subdirectories.  Thus:

	      ls (*/)#bar

       or

	      ls **/bar

       does  a	recursive  directory search for files named `bar' (potentially including the file
       `bar' in the current directory).  This form does not follow symbolic links;  the  alterna-
       tive  form `***/' does, but is otherwise identical.  Neither of these can be combined with
       other forms of globbing within the same path segment; in  that  case,  the  `*'	operators
       revert to their usual effect.

   Glob Qualifiers
       Patterns  used  for filename generation may end in a list of qualifiers enclosed in paren-
       theses.	The qualifiers specify which filenames that otherwise  match  the  given  pattern
       will be inserted in the argument list.

       If  the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is set, then a trailing set of parentheses containing no `|'
       or `(' characters (or `~' if it is special) is taken as a set of glob qualifiers.  A  glob
       subexpression  that would normally be taken as glob qualifiers, for example `(^x)', can be
       forced to be treated as part of the glob pattern by doubling the parentheses, in this case
       producing `((^x))'.

       If  the	option EXTENDED_GLOB is set, a different syntax for glob qualifiers is available,
       namely `(#qx)' where x is any of the same glob qualifiers used in the other  format.   The
       qualifiers  must still appear at the end of the pattern.  However, with this syntax multi-
       ple glob qualifiers may be chained together.  They are treated as a  logical  AND  of  the
       individual  sets  of  flags.   Also,  as the syntax is unambiguous, the expression will be
       treated as glob qualifiers just as long any parentheses contained within it are	balanced;
       appearance  of  `|',  `(' or `~' does not negate the effect.  Note that qualifiers will be
       recognised in this form even if a bare glob qualifier exists at the end	of  the  pattern,
       for  example  `*(#q*)(.)' will recognise executable regular files if both options are set;
       however, mixed syntax should probably be avoided for the sake of clarity.

       A qualifier may be any one of the following:

       /      directories

       F      `full' (i.e. non-empty) directories.  Note that the opposite sense (^F) expands  to
	      empty directories and all non-directories.  Use (/^F) for empty directories.

       .      plain files

       @      symbolic links

       =      sockets

       p      named pipes (FIFOs)

       *      executable plain files (0100)

       %      device files (character or block special)

       %b     block special files

       %c     character special files

       r      owner-readable files (0400)

       w      owner-writable files (0200)

       x      owner-executable files (0100)

       A      group-readable files (0040)

       I      group-writable files (0020)

       E      group-executable files (0010)

       R      world-readable files (0004)

       W      world-writable files (0002)

       X      world-executable files (0001)

       s      setuid files (04000)

       S      setgid files (02000)

       t      files with the sticky bit (01000)

       fspec  files  with access rights matching spec. This spec may be a octal number optionally
	      preceded by a `=', a `+', or a `-'. If none  of  these  characters  is  given,  the
	      behavior	is  the  same  as for `='. The octal number describes the mode bits to be
	      expected, if combined with a  `=',  the  value  given  must  match  the  file-modes
	      exactly,	with  a  `+',  at  least  the bits in the given number must be set in the
	      file-modes, and with a `-', the bits in the number must not be set.  Giving  a  `?'
	      instead of a octal digit anywhere in the number ensures that the corresponding bits
	      in the file-modes are not checked, this is only useful in combination with `='.

	      If the qualifier `f' is followed by any other character anything	up  to	the  next
	      matching	character  (`[',  `{',	and `<' match `]', `}', and `>' respectively, any
	      other character matches itself) is taken as a list  of  comma-separated  sub-specs.
	      Each  sub-spec may be either an octal number as described above or a list of any of
	      the characters `u', `g', `o', and `a', followed by a `=', a `+', or a `-', followed
	      by  a list of any of the characters `r', `w', `x', `s', and `t', or an octal digit.
	      The first list of characters specify which access rights are to be  checked.  If	a
	      `u' is given, those for the owner of the file are used, if a `g' is given, those of
	      the group are checked, a `o' means to test those of other users, and the	`a'  says
	      to  test all three groups. The `=', `+', and `-' again says how the modes are to be
	      checked and have the same meaning as described for the first form above. The second
	      list  of	characters  finally  says which access rights are to be expected: `r' for
	      read access, `w' for write access, `x' for the right to execute  the  file  (or  to
	      search  a  directory),  `s'  for the setuid and setgid bits, and `t' for the sticky
	      bit.

	      Thus, `*(f70?)' gives the files for which the owner has read,  write,  and  execute
	      permission,  and	for  which other group members have no rights, independent of the
	      permissions for other users. The pattern `*(f-100)' gives all files for  which  the
	      owner  does  not have execute permission, and `*(f:gu+w,o-rx:)' gives the files for
	      which the owner and the other members of the group have at least write  permission,
	      and for which other users don't have read or execute permission.

       estring
       +cmd   The  string  will  be executed as shell code.  The filename will be included in the
	      list if and only if the code returns a zero status (usually the status of the  last
	      command).

	      In  the  first  form, the first character after the `e' will be used as a separator
	      and anything up to the next matching separator will be taken  as the  string;  `[',
	      `{',  and  `<'  match  `]',  `}',  and `>', respectively, while any other character
	      matches itself. Note that expansions must be quoted in the string to  prevent  them
	      from  being  expanded  before  globbing  is done.  string is then executed as shell
	      code.  The string globqual is appended to the array zsh_eval_context  the  duration
	      of execution.

	      During  the execution of string the filename currently being tested is available in
	      the parameter REPLY; the parameter may be altered to a string to be  inserted  into
	      the list instead of the original filename.  In addition, the parameter reply may be
	      set to an array or a string, which overrides the value of  REPLY.   If  set  to  an
	      array, the latter is inserted into the command line word by word.

	      For example, suppose a directory contains a single file `lonely'.  Then the expres-
	      sion `*(e:'reply=(${REPLY}{1,2})':)' will cause the words `lonely1'  and	`lonely2'
	      to be inserted into the command line.  Note the quoting of string.

	      The  form  +cmd has the same effect, but no delimiters appear around cmd.  Instead,
	      cmd is taken as the longest  sequence  of  characters  following	the  +	that  are
	      alphanumeric  or	underscore.   Typically  cmd will be the name of a shell function
	      that contains the appropriate test.  For example,

		     nt() { [[ $REPLY -nt $NTREF ]] }
		     NTREF=reffile
		     ls -l *(+nt)

	      lists all files in the directory that have been modified more  recently  than  ref-
	      file.

       ddev   files on the device dev

       l[-|+]ct
	      files having a link count less than ct (-), greater than ct (+), or equal to ct

       U      files owned by the effective user ID

       G      files owned by the effective group ID

       uid    files  owned  by	user  ID  id if that is a number.  Otherwise, id specifies a user
	      name: the character after the `u' will be taken  as  a  separator  and  the  string
	      between  it  and	the  next  matching  separator will be taken as a user name.  The
	      starting separators `[', `{', and `<' match the final separators `]', `}', and `>',
	      respectively;  any  other  character  matches itself.  The selected files are those
	      owned by this user.  For example, `u:foo:' or `u[foo]' selects files owned by  user
	      `foo'.

       gid    like uid but with group IDs or names

       a[Mwhms][-|+]n
	      files  accessed  exactly	n  days  ago.	Files accessed within the last n days are
	      selected using a negative value for n (-n).  Files accessed more than  n	days  ago
	      are  selected  by a positive n value (+n).  Optional unit specifiers `M', `w', `h',
	      `m' or `s' (e.g. `ah5') cause the check to be performed with months (of  30  days),
	      weeks,  hours,  minutes  or seconds instead of days, respectively.  An explicit `d'
	      for days is also allowed.

	      Any fractional part of the difference between the access time and the current  part
	      in  the  appropriate  units  is  ignored	in  the  comparison.  For instance, `echo
	      *(ah-5)' would echo files accessed within the last five hours, while `echo *(ah+5)'
	      would  echo  files  accessed at least six hours ago, as times strictly between five
	      and six hours are treated as five hours.

       m[Mwhms][-|+]n
	      like the file access qualifier, except that it uses the file modification time.

       c[Mwhms][-|+]n
	      like the file access qualifier, except that it uses the file inode change time.

       L[+|-]n
	      files less than n bytes (-), more than n bytes (+), or exactly n bytes in length.

	      If this flag is directly followed by a `k' (`K'), `m' (`M'),  or	`p'  (`P')  (e.g.
	      `Lk-50') the check is performed with kilobytes, megabytes, or blocks (of 512 bytes)
	      instead.	In this case a file is regarded as "exactly" the size if  the  file  size
	      rounded  up  to  the  next  unit is equal to the test size.  Hence `*(Lm1)' matches
	      files from 1 byte up to 1 Megabyte inclusive.  Note also	that  the  set	of  files
	      "less  than"  the  test  size only includes files that would not match the equality
	      test; hence `*(Lm-1)' only matches files of zero size.

       ^      negates all qualifiers following it

       -      toggles between making the qualifiers work on symbolic links (the default) and  the
	      files they point to

       M      sets the MARK_DIRS option for the current pattern

       T      appends  a  trailing  qualifier  mark to the filenames, analogous to the LIST_TYPES
	      option, for the current pattern (overrides M)

       N      sets the NULL_GLOB option for the current pattern

       D      sets the GLOB_DOTS option for the current pattern

       n      sets the NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT option for the current pattern

       oc     specifies how the names of the files should be sorted. If c is n they are sorted by
	      name  (the  default);  if it is L they are sorted depending on the size (length) of
	      the files; if l they are sorted by the number of links; if a,  m,  or  c	they  are
	      sorted  by the time of the last access, modification, or inode change respectively;
	      if d, files in subdirectories appear before those in the current directory at  each
	      level  of  the  search  --  this	is best combined with other criteria, for example
	      `odon' to sort on names for files within the same directory; if N,  no  sorting  is
	      performed.   Note  that a, m, and c compare the age against the current time, hence
	      the first name in the list is the youngest file. Also note that the modifiers ^ and
	      -  are used, so `*(^-oL)' gives a list of all files sorted by file size in descend-
	      ing order, following any symbolic links.	Unless oN is used, multiple order  speci-
	      fiers may occur to resolve ties.

	      oe and o+ are special cases; they are each followed by shell code, delimited as for
	      the e glob qualifier and the + glob qualifier respectively (see above).	The  code
	      is  executed  for each matched file with the parameter REPLY set to the name of the
	      file on entry and globsort appended to zsh_eval_context.	The  code  should  modify
	      the parameter REPLY in some fashion.  On return, the value of the parameter is used
	      instead of the file name as the string on which to sort.	Unlike other sort  opera-
	      tors, oe and o+ may be repeated, but note that the maximum number of sort operators
	      of any kind that may appear in any glob expression is 12.

       Oc     like `o', but sorts in descending order; i.e. `*(^oc)' is the same as  `*(Oc)'  and
	      `*(^Oc)'	is  the  same as `*(oc)'; `Od' puts files in the current directory before
	      those in subdirectories at each level of the search.

       [beg[,end]]
	      specifies which of the matched filenames should be included in the  returned  list.
	      The  syntax  is  the  same as for array subscripts. beg and the optional end may be
	      mathematical expressions. As in parameter subscripting they may be negative to make
	      them  count  from  the last match backward. E.g.: `*(-OL[1,3])' gives a list of the
	      names of the three largest files.

       Pstring
	      The string will be prepended to each glob match as  a  separate  word.   string  is
	      delimited  in  the  same	way as arguments to the e glob qualifier described above.
	      The qualifier can be repeated; the words	are  prepended	separately  so	that  the
	      resulting  command line contains the words in the same order they were given in the
	      list of glob qualifiers.

	      A typical use for this is to prepend an option before all  occurrences  of  a  file
	      name;  for  example, the pattern `*(P:-f:)' produces the command line arguments `-f
	      file1 -f file2 ...'

       More than one of these lists can be combined, separated by commas. The whole list  matches
       if  at  least one of the sublists matches (they are `or'ed, the qualifiers in the sublists
       are `and'ed).  Some qualifiers, however, affect all matches generated, independent of  the
       sublist	in  which they are given.  These are the qualifiers `M', `T', `N', `D', `n', `o',
       `O' and the subscripts given in brackets (`[...]').

       If a `:' appears in a qualifier list, the remainder of the expression  in  parenthesis  is
       interpreted  as	a  modifier  (see  the section `Modifiers' in the section `History Expan-
       sion').	Each modifier must be introduced by a separate `:'.  Note also	that  the  result
       after  modification  does  not have to be an existing file.  The name of any existing file
       can be followed by a modifier of the form `(:..)' even if no actual filename generation is
       performed, although note that the presence of the parentheses causes the entire expression
       to be subjected to any global pattern matching options such as NULL_GLOB. Thus:

	      ls *(-/)

       lists all directories and symbolic links that point to directories, and

	      ls *(%W)

       lists all world-writable device files in the current directory, and

	      ls *(W,X)

       lists all files in the current directory that are world-writable or world-executable, and

	      echo /tmp/foo*(u0^@:t)

       outputs the basename of all root-owned files beginning with  the  string  `foo'	in  /tmp,
       ignoring symlinks, and

	      ls *.*~(lex|parse).[ch](^D^l1)

       lists all files having a link count of one whose names contain a dot (but not those start-
       ing with a dot, since GLOB_DOTS is explicitly  switched	off)  except  for  lex.c,  lex.h,
       parse.c and parse.h.

	      print b*.pro(#q:s/pro/shmo/)(#q.:s/builtin/shmiltin/)

       demonstrates  how colon modifiers and other qualifiers may be chained together.	The ordi-
       nary qualifier `.' is applied first, then the colon modifiers in order from left to right.
       So  if EXTENDED_GLOB is set and the base pattern matches the regular file builtin.pro, the
       shell will print `shmiltin.shmo'.

ZSHPARAM(1)									      ZSHPARAM(1)

NAME
       zshparam - zsh parameters

DESCRIPTION
       A parameter has a name, a value, and a number of attributes.  A name may be  any  sequence
       of  alphanumeric  characters and underscores, or the single characters `*', `@', `#', `?',
       `-', `$', or `!'.  The value may be a scalar (a string), an  integer,  an  array  (indexed
       numerically),  or  an  associative array (an unordered set of name-value pairs, indexed by
       name).  To declare the type of a parameter, or to assign a scalar or integer  value  to	a
       parameter, use the typeset builtin.

       The value of a scalar or integer parameter may also be assigned by writing:

	      name=value

       If  the integer attribute, -i, is set for name, the value is subject to arithmetic evalua-
       tion.  Furthermore, by replacing `=' with `+=', a parameter can be added or  appended  to.
       See the section `Array Parameters' for additional forms of assignment.

       To refer to the value of a parameter, write `$name' or `${name}'.  See Parameter Expansion
       in zshexpn(1) for complete details.

       In the parameter lists that follow, the mark `<S>' indicates that the  parameter  is  spe-
       cial.   Special	parameters  cannot  have  their  type changed or their readonly attribute
       turned off, and if a special parameter is unset, then later recreated, the special proper-
       ties  will  be retained.  `<Z>' indicates that the parameter does not exist when the shell
       initializes in sh or ksh emulation mode.

ARRAY PARAMETERS
       To assign an array value, write one of:

	      set -A name value ...
	      name=(value ...)

       If no parameter name exists, an ordinary array parameter is  created.   If  the	parameter
       name exists and is a scalar, it is replaced by a new array.  Ordinary array parameters may
       also be explicitly declared with:

	      typeset -a name

       Associative arrays must be declared before assignment, by using:

	      typeset -A name

       When name refers to an associative array, the list in  an  assignment  is  interpreted  as
       alternating keys and values:

	      set -A name key value ...
	      name=(key value ...)

       Every  key  must  have  a value in this case.  Note that this assigns to the entire array,
       deleting any elements that do not appear in the list.

       To create an empty array (including associative arrays), use one of:

	      set -A name
	      name=()

   Array Subscripts
       Individual elements of an array may be selected using a subscript.   A  subscript  of  the
       form  `[exp]'  selects the single element exp, where exp is an arithmetic expression which
       will be subject to arithmetic expansion as if it were surrounded by `$((...))'.	The  ele-
       ments  are  numbered  beginning	with 1, unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case
       they are numbered from zero.

       Subscripts may be used inside braces used to delimit a parameter name, thus `${foo[2]}' is
       equivalent to `$foo[2]'.  If the KSH_ARRAYS option is set, the braced form is the only one
       that works, as bracketed expressions otherwise are not treated as subscripts.

       If the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set, then by default accesses to an array element  with	a
       subscript that evaluates to zero return an empty string, while an attempt to write such an
       element is treated as an error.	For backward compatibility the KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT  option
       can  be set to cause subscript values 0 and 1 to be equivalent; see the description of the
       option in zshoptions(1).

       The same subscripting syntax is used for associative arrays,  except  that  no  arithmetic
       expansion  is applied to exp.  However, the parsing rules for arithmetic expressions still
       apply, which affects the way that certain special characters must be protected from inter-
       pretation.  See Subscript Parsing below for details.

       A  subscript of the form `[*]' or `[@]' evaluates to all elements of an array; there is no
       difference between the two except when they  appear  within  double  quotes.   `"$foo[*]"'
       evaluates  to  `"$foo[1]  $foo[2]  ..."',  whereas  `"$foo[@]"'	evaluates  to  `"$foo[1]"
       "$foo[2]" ...'.	For associative arrays, `[*]' or `[@]' evaluate to all the values, in  no
       particular  order.  Note that this does not substitute the keys; see the documentation for
       the `k' flag under Parameter Expansion Flags in zshexpn(1) for complete details.  When  an
       array  parameter  is referenced as `$name' (with no subscript) it evaluates to `$name[*]',
       unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case it evaluates  to  `${name[0]}'  (for  an
       associative  array, this means the value of the key `0', which may not exist even if there
       are values for other keys).

       A subscript of the form `[exp1,exp2]' selects all elements in  the  range  exp1	to  exp2,
       inclusive. (Associative arrays are unordered, and so do not support ranges.) If one of the
       subscripts evaluates to a negative number, say -n, then the nth element from  the  end  of
       the  array  is  used.  Thus `$foo[-3]' is the third element from the end of the array foo,
       and `$foo[1,-1]' is the same as `$foo[*]'.

       Subscripting may also be performed on non-array values, in which case the subscripts spec-
       ify  a  substring  to  be  extracted.   For example, if FOO is set to `foobar', then `echo
       $FOO[2,5]' prints `ooba'.

   Array Element Assignment
       A subscript may be used on the left side of an assignment like so:

	      name[exp]=value

       In this form of assignment the element or range	specified  by  exp  is	replaced  by  the
       expression  on  the right side.	An array (but not an associative array) may be created by
       assignment to a range or element.  Arrays do not nest, so assigning a  parenthesized  list
       of values to an element or range changes the number of elements in the array, shifting the
       other elements to accommodate the new values.  (This  is  not  supported  for  associative
       arrays.)

       This syntax also works as an argument to the typeset command:

	      typeset "name[exp]"=value

       The  value  may	not be a parenthesized list in this case; only single-element assignments
       may be made with typeset.  Note that quotes are necessary in  this  case  to  prevent  the
       brackets  from  being interpreted as filename generation operators.  The noglob precommand
       modifier could be used instead.

       To delete an element of an ordinary array, assign `()' to that element.	To delete an ele-
       ment of an associative array, use the unset command:

	      unset "name[exp]"

   Subscript Flags
       If  the	opening bracket, or the comma in a range, in any subscript expression is directly
       followed by an opening parenthesis, the string up to the matching closing one  is  consid-
       ered to be a list of flags, as in `name[(flags)exp]'.

       The  flags s, n and b take an argument; the delimiter is shown below as `:', but any char-
       acter, or the matching pairs `(...)', `{...}', `[...]', or `<...>', may be used, but  note
       that  `<...>'  can only be used if the subscript is inside a double quoted expression or a
       parameter substitution enclosed in braces as otherwise the expression is interpreted as	a
       redirection.

       The flags currently understood are:

       w      If  the parameter subscripted is a scalar then this flag makes subscripting work on
	      words instead of characters.  The default word separator is whitespace.  This  flag
	      may not be used with the i or I flag.

       s:string:
	      This  gives  the string that separates words (for use with the w flag).  The delim-
	      iter character : is arbitrary; see above.

       p      Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in the string argument  of
	      a subsequent `s' flag.

       f      If  the parameter subscripted is a scalar then this flag makes subscripting work on
	      lines instead of characters, i.e. with elements separated by newlines.  This  is	a
	      shorthand for `pws:\n:'.

       r      Reverse  subscripting: if this flag is given, the exp is taken as a pattern and the
	      result is the first matching array element, substring or word (if the parameter  is
	      an  array,  if  it  is  a  scalar,  or if it is a scalar and the `w' flag is given,
	      respectively).  The subscript used is the number of the matching element,  so  that
	      pairs of subscripts such as `$foo[(r)??,3]' and `$foo[(r)??,(r)f*]' are possible if
	      the parameter is not an associative array.  If  the  parameter  is  an  associative
	      array,  only the value part of each pair is compared to the pattern, and the result
	      is that value.

	      If a search through an ordinary array failed, the search sets the subscript to  one
	      past the end of the array, and hence ${array[(r)pattern]} will substitute the empty
	      string.  Thus the success of a search can be tested by  using  the  (i)  flag,  for
	      example (assuming the option KSH_ARRAYS is not in effect):

		     [[ ${array[(i)pattern]} -le ${#array} ]]

	      If KSH_ARRAYS is in effect, the -le should be replaced by -lt.

       R      Like  `r',  but  gives  the last match.  For associative arrays, gives all possible
	      matches. May be used for assigning to ordinary array elements, but not for  assign-
	      ing  to  associative  arrays.  On failure, for normal arrays this has the effect of
	      returning the element corresponding to subscript 0; this is empty unless one of the
	      options KSH_ARRAYS or KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT is in effect.

	      Note that in subscripts with both `r' and `R' pattern characters are active even if
	      they were substituted for a parameter (regardless  of  the  setting  of  GLOB_SUBST
	      which controls this feature in normal pattern matching).	The flag `e' can be added
	      to inhibit pattern matching.  As this flag does not inhibit other forms of  substi-
	      tution,  care  is still required; using a parameter to hold the key has the desired
	      effect:

		     key2='original key'
		     print ${array[(Re)$key2]}

       i      Like `r', but gives the index of the match instead; this may not be combined with a
	      second  argument.   On the left side of an assignment, behaves like `r'.	For asso-
	      ciative arrays, the key part of each pair is compared to the pattern, and the first
	      matching	key  found is the result.  On failure substitutes the length of the array
	      plus one, as discussed under the description of `r', or the  empty  string  for  an
	      associative array.

       I      Like  `i',  but gives the index of the last match, or all possible matching keys in
	      an associative array.  On failure substitutes 0, or the empty string for	an  asso-
	      ciative  array.	This  flag  is	best  when testing for values or keys that do not
	      exist.

       k      If used in a subscript on an associative array, this flag causes	the  keys  to  be
	      interpreted as patterns, and returns the value for the first key found where exp is
	      matched by the key.  Note this could be any such key as no ordering of  associative
	      arrays is defined.  This flag does not work on the left side of an assignment to an
	      associative array element.  If used on another type of parameter, this behaves like
	      `r'.

       K      On  an  associative  array  this	is  like  `k' but returns all values where exp is
	      matched by the keys.  On other types of parameters this has the same effect as `R'.

       n:expr:
	      If combined with `r', `R', `i' or `I', makes them give the nth or  nth  last  match
	      (if expr evaluates to n).  This flag is ignored when the array is associative.  The
	      delimiter character : is arbitrary; see above.

       b:expr:
	      If combined with `r', `R', `i' or `I', makes them begin at the nth or nth last ele-
	      ment,  word,  or character (if expr evaluates to n).  This flag is ignored when the
	      array is associative.  The delimiter character : is arbitrary; see above.

       e      This flag causes any pattern matching that would be performed on the  subscript  to
	      use  plain string matching instead.  Hence `${array[(re)*]}' matches only the array
	      element whose value is *.  Note that other forms of substitution such as	parameter
	      substitution are not inhibited.

	      This flag can also be used to force * or @ to be interpreted as a single key rather
	      than as a reference to all values.  It may be used for either purpose on	the  left
	      side of an assignment.

       See  Parameter  Expansion Flags (zshexpn(1)) for additional ways to manipulate the results
       of array subscripting.

   Subscript Parsing
       This discussion applies mainly to associative array key strings and to patterns	used  for
       reverse	subscripting  (the  `r',  `R', `i', etc. flags), but it may also affect parameter
       substitutions that appear as part of an arithmetic expression in an ordinary subscript.

       It is possible to avoid the use of subscripts in assignments to associative array elements
       by using the syntax:

		 aa+=('key with "*strange*" characters' 'value string')

       This  adds  a new key/value pair if the key is not already present, and replaces the value
       for the existing key if it is.

       The basic rule to remember when writing a subscript expression is that  all  text  between
       the  opening  `['  and  the closing `]' is interpreted as if it were in double quotes (see
       zshmisc(1)).  However, unlike double quotes which normally cannot nest, subscript  expres-
       sions  may  appear  inside double-quoted strings or inside other subscript expressions (or
       both!), so the rules have two important differences.

       The first difference is that brackets (`[' and `]') must appear as  balanced  pairs  in	a
       subscript  expression  unless they are preceded by a backslash (`\').  Therefore, within a
       subscript expression (and unlike true double-quoting) the sequence `\[' becomes	`[',  and
       similarly  `\]' becomes `]'.  This applies even in cases where a backslash is not normally
       required; for example, the pattern `[^[]' (to match  any  character  other  than  an  open
       bracket)  should  be  written  `[^\[]' in a reverse-subscript pattern.  However, note that
       `\[^\[\]' and even `\[^[]' mean the same thing, because backslashes  are  always  stripped
       when they appear before brackets!

       The  same  rule	applies  to parentheses (`(' and `)') and braces (`{' and `}'): they must
       appear either in balanced pairs or preceded by a backslash, and backslashes  that  protect
       parentheses  or	braces	are removed during parsing.  This is because parameter expansions
       may be surrounded by balanced braces, and  subscript  flags  are  introduced  by  balanced
       parentheses.

       The  second  difference	is  that  a  double-quote (`"') may appear as part of a subscript
       expression without being preceded by a backslash, and therefore that  the  two  characters
       `\"' remain as two characters in the subscript (in true double-quoting, `\"' becomes `"').
       However, because of the standard shell quoting rules, any double-quotes that  appear  must
       occur  in  balanced pairs unless preceded by a backslash.  This makes it more difficult to
       write a subscript expression that contains an odd number of double-quote  characters,  but
       the  reason for this difference is so that when a subscript expression appears inside true
       double-quotes, one can still write `\"' (rather than `\\\"') for `"'.

       To use an odd number of double quotes as a key in an assignment, use the  typeset  builtin
       and  an enclosing pair of double quotes; to refer to the value of that key, again use dou-
       ble quotes:

	      typeset -A aa
	      typeset "aa[one\"two\"three\"quotes]"=QQQ
	      print "$aa[one\"two\"three\"quotes]"

       It is important to note that the quoting rules do not change when  a  parameter	expansion
       with a subscript is nested inside another subscript expression.	That is, it is not neces-
       sary to use additional backslashes within the inner subscript expression; they are removed
       only  once,  from the innermost subscript outwards.  Parameters are also expanded from the
       innermost subscript first, as each expansion is encountered left to  right  in  the  outer
       expression.

       A  further complication arises from a way in which subscript parsing is not different from
       double quote parsing.  As in true double-quoting, the sequences `\*', and `\@'  remain  as
       two characters when they appear in a subscript expression.  To use a literal `*' or `@' as
       an associative array key, the `e' flag must be used:

	      typeset -A aa
	      aa[(e)*]=star
	      print $aa[(e)*]

       A last detail must be considered  when  reverse	subscripting  is  performed.   Parameters
       appearing  in the subscript expression are first expanded and then the complete expression
       is interpreted as a pattern.  This  has	two  effects:  first,  parameters  behave  as  if
       GLOB_SUBST  were  on  (and  it  cannot be turned off); second, backslashes are interpreted
       twice, once when parsing the array subscript and again when parsing  the  pattern.   In	a
       reverse	subscript,  it's necessary to use four backslashes to cause a single backslash to
       match literally in the pattern.	For complex patterns, it is often easiest to  assign  the
       desired	pattern to a parameter and then refer to that parameter in the subscript, because
       then the backslashes, brackets, parentheses, etc., are seen only when the complete expres-
       sion  is converted to a pattern.  To match the value of a parameter literally in a reverse
       subscript, rather than as a pattern,  use  `${(q)name}'	(see  zshexpn(1))  to  quote  the
       expanded value.

       Note  that  the	`k' and `K' flags are reverse subscripting for an ordinary array, but are
       not reverse subscripting for an associative array!  (For an associative array, the keys in
       the  array  itself  are	interpreted  as patterns by those flags; the subscript is a plain
       string in that case.)

       One final note, not directly related to subscripting:  the  numeric  names  of  positional
       parameters (described below) are parsed specially, so for example `$2foo' is equivalent to
       `${2}foo'.  Therefore, to use subscript syntax to extract a substring  from  a  positional
       parameter,  the expansion must be surrounded by braces; for example, `${2[3,5]}' evaluates
       to the third through fifth characters of the second positional parameter, but `$2[3,5]' is
       the entire second parameter concatenated with the filename generation pattern `[3,5]'.

POSITIONAL PARAMETERS
       The  positional	parameters  provide access to the command-line arguments of a shell func-
       tion, shell script, or the shell itself; see the section `Invocation', and also	the  sec-
       tion  `Functions'.  The parameter n, where n is a number, is the nth positional parameter.
       The parameters *, @ and argv are arrays containing all  the  positional	parameters;  thus
       `$argv[n]', etc., is equivalent to simply `$n'.

       Positional  parameters  may be changed after the shell or function starts by using the set
       builtin, by assigning to the argv array, or by direct assignment  of  the  form	`n=value'
       where  n is the number of the positional parameter to be changed.  This also creates (with
       empty values) any of the positions from 1 to n that do  not  already  have  values.   Note
       that,  because  the  positional	parameters form an array, an array assignment of the form
       `n=(value ...)' is allowed, and has the effect of shifting all  the  values  at	positions
       greater than n by as many positions as necessary to accommodate the new values.

LOCAL PARAMETERS
       Shell  function	executions  delimit scopes for shell parameters.  (Parameters are dynami-
       cally scoped.)  The typeset builtin, and its alternative forms declare, integer, local and
       readonly (but not export), can be used to declare a parameter as being local to the inner-
       most scope.

       When a parameter is read or assigned to, the innermost existing parameter of that name  is
       used.   (That is, the local parameter hides any less-local parameter.)  However, assigning
       to a non-existent parameter, or declaring a new parameter with export,  causes  it  to  be
       created in the outermost scope.

       Local parameters disappear when their scope ends.  unset can be used to delete a parameter
       while it is still in scope; any outer parameter of the same name remains hidden.

       Special parameters may also be made local; they retain  their  special  attributes  unless
       either  the existing or the newly-created parameter has the -h (hide) attribute.  This may
       have unexpected effects: there is no default value, so if there is no  assignment  at  the
       point the variable is made local, it will be set to an empty value (or zero in the case of
       integers).  The following:

	      typeset PATH=/new/directory:$PATH

       is valid for temporarily allowing the shell or programmes called from it to find the  pro-
       grams in /new/directory inside a function.

       Note  that  the	restriction  in  older	versions  of zsh that local parameters were never
       exported has been removed.

PARAMETERS SET BY THE SHELL
       The following parameters are automatically set by the shell:

       ! <S>  The process ID of the last command started in the background with &,  or	put  into
	      the background with the bg builtin.

       # <S>  The number of positional parameters in decimal.  Note that some confusion may occur
	      with the syntax $#param which substitutes the length of param.  Use ${#} to resolve
	      ambiguities.   In  particular, the sequence `$#-...' in an arithmetic expression is
	      interpreted as the length of the parameter -, q.v.

       ARGC <S> <Z>
	      Same as #.

       $ <S>  The process ID of this shell.  Note that this indicates the original shell  started
	      by  invoking zsh; all processes forked from the shells without executing a new pro-
	      gram, such as subshells started by (...), substitute the same value.

       - <S>  Flags supplied to the shell on invocation or by the set or setopt commands.

       * <S>  An array containing the positional parameters.

       argv <S> <Z>
	      Same as *.  Assigning to argv changes the local positional parameters, but argv  is
	      not  itself a local parameter.  Deleting argv with unset in any function deletes it
	      everywhere, although only the innermost positional parameter array is deleted (so *
	      and @ in other scopes are not affected).

       @ <S>  Same as argv[@], even when argv is not set.

       ? <S>  The exit status returned by the last command.

       0 <S>  The  name used to invoke the current shell.  If the FUNCTION_ARGZERO option is set,
	      this is set temporarily within a shell function to the name of  the  function,  and
	      within a sourced script to the name of the script.

       status <S> <Z>
	      Same as ?.

       pipestatus <S> <Z>
	      An  array  containing  the exit statuses returned by all commands in the last pipe-
	      line.

       _ <S>  The last argument of the previous command.  Also, this  parameter  is  set  in  the
	      environment of every command executed to the full pathname of the command.

       CPUTYPE
	      The  machine  type  (microprocessor  class  or machine model), as determined at run
	      time.

       EGID <S>
	      The effective group ID of the shell process.  If you  have  sufficient  privileges,
	      you  may	change	the  effective group ID of the shell process by assigning to this
	      parameter.  Also (assuming sufficient privileges), you may start a  single  command
	      with a different effective group ID by `(EGID=gid; command)'

       EUID <S>
	      The effective user ID of the shell process.  If you have sufficient privileges, you
	      may change the effective user ID of the shell process by assigning to this  parame-
	      ter.   Also (assuming sufficient privileges), you may start a single command with a
	      different effective user ID by `(EUID=uid; command)'

       ERRNO <S>
	      The value of errno (see errno(3)) as set by the most recently failed  system  call.
	      This  value is system dependent and is intended for debugging purposes.  It is also
	      useful with the zsh/system module which allows the number to be turned into a  name
	      or message.

       GID <S>
	      The real group ID of the shell process.  If you have sufficient privileges, you may
	      change the group ID of the shell process by  assigning  to  this	parameter.   Also
	      (assuming  sufficient privileges), you may start a single command under a different
	      group ID by `(GID=gid; command)'

       HISTCMD
	      The current history line number in an interactive shell, in other  words	the  line
	      number for the command that caused $HISTCMD to be read.

       HOST   The current hostname.

       LINENO <S>
	      The  line  number  of  the current line within the current script, sourced file, or
	      shell function being executed, whichever was started most recently.  Note  that  in
	      the  case  of shell functions the line number refers to the function as it appeared
	      in the original definition, not necessarily as displayed by the functions builtin.

       LOGNAME
	      If the corresponding variable is not set in the environment of  the  shell,  it  is
	      initialized  to  the  login  name  corresponding to the current login session. This
	      parameter is exported by default	but  this  can	be  disabled  using  the  typeset
	      builtin.

       MACHTYPE
	      The  machine type (microprocessor class or machine model), as determined at compile
	      time.

       OLDPWD The previous working directory.  This is set when the shell initializes  and  when-
	      ever the directory changes.

       OPTARG <S>
	      The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts command.

       OPTIND <S>
	      The index of the last option argument processed by the getopts command.

       OSTYPE The operating system, as determined at compile time.

       PPID <S>
	      The process ID of the parent of the shell.  As for $$, the value indicates the par-
	      ent of the original shell and does not change in subshells.

       PWD    The present working directory.  This is set when the shell initializes and whenever
	      the directory changes.

       RANDOM <S>
	      A  pseudo-random	integer from 0 to 32767, newly generated each time this parameter
	      is referenced.  The random number generator can be seeded by  assigning  a  numeric
	      value to RANDOM.

	      The  values of RANDOM form an intentionally-repeatable pseudo-random sequence; sub-
	      shells that reference RANDOM will result in identical pseudo-random  values  unless
	      the value of RANDOM is referenced or seeded in the parent shell in between subshell
	      invocations.

       SECONDS <S>
	      The number of seconds since shell invocation.  If  this  parameter  is  assigned	a
	      value,  then  the value returned upon reference will be the value that was assigned
	      plus the number of seconds since the assignment.

	      Unlike other special parameters, the type of the SECONDS parameter can  be  changed
	      using  the  typeset  command.  Only integer and one of the floating point types are
	      allowed.	For example, `typeset -F SECONDS' causes the value to be  reported  as	a
	      floating	point  number.	 The value is available to microsecond accuracy, although
	      the shell may show more or fewer digits depending on the use of typeset.	 See  the
	      documentation for the builtin typeset in zshbuiltins(1) for more details.

       SHLVL <S>
	      Incremented by one each time a new shell is started.

       signals
	      An array containing the names of the signals.

       TRY_BLOCK_ERROR <S>
	      In  an  always block, indicates whether the preceding list of code caused an error.
	      The value is 1 to indicate an error, 0 otherwise.  It may be  reset,  clearing  the
	      error condition.	See Complex Commands in zshmisc(1)

       TTY    The name of the tty associated with the shell, if any.

       TTYIDLE <S>
	      The  idle time of the tty associated with the shell in seconds or -1 if there is no
	      such tty.

       UID <S>
	      The real user ID of the shell process.  If you have sufficient privileges, you  may
	      change  the  user  ID  of the shell by assigning to this parameter.  Also (assuming
	      sufficient privileges), you may start a single command under a different user ID by
	      `(UID=uid; command)'

       USERNAME <S>
	      The  username  corresponding to the real user ID of the shell process.  If you have
	      sufficient privileges, you may change the username (and also the user ID and  group
	      ID)  of the shell by assigning to this parameter.  Also (assuming sufficient privi-
	      leges), you may start a single command under a different username (and user ID  and
	      group ID) by `(USERNAME=username; command)'

       VENDOR The vendor, as determined at compile time.

       zsh_eval_context <S> <Z> (ZSH_EVAL_CONTEXT <S>)
	      An  array (colon-separated list) indicating the context of shell code that is being
	      run.  Each time a piece of shell code that is stored within the shell is executed a
	      string  is temporarily appended to the array to indicate the type of operation that
	      is being performed.  Read in order the array gives an indication of  the	stack  of
	      operations being performed with the most immediate context last.

	      Note that the variable does not give information on syntactic context such as pipe-
	      lines or subshells.  Use $ZSH_SUBSHELL to detect subshells.

	      The context is one of the following:
	      cmdarg Code specified by the -c option to the command line that invoked the shell.

	      cmdsubst
		     Command substitution using the `...` or $(...) construct.

	      equalsubst
		     File substitution using the =(...) construct.

	      eval   Code executed by the eval builtin.

	      evalautofunc
		     Code executed  with  the  KSH_AUTOLOAD  mechanism	in  order  to  define  an
		     autoloaded function.

	      fc     Code from the shell history executed by the -e option to the fc builtin.

	      file   Lines  of	code  being  read directly from a file, for example by the source
		     builtin.

	      filecode
		     Lines of code being read from a .zwc  file  instead  of  directly	from  the
		     source file.

	      globqual
		     Code executed by the e or + glob qualifier.

	      globsort
		     Code executed to order files by the o glob qualifier.

	      insubst
		     File substitution using the <(...) construct.

	      loadautofunc
		     Code read directly from a file to define an autoloaded function.

	      outsubst
		     File substitution using the >(...) construct.

	      sched  Code executed by the sched builtin.

	      shfunc A shell function.

	      stty   Code  passed  to  stty  by  the STTY environment variable.  Normally this is
		     passed directly to the system's stty command, so this value is  unlikely  to
		     be seen in practice.

	      style  Code  executed  as  part of a style retrieved by the zstyle builtin from the
		     zsh/zutil module.

	      toplevel
		     The highest execution level of a script or interactive shell.

	      trap   Code executed as a trap defined by the trap builtin.  Traps defined as func-
		     tions  have  the  context shfunc.	As traps are asynchronous they may have a
		     different hierarchy from other code.

	      zpty   Code executed by the zpty builtin from the zsh/zpty module.

	      zregexparse-guard
		     Code executed as a guard by the zregexparse command from the zsh/zutil  mod-
		     ule.

	      zregexparse-action
		     Code  executed  as  an  action by the zregexparse command from the zsh/zutil
		     module.

       ZSH_NAME
	      Expands to the basename of the command used to invoke this instance of zsh.

       ZSH_PATCHLEVEL
	      The revision string for the version number of the ChangeLog file in the zsh distri-
	      bution.  This is most useful in order to keep track of versions of the shell during
	      development between releases; hence most users should not use it and should instead
	      rely on $ZSH_VERSION.

       zsh_scheduled_events
	      See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ZSH_SUBSHELL
	      Readonly	integer.  Initially zero, incremented each time the shell forks to create
	      a subshell for executing code.  Hence `(print $ZSH_SUBSHELL)'  and  `print  $(print
	      $ZSH_SUBSHELL)' output 1, while `( (print $ZSH_SUBSHELL) )' outputs 2.

       ZSH_VERSION
	      The version number of the release of zsh.

PARAMETERS USED BY THE SHELL
       The following parameters are used by the shell.

       In  cases  where  there	are  two parameters with an upper- and lowercase form of the same
       name, such as path and PATH, the lowercase form is an array and the uppercase  form  is	a
       scalar  with  the  elements  of the array joined together by colons.  These are similar to
       tied parameters created via `typeset -T'.  The normal use for the colon-separated form  is
       for  exporting to the environment, while the array form is easier to manipulate within the
       shell.  Note that unsetting either of the pair will unset the  other;  they  retain  their
       special properties when recreated, and recreating one of the pair will recreate the other.

       ARGV0  If  exported,  its value is used as the argv[0] of external commands.  Usually used
	      in constructs like `ARGV0=emacs nethack'.

       BAUD   The rate in bits per second at which data reaches the terminal.	The  line  editor
	      will  use this value in order to compensate for a slow terminal by delaying updates
	      to the display until necessary.  If the parameter is unset or the value is zero the
	      compensation mechanism is turned off.  The parameter is not set by default.

	      This  parameter  may be profitably set in some circumstances, e.g.  for slow modems
	      dialing into a communications server, or on a slow wide area network.  It should be
	      set to the baud rate of the slowest part of the link for best performance.

       cdpath <S> <Z> (CDPATH <S>)
	      An  array  (colon-separated list) of directories specifying the search path for the
	      cd command.

       COLUMNS <S>
	      The number of columns for this terminal session.	Used for  printing  select  lists
	      and for the line editor.

       CORRECT_IGNORE
	      If  set, is treated as a pattern during spelling correction.  Any potential correc-
	      tion that matches the pattern is ignored.  For example, if the value is  `_*'  then
	      completion  functions  (which,  by  convention, have names beginning with `_') will
	      never be offered as spelling corrections.  The pattern does not apply to	the  cor-
	      rection  of  file  names, as applied by the CORRECT_ALL option (so with the example
	      just given files beginning with `_' in the current directory would  still  be  com-
	      pleted).

       DIRSTACKSIZE
	      The  maximum  size  of  the  directory stack, by default there is no limit.  If the
	      stack gets larger than this, it will be truncated automatically.	 This  is  useful
	      with the AUTO_PUSHD option.

       ENV    If  the  ENV  environment variable is set when zsh is invoked as sh or ksh, $ENV is
	      sourced after the profile scripts.  The value of	ENV  is  subjected  to	parameter
	      expansion,  command substitution, and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted
	      as a pathname.  Note that ENV is not used unless zsh is emulating sh or ksh.

       FCEDIT The default editor for the fc builtin.  If FCEDIT is not set, the parameter  EDITOR
	      is used; if that is not set either, a builtin default, usually vi, is used.

       fignore <S> <Z> (FIGNORE <S>)
	      An array (colon separated list) containing the suffixes of files to be ignored dur-
	      ing filename completion.	However, if completion only generates files with suffixes
	      in this list, then these files are completed anyway.

       fpath <S> <Z> (FPATH <S>)
	      An array (colon separated list) of directories specifying the search path for func-
	      tion definitions.  This path is searched when a function with the -u  attribute  is
	      referenced.   If	an  executable file is found, then it is read and executed in the
	      current environment.

       histchars <S>
	      Three characters used by the shell's history and lexical analysis  mechanism.   The
	      first character signals the start of a history expansion (default `!').  The second
	      character signals the start of a quick history  substitution  (default  `^').   The
	      third character is the comment character (default `#').

	      The  characters must be in the ASCII character set; any attempt to set histchars to
	      characters with a locale-dependent meaning will be rejected with an error message.

       HISTCHARS <S> <Z>
	      Same as histchars.  (Deprecated.)

       HISTFILE
	      The file to save the history in when an interactive shell  exits.   If  unset,  the
	      history is not saved.

       HISTSIZE <S>
	      The  maximum  number of events stored in the internal history list.  If you use the
	      HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST option, setting this value larger	than  the  SAVEHIST  size
	      will give you the difference as a cushion for saving duplicated history events.

       HOME <S>
	      The  default  argument  for  the	cd command.  This is not set automatically by the
	      shell in sh, ksh or csh emulation, but it is typically present in  the  environment
	      anyway, and if it becomes set it has its usual special behaviour.

       IFS <S>
	      Internal	field  separators (by default space, tab, newline and NUL), that are used
	      to separate words which result from command or parameter expansion and  words  read
	      by  the  read  builtin.	Any  characters  from the set space, tab and newline that
	      appear in the IFS are called IFS white space.  One or more IFS white space  charac-
	      ters  or	one  non-IFS  white  space character together with any adjacent IFS white
	      space character delimit a field.	If an IFS white  space	character  appears  twice
	      consecutively  in the IFS, this character is treated as if it were not an IFS white
	      space character.

	      If the parameter is unset, the default is used.  Note this has a	different  effect
	      from setting the parameter to an empty string.

       KEYBOARD_HACK
	      This  variable  defines  a character to be removed from the end of the command line
	      before interpreting it (interactive shells only). It is intended to fix the problem
	      with keys placed annoyingly close to return and replaces the SUNKEYBOARDHACK option
	      which did this for backquotes only.  Should the chosen character be one of  single-
	      quote,  doublequote  or  backquote, there must also be an odd number of them on the
	      command line for the last one to be removed.

	      For backward compabitility, if the SUNKEYBOARDHACK option is  explicitly	set,  the
	      value  of  KEYBOARD_HACK	reverts to backquote.  If the option is explicitly unset,
	      this variable is set to empty.

       KEYTIMEOUT
	      The time the shell waits, in hundredths of seconds, for another key to  be  pressed
	      when reading bound multi-character sequences.

       LANG <S>
	      This  variable  determines  the  locale  category for any category not specifically
	      selected via a variable starting with `LC_'.

       LC_ALL <S>
	      This variable overrides the value of the `LANG' variable and the value  of  any  of
	      the other variables starting with `LC_'.

       LC_COLLATE <S>
	      This  variable  determines  the locale category for character collation information
	      within ranges in glob brackets and for sorting.

       LC_CTYPE <S>
	      This variable determines the locale category for character handling functions.   If
	      the MULTIBYTE option is in effect this variable or LANG should contain a value that
	      reflects the character set in use, even if  it  is  a  single-byte  character  set,
	      unless only the 7-bit subset (ASCII) is used.  For example, if the character set is
	      ISO-8859-1, a suitable value might be en_US.iso88591 (certain Linux  distributions)
	      or en_US.ISO8859-1 (MacOS).

       LC_MESSAGES <S>
	      This  variable  determines  the language in which messages should be written.  Note
	      that zsh does not use message catalogs.

       LC_NUMERIC <S>
	      This variable affects the decimal point character and thousands separator character
	      for  the	formatted  input/output  functions and string conversion functions.  Note
	      that zsh ignores this setting when parsing floating point mathematical expressions.

       LC_TIME <S>
	      This variable determines the locale category for date and time formatting in prompt
	      escape sequences.

       LINES <S>
	      The  number of lines for this terminal session.  Used for printing select lists and
	      for the line editor.

       LISTMAX
	      In the line editor, the number of matches to list  without  asking  first.  If  the
	      value  is  negative,  the  list  will be shown if it spans at most as many lines as
	      given by the absolute value.  If set to zero, the shell asks only if the top of the
	      listing would scroll off the screen.

       LOGCHECK
	      The  interval  in  seconds between checks for login/logout activity using the watch
	      parameter.

       MAIL   If this parameter is set and mailpath is not set, the shell looks for mail  in  the
	      specified file.

       MAILCHECK
	      The interval in seconds between checks for new mail.

       mailpath <S> <Z> (MAILPATH <S>)
	      An  array (colon-separated list) of filenames to check for new mail.  Each filename
	      can be followed by a `?' and a message that will	be  printed.   The  message  will
	      undergo parameter expansion, command substitution and arithmetic expansion with the
	      variable $_ defined as the name of the file that has changed.  The default  message
	      is  `You	have new mail'.  If an element is a directory instead of a file the shell
	      will recursively check every file in every subdirectory of the element.

       manpath <S> <Z> (MANPATH <S> <Z>)
	      An array (colon-separated list) whose value is not used by the shell.  The  manpath
	      array can be useful, however, since setting it also sets MANPATH, and vice versa.

       match
       mbegin
       mend   Arrays  set  by the shell when the b globbing flag is used in pattern matches.  See
	      the subsection Globbing flags in the documentation for Filename Generation in  zsh-
	      expn(1).

       MATCH
       MBEGIN
       MEND   Set by the shell when the m globbing flag is used in pattern matches.  See the sub-
	      section Globbing flags in the documentation for Filename Generation in zshexpn(1).

       module_path <S> <Z> (MODULE_PATH <S>)
	      An array (colon-separated list) of directories that zmodload searches  for  dynami-
	      cally  loadable  modules.   This	is  initialized  to  a standard pathname, usually
	      `/usr/local/lib/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION'.  (The `/usr/local/lib' part varies from  instal-
	      lation  to  installation.)   For security reasons, any value set in the environment
	      when the shell is started will be ignored.

	      These parameters only exist if the installation supports dynamic module loading.

       NULLCMD <S>
	      The command name to assume if a redirection is specified with no command.  Defaults
	      to  cat.	For sh/ksh behavior, change this to :.	For csh-like behavior, unset this
	      parameter; the shell will print an error message if null commands are entered.

       path <S> <Z> (PATH <S>)
	      An array (colon-separated list) of directories to search for commands.   When  this
	      parameter  is  set, each directory is scanned and all files found are put in a hash
	      table.

       POSTEDIT <S>
	      This string is output whenever the line editor exits.  It usually contains  termcap
	      strings to reset the terminal.

       PROMPT <S> <Z>
       PROMPT2 <S> <Z>
       PROMPT3 <S> <Z>
       PROMPT4 <S> <Z>
	      Same as PS1, PS2, PS3 and PS4, respectively.

       prompt <S> <Z>
	      Same as PS1.

       PROMPT_EOL_MARK
	      When the PROMPT_CR and PROMPT_SP options are set, the PROMPT_EOL_MARK parameter can
	      be used to customize how the end of partial lines are shown.  This parameter under-
	      goes prompt expansion, with the PROMPT_PERCENT option set.  If not set, the default
	      behavior is equivalent to the value `%B%S%#%s%b'.

       PS1 <S>
	      The primary prompt string, printed before a command is read.  It undergoes  a  spe-
	      cial form of expansion before being displayed; see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in
	      zshmisc(1).  The default is `%m%# '.

       PS2 <S>
	      The secondary prompt, printed when the shell needs more information to  complete	a
	      command.	It is expanded in the same way as PS1.	The default is `%_> ', which dis-
	      plays any shell constructs or quotation marks which are currently being processed.

       PS3 <S>
	      Selection prompt used within a select loop.  It is expanded in the same way as PS1.
	      The default is `?# '.

       PS4 <S>
	      The  execution trace prompt.  Default is `+%N:%i> ', which displays the name of the
	      current shell structure and the line number within it.  In sh or ksh emulation, the
	      default is `+ '.

       psvar <S> <Z> (PSVAR <S>)
	      An  array  (colon-separated  list)  whose  first	nine values can be used in PROMPT
	      strings.	Setting psvar also sets PSVAR, and vice versa.

       READNULLCMD <S>
	      The command name to assume if a single input redirection is specified with no  com-
	      mand.  Defaults to more.

       REPORTTIME
	      If  nonnegative,	commands whose combined user and system execution times (measured
	      in seconds) are greater than this value have timing statistics  printed  for  them.
	      Output  is  suppressed for commands executed within the line editor, including com-
	      pletion; commands explicitly marked with the time keyword still cause  the  summary
	      to be printed in this case.

       REPLY  This  parameter  is  reserved  by  convention  to  pass string values between shell
	      scripts and shell builtins in situations where a function call or  redirection  are
	      impossible or undesirable.  The read builtin and the select complex command may set
	      REPLY, and filename generation both sets and examines  its  value  when  evaluating
	      certain expressions.  Some modules also employ REPLY for similar purposes.

       reply  As REPLY, but for array values rather than strings.

       RPROMPT <S>
       RPS1 <S>
	      This  prompt  is	displayed  on  the right-hand side of the screen when the primary
	      prompt is being displayed on the left.  This does not work if  the  SINGLE_LINE_ZLE
	      option is set.  It is expanded in the same way as PS1.

       RPROMPT2 <S>
       RPS2 <S>
	      This  prompt  is	displayed on the right-hand side of the screen when the secondary
	      prompt is being displayed on the left.  This does not work if  the  SINGLE_LINE_ZLE
	      option is set.  It is expanded in the same way as PS2.

       SAVEHIST
	      The maximum number of history events to save in the history file.

       SPROMPT <S>
	      The  prompt  used for spelling correction.  The sequence `%R' expands to the string
	      which presumably needs spelling correction, and `%r' expands to the  proposed  cor-
	      rection.	All other prompt escapes are also allowed.

       STTY   If  this	parameter is set in a command's environment, the shell runs the stty com-
	      mand with the value of this parameter as arguments in order to set up the  terminal
	      before  executing  the  command. The modes apply only to the command, and are reset
	      when it finishes or is suspended. If the command is suspended and  continued  later
	      with the fg or wait builtins it will see the modes specified by STTY, as if it were
	      not suspended.  This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via
	      `kill -CONT'.  STTY is ignored if the command is run in the background, or if it is
	      in the environment of the shell but not explicitly assigned to in the  input  line.
	      This  avoids  running  stty at every external command by accidentally exporting it.
	      Also note that STTY should not be used for window size specifications;  these  will
	      not be local to the command.

       TERM <S>
	      The  type  of terminal in use.  This is used when looking up termcap sequences.  An
	      assignment to TERM causes zsh to re-initialize the terminal, even if the value does
	      not  change  (e.g., `TERM=$TERM').  It is necessary to make such an assignment upon
	      any change to the terminal definition database or terminal type in  order  for  the
	      new settings to take effect.

       TERMINFO <S>
	      A  reference  to	a  compiled  description  of the terminal, used by the `terminfo'
	      library when the system has it; see terminfo(5).	If set, this causes the shell  to
	      reinitialise the terminal, making the workaround `TERM=$TERM' unnecessary.

       TIMEFMT
	      The  format  of process time reports with the time keyword.  The default is `%J  %U
	      user %S system %P cpu %*E  total'.   Recognizes  the  following  escape  sequences,
	      although	not  all may be available on all systems, and some that are available may
	      not be useful:

	      %%     A `%'.
	      %U     CPU seconds spent in user mode.
	      %S     CPU seconds spent in kernel mode.
	      %E     Elapsed time in seconds.
	      %P     The CPU percentage, computed as (100*%U+%S)/%E.
	      %W     Number of times the process was swapped.
	      %X     The average amount in (shared) text space used in kilobytes.
	      %D     The average amount in (unshared) data/stack space used in kilobytes.
	      %K     The total space used (%X+%D) in kilobytes.
	      %M     The  maximum memory the process had in use at any time in megabytes.
	      %F     The number of major page faults (page needed to be brought from disk).
	      %R     The number of minor page faults.
	      %I     The number of input operations.
	      %O     The number of output operations.
	      %r     The number of socket messages received.
	      %s     The number of socket messages sent.
	      %k     The number of signals received.
	      %w     Number of voluntary context switches (waits).
	      %c     Number of involuntary context switches.
	      %J     The name of this job.

	      A star may be inserted between the percent sign  and  flags  printing  time.   This
	      cause  the  time to be printed in `hh:mm:ss.ttt' format (hours and minutes are only
	      printed if they are not zero).

       TMOUT  If this parameter is nonzero, the shell will receive an ALRM signal if a command is
	      not entered within the specified number of seconds after issuing a prompt. If there
	      is a trap on SIGALRM, it will be executed and a new alarm is  scheduled  using  the
	      value  of the TMOUT parameter after executing the trap.  If no trap is set, and the
	      idle time of the terminal is not less than the value of the  TMOUT  parameter,  zsh
	      terminates.   Otherwise  a  new  alarm is scheduled to TMOUT seconds after the last
	      keypress.

       TMPPREFIX
	      A pathname prefix which the shell will use for all temporary files.  Note that this
	      should  include  an  initial part for the file name as well as any directory names.
	      The default is `/tmp/zsh'.

       watch <S> <Z> (WATCH <S>)
	      An array (colon-separated list) of login/logout events to report.  If  it  contains
	      the  single  word `all', then all login/logout events are reported.  If it contains
	      the single word `notme', then all events are reported as with `all'  except  $USER-
	      NAME.  An entry in this list may consist of a username, an `@' followed by a remote
	      hostname, and a `%' followed by a line (tty).  Any or all of these  components  may
	      be  present  in  an  entry;  if  a  login/logout	event  matches all of them, it is
	      reported.

       WATCHFMT
	      The format of login/logout reports if the watch parameter is set.  Default  is  `%n
	      has %a %l from %m'.  Recognizes the following escape sequences:

	      %n     The name of the user that logged in/out.

	      %a     The observed action, i.e. "logged on" or "logged off".

	      %l     The line (tty) the user is logged in on.

	      %M     The full hostname of the remote host.

	      %m     The  hostname  up	to the first `.'.  If only the IP address is available or
		     the utmp field contains the name of an X-windows display, the whole name  is
		     printed.

		     NOTE: The `%m' and `%M' escapes will work only if there is a host name field
		     in the utmp on  your  machine.   Otherwise  they  are  treated  as  ordinary
		     strings.

	      %S (%s)
		     Start (stop) standout mode.

	      %U (%u)
		     Start (stop) underline mode.

	      %B (%b)
		     Start (stop) boldface mode.

	      %t
	      %@     The time, in 12-hour, am/pm format.

	      %T     The time, in 24-hour format.

	      %w     The date in `day-dd' format.

	      %W     The date in `mm/dd/yy' format.

	      %D     The date in `yy-mm-dd' format.

	      %(x:true-text:false-text)
		     Specifies a ternary expression.  The character following the x is arbitrary;
		     the same character is used to separate the text for the "true"  result  from
		     that  for	the "false" result.  Both the separator and the right parenthesis
		     may be escaped with a backslash.  Ternary expressions may be nested.

		     The test character x may be any one of `l', `n', `m' or `M', which  indicate
		     a	`true'	result	if  the  corresponding	escape	sequence  would  return a
		     non-empty value; or it may be `a', which indicates a `true'  result  if  the
		     watched  user has logged in, or `false' if he has logged out.  Other charac-
		     ters evaluate to neither true nor false; the entire expression is omitted in
		     this case.

		     If  the  result  is `true', then the true-text is formatted according to the
		     rules above and printed, and the false-text is  skipped.	If  `false',  the
		     true-text is skipped and the false-text is formatted and printed.	Either or
		     both of the branches may be empty, but both separators must  be  present  in
		     any case.

       WORDCHARS <S>
	      A list of non-alphanumeric characters considered part of a word by the line editor.

       ZBEEP  If  set, this gives a string of characters, which can use all the same codes as the
	      bindkey command as described in the zsh/zle module  entry  in  zshmodules(1),  that
	      will be output to the terminal instead of beeping.  This may have a visible instead
	      of an audible effect; for example, the string `\e[?5h\e[?5l' on a  vt100	or  xterm
	      will  have  the  effect  of  flashing  reverse video on and off (if you usually use
	      reverse video, you should use  the  string  `\e[?5l\e[?5h'  instead).   This  takes
	      precedence over the NOBEEP option.

       ZDOTDIR
	      The directory to search for shell startup files (.zshrc, etc), if not $HOME.

       ZLE_LINE_ABORTED
	      This  parameter  is  set	by the line editor when an error occurs.  It contains the
	      line  that  was  being  edited  at  the  point  of  the  error.	`print	 -zr   --
	      $ZLE_LINE_ABORTED'  can  be used to recover the line.  Only the most recent line of
	      this kind is remembered.

       ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS
       ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS
	      These parameters are used by the line editor.  In  certain  circumstances  suffixes
	      (typically space or slash) added by the completion system will be removed automati-
	      cally, either because the next editing command was not an insertable character,  or
	      because the character was marked as requiring the suffix to be removed.

	      These variables can contain the sets of characters that will cause the suffix to be
	      removed.	If ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS is set, those characters will cause the suffix
	      to  be  removed;	if ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS is set, those characters will cause the
	      suffix to be removed and replaced by a space.

	      If ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS is not set, the default behaviour is equivalent to:

		     ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS=$' \t\n;&|'

	      If ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS is set but is empty, no characters have this  behaviour.
	      ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS takes precedence, so that the following:

		     ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS=$'&|'

	      causes  the  characters  `&'  and `|' to remove the suffix but to replace it with a
	      space.

	      To illustrate the difference, suppose  that  the	option	AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH  is  in
	      effect and the directory DIR has just been completed, with an appended /, following
	      which the user types `&'.  The default  result  is  `DIR&'.   With  ZLE_REMOVE_SUF-
	      FIX_CHARS set but without including `&' the result is `DIR/&'.  With ZLE_SPACE_SUF-
	      FIX_CHARS set to include `&' the result is `DIR &'.

	      Note that certain completions may provide their own suffix removal  or  replacement
	      behaviour  which	overrides  the	values described here.	See the completion system
	      documentation in zshcompsys(1).

ZSHOPTIONS(1)									    ZSHOPTIONS(1)

NAME
       zshoptions - zsh options

SPECIFYING OPTIONS
       Options are primarily referred to by name.  These names are case  insensitive  and  under-
       scores are ignored.  For example, `allexport' is equivalent to `A__lleXP_ort'.

       The sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with `no', so `setopt No_Beep'
       is equivalent to `unsetopt beep'.  This inversion can only be done once, so `nonobeep'  is
       not  a  synonym for `beep'.  Similarly, `tify' is not a synonym for `nonotify' (the inver-
       sion of `notify').

       Some options also have one or more single letter names.	There are two sets of single let-
       ter  options:  one  used  by  default,  and  another used to emulate sh/ksh (used when the
       SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set).  The single letter options can be used on the shell com-
       mand  line, or with the set, setopt and unsetopt builtins, as normal Unix options preceded
       by `-'.

       The sense of the single letter options may be inverted by using `+' instead of `-'.   Some
       of  the	single letter option names refer to an option being off, in which case the inver-
       sion of that name refers to the option being on.  For example, `+n' is the short  name  of
       `exec', and `-n' is the short name of its inversion, `noexec'.

       In  strings of single letter options supplied to the shell at startup, trailing whitespace
       will be ignored; for example the string `-f    ' will be treated just  as  `-f',  but  the
       string  `-f  i' is an error.  This is because many systems which implement the `#!' mecha-
       nism for calling scripts do not strip trailing whitespace.

DESCRIPTION OF OPTIONS
       In the following list, options set by default in all emulations are marked <D>; those  set
       by default only in csh, ksh, sh, or zsh emulations are marked <C>, <K>, <S>, <Z> as appro-
       priate.	When listing options (by `setopt', `unsetopt',	`set  -o'  or  `set  +o'),  those
       turned	on   by   default   appear  in	the  list  prefixed  with  `no'.   Hence  (unless
       KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set), `setopt' shows all options whose settings are changed	from  the
       default.

   Changing Directories
       AUTO_CD (-J)
	      If  a command is issued that can't be executed as a normal command, and the command
	      is the name of a directory, perform the cd command to that directory.

       AUTO_PUSHD (-N)
	      Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack.

       CDABLE_VARS (-T)
	      If the argument to a cd command (or an implied cd with the AUTO_CD option  set)  is
	      not  a  directory, and does not begin with a slash, try to expand the expression as
	      if it were preceded by a `~' (see the section `Filename Expansion').

       CHASE_DOTS
	      When changing to a directory containing a path segment `..' which  would	otherwise
	      be  treated as canceling the previous segment in the path (in other words, `foo/..'
	      would be removed from the path, or if `..' is the first part of the path, the  last
	      part  of	the current working directory would be removed), instead resolve the path
	      to the physical directory.  This option is overridden by CHASE_LINKS.

	      For example, suppose /foo/bar is a link to the directory	/alt/rod.   Without  this
	      option set, `cd /foo/bar/..' changes to /foo; with it set, it changes to /alt.  The
	      same applies if the current directory is /foo/bar and `cd ..' is used.   Note  that
	      all other symbolic links in the path will also be resolved.

       CHASE_LINKS (-w)
	      Resolve symbolic links to their true values when changing directory.  This also has
	      the effect of CHASE_DOTS, i.e. a `..' path segment will be treated as referring  to
	      the physical parent, even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link.

       POSIX_CD
	      Modifies the behaviour of cd, chdir and pushd commands to make them more compatible
	      with the POSIX standard. The behaviour with the option unset is  described  in  the
	      documentation  for  the  cd  builtin  in zshbuiltins(1).	If the option is set, the
	      shell does not test for directories beneath the local directory (`.')  until  after
	      all directories in cdpath have been tested.

	      Also,  if  the  option  is set, the conditions under which the shell prints the new
	      directory after changing to it are modified.  It is no longer restricted to  inter-
	      active shells (although printing of the directory stack with pushd is still limited
	      to interactive shells); and any use of a component of CDPATH, including a  `.'  but
	      excluding an empty component that is otherwise treated as `.', causes the directory
	      to be printed.

       PUSHD_IGNORE_DUPS
	      Don't push multiple copies of the same directory onto the directory stack.

       PUSHD_MINUS
	      Exchanges the meanings of `+' and `-' when used with a number to specify	a  direc-
	      tory in the stack.

       PUSHD_SILENT (-E)
	      Do not print the directory stack after pushd or popd.

       PUSHD_TO_HOME (-D)
	      Have pushd with no arguments act like `pushd $HOME'.

   Completion
       ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT <D>
	      If  unset,  key functions that list completions try to return to the last prompt if
	      given a numeric argument. If set these functions try to return to the  last  prompt
	      if given no numeric argument.

       ALWAYS_TO_END
	      If  a  completion is performed with the cursor within a word, and a full completion
	      is inserted, the cursor is moved to the end of the word.	That is,  the  cursor  is
	      moved  to  the end of the word if either a single match is inserted or menu comple-
	      tion is performed.

       AUTO_LIST (-9) <D>
	      Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion.

       AUTO_MENU <D>
	      Automatically use menu completion after the second consecutive request for  comple-
	      tion,  for example by pressing the tab key repeatedly. This option is overridden by
	      MENU_COMPLETE.

       AUTO_NAME_DIRS
	      Any parameter that is set to the absolute name of a directory immediately becomes a
	      name  for  that  directory,  that  will  be  used  by  the  `%~' and related prompt
	      sequences, and will be available when completion is performed on	a  word  starting
	      with `~'.  (Otherwise, the parameter must be used in the form `~param' first.)

       AUTO_PARAM_KEYS <D>
	      If  a  parameter	name  was  completed and a following character (normally a space)
	      automatically inserted, and the next character typed is one of those that  have  to
	      come directly after the name (like `}', `:', etc.), the automatically added charac-
	      ter is deleted, so that the character typed comes immediately after  the	parameter
	      name.   Completion  in a brace expansion is affected similarly: the added character
	      is a `,', which will be removed if `}' is typed next.

       AUTO_PARAM_SLASH <D>
	      If a parameter is completed whose content is the name of a directory,  then  add	a
	      trailing slash instead of a space.

       AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH <D>
	      When the last character resulting from a completion is a slash and the next charac-
	      ter typed is a word delimiter, a slash, or a character that ends a command (such as
	      a semicolon or an ampersand), remove the slash.

       BASH_AUTO_LIST
	      On an ambiguous completion, automatically list choices when the completion function
	      is called twice in succession.  This takes precedence over AUTO_LIST.  The  setting
	      of  LIST_AMBIGUOUS is respected.	If AUTO_MENU is set, the menu behaviour will then
	      start with the third press.  Note that this will not work with MENU_COMPLETE, since
	      repeated completion calls immediately cycle through the list in that case.

       COMPLETE_ALIASES
	      Prevents	aliases on the command line from being internally substituted before com-
	      pletion is attempted.  The effect is to make the alias a distinct command for  com-
	      pletion purposes.

       COMPLETE_IN_WORD
	      If unset, the cursor is set to the end of the word if completion is started. Other-
	      wise it stays there and completion is done from both ends.

       GLOB_COMPLETE
	      When the current word has a glob pattern, do not insert  all  the  words	resulting
	      from  the  expansion  but generate matches as for completion and cycle through them
	      like MENU_COMPLETE. The matches are generated as if a `*' was added to the  end  of
	      the  word,  or  inserted at the cursor when COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set.  This actually
	      uses pattern matching, not globbing, so it works not only for  files  but  for  any
	      completion, such as options, user names, etc.

	      Note  that  when	the  pattern  matcher  is  used,  matching  control (for example,
	      case-insensitive or anchored  matching)  cannot  be  used.   This  limitation  only
	      applies  when  the current word contains a pattern; simply turning on the GLOB_COM-
	      PLETE option does not have this effect.

       HASH_LIST_ALL <D>
	      Whenever a command completion or spelling correction is attempted,  make	sure  the
	      entire  command  path  is hashed first.  This makes the first completion slower but
	      avoids false reports of spelling errors.

       LIST_AMBIGUOUS <D>
	      This option works when AUTO_LIST or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also set.	If  there  is  an
	      unambiguous prefix to insert on the command line, that is done without a completion
	      list being displayed; in other words, auto-listing behaviour only takes place  when
	      nothing would be inserted.  In the case of BASH_AUTO_LIST, this means that the list
	      will be delayed to the third call of the function.

       LIST_BEEP <D>
	      Beep on an ambiguous completion.	More accurately, this forces the completion  wid-
	      gets  to return status 1 on an ambiguous completion, which causes the shell to beep
	      if the option BEEP is also set; this may be modified if completion is called from a
	      user-defined widget.

       LIST_PACKED
	      Try  to  make  the  completion  list smaller (occupying less lines) by printing the
	      matches in columns with different widths.

       LIST_ROWS_FIRST
	      Lay out the matches in completion lists sorted horizontally, that  is,  the  second
	      match is to the right of the first one, not under it as usual.

       LIST_TYPES (-X) <D>
	      When listing files that are possible completions, show the type of each file with a
	      trailing identifying mark.

       MENU_COMPLETE (-Y)
	      On an ambiguous completion, instead of listing possibilities or beeping, insert the
	      first match immediately.	Then when completion is requested again, remove the first
	      match and insert the second match, etc.  When there are no more matches, go back to
	      the first one again.  reverse-menu-complete may be used to loop through the list in
	      the other direction. This option overrides AUTO_MENU.

       REC_EXACT (-S)
	      In completion, recognize exact matches even if they are ambiguous.

   Expansion and Globbing
       BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z>
	      If a pattern for filename generation is badly formed, print an error message.   (If
	      this option is unset, the pattern will be left unchanged.)

       BARE_GLOB_QUAL <Z>
	      In  a  glob pattern, treat a trailing set of parentheses as a qualifier list, if it
	      contains no `|', `(' or (if special) `~' characters.   See  the  section	`Filename
	      Generation'.

       BRACE_CCL
	      Expand expressions in braces which would not otherwise undergo brace expansion to a
	      lexically ordered list of all the characters.  See the section `Brace Expansion'.

       CASE_GLOB <D>
	      Make globbing (filename generation) sensitive to case.  Note  that  other  uses  of
	      patterns are always sensitive to case.  If the option is unset, the presence of any
	      character which is special  to  filename	generation  will  cause  case-insensitive
	      matching.  For example, cvs(/) can match the directory CVS owing to the presence of
	      the globbing flag (unless the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is unset).

       CASE_MATCH <D>
	      Make regular expressions using the zsh/regex module  (including  matches	with  =~)
	      sensitive to case.

       CSH_NULL_GLOB <C>
	      If  a  pattern  for filename generation has no matches, delete the pattern from the
	      argument list; do not report an error unless all the patterns in a command have  no
	      matches.	Overrides NOMATCH.

       EQUALS <Z>
	      Perform = filename expansion.  (See the section `Filename Expansion'.)

       EXTENDED_GLOB
	      Treat  the `#', `~' and `^' characters as part of patterns for filename generation,
	      etc.  (An initial unquoted `~' always produces named directory expansion.)

       GLOB (+F, ksh: +f) <D>
	      Perform filename generation (globbing).  (See the section `Filename Generation'.)

       GLOB_ASSIGN <C>
	      If this option is set, filename generation (globbing) is	performed  on  the  right
	      hand side of scalar parameter assignments of the form `name=pattern (e.g. `foo=*').
	      If the result has more than one word the parameter will become an array with  those
	      words as arguments. This option is provided for backwards compatibility only: glob-
	      bing is always performed on the right hand side of array assignments  of	the  form
	      `name=(value)' (e.g. `foo=(*)') and this form is recommended for clarity; with this
	      option set, it is not possible to predict whether the result will be an array or	a
	      scalar.

       GLOB_DOTS (-4)
	      Do not require a leading `.' in a filename to be matched explicitly.

       GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S>
	      Treat  any characters resulting from parameter expansion as being eligible for file
	      expansion and filename generation, and any characters resulting from  command  sub-
	      stitution  as  being  eligible  for  filename  generation.   Braces  (and commas in
	      between) do not become eligible for expansion.

       HIST_SUBST_PATTERN
	      Substitutions using the :s and :& history  modifiers  are  performed  with  pattern
	      matching	instead  of  string matching.  This occurs wherever history modifiers are
	      valid, including glob qualifiers and parameters.	See the section Modifiers in zsh-
	      expn(1).

       IGNORE_BRACES (-I) <S>
	      Do  not  perform	brace  expansion.   For historical reasons this also includes the
	      effect of the IGNORE_CLOSE_BRACES option.

       IGNORE_CLOSE_BRACES
	      When neither this option nor IGNORE_BRACES is set, a sole close brace character `}'
	      is  syntactically  significant at any point on a command line.  This has the effect
	      that no semicolon or newline is necessary before the brace terminating  a  function
	      or  current shell construct.  When either option is set, a closing brace is syntac-
	      tically significant only in command position.  Unlike  IGNORE_BRACES,  this  option
	      does not disable brace expansion.

	      For  example,  with  both  options unset a function may be defined in the following
	      fashion:

		     args() { echo $# }

	      while if either option is set, this does not work and something equivalent  to  the
	      following is required:

		     args() { echo $#; }

       KSH_GLOB <K>
	      In  pattern  matching, the interpretation of parentheses is affected by a preceding
	      `@', `*', `+', `?' or `!'.  See the section `Filename Generation'.

       MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST
	      All unquoted arguments of the form `anything=expression' appearing after	the  com-
	      mand  name  have filename expansion (that is, where expression has a leading `~' or
	      `=') performed on expression as if it were a parameter assignment.  The argument is
	      not  otherwise treated specially; it is passed to the command as a single argument,
	      and  not	used  as  an  actual  parameter  assignment.   For   example,	in   echo
	      foo=~/bar:~/rod,	both  occurrences of ~ would be replaced.  Note that this happens
	      anyway with typeset and similar statements.

	      This option respects the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option.   In	other  words,  if
	      both  options  are  in  effect, arguments looking like assignments will not undergo
	      word splitting.

       MARK_DIRS (-8, ksh: -X)
	      Append a trailing `/' to all directory names  resulting  from  filename  generation
	      (globbing).

       MULTIBYTE <C> <K> <Z>
	      Respect  multibyte  characters  when  found  in  strings.  When this option is set,
	      strings are examined using the system library to determine how many  bytes  form	a
	      character,  depending  on  the current locale.  This affects the way characters are
	      counted in pattern matching, parameter values and various delimiters.

	      The option is on by default if the shell was compiled with MULTIBYTE_SUPPORT except
	      in  sh  emulation;  otherwise  it is off by default and has no effect if turned on.
	      The mode is off in sh emulation for compatibility but for interactive use may  need
	      to be turned on if the terminal interprets multibyte characters.

	      If  the  option is off a single byte is always treated as a single character.  This
	      setting is designed purely for examining strings known  to  contain  raw	bytes  or
	      other values that may not be characters in the current locale.  It is not necessary
	      to unset the option merely because the character set for the  current  locale  does
	      not contain multibyte characters.

	      The  option  does  not  affect the shell's editor,  which always uses the locale to
	      determine multibyte characters.  This is because the character set displayed by the
	      terminal emulator is independent of shell settings.

       NOMATCH (+3) <C> <Z>
	      If  a  pattern  for  filename generation has no matches, print an error, instead of
	      leaving it unchanged in the argument list.  This also applies to file expansion  of
	      an initial `~' or `='.

       NULL_GLOB (-G)
	      If  a  pattern  for filename generation has no matches, delete the pattern from the
	      argument list instead of reporting an error.  Overrides NOMATCH.

       NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT
	      If numeric filenames are matched by a filename generation pattern, sort  the  file-
	      names numerically rather than lexicographically.

       RC_EXPAND_PARAM (-P)
	      Array  expansions  of the form `foo${xx}bar', where the parameter xx is set to (a b
	      c), are substituted with `fooabar foobbar foocbar' instead of the default  `fooa	b
	      cbar'.  Note that an empty array will therefore cause all arguments to be removed.

       REMATCH_PCRE <Z>
	      If  set,	regular expression matching with the =~ operator will use Perl-Compatible
	      Regular Expressions from the PCRE library,  if  available.   If  not  set,  regular
	      expressions will use the extended regexp syntax provided by the system libraries.

       SH_GLOB <K> <S>
	      Disables	the  special  meaning of `(', `|', `)' and '<' for globbing the result of
	      parameter and command substitutions, and in  some  other	places	where  the  shell
	      accepts  patterns.   If  SH_GLOB	is  set but KSH_GLOB is not, the shell allows the
	      interpretation of subshell expressions enclosed in parentheses in some cases  where
	      there is no space before the opening parenthesis, e.g. !(true) is interpreted as if
	      there were a space after the !.  This option is set by default if zsh is invoked as
	      sh or ksh.

       UNSET (+u, ksh: +u) <K> <S> <Z>
	      Treat unset parameters as if they were empty when substituting.  Otherwise they are
	      treated as an error.

       WARN_CREATE_GLOBAL
	      Print a warning message when a global parameter is created  in  a  function  by  an
	      assignment.  This often indicates that a parameter has not been declared local when
	      it should have been.  Parameters explicitly declared global from within a  function
	      using  typeset  -g  do  not  cause a warning.  Note that there is no warning when a
	      local parameter is assigned to in a nested function, which  may  also  indicate  an
	      error.

   History
       APPEND_HISTORY <D>
	      If  this	is  set, zsh sessions will append their history list to the history file,
	      rather than replace it. Thus, multiple parallel zsh sessions will all have the  new
	      entries  from their history lists added to the history file, in the order that they
	      exit.  The file will still be periodically re-written to trim it when the number of
	      lines   grows   20%   beyond  the  value	specified  by  $SAVEHIST  (see	also  the
	      HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY option).

       BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z>
	      Perform textual history expansion, csh-style, treating the character `!' specially.

       EXTENDED_HISTORY <C>
	      Save each command's beginning timestamp (in seconds since the epoch) and the  dura-
	      tion (in seconds) to the history file.  The format of this prefixed data is:

	      `: <beginning time>:<elapsed seconds>;<command>'.

       HIST_ALLOW_CLOBBER
	      Add  `|'	to output redirections in the history.	This allows history references to
	      clobber files even when CLOBBER is unset.

       HIST_BEEP <D>
	      Beep when an attempt is made to access a history entry which isn't there.

       HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST
	      If the internal history needs to be trimmed to add the current command  line,  set-
	      ting  this  option  will	cause the oldest history event that has a duplicate to be
	      lost before losing a unique event from the list.	You should be  sure  to  set  the
	      value  of  HISTSIZE to a larger number than SAVEHIST in order to give you some room
	      for  the	duplicated  events,  otherwise	this  option  will   behave   just   like
	      HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills up with unique events.

       HIST_FCNTL_LOCK
	      When writing out the history file, by default zsh uses ad-hoc file locking to avoid
	      known problems with locking on some operating systems.  With this option locking is
	      done  by	means  of  the	system's  fcntl call, where this method is available.  On
	      recent operating systems this may provide better performance, in particular  avoid-
	      ing history corruption when files are stored on NFS.

       HIST_FIND_NO_DUPS
	      When searching for history entries in the line editor, do not display duplicates of
	      a line previously found, even if the duplicates are not contiguous.

       HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS
	      If a new command line being added to the history list duplicates an older one,  the
	      older command is removed from the list (even if it is not the previous event).

       HIST_IGNORE_DUPS (-h)
	      Do not enter command lines into the history list if they are duplicates of the pre-
	      vious event.

       HIST_IGNORE_SPACE (-g)
	      Remove command lines from the history list when the first character on the line  is
	      a space, or when one of the expanded aliases contains a leading space.  Only normal
	      aliases (not global or suffix aliases) have this behaviour.  Note that the  command
	      lingers  in  the	internal history until the next command is entered before it van-
	      ishes, allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line.  If you want to make it van-
	      ish right away without entering another command, type a space and press return.

       HIST_LEX_WORDS
	      By  default,  shell  history  that is read in from files is split into words on all
	      white space.  This means that arguments with quoted whitespace  are  not	correctly
	      handled,	with  the consequence that references to words in history lines that have
	      been read from a file may be inaccurate.	When this option is set,  words  read  in
	      from  a  history	file  are divided up in a similar fashion to normal shell command
	      line handling.  Although this produces more accurately delimited words, if the size
	      of  the  history	file  is large this can be slow.  Trial and error is necessary to
	      decide.

       HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS
	      Remove function definitions from the history list.  Note that the function  lingers
	      in  the  internal  history  until  the  next command is entered before it vanishes,
	      allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the definition.

       HIST_NO_STORE
	      Remove the history (fc -l) command from the history list when invoked.   Note  that
	      the  command  lingers  in  the  internal	history until the next command is entered
	      before it vanishes, allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line.

       HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
	      Remove superfluous blanks from each command line being added to the history list.

       HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY <D>
	      When the history file is re-written, we normally write out a copy of the file named
	      $HISTFILE.new  and  then	rename	it  over the old one.  However, if this option is
	      unset, we instead truncate the old history file  and  write  out	the  new  version
	      in-place.  If one of the history-appending options is enabled, this option only has
	      an effect when the enlarged history file needs to be re-written to trim it down  to
	      size.   Disable  this only if you have special needs, as doing so makes it possible
	      to lose history entries if zsh gets interrupted during the save.

	      When writing out a copy of the history file, zsh preserves the old  file's  permis-
	      sions  and  group  information, but will refuse to write out a new file if it would
	      change the history file's owner.

       HIST_SAVE_NO_DUPS
	      When writing out the history file, older commands that  duplicate  newer	ones  are
	      omitted.

       HIST_VERIFY
	      Whenever	the  user  enters  a  line with history expansion, don't execute the line
	      directly; instead, perform history expansion and reload the line into  the  editing
	      buffer.

       INC_APPEND_HISTORY
	      This  options  works like APPEND_HISTORY except that new history lines are added to
	      the $HISTFILE incrementally (as soon as they  are  entered),  rather  than  waiting
	      until  the  shell exits.	The file will still be periodically re-written to trim it
	      when the number of lines grows 20% beyond the value  specified  by  $SAVEHIST  (see
	      also the HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY option).

       SHARE_HISTORY <K>

	      This  option  both imports new commands from the history file, and also causes your
	      typed commands to be appended to the history file (the latter  is  like  specifying
	      INC_APPEND_HISTORY).   The  history  lines  are  also  output  with  timestamps ala
	      EXTENDED_HISTORY (which makes it easier to find the spot where we left off  reading
	      the file after it gets re-written).

	      By default, history movement commands visit the imported lines as well as the local
	      lines, but you can toggle this on and off with the set-local-history  zle  binding.
	      It  is  also  possible  to  create a zle widget that will make some commands ignore
	      imported commands, and some include them.

	      If you find that you want more control over when commands  get  imported,  you  may
	      wish  to	turn  SHARE_HISTORY  off, INC_APPEND_HISTORY on, and then manually import
	      commands whenever you need them using `fc -RI'.

   Initialisation
       ALL_EXPORT (-a, ksh: -a)
	      All parameters subsequently defined are automatically exported.

       GLOBAL_EXPORT (<Z>)
	      If this option is set, passing the -x flag to the builtins declare, float, integer,
	      readonly	and  typeset (but not local) will also set the -g flag;  hence parameters
	      exported to the environment will not be  made  local  to	the  enclosing	function,
	      unless  they  were  already  or  the flag +g is given explicitly.  If the option is
	      unset, exported parameters will be made local in just the same  way  as  any  other
	      parameter.

	      This  option  is	set  by default for backward compatibility; it is not recommended
	      that its behaviour be relied upon.  Note that the builtin export always  sets  both
	      the -x and -g flags, and hence its effect extends beyond the scope of the enclosing
	      function; this is the most portable way to achieve this behaviour.

       GLOBAL_RCS (-d) <D>
	      If this option is unset, the startup files /etc/zprofile,  /etc/zshrc,  /etc/zlogin
	      and  /etc/zlogout  will not be run.  It can be disabled and re-enabled at any time,
	      including inside local startup files (.zshrc, etc.).

       RCS (+f) <D>
	      After /etc/zshenv is sourced on startup, source the .zshenv, /etc/zprofile,  .zpro-
	      file, /etc/zshrc, .zshrc, /etc/zlogin, .zlogin, and .zlogout files, as described in
	      the section `Files'.  If this option  is	unset,	the  /etc/zshenv  file	is  still
	      sourced,	but  any  of the others will not be; it can be set at any time to prevent
	      the remaining startup files after the currently executing one from being sourced.

   Input/Output
       ALIASES <D>
	      Expand aliases.

       CLOBBER (+C, ksh: +C) <D>
	      Allows `>' redirection to truncate existing files, and `>>' to create files.   Oth-
	      erwise `>!' or `>|' must be used to truncate a file, and `>>!' or `>>|' to create a
	      file.

       CORRECT (-0)
	      Try to correct the spelling of commands.	Note that, when the HASH_LIST_ALL  option
	      is  not set or when some directories in the path are not readable, this may falsely
	      report spelling errors the first time some commands are used.

	      The shell variable CORRECT_IGNORE may be set to a pattern to match words that  will
	      never be offered as corrections.

       CORRECT_ALL (-O)
	      Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line.

       DVORAK Use  the	Dvorak	keyboard  instead  of the standard qwerty keyboard as a basis for
	      examining spelling mistakes  for	the  CORRECT  and  CORRECT_ALL	options  and  the
	      spell-word editor command.

       FLOW_CONTROL <D>
	      If  this	option	is  unset, output flow control via start/stop characters (usually
	      assigned to ^S/^Q) is disabled in the shell's editor.

       IGNORE_EOF (-7)
	      Do not exit on end-of-file.  Require the use of exit or logout  instead.	 However,
	      ten  consecutive EOFs will cause the shell to exit anyway, to avoid the shell hang-
	      ing if its tty goes away.

	      Also, if this option is set and the Zsh Line Editor is used, widgets implemented by
	      shell  functions can be bound to EOF (normally Control-D) without printing the nor-
	      mal warning message.  This works only for normal widgets, not for  completion  wid-
	      gets.

       INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS (-k) <K> <S>
	      Allow comments even in interactive shells.

       HASH_CMDS <D>
	      Note  the location of each command the first time it is executed.  Subsequent invo-
	      cations of the same command will use the saved location, avoiding  a  path  search.
	      If  this option is unset, no path hashing is done at all.  However, when CORRECT is
	      set, commands whose names do not appear in the functions or aliases hash tables are
	      hashed in order to avoid reporting them as spelling errors.

       HASH_DIRS <D>
	      Whenever a command name is hashed, hash the directory containing it, as well as all
	      directories that occur earlier in the path.  Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor
	      CORRECT is set.

       HASH_EXECUTABLES_ONLY
	      When hashing commands because of HASH_COMMANDS, check that the file to be hashed is
	      actually an executable.  This option is unset by default as if the path contains	a
	      large  number  of  commands, or consists of many remote files, the additional tests
	      can take a long time.  Trial and error is needed to show if this option is  benefi-
	      cial.

       MAIL_WARNING (-U)
	      Print  a	warning  message  if  a  mail file has been accessed since the shell last
	      checked.

       PATH_DIRS (-Q)
	      Perform a path search even  on  command  names  with  slashes  in  them.	 Thus  if
	      `/usr/local/bin'	is  in the user's path, and he or she types `X11/xinit', the com-
	      mand `/usr/local/bin/X11/xinit' will be executed (assuming  it  exists).	 Commands
	      explicitly  beginning  with  `/', `./' or `../' are not subject to the path search.
	      This also applies to the `.' builtin.

	      Note that subdirectories of the current directory are always searched for  executa-
	      bles  specified in this form.  This takes place before any search indicated by this
	      option, and regardless of whether `.' or the current directory appear in	the  com-
	      mand search path.

       PATH_SCRIPT <K> <S>
	      If  this option is not set, a script passed as the first non-option argument to the
	      shell must contain the name of the file to open.	If this option is  set,  and  the
	      script  does  not  specify  a directory path, the script is looked for first in the
	      current directory, then in the command path.  See the section INVOCATION in zsh(1).

       PRINT_EIGHT_BIT
	      Print eight bit characters literally in completion lists, etc.  This option is  not
	      necessary if your system correctly returns the printability of eight bit characters
	      (see ctype(3)).

       PRINT_EXIT_VALUE (-1)
	      Print the exit value of programs with non-zero exit status.

       RC_QUOTES
	      Allow the character sequence `''' to signify a single quote  within  singly  quoted
	      strings.	Note this does not apply in quoted strings using the format $'...', where
	      a backslashed single quote can be used.

       RM_STAR_SILENT (-H) <K> <S>
	      Do not query the user before executing `rm *' or `rm path/*'.

       RM_STAR_WAIT
	      If querying the user before executing `rm *' or `rm path/*', first wait ten seconds
	      and  ignore  anything  typed  in that time.  This avoids the problem of reflexively
	      answering `yes' to the query when one didn't really mean it.  The  wait  and  query
	      can always be avoided by expanding the `*' in ZLE (with tab).

       SHORT_LOOPS <C> <Z>
	      Allow the short forms of for, repeat, select, if, and function constructs.

       SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK (-L)
	      If  a  line ends with a backquote, and there are an odd number of backquotes on the
	      line, ignore the trailing backquote.  This is useful on some  keyboards  where  the
	      return  key is too small, and the backquote key lies annoyingly close to it.  As an
	      alternative the variable KEYBOARD_HACK lets you choose the character to be removed.

   Job Control
       AUTO_CONTINUE
	      With this option set, stopped jobs that are removed from the  job  table	with  the
	      disown builtin command are automatically sent a CONT signal to make them running.

       AUTO_RESUME (-W)
	      Treat  single word simple commands without redirection as candidates for resumption
	      of an existing job.

       BG_NICE (-6) <C> <Z>
	      Run all background jobs at a lower priority.  This option is set by default.

       CHECK_JOBS <Z>
	      Report the status of background and suspended jobs before exiting a shell with  job
	      control;	a  second  attempt to exit the shell will succeed.  NO_CHECK_JOBS is best
	      used only in combination with NO_HUP, else such jobs will be killed automatically.

	      The check is omitted if the commands run from the previous command line included	a
	      `jobs'  command, since it is assumed the user is aware that there are background or
	      suspended jobs.  A `jobs' command run from one of the hook functions defined in the
	      section SPECIAL FUNCTIONS in zshmisc(1) is not counted for this purpose.

       HUP <Z>
	      Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits.

       LONG_LIST_JOBS (-R)
	      List jobs in the long format by default.

       MONITOR (-m, ksh: -m)
	      Allow job control.  Set by default in interactive shells.

       NOTIFY (-5, ksh: -b) <Z>
	      Report  the  status  of background jobs immediately, rather than waiting until just
	      before printing a prompt.

       POSIX_JOBS <K> <S>
	      This option makes job control more compliant with the POSIX standard.

	      When the option is not set, the MONITOR option is unset on entry to  subshells,  so
	      that  job  control is no longer active.  When the option is set, the MONITOR option
	      and job control remain active in the subshell, but note that the	subshell  has  no
	      access to jobs in the parent shell.

	      When  the option is not set, jobs put in the background or foreground with bg or fg
	      are displayed with the same information that would be reported by jobs.	When  the
	      option  is  set,	only  the  text  is  printed.  The output from jobs itself is not
	      affected by the option.

	      When the option is not set, job information from the parent shell is saved for out-
	      put  within  a  subshell (for example, within a pipeline).  When the option is set,
	      the output of jobs is empty until a job is started within the subshell.

	      When the option is set, it becomes possible to use the wait builtin to wait for the
	      last  job  started  in the background (as given by $!) even if that job has already
	      exited.  This works even if the option is turned on temporarily around the  use  of
	      the wait builtin.

   Prompting
       PROMPT_BANG <K>
	      If  set,	`!'  is  treated  specially in prompt expansion.  See EXPANSION OF PROMPT
	      SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_CR (+V) <D>
	      Print a carriage return just before printing a prompt in the line editor.  This  is
	      on  by default as multi-line editing is only possible if the editor knows where the
	      start of the line appears.

       PROMPT_SP <D>
	      Attempt to preserve a partial line (i.e. a line that did not end	with  a  newline)
	      that  would  otherwise  be  covered  up  by the command prompt due to the PROMPT_CR
	      option.  This works by  outputting  some	cursor-control	characters,  including	a
	      series  of  spaces, that should make the terminal wrap to the next line when a par-
	      tial line is present (note that this is only successful if your terminal has  auto-
	      matic margins, which is typical).

	      When a partial line is preserved, by default you will see an inverse+bold character
	      at the end of the partial line:  a "%" for a normal user or a  "#"  for  root.   If
	      set,  the  shell	parameter PROMPT_EOL_MARK can be used to customize how the end of
	      partial lines are shown.

	      NOTE: if the PROMPT_CR option is not set, enabling this option will have no effect.
	      This option is on by default.

       PROMPT_PERCENT <C> <Z>
	      If  set,	`%'  is  treated  specially in prompt expansion.  See EXPANSION OF PROMPT
	      SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_SUBST <K> <S>
	      If set, parameter expansion, command substitution and arithmetic expansion are per-
	      formed in prompts.  Substitutions within prompts do not affect the command status.

       TRANSIENT_RPROMPT
	      Remove  any  right  prompt from display when accepting a command line.  This may be
	      useful with terminals with other cut/paste methods.

   Scripts and Functions
       C_BASES
	      Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format, for example `0xFF' instead  of
	      the  usual `16#FF'.  If the option OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by default),
	      octal numbers will be treated similarly  and  hence  appear  as  `077'  instead  of
	      `8#77'.	This  option  has  no effect on the choice of the output base, nor on the
	      output of bases other than hexadecimal and octal.  Note that these formats will  be
	      understood on input irrespective of the setting of C_BASES.

       C_PRECEDENCES
	      This alters the precedence of arithmetic operators to be more like C and other pro-
	      gramming languages; the section ARITHMETIC EVALUATION in zshmisc(1) has an explicit
	      list.

       DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD
	      Run  the	DEBUG  trap  before each command; otherwise it is run after each command.
	      Setting this option mimics the behaviour of ksh 93; with the option unset  the  be-
	      haviour is that of ksh 88.

       ERR_EXIT (-e, ksh: -e)
	      If  a  command has a non-zero exit status, execute the ZERR trap, if set, and exit.
	      This is disabled while running initialization scripts.

	      The behaviour is also disabled inside DEBUG traps.  In this case the option is han-
	      dled  specially:	it is unset on entry to the trap.  If the option DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD
	      is set, as it is by default, and the option ERR_EXIT is found to have been  set  on
	      exit,  then the command for which the DEBUG trap is being executed is skipped.  The
	      option is restored after the trap exits.

       ERR_RETURN
	      If a command has a non-zero exit status,	return	immediately  from  the	enclosing
	      function.   The  logic  is  identical to that for ERR_EXIT, except that an implicit
	      return statement is executed instead of an exit.	This will trigger an exit at  the
	      outermost level of a non-interactive script.

       EVAL_LINENO <Z>
	      If  set,	line  numbers of expressions evaluated using the builtin eval are tracked
	      separately of the enclosing environment.	This applies both to the parameter LINENO
	      and  the	line  number  output  by the prompt escape %i.	If the option is set, the
	      prompt escape %N will output the string `(eval)' instead of the script or  function
	      name  as an indication.	(The two prompt escapes are typically used in the parame-
	      ter PS4 to be output when the option XTRACE is set.)  If EVAL_LINENO is unset,  the
	      line  number  of	the surrounding script or function is retained during the evalua-
	      tion.

       EXEC (+n, ksh: +n) <D>
	      Do execute commands.  Without this option, commands are read and checked for syntax
	      errors,  but  not  executed.   This  option  cannot be turned off in an interactive
	      shell, except when `-n' is supplied to the shell at startup.

       FUNCTION_ARGZERO <C> <Z>
	      When executing a shell function or sourcing a script, set  $0  temporarily  to  the
	      name of the function/script.

       LOCAL_OPTIONS <K>
	      If  this	option	is set at the point of return from a shell function, most options
	      (including this one) which were in force upon entry to the function  are	restored;
	      options  that are not restored are PRIVILEGED and RESTRICTED.  Otherwise, only this
	      option and the XTRACE and PRINT_EXIT_VALUE options are restored.	Hence if this  is
	      explicitly  unset  by  a	shell function the other options in force at the point of
	      return will remain so.  A shell function can also guarantee itself  a  known  shell
	      configuration   with  a  formulation  like  `emulate  -L	zsh';  the  -L	activates
	      LOCAL_OPTIONS.

       LOCAL_TRAPS <K>
	      If this option is set when a signal trap is set inside a function, then the  previ-
	      ous  status  of  the trap for that signal will be restored when the function exits.
	      Note that this option must be set prior to altering the trap behaviour in  a  func-
	      tion;  unlike  LOCAL_OPTIONS,  the  value  on exit from the function is irrelevant.
	      However, it does not need to be set before any global trap for that to be correctly
	      restored by a function.  For example,

		     unsetopt localtraps
		     trap - INT
		     fn() { setopt localtraps; trap '' INT; sleep 3; }

	      will restore normal handling of SIGINT after the function exits.

       MULTI_FUNC_DEF <Z>
	      Allow  definitions of multiple functions at once in the form `fn1 fn2...()'; if the
	      option is not set, this causes a parse error.   Definition  of  multiple	functions
	      with the function keyword is always allowed.  Multiple function definitions are not
	      often used and can cause obscure errors.

       MULTIOS <Z>
	      Perform implicit tees or cats when multiple redirections	are  attempted	(see  the
	      section `Redirection').

       OCTAL_ZEROES <S>
	      Interpret  any  integer  constant  beginning  with  a  0	as  octal,  per  IEEE Std
	      1003.2-1992 (ISO 9945-2:1993).  This is not enabled by default as it  causes  prob-
	      lems with parsing of, for example, date and time strings with leading zeroes.

	      Sequences of digits indicating a numeric base such as the `08' component in `08#77'
	      are always interpreted as decimal, regardless of leading zeroes.

       SOURCE_TRACE
	      If set, zsh will print an informational message announcing the name of each file it
	      loads.  The format of the output is similar to that for the XTRACE option, with the
	      message <sourcetrace>.  A file may be loaded by the shell itself when it starts  up
	      and  shuts  down	(Startup/Shutdown  Files) or by the use of the `source' and `dot'
	      builtin commands.

       TYPESET_SILENT
	      If this is unset, executing any of the `typeset' family of commands with no options
	      and  a list of parameters that have no values to be assigned but already exist will
	      display the value of the parameter.  If the option is set, they will only be  shown
	      when  parameters	are  selected with the `-m' option.  The option `-p' is available
	      whether or not the option is set.

       VERBOSE (-v, ksh: -v)
	      Print shell input lines as they are read.

       XTRACE (-x, ksh: -x)
	      Print commands and their arguments as they are executed.	The output is proceded by
	      the  value  of  $PS4,  formatted	as  described  in the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT
	      SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

   Shell Emulation
       BASH_REMATCH
	      When set, matches performed with the =~ operator will set  the  BASH_REMATCH  array
	      variable,  instead  of the default MATCH and match variables.  The first element of
	      the BASH_REMATCH array will contain the entire matched text and subsequent elements
	      will contain extracted substrings.  This option makes more sense when KSH_ARRAYS is
	      also set, so that the entire matched portion is stored at index  0  and  the  first
	      substring  is  at  index	1.   Without this option, the MATCH variable contains the
	      entire matched text and the match array variable contains substrings.

       BSD_ECHO <S>
	      Make the echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command.  This disables back-
	      slashed escape sequences in echo strings unless the -e option is specified.

       CONTINUE_ON_ERROR
	      If  a  fatal  error  is encountered (see the section ERRORS in zshmisc(1)), and the
	      code is running in a script, the shell will resume execution at the next	statement
	      in  the script at the top level, in other words outside all functions or shell con-
	      structs such as loops and conditions.  This mimics  the  behaviour  of  interactive
	      shells,  where  the  shell returns to the line editor to read a new command; it was
	      the normal behaviour in versions of zsh before 5.0.1.

       CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY <C>
	      A history reference without an event specifier will always refer	to  the  previous
	      command.	Without this option, such a history reference refers to the same event as
	      the previous history reference, defaulting to the previous command.

       CSH_JUNKIE_LOOPS <C>
	      Allow loop bodies to take the form `list; end' instead of `do list; done'.

       CSH_JUNKIE_QUOTES <C>
	      Changes the rules for single- and double-quoted text to match that of  csh.   These
	      require  that embedded newlines be preceded by a backslash; unescaped newlines will
	      cause an error message.  In double-quoted strings, it is made impossible to  escape
	      `$',  ``'  or `"' (and `\' itself no longer needs escaping).  Command substitutions
	      are only expanded once, and cannot be nested.

       CSH_NULLCMD <C>
	      Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when running redirections with  no
	      command.	This make such redirections fail (see the section `Redirection').

       KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S>
	      Emulate  ksh  array  handling as closely as possible.  If this option is set, array
	      elements are numbered from zero, an array parameter without subscript refers to the
	      first element instead of the whole array, and braces are required to delimit a sub-
	      script (`${path[2]}' rather than just `$path[2]').

       KSH_AUTOLOAD <K> <S>
	      Emulate ksh function autoloading.  This means that when a function  is  autoloaded,
	      the  corresponding  file	is  merely executed, and must define the function itself.
	      (By default, the function is defined to the contents of  the  file.   However,  the
	      most common ksh-style case - of the file containing only a simple definition of the
	      function - is always handled in the ksh-compatible manner.)

       KSH_OPTION_PRINT <K>
	      Alters the way options settings are printed: instead of separate lists of  set  and
	      unset  options,  all  options are shown, marked `on' if they are in the non-default
	      state, `off' otherwise.

       KSH_TYPESET <K>
	      Alters the way arguments to the typeset  family  of  commands,  including  declare,
	      export,  float,  integer,  local and readonly, are processed.  Without this option,
	      zsh will perform normal word splitting after command  and  parameter  expansion  in
	      arguments  of  an  assignment; with it, word splitting does not take place in those
	      cases.

       KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT
	      Treat use of a subscript of value zero in array or string expressions as	a  refer-
	      ence  to	the  first  element,  i.e.  the element that usually has the subscript 1.
	      Ignored if KSH_ARRAYS is also set.

	      If neither this option nor KSH_ARRAYS is set, accesses to an element of an array or
	      string with subscript zero return an empty element or string, while attempts to set
	      element zero of an array or string are treated as an error.  However,  attempts  to
	      set  an otherwise valid subscript range that includes zero will succeed.	For exam-
	      ple, if KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT is not set,

		     array[0]=(element)

	      is an error, while

		     array[0,1]=(element)

	      is not and will replace the first element of the array.

	      This option is for compatibility with older versions of the shell and is not recom-
	      mended in new code.

       POSIX_ALIASES <K> <S>
	      When this option is set, reserved words are not candidates for alias expansion:  it
	      is still possible to declare any of them as an alias, but the alias will	never  be
	      expanded.   Reserved  words  are	described  in  the section RESERVED WORDS in zsh-
	      misc(1).

	      Alias expansion takes place while text is being read; hence when this option is set
	      it  does not take effect until the end of any function or other piece of shell code
	      parsed as one unit.  Note this may cause differences from other  shells  even  when
	      the  option  is  in  effect.  For example, when running a command with `zsh -c', or
	      even `zsh -o posixaliases -c', the entire command argument is parsed as  one  unit,
	      so  aliases  defined within the argument are not available even in later lines.  If
	      in doubt, avoid use of aliases in non-interactive code.

       POSIX_BUILTINS <K> <S>
	      When this option is set the command builtin can be used to  execute  shell  builtin
	      commands.   Parameter  assignments  specified  before  shell  functions and special
	      builtins are kept after the command completes unless the special	builtin  is  pre-
	      fixed  with  the	command  builtin.   Special  builtins  are ., :, break, continue,
	      declare, eval, exit, export, integer, local, readonly, return, set, shift,  source,
	      times, trap and unset.

	      In  addition,  various  error conditions associated with the above builtins or exec
	      cause a non-interactive shell to exit and an interactive shell  to  return  to  its
	      top-level processing.

       POSIX_IDENTIFIERS <K> <S>
	      When this option is set, only the ASCII characters a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9 and _ may
	      be used in identifiers (names of shell parameters and modules).

	      When the option is unset and multibyte character support is  enabled  (i.e.  it  is
	      compiled	in  and  the option MULTIBYTE is set), then additionally any alphanumeric
	      characters in the local character set  may  be  used  in	identifiers.   Note  that
	      scripts  and  functions  written	with this feature are not portable, and also that
	      both options must be set before the script or function is parsed; setting them dur-
	      ing  execution  is  not  sufficient  as  the syntax variable=value has already been
	      parsed as a command rather than an assignment.

	      If multibyte character support is not  compiled  into  the  shell  this  option  is
	      ignored;	all  octets  with  the	top  bit set may be used in identifiers.  This is
	      non-standard but is the traditional zsh behaviour.

       POSIX_STRINGS <K> <S>
	      This option affects processing of quoted strings.  Currently it  only  affects  the
	      behaviour of null characters, i.e. character 0 in the portable character set corre-
	      sponding to US ASCII.

	      When this option is not set, null characters embedded within strings  of	the  form
	      $'...'  are  treated as ordinary characters. The entire string is maintained within
	      the shell and output to files where necessary, although owing  to  restrictions  of
	      the  library interface the string is truncated at the null character in file names,
	      environment variables, or in arguments to external programs.

	      When this option is set, the $'...' expression is truncated at the null  character.
	      Note  that  remaining parts of the same string beyond the termination of the quotes
	      are not trunctated.

	      For example, the command line argument a$'b\0c'd is treated with the option off  as
	      the characters a, b, null, c, d, and with the option on as the characters a, b, d.

       POSIX_TRAPS <K> <S>
	      When  the  is option is set, the usual zsh behaviour of executing traps for EXIT on
	      exit from shell functions is suppressed.	In that  case,	manipulating  EXIT  traps
	      always  alters  the  global  trap  for exiting the shell; the LOCAL_TRAPS option is
	      ignored for the EXIT trap.

       SH_FILE_EXPANSION <K> <S>
	      Perform filename expansion (e.g., ~ expansion) before parameter expansion,  command
	      substitution,  arithmetic  expansion and brace expansion.  If this option is unset,
	      it is performed after brace expansion, so things	like  `~$USERNAME'  and  `~{pfal-
	      stad,rc}' will work.

       SH_NULLCMD <K> <S>
	      Do  not  use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when doing redirections, use `:'
	      instead (see the section `Redirection').

       SH_OPTION_LETTERS <K> <S>
	      If this option is set the shell tries to interpret single letter options (which are
	      used with set and setopt) like ksh does.	This also affects the value of the - spe-
	      cial parameter.

       SH_WORD_SPLIT (-y) <K> <S>
	      Causes field splitting to be performed on unquoted parameter expansions.	Note that
	      this  option  has  nothing  to do with word splitting.  (See the section `Parameter
	      Expansion'.)

       TRAPS_ASYNC
	      While waiting for a program to exit, handle  signals  and  run  traps  immediately.
	      Otherwise  the  trap  is	run after a child process has exited.  Note this does not
	      affect the point at which traps are run for any case other than when the	shell  is
	      waiting for a child process.

   Shell State
       INTERACTIVE (-i, ksh: -i)
	      This  is an interactive shell.  This option is set upon initialisation if the stan-
	      dard input is a tty and commands are being read from standard input.  (See the dis-
	      cussion of SHIN_STDIN.)  This heuristic may be overridden by specifying a state for
	      this option on the command line.	The value of this option can only be changed  via
	      flags  supplied  at invocation of the shell.  It cannot be changed once zsh is run-
	      ning.

       LOGIN (-l, ksh: -l)
	      This is a login shell.  If this option is not explicitly set, the shell  becomes	a
	      login shell if the first character of the argv[0] passed to the shell is a `-'.

       PRIVILEGED (-p, ksh: -p)
	      Turn  on privileged mode. This is enabled automatically on startup if the effective
	      user (group) ID is not equal to the real user (group) ID.  Turning this option  off
	      causes  the  effective user and group IDs to be set to the real user and group IDs.
	      This option disables sourcing user startup files.  If zsh is  invoked  as  `sh'  or
	      `ksh'  with  this  option  set, /etc/suid_profile is sourced (after /etc/profile on
	      interactive shells). Sourcing ~/.profile is disabled and the contents  of  the  ENV
	      variable	is  ignored.  This option cannot be changed using the -m option of setopt
	      and unsetopt, and changing it inside a function always changes it globally  regard-
	      less of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option.

       RESTRICTED (-r)
	      Enables restricted mode.	This option cannot be changed using unsetopt, and setting
	      it inside a function always changes it globally  regardless  of  the  LOCAL_OPTIONS
	      option.  See the section `Restricted Shell'.

       SHIN_STDIN (-s, ksh: -s)
	      Commands	are  being read from the standard input.  Commands are read from standard
	      input if no command is specified with -c and no file of commands is specified.   If
	      SHIN_STDIN is set explicitly on the command line, any argument that would otherwise
	      have been taken as a file to run will instead be treated	as  a  normal  positional
	      parameter.  Note that setting or unsetting this option on the command line does not
	      necessarily affect the state the option will have while the shell is running - that
	      is  purely  an  indicator  of  whether on not commands are actually being read from
	      standard input.  The value of this option can only be changed via flags supplied at
	      invocation of the shell.	It cannot be changed once zsh is running.

       SINGLE_COMMAND (-t, ksh: -t)
	      If  the  shell  is reading from standard input, it exits after a single command has
	      been executed.  This also makes the shell non-interactive, unless  the  INTERACTIVE
	      option is explicitly set on the command line.  The value of this option can only be
	      changed via flags supplied at invocation of the shell.  It cannot be  changed  once
	      zsh is running.

   Zle
       BEEP (+B) <D>
	      Beep on error in ZLE.

       COMBINING_CHARS
	      Assume that the terminal displays combining characters correctly.  Specifically, if
	      a base alphanumeric character is followed by one	or  more  zero-width  punctuation
	      characters,  assume  that  the zero-width characters will be displayed as modifica-
	      tions to the base character within the same width.  Not all terminals handle  this.
	      If this option is not set, zero-width characters are displayed separately with spe-
	      cial mark-up.

	      If this option is set, the pattern test [[:WORD:]] matches a zero-width punctuation
	      character  on  the assumption that it will be used as part of a word in combination
	      with a word character.  Otherwise the base shell does not handle combining  charac-
	      ters specially.

       EMACS  If ZLE is loaded, turning on this option has the equivalent effect of `bindkey -e'.
	      In addition, the VI option is unset.  Turning it off has	no  effect.   The  option
	      setting  is  not guaranteed to reflect the current keymap.  This option is provided
	      for compatibility; bindkey is the recommended interface.

       OVERSTRIKE
	      Start up the line editor in overstrike mode.

       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE (-M) <K>
	      Use single-line command line editing instead of multi-line.

	      Note that although this is on by default in ksh emulation it only provides superfi-
	      cial  compatibility  with  the ksh line editor and reduces the effectiveness of the
	      zsh line editor.	As it has no effect on shell syntax, many users may wish to  dis-
	      able this option when using ksh emulation interactively.

       VI     If ZLE is loaded, turning on this option has the equivalent effect of `bindkey -v'.
	      In addition, the EMACS option is unset.  Turning it off has no effect.  The  option
	      setting  is  not guaranteed to reflect the current keymap.  This option is provided
	      for compatibility; bindkey is the recommended interface.

       ZLE (-Z)
	      Use the zsh line editor.	Set by default in interactive shells connected to a  ter-
	      minal.

OPTION ALIASES
       Some  options have alternative names.  These aliases are never used for output, but can be
       used just like normal option names when specifying options to the shell.

       BRACE_EXPAND
	      NO_IGNORE_BRACES (ksh and bash compatibility)

       DOT_GLOB
	      GLOB_DOTS (bash compatibility)

       HASH_ALL
	      HASH_CMDS (bash compatibility)

       HIST_APPEND
	      APPEND_HISTORY (bash compatibility)

       HIST_EXPAND
	      BANG_HIST (bash compatibility)

       LOG    NO_HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS (ksh compatibility)

       MAIL_WARN
	      MAIL_WARNING (bash compatibility)

       ONE_CMD
	      SINGLE_COMMAND (bash compatibility)

       PHYSICAL
	      CHASE_LINKS (ksh and bash compatibility)

       PROMPT_VARS
	      PROMPT_SUBST (bash compatibility)

       STDIN  SHIN_STDIN (ksh compatibility)

       TRACK_ALL
	      HASH_CMDS (ksh compatibility)

SINGLE LETTER OPTIONS
   Default set
       -0     CORRECT
       -1     PRINT_EXIT_VALUE
       -2     NO_BAD_PATTERN
       -3     NO_NOMATCH
       -4     GLOB_DOTS
       -5     NOTIFY
       -6     BG_NICE
       -7     IGNORE_EOF
       -8     MARK_DIRS
       -9     AUTO_LIST
       -B     NO_BEEP
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -D     PUSHD_TO_HOME
       -E     PUSHD_SILENT
       -F     NO_GLOB
       -G     NULL_GLOB
       -H     RM_STAR_SILENT
       -I     IGNORE_BRACES
       -J     AUTO_CD
       -K     NO_BANG_HIST
       -L     SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK
       -M     SINGLE_LINE_ZLE
       -N     AUTO_PUSHD
       -O     CORRECT_ALL
       -P     RC_EXPAND_PARAM
       -Q     PATH_DIRS
       -R     LONG_LIST_JOBS
       -S     REC_EXACT
       -T     CDABLE_VARS
       -U     MAIL_WARNING
       -V     NO_PROMPT_CR
       -W     AUTO_RESUME
       -X     LIST_TYPES
       -Y     MENU_COMPLETE
       -Z     ZLE
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_RCS
       -g     HIST_IGNORE_SPACE
       -h     HIST_IGNORE_DUPS
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -k     INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -w     CHASE_LINKS
       -x     XTRACE
       -y     SH_WORD_SPLIT

   sh/ksh emulation set
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -T     TRAPS_ASYNC
       -X     MARK_DIRS
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -b     NOTIFY
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_GLOB
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -x     XTRACE

   Also note
       -A     Used by set for setting arrays
       -b     Used on the command line to specify end of option processing
       -c     Used on the command line to specify a single command
       -m     Used by setopt for pattern-matching option setting
       -o     Used in all places to allow use of long option names
       -s     Used by set to sort positional parameters

ZSHBUILTINS(1)									   ZSHBUILTINS(1)

NAME
       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
       - simple command
	      See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       . file [ arg ... ]
	      Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment.

	      If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell  looks  in  the
	      components  of  $path  to find the directory containing file.  Files in the current
	      directory are not read unless `.' appears somewhere in  $path.   If  a  file  named
	      `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled form (created with the
	      zcompile builtin) of file, then commands are read from that file instead of file.

	      If any arguments arg are given, they become  the	positional  parameters;  the  old
	      positional  parameters  are  restored when the file is done executing.  If file was
	      not found the return status is 127; if file was found but contained a syntax  error
	      the  return  status  is  126; else the return status is the exit status of the last
	      command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
	      This command does nothing, although normal argument expansions is  performed  which
	      may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
	      For  each  name  with  a	corresponding  value, define an alias with that value.	A
	      trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias expansion.  If
	      the  -g flag is present, define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if
	      they do not occur in command position.

	      If the -s flags is present, define a suffix alias: if the command word on a command
	      line is in the form `text.name', where text is any non-empty string, it is replaced
	      by the text `value text.name'.  Note that name is treated as a literal string,  not
	      a pattern.  A trailing space in value is not special in this case.  For example,

		     alias -s ps=gv

	      will  cause  the command `*.ps' to be expanded to `gv *.ps'.  As alias expansion is
	      carried out earlier than globbing,  the  `*.ps'  will  then  be  expanded.   Suffix
	      aliases constitute a different name space from other aliases (so in the above exam-
	      ple it is still possible to create an alias for the command ps) and  the	two  sets
	      are never listed together.

	      For  each  name with no value, print the value of name, if any.  With no arguments,
	      print all currently defined aliases other than suffix aliases.  If the -m  flag  is
	      given  the  arguments are taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them
	      from being interpreted as glob patterns), and the aliases matching  these  patterns
	      are  printed.   When printing aliases and one of the -g, -r or -s flags is present,
	      restrict the printing to global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular
	      alias  is  one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+' instead of
	      `-', or ending the option list with a  single  `+',  prevents  the  values  of  the
	      aliases from being printed.

	      If  the  -L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable for putting
	      in a startup script.  The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given
	      for which no alias has been defined.

	      For  more  on  aliases,  include	common problems, see the section ALIASING in zsh-
	      misc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}UXkmtz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
	      Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X and -w.

	      The flag -X may be used only inside a shell function, and may not be followed by	a
	      name.  It causes the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then immedi-
	      ately loaded and executed, with the current array of positional parameters as argu-
	      ments.  This replaces the previous definition of the function.  If no function def-
	      inition is found, an error is printed and the function remains undefined and marked
	      for autoloading.

	      The flag +X attempts to load each name as an autoloaded function, but does not exe-
	      cute it.	The exit status is zero (success) if  the  function  was  not  previously
	      defined and a definition for it was found.  This does not replace any existing def-
	      inition of the function.	The exit status is nonzero (failure) if the function  was
	      already  defined	or when no definition was found.  In the latter case the function
	      remains undefined and marked for autoloading.  If ksh-style autoloading is enabled,
	      the function created will contain the contents of the file plus a call to the func-
	      tion itself appended to it, thus giving normal ksh  autoloading  behaviour  on  the
	      first call to the function.  If the -m flag is also given each name is treated as a
	      pattern and all functions already marked for autoload that match	the  pattern  are
	      loaded.

	      With  the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled with the zcompile
	      builtin, and all functions defined in them are marked for autoloading.

	      The flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the zsh or ksh  style,
	      as  if  the  option  KSH_AUTOLOAD  were unset or were set, respectively.	The flags
	      override the setting of the option at the time the function is loaded.

	      Note that the autoload command makes no attempt to ensure  the  shell  options  set
	      during  the  loading or execution of the file have any particular value.	For this,
	      the emulate command can be used:

		     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

	      arranges that when func is loaded the shell is in native zsh  emulation,	and  this
	      emulation is also applied when func is run.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
	      Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified.

       bindkey
	      See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
	      Exit  from  an  enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.  If n is speci-
	      fied, then break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
	      Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
	      Change the current directory.  In the first form, change the current  directory  to
	      arg,  or	to  the value of $HOME if arg is not specified.  If arg is `-', change to
	      the previous directory.

	      Otherwise, if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the directory given  by
	      arg.

	      If  arg  does  not begin with a slash, the behaviour depends on whether the current
	      directory `.' occurs in the list of directories contained in  the  shell	parameter
	      cdpath.	If  it	does  not, first attempt to change to the directory arg under the
	      current directory, and if that fails but cdpath is set and contains  at  least  one
	      element  attempt	to  change to the directory arg under each component of cdpath in
	      turn until successful.  If `.' occurs in cdpath, then cdpath is  searched  strictly
	      in order so that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

	      The order of testing cdpath is modified if the option POSIX_CD is set, as described
	      in the documentation for the option.

	      If no directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a parameter named  arg
	      exists  whose value begins with a slash, treat its value as the directory.  In that
	      case, the parameter is added to the named directory hash table.

	      The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name  of
	      the current directory, and tries to change to this new directory.

	      The  third  form	of  cd extracts an entry from the directory stack, and changes to
	      that directory.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack entry by  counting
	      from  the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argu-
	      ment of the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the
	      meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

	      If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
	      the array chpwd_functions are not called.  This is useful for calls to cd  that  do
	      not change the environment seen by an interactive user.

	      If  the  -s  option is specified, cd refuses to change the current directory if the
	      given pathname contains symlinks.  If the -P option is  given  or  the  CHASE_LINKS
	      option  is set, symbolic links are resolved to their true values.  If the -L option
	      is given symbolic links are retained in the directory (and not resolved) regardless
	      of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
	      The  simple  command argument is taken as an external command instead of a function
	      or builtin and is executed. If the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also
	      be  executed  but  certain  special  properties of them are suppressed. The -p flag
	      causes a default path to be searched instead of that in $path. With  the	-v  flag,
	      command is similar to whence and with -V, it is equivalent to whence -v.

	      See also the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       comparguments
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
	      See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
	      See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
	      Resume  the  next  iteration  of	the enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat
	      loop.  If n is specified, break out of n-1 loops and resume at  the  nth	enclosing
	      loop.

       declare
	      Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
	      With  no	arguments,  print  the	contents of the directory stack.  Directories are
	      added to this stack with the pushd command, and removed with the cd  or  popd  com-
	      mands.   If  arguments are specified, load them onto the directory stack, replacing
	      anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

	      -c     clear the directory stack.

	      -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~ expressions.

	      -p     print directory entries one per line.

	      -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.

       disable [ -afmrs ] name ...
	      Temporarily disable the named hash table	elements.   The  default  is  to  disable
	      builtin commands.  This allows you to use an external command with the same name as
	      a builtin command.  The -a option causes	disable  to  act  on  regular  or  global
	      aliases.	 The  -s  option  causes disable to act on suffix aliases.  The -f option
	      causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r options causes disable to act  on
	      reserved words.  Without arguments all disabled hash table elements from the corre-
	      sponding hash table are printed.	With the -m flag the arguments are taken as  pat-
	      terns  (which should be quoted to prevent them from undergoing filename expansion),
	      and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching  these  pat-
	      terns are disabled.  Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
	      Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their
	      status, and will not complain if you try to exit an  interactive	shell  with  them
	      running or stopped.  If no job is specified, disown the current job.

	      If  the jobs are currently stopped and the AUTO_CONTINUE option is not set, a warn-
	      ing is printed containing information about how to make  them  running  after  they
	      have been disowned.  If one of the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automat-
	      ically be made running, independent of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
	      Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one.	If the -n
	      flag  is	not  present,  print a newline at the end.  echo recognizes the following
	      escape sequences:

	      \a     bell character
	      \b     backspace
	      \c     suppress final newline
	      \e     escape
	      \f     form feed
	      \n     linefeed (newline)
	      \r     carriage return
	      \t     horizontal tab
	      \v     vertical tab
	      \\     backslash
	      \0NNN  character code in octal
	      \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
	      \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
	      \UNNNNNNNN
		     unicode character code in hexadecimal

	      The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences.
	      In the latter case, -e flag can be used to enable them.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
	      Without any argument print current emulation mode.

	      With  single  argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as much as
	      possible.  csh will never be fully emulated.  If the argument is	not  one  of  the
	      shells  listed above, zsh will be used as a default; more precisely, the tests per-
	      formed on the argument are the same as those used to  determine  the  emulation  at
	      startup based on the shell name, see the section COMPATIBILITY in zsh(1) .

	      If  the emulate command occurs inside a function that has been marked for execution
	      tracing with functions -t then the xtrace option will be turned  on  regardless  of
	      emulation  mode  or  other options.  Note that code executed inside the function by
	      the ., source, or eval commands is not considered to be running directly	from  the
	      function, hence does not provoke this behaviour.

	      If  the  -R  switch is given, all settable options are reset to their default value
	      corresponding to the specified emulation mode, except for certain options  describ-
	      ing  the	interactive  environment;  otherwise,  only those options likely to cause
	      portability problems in scripts and functions are altered.  If  the  -L  switch  is
	      given,  the  options LOCAL_OPTIONS and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the
	      effects of the emulate command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to  the
	      immediately  surrounding	shell function, if any; normally these options are turned
	      off in all emulation modes except ksh. The -L switch is mutually exclusive with the
	      use of -c in flags.

	      The  flags may be any of the invocation-time flags described in the section INVOCA-
	      TION in zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS' and `-o VI' may not be used.  Flags such  as
	      `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED' may be prohibited in some circumstances.

	      If  -c arg appears in flags, arg is evaluated while the requested emulation is tem-
	      porarily in effect.  In this case the emulation mode and all options  are  restored
	      to  their  previous  values  before emulate returns.  The -R switch may precede the
	      name of the shell to emulate; note this has a meaning distinct from including -R in
	      flags.

	      Use  of  -c enables `sticky' emulation mode for functions defined within the evalu-
	      ated expression:	the emulation mode is associated thereafter with the function  so
	      that  whenever the function is executed the emulation (respecting the -R switch, if
	      present) and all options are set before entry to the function, and  restored  after
	      exit.   If  the  function is called when the sticky emulation is already in effect,
	      either within an `emulate shell -c' expression or within another function with  the
	      same  sticky emulation, entry and exit from the function do not cause options to be
	      altered (except due to standard processing such as the LOCAL_OPTIONS option).  This
	      also  applies  to  functions  marked  for autoload within the sticky emulation; the
	      appropriate set of options will be applied at the point the function is  loaded  as
	      well as when it is run.

	      For example:

		     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
		     fno() { fni; }'
		     fno

	      The  two	functions  fni and fno are defined with sticky sh emulation.  fno is then
	      executed, causing options associated with emulations to be set to their  values  in
	      sh.   fni  then  calls  fno; because fno is also marked for sticky sh emulation, no
	      option changes take place on entry to or exit from it.  Hence the  option  cshnull-
	      glob,  turned  off  by  sh emulation, will be turned on within fni and remain on on
	      return to fno.  On exit from fno, the  emulation	mode  and  all	options  will  be
	      restored to the state they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

	      The documentation above is typically sufficient for the intended purpose of execut-
	      ing code designed for other shells in a suitable environment.  More detailed  rules
	      follow.
	      1.     The sticky emulation environment provided by `emulate shell -c' is identical
		     to that provided by entry to a function marked for  sticky  emulation  as	a
		     consequence  of  being  defined in such an environment.  Hence, for example,
		     the sticky emulation is inherited by subfunctions defined	within	functions
		     with sticky emulation.
	      2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from functions that are
		     not marked for sticky emulation, other than those that would  normally  take
		     place, even if those functions are called within sticky emulation.
	      3.     No  special  handling  is provided for functions marked for autoload nor for
		     functions present in wordcode created by the zcompile command.
	      4.     The presence or absence of the -R switch to emulate corresponds to different
		     sticky  emulation	modes, so for example `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R sh -c'
		     and `emulate csh -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
	      5.     Difference in shell options supplied in addition to the basic emulation also
		     mean  the	sticky	emulations are different, so for example `emulate zsh -c'
		     and `emulate zsh -o cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky emulations.

       enable [ -afmrs ] name ...
	      Enable the named hash table elements, presumably	disabled  earlier  with  disable.
	      The  default  is to enable builtin commands.  The -a option causes enable to act on
	      regular or global aliases.  The -s option causes enable to act on  suffix  aliases.
	      The -f option causes enable to act on shell functions.  The -r option causes enable
	      to act on reserved words.  Without arguments all enabled hash table  elements  from
	      the corresponding hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken
	      as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements from  the  corresponding
	      hash  table  matching  these patterns are enabled.  Enabled objects can be disabled
	      with the disable builtin command.

       eval [ arg ... ]
	      Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the	resulting  command(s)  in
	      the  current  shell  process.  The return status is the same as if the commands had
	      been executed directly by the shell; if there are no args or they contain  no  com-
	      mands (i.e. are an empty string or whitespace) the return status is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] simple command
	      Replace  the  current  shell with an external command rather than forking.  With -c
	      clear the environment; with -l prepend - to the argv[0] string of the command  exe-
	      cuted (to simulate a login shell); with -a argv0 set the argv[0] string of the com-
	      mand executed.  See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       exit [ n ]
	      Exit the shell with the exit status specified by n; if none is specified,  use  the
	      exit  status  from the last command executed.  An EOF condition will also cause the
	      shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
	      The specified names are marked for automatic export to the  environment  of  subse-
	      quently  executed  commands.   Equivalent to typeset -gx.  If a parameter specified
	      does not already exist, it is created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
	      Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
	     [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
	      Select a range of commands from first to last from the history list.  The arguments
	      first  and  last may be specified as a number or as a string.  A negative number is
	      used as an offset to the current history event number.  A string specifies the most
	      recent  event  beginning with the given string.  All substitutions old=new, if any,
	      are then performed on the commands.

	      If the -l flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on standard output.   If
	      the  -m  flag  is  also  given  the first argument is taken as a pattern (should be
	      quoted) and only the history events matching this pattern will be shown.	Otherwise
	      the  editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these history events.  If
	      ename is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used; if that is  not  set
	      the  value  of  the parameter EDITOR is used; if that is not set a builtin default,
	      usually `vi' is used.  If ename is `-', no editor is invoked.  When editing is com-
	      plete, the edited command is executed.

	      If  first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent event), or to -16
	      if the -l flag is given.	If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or  to
	      -1 if the -l flag is given.

	      The  flag  -r reverses the order of the commands and the flag -n suppresses command
	      numbers when listing.

	      Also when listing,
	      -d     prints timestamps for each command
	      -f     prints full time-date stamps in the US `MM/DD/YY hh:mm' format
	      -E     prints full time-date stamps in the European `dd.mm.yyyy hh:mm' format
	      -i     prints full time-date stamps in ISO8601 `yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm' format
	      -t fmt prints time and date stamps in the given format; fmt is formatted	with  the
		     strftime  function  with  the  zsh  extensions  described for the %D{string}
		     prompt format in the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT  SEQUENCES  in  zshmisc(1).
		     The  resulting  formatted string must be no more than 256 characters or will
		     not be printed.
	      -D     prints elapsed times; may be combined with one of the options above.

	      `fc -p' pushes the current history list onto a stack and switches to a new  history
	      list.   If the -a option is also specified, this history list will be automatically
	      popped when the current function scope is exited, which is a much  better  solution
	      than creating a trap function to call `fc -P' manually.  If no arguments are speci-
	      fied, the history list is left empty, $HISTFILE is unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST
	      are  set	to  their  default values.  If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is set to
	      that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the	history  file  is
	      read  in (if it exists) to initialize the new list.  If a second argument is speci-
	      fied, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are instead set to the single specified numeric  value.
	      Finally,	if  a  third  argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate value
	      from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these environment values for the	new  his-
	      tory list however you desire in order to manipulate the new history list.

	      `fc  -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by `fc -p'.  The current
	      list is saved to its $HISTFILE before it is destroyed (assuming that $HISTFILE  and
	      $SAVEHIST  are  set appropriately, of course).  The values of $HISTFILE, $HISTSIZE,
	      and $SAVEHIST are restored to the values they had when `fc -p'  was  called.   Note
	      that  this  restoration  can  conflict with making these variables "local", so your
	      best bet is to avoid local declarations for these variables in functions	that  use
	      `fc -p'.	The one other guaranteed-safe combination is declaring these variables to
	      be local at the top of your function and using the automatic option (-a)	with  `fc
	      -p'.   Finally,  note  that it is legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic
	      popping if you need to do so before the function exits.

	      `fc -R' reads the history from the given file, `fc -W' writes the  history  out  to
	      the given file, and `fc -A' appends the history out to the given file.  If no file-
	      name is specified, the $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is added to -R, only
	      those  events  that  are not already contained within the internal history list are
	      added.  If the -I option is added to -A or -W, only those events that are new since
	      last  incremental  append/write  to  the history file are appended/written.  In any
	      case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
	      Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job is specified, resume
	      the current job.

       float [ {+|-}EFHghlprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
	      Equivalent  to typeset -E, except that options irrelevant to floating point numbers
	      are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UXkmtTuz ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn
	      Equivalent to typeset -f, with the exception of the  -M  option.	 Use  of  the  -M
	      option may not be combined with any of the options handled by typeset -f.

	      functions  -M  mathfn  defines mathfn as the name of a mathematical function recog-
	      nised in all forms of arithmetical expressions; see the section `Arithmetic Evalua-
	      tion'  in  zshmisc(1).   By  default  mathfn may take any number of comma-separated
	      arguments.  If min is given, it must have exactly min args; if min and max are both
	      given,  it  must have at least min and at most max args.	max may be -1 to indicate
	      that there is no upper limit.

	      By default the function is implemented by a shell function of  the  same	name;  if
	      shellfn  is  specified  it gives the name of the corresponding shell function while
	      mathfn remains the name used in arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function
	      in  $0  is  mathfn  (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided the option
	      FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters  in  the  shell  function
	      correspond  to  the arguments of the mathematical function call.	The result of the
	      last arithmetical expression evaluated inside the shell function (even if it  is	a
	      form  that  normally  only  returns  a status) gives the result of the mathematical
	      function.

	      functions -M with no arguments lists all such user-defined functions  in	the  same
	      form  as	a definition.  With the additional option -m and a list of arguments, all
	      functions whose mathfn matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

	      function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the additional  option
	      -m the arguments are treated as patterns and all functions whose mathfn matches the
	      pattern are removed.  Note that the shell function implementing  the  behaviour  is
	      not removed (regardless of whether its name coincides with mathfn).

	      For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

		     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
		     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
		     print $(( cube(3) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
	      Read  the  top  value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell parameter name.
	      Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
	      Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are  omitted,  use  the  positional
	      parameters.   A  valid option argument begins with a `+' or a `-'.  An argument not
	      beginning with a `+' or a `-', or the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a
	      single  `-' is not considered a valid option argument.  optstring contains the let-
	      ters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter  is  followed	by  a  `:',  that  option
	      requires an argument.  The options can be separated from the argument by blanks.

	      Each  time  it  is  invoked, getopts places the option letter it finds in the shell
	      parameter name, prepended with a `+' when arg begins with a `+'.	The index of  the
	      next arg is stored in OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

	      The  first  option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning to OPTIND.
	      OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell
	      function.   OPTARG  is not reset and retains its value from the most recent call to
	      getopts.	If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it remains unset,  and
	      the  index  or option argument is not stored.  The option itself is still stored in
	      name in this case.

	      A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option
	      in  OPTARG, and to set name to `?' for an unknown option and to `:' when a required
	      argument is missing.  Otherwise, getopts sets name to `?' and prints an error  mes-
	      sage  when an option is invalid.	The exit status is nonzero when there are no more
	      options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
	      hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command hash table, and the
	      named  directory	hash  table.  Normally one would modify these tables by modifying
	      one's PATH (for the command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters
	      (for  the  named	directory  hash  table).   The choice of hash table to work on is
	      determined by the -d option; without the option the command hash table is used, and
	      with the option the named directory hash table is used.

	      Given  no arguments, and neither the -r or -f options, the selected hash table will
	      be listed in full.

	      The -r option causes the selected hash table to be  emptied.   It  will  be  subse-
	      quently  rebuilt in the normal fashion.  The -f option causes the selected hash ta-
	      ble to be fully rebuilt immediately.  For the command hash table	this  hashes  all
	      the  absolute  directories in the PATH, and for the named directory hash table this
	      adds all users' home directories.  These two options cannot be used with any  argu-
	      ments.

	      The -m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be quoted)
	      and the elements of the hash table matching those patterns are  printed.	 This  is
	      the only way to display a limited selection of hash table elements.

	      For  each  name  with a corresponding value, put `name' in the selected hash table,
	      associating it with the pathname `value'.  In the command hash  table,  this  means
	      that  whenever  `name' is used as a command argument, the shell will try to execute
	      the file given by `value'.  In the named directory  hash	table,	this  means  that
	      `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

	      For  each  name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the hash table,
	      checking what the appropriate value is in the normal manner for  that  hash  table.
	      If an appropriate value can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

	      The  -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by explicit
	      specification.  If has no effect if used with -f.

	      If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the form  of	a
	      call to hash.

       history
	      Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghilprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
	      Equivalent  to  typeset -i, except that options irrelevant to integers are not per-
	      mitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
	      Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is omitted.  The -l flag
	      lists  process IDs, and the -p flag lists process groups.  If the -r flag is speci-
	      fied only running jobs will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs
	      are  shown.   If the -d flag is given, the directory from which the job was started
	      (which may not be the current directory of the job) will also be shown.

	      The -Z option replaces the shell's argument and environment space  with  the  given
	      string, truncated if necessary to fit.  This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1))
	      listings.  This feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
	      Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs or processes.   Sig-
	      nals  are  given	by  number or by names, with or without the `SIG' prefix.  If the
	      signal being sent is not `KILL' or `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT'  sig-
	      nal  if  it is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a job not in the
	      job list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig is not specified  the  signal  names
	      are  listed.  Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal num-
	      ber is listed.  For each sig that is a signal number or a number	representing  the
	      exit  status  of	a process which was terminated or stopped by a signal the name of
	      the signal is printed.

	      On some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few  signals.   Typical
	      examples	are  SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and SIGIO, assuming they correspond to
	      the same signal number.  kill -l will only list the preferred form, however kill -l
	      alt will show if the alternative form corresponds to a signal number.  For example,
	      under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both output 29, hence  kill  -IO	and  kill
	      -POLL have the same effect.

	      Many  systems will allow process IDs to be negative to kill a process group or zero
	      to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
	      Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the section `Arithmetic Evalua-
	      tion'  in  zshmisc(1) for a description of arithmetic expressions.  The exit status
	      is 0 if the value of the last expression is nonzero, 1 if it is zero, and 2  if  an
	      error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
	      Set  or  display	resource  limits.  Unless the -s flag is given, the limit applies
	      only the children of the shell.  If  -s  is  given  without  other  arguments,  the
	      resource	limits	of the current shell is set to the previously set resource limits
	      of the children.

	      If limit is not specified, print the current limit placed  on  resource,	otherwise
	      set  the	limit  to  the specified value.  If the -h flag is given, use hard limits
	      instead of soft limits.  If no resource is given, print all limits.

	      When looping over multiple resources,  the  shell  will  abort  immediately  if  it
	      detects  a  badly  formed  argument.   However, if it fails to set a limit for some
	      other reason it will continue trying to set the remaining limits.

	      resource can be one of:

	      addressspace
		     Maximum amount of address space used.
	      aiomemorylocked
		     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations.
	      aiooperations
		     Maximum number of AIO operations.
	      cachedthreads
		     Maximum number of cached threads.
	      coredumpsize
		     Maximum size of a core dump.
	      cputime
		     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
	      datasize
		     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
	      descriptors
		     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
	      filesize
		     Largest single file allowed.
	      maxproc
		     Maximum number of processes.
	      maxpthreads
		     Maximum number of threads per process.
	      memorylocked
		     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
	      memoryuse
		     Maximum resident set size.
	      msgqueue
		     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
	      resident
		     Maximum resident set size.
	      sigpending
		     Maximum number of pending signals.
	      sockbufsize
		     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
	      stacksize
		     Maximum stack size for each process.
	      vmemorysize
		     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

	      Which of these resource limits are available depends on the system.   resource  can
	      be  abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.  It can also be an integer, which corre-
	      sponds to the integer defined for the resource by the operating system.

	      If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of the resources con-
	      figured  into  the shell, the shell will try to read or write the limit anyway, and
	      will report an error if this fails.  As the shell does  not  store  such	resources
	      internally, an attempt to set the limit will fail unless the -s option is present.

	      limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

	      nh     hours
	      nk     kilobytes (default)
	      nm     megabytes or minutes
	      [mm:]ss
		     minutes and seconds

	      The  limit command is not made available by default when the shell starts in a mode
	      emulating another shell.	It can be made available with the  command  `zmodload  -F
	      zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AEFHUahlprtux ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ] ...
	      Same  as	typeset,  except  that the options -g, and -f are not permitted.  In this
	      case the -x option does not force the use of -g, i.e. exported  variables  will  be
	      local to functions.

       log    List  all  users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting of the
	      watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
	      Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
	      See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       popd [ [-q] {+|-}n ]
	      Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform a cd to the  new  top  direc-
	      tory.  With no argument, the current top entry is removed.  An argument of the form
	      `+n' identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list  shown  by  the
	      dirs  command,  starting	with  zero.   An  argument of the form -n counts from the
	      right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this  con-
	      text are swapped.

	      If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
	      the array $chpwd_functions are not called, and  the  new	directory  stack  is  not
	      printed.	 This is useful for calls to popd that do not change the environment seen
	      by an interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
	 [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
	      With the `-f' option the arguments are printed as described  by  printf.	 With  no
	      flags  or  with  the  flag `-', the arguments are printed on the standard output as
	      described by echo, with the  following  differences:  the  escape  sequence  `\M-x'
	      metafies	the character x (sets the highest bit), `\C-x' produces a control charac-
	      ter (`\C-@' and `\C-?' give the characters NUL and delete), and `\E' is  a  synonym
	      for `\e'.  Finally, if not in an escape sequence, `\' escapes the following charac-
	      ter and is not printed.

	      -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only useful with the -c
		     and -C options.

	      -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see zsh-
		     zle(1).

	      -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a  is  also  given,  arguments  are
		     printed with the row incrementing first.

	      -C cols
		     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a is also given, arguments are
		     printed with the row incrementing first.

	      -D     Treat the arguments as directory names, replacing prefixes  with  ~  expres-
		     sions, as appropriate.

	      -i     If given together with -o or -O, sorting is performed case-independently.

	      -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces.

	      -m     Take  the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it from
		     the argument list together with subsequent arguments that do not match  this
		     pattern.

	      -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

	      -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

	      -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

	      -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

	      -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

	      -P     Perform prompt expansion (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

	      -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

	      -R     Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process escape sequences unless
		     the -e flag is given.  The -n flag suppresses the	trailing  newline.   Only
		     the -e and -n flags are recognized after -R; all other arguments and options
		     are printed.

	      -s     Place the results in the history list instead of  on  the	standard  output.
		     Each  argument  to the print command is treated as a single word in the his-
		     tory, regardless of its content.

	      -S     Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output.  In
		     this  case only a single argument is allowed; it will be split into words as
		     if it were a full shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading  the
		     line from a history file with the HIST_LEX_WORDS option active.

	      -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

	      -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces.

	      If  any  of  `-m',  `-o' or `-O' are used in combination with `-f' and there are no
	      arguments (after the removal process in the case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf format [ arg ... ]
	      Print the arguments according to the format specification. Formatting rules are the
	      same as used in C. The same escape sequences as for echo are recognised in the for-
	      mat. All C conversion specifications ending in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn  are  handled.
	      In  addition to this, `%b' can be used instead of `%s' to cause escape sequences in
	      the argument to be recognised and `%q' can be used to quote the argument in such	a
	      way that allows it to be reused as shell input. With the numeric format specifiers,
	      if the corresponding argument starts with a quote character, the numeric	value  of
	      the  following  character  is used as the number to print otherwise the argument is
	      evaluated as an arithmetic expression. See the section `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in
	      zshmisc(1)  for a description of arithmetic expressions. With `%n', the correspond-
	      ing argument is taken as an identifier which is created as an integer parameter.

	      Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument in order but  they
	      can explicitly specify the nth argument is to be used by replacing `%' by `%n$' and
	      `*' by `*n$'.  It is recommended that you do not mix references  of  this  explicit
	      style with the normal style and the handling of such mixed styles may be subject to
	      future change.

	      If arguments remain unused after formatting, the format string is reused until  all
	      arguments  have  been  consumed.	With the print builtin, this can be suppressed by
	      using the -r option. If more arguments are required by the format  than  have  been
	      specified, the behaviour is as if zero or an empty string had been specified as the
	      argument.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
	      Change the current directory, and push the old current directory onto the directory
	      stack.   In  the	first  form,  change the current directory to arg.  If arg is not
	      specified, change to the second directory on the stack (that is, exchange  the  top
	      two  entries), or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if there is
	      only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is interpreted as it would be  by  cd.
	      The meaning of old and new in the second form is also the same as for cd.

	      The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the directory list.  An argu-
	      ment of the form `+n' identifies a stack entry by counting from  the  left  of  the
	      list  shown  by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form `-n'
	      counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of  `+'  and
	      `-' in this context are swapped.

	      If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
	      the array $chpwd_functions are not called, and  the  new	directory  stack  is  not
	      printed.	This is useful for calls to pushd that do not change the environment seen
	      by an interactive user.

	      If the option -q is not specified and the shell option PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the
	      directory stack will be printed after a pushd is performed.

	      The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for the cd builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
	      Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
	      Print  the absolute pathname of the current working directory.  If the -r or the -P
	      flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option is set and the -L flag is  not  given,
	      the printed path will not contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
	[ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
	      Read  one line and break it into fields using the characters in $IFS as separators,
	      except as noted below.  The first field is assigned to the first name,  the  second
	      field to the second name, etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If
	      name is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

	      -r     Raw mode: a `\' at the end of a line does not signify line continuation  and
		     backslashes  in  the  line  don't	quote the following character and are not
		     removed.

	      -s     Don't echo back characters if reading from the terminal.  Currently does not
		     work with the -q option.

	      -q     Read  only one character from the terminal and set name to `y' if this char-
		     acter was `y' or `Y' and to `n' otherwise.  With this flag  set  the  return
		     status  is  zero  only  if the character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may be
		     used with a timeout; if the read times out, or encounters end of file,  sta-
		     tus  2  is returned.  Input is read from the terminal unless one of -u or -p
		     is present.  This option may also be used within zle widgets.

	      -k [ num ]
		     Read only one (or num) characters.  All are  assigned  to	the  first  name,
		     without  word splitting.  This flag is ignored when -q is present.  Input is
		     read from the terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.	This  option  may
		     also be used within zle widgets.

		     Note  that despite the mnemonic `key' this option does read full characters,
		     which may consist of multiple bytes if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

	      -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name,
		     without  word  splitting.	 Text is pushed onto the stack with `print -z' or
		     with push-line from the line editor (see zshzle(1)).  This flag  is  ignored
		     when the -k or -q flags are present.

	      -e
	      -E     The  input  read is printed (echoed) to the standard output.  If the -e flag
		     is used, no input is assigned to the parameters.

	      -A     The first name is taken as the name of an array and all words  are  assigned
		     to it.

	      -c
	      -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion
		     (specified with the -K flag to compctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words
		     of  the current command are read. If the -l flag is given, the whole line is
		     assigned as a scalar.  If both flags are present,	-l  is	used  and  -c  is
		     ignored.

	      -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on is read.  With -l,
		     the index of the character the cursor is on is read.  Note that the  command
		     name is word number 1, not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
		     the line, its character index is the length of the line plus one.

	      -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

	      -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

	      -d delim
		     Input is terminated by the first character of delim instead of by newline.

	      -t [ num ]
		     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If num is present, it
		     must  begin  with a digit and will be evaluated to give a number of seconds,
		     which may be a floating point number; in this case the  read  times  out  if
		     input is not available within this time.  If num is not present, it is taken
		     to be zero, so that read returns immediately if no input is  available.   If
		     no input is available, return status 1 and do not set any variables.

		     This  option  is  not available when reading from the editor buffer with -z,
		     when called from within completion with -c or -l, with -q which  clears  the
		     input  queue  before reading, or within zle where other mechanisms should be
		     used to test for input.

		     Note that read does not attempt to alter the  input  processing  mode.   The
		     default  mode is canonical input, in which an entire line is read at a time,
		     so usually `read -t' will not read anything until an entire  line	has  been
		     typed.   However,	when reading from the terminal with -k input is processed
		     one key at a time; in this case, only availability of the first character is
		     tested, so that e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second character.
		     Use two instances of `read -t -k' if this is not what is wanted.

	      If the first argument contains a `?', the remainder of  this  word  is  used  as	a
	      prompt on standard error when the shell is interactive.

	      The value (exit status) of read is 1 when an end-of-file is encountered, or when -c
	      or -l is present and the command is not called  from  a  compctl	function,  or  as
	      described for -q.  Otherwise the value is 0.

	      The  behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z flags is undefined.
	      Presently -q cancels all the others, -p cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z
	      cancels both -p and -u.

	      The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
	      Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
	      Causes  a  shell	function  or `.' script to return to the invoking script with the
	      return status specified by n.  If n is omitted, the return status is  that  of  the
	      last command executed.

	      If  return  was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the effect is different
	      for zero and non-zero return status.  With zero status (or after an implicit return
	      at  the  end of the trap), the shell will return to whatever it was previously pro-
	      cessing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as interrupted  except  that
	      the return status of the trap is retained.  Note that the numeric value of the sig-
	      nal which caused the trap is passed as the first argument, so the statement `return
	      $((128+$1))' will return the same status as if the signal had not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ] [ arg ... ]
	      Set  the options for the shell and/or set the positional parameters, or declare and
	      set an array.  If the -s option is given, it causes the specified arguments  to  be
	      sorted  before assigning them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if
	      -A is used).  With +s sort arguments in descending order.  For the meaning  of  the
	      other  flags,  see  zshoptions(1).   Flags  may  be  specified by name using the -o
	      option. If no option name is supplied  with  -o,	the  current  option  states  are
	      printed:	 see  the description of setopt below for more information on the format.
	      With +o they are printed in a form that can be used as input to the shell.

	      If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing the given args;  if
	      no name is specified, all arrays are printed together with their values.

	      If  +A  is  used and name is an array, the given arguments will replace the initial
	      elements of that array; if no name is specified, all  arrays  are  printed  without
	      their values.

	      The  behaviour  of arguments after -A name or +A name depends on whether the option
	      KSH_ARRAYS is set.  If it is not set, all arguments following name are  treated  as
	      values  for  the	array,	regardless  of	their form.  If the option is set, normal
	      option processing continues at that point; only regular arguments  are  treated  as
	      values for the array.  This means that

		     set -A array -x -- foo

	      sets  array  to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the array to foo and
	      turns on the option `-x' if it is set.

	      If the -A flag is not present, but there are  arguments  beyond  the  options,  the
	      positional  parameters are set.  If the option list (if any) is terminated by `--',
	      and there are no further arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

	      If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values of all  parameters
	      are  printed on the standard output.  If the only argument is `+', the names of all
	      parameters are printed.

	      For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set -  args'  as  `set
	      +xv -- args' when in any other emulation mode than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
	      Set  the options for the shell.  All options specified either with flags or by name
	      are set.

	      If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently set  are  printed.
	      The  form  is chosen so as to minimize the differences from the default options for
	      the current emulation (the default emulation being native  zsh,  shown  as  <Z>  in
	      zshoptions(1)).	Options  that  are on by default for the emulation are shown with
	      the prefix no only if they are off, while other options are shown without the  pre-
	      fix  no  and  only if they are on.  In addition to options changed from the default
	      state by the user, any options activated automatically by the shell  (for  example,
	      SHIN_STDIN  or INTERACTIVE) will be shown in the list.  The format is further modi-
	      fied by the option KSH_OPTION_PRINT, however the	rationale  for	choosing  options
	      with or without the no prefix remains the same in this case.

	      If the -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted
	      to protect them from filename expansion), and all options with names matching these
	      patterns are set.

	      Note that a bad option name does not cause execution of subsequent shell code to be
	      aborted; this is behaviour is different from that of `set -o'.  This is because set
	      is regarded as a special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt is not.

       shift [ n ] [ name ... ]
	      The  positional  parameters  ${n+1} ... are renamed to $1 ..., where n is an arith-
	      metic expression that defaults to 1.  If any names are given then the  arrays  with
	      these names are shifted instead of the positional parameters.

       source file [ arg ... ]
	      Same  as	`.',  except  that the current directory is always searched and is always
	      searched first, before directories in $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
	      Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it receives a SIGCONT.
	      Unless the -f option is given, this will refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
	      Like  the system version of test.  Added for compatibility; use conditional expres-
	      sions instead (see the section `Conditional Expressions').   The	main  differences
	      between  the  conditional expression syntax and the test and [ builtins are:  these
	      commands are not handled syntactically, so for example an empty variable	expansion
	      may  cause  an  argument to be omitted; syntax errors cause status 2 to be returned
	      instead of a shell error; and arithmetic operators expect integer arguments  rather
	      than arithmetic expressions.

	      The  command  attempts to implement POSIX and its extensions where these are speci-
	      fied.  Unfortunately there are intrinsic ambiguities in the syntax;  in  particular
	      there is no distinction between test operators and strings that resemble them.  The
	      standard attempts to resolve these for small numbers of arguments (up to four); for
	      five or more arguments compatibility cannot be relied on.  Users are urged wherever
	      possible to use the `[[' test syntax which does not have these ambiguities.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for the shell  and  for  processes  run
	      from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
	      arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect it from immediate evaluation
	      by the shell) to be read and executed when the shell receives any  of  the  signals
	      specified  by  one  or more sig args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the
	      name of a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1,	HUP,  and
	      SIGHUP are all the same signal).

	      If  arg  is  `-', then the specified signals are reset to their defaults, or, if no
	      sig args are present, all traps are reset.

	      If arg is an empty string, then the specified signals are ignored by the shell (and
	      by the commands it invokes).

	      If  arg  is omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.  the first argument
	      is a valid signal number or name), the effect is the same as if arg had been speci-
	      fied as `-'.

	      The  trap  command with no arguments prints a list of commands associated with each
	      signal.

	      If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command  with  a  nonzero  exit
	      status.	ERR  is  an alias for ZERR on systems that have no SIGERR signal (this is
	      the usual case).

	      If sig is DEBUG then arg will  be  executed  before  each  command  if  the  option
	      DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD	is  set  (as it is by default), else after each command.  Here, a
	      `command' is what is described as a `sublist' in the shell grammar, see the section
	      SIMPLE  COMMANDS	&  PIPELINES  in  zshmisc(1).  If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set various
	      additional features are available.  First, it is possible to skip the next  command
	      by  setting  the	option	ERR_EXIT;  see	the description of the ERR_EXIT option in
	      zshoptions(1).  Also, the shell parameter ZSH_DEBUG_CMD is set to the string corre-
	      sponding	to  the command to be executed following the trap.  Note that this string
	      is reconstructed from the internal format and may not be formatted the same way  as
	      the original text.  The parameter is unset after the trap is executed.

	      If  sig  is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is executed inside the body of a func-
	      tion, then the command arg is executed after the function completes.  The value  of
	      $?  at  the start of execution is the exit status of the shell or the return status
	      of the function exiting.	If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement  is	not  exe-
	      cuted  inside  the  body	of  a function, then the command arg is executed when the
	      shell terminates; the trap runs before any zshexit hook functions.

	      ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.	 ZERR  and  DEBUG
	      traps are kept within subshells, while other traps are reset.

	      Note  that  traps  defined  with the trap builtin are slightly different from those
	      defined as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the latter have their own function  environment
	      (line  numbers,  local variables, etc.) while the former use the environment of the
	      command in which they were called.  For example,

		     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

	      will print the line number of a command executed after it has run, while

		     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

	      will always print the number zero.

	      Alternative signal names are allowed as described under  kill  above.   Defining	a
	      trap  under  either  name  causes any trap under an alternative name to be removed.
	      However, it is recommended that for consistency users stick exclusively to one name
	      or another.

       true [ arg ... ]
	      Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl -fu
	      The  -f  option  freezes	the tty, and -u unfreezes it.  When the tty is frozen, no
	      changes made to the tty settings by external programs will be honored by the shell,
	      except  for changes in the size of the screen; the shell will simply reset the set-
	      tings to their previous values as soon as  each  command	exits  or  is  suspended.
	      Thus,  stty  and	similar  programs have no effect when the tty is frozen.  Without
	      options it reports whether the terminal is frozen or not.

       type [ -wfpams ] name ...
	      Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AEFHUafghklprtuxmz ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Urux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] SCALAR[=value] array [ sep ]
	      Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

	      A parameter is created for each name that does not  already  refer  to  one.   When
	      inside  a  function,  a  new  parameter  is created for every name (even those that
	      already exist), and is unset again when the function completes.  See `Local Parame-
	      ters'  in  zshparam(1).	The  same  rules apply to special shell parameters, which
	      retain their special attributes when made local.

	      For each name=value assignment, the parameter name is  set  to  value.   Note  that
	      arrays  currently cannot be assigned in typeset expressions, only scalars and inte-
	      gers.  Unless the option KSH_TYPESET  is	set,  normal  expansion  rules	apply  to
	      assignment  arguments,  so value may be split into separate words; if the option is
	      set, assignments which can be recognised when expansion is performed are treated as
	      single  words.   For  example the command typeset vbl=$(echo one two) is treated as
	      having one argument if KSH_TYPESET is set, but otherwise is treated as  having  the
	      two arguments vbl=one and two.

	      If  the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each remaining name that refers
	      to a parameter that is set, the name and value of the parameter are printed in  the
	      form  of	an  assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created parameters, or when
	      any attribute flags listed below are given along with the name.  Using `+'  instead
	      of minus to introduce an attribute turns it off.

	      If the -p option is given, parameters and values are printed in the form of a type-
	      set command and an assignment (which will be  printed  separately  for  arrays  and
	      associative  arrays), regardless of other flags and options.  Note that the -h flag
	      on parameters is respected; no value will be shown for these parameters.

	      If the -T option is given, two or three arguments must be present (an exception  is
	      that  zero  arguments  are  allowed  to show the list of parameters created in this
	      fashion).  The first two are the name of a scalar and an array parameter	(in  that
	      order)  that  will be tied together in the manner of $PATH and $path.  The optional
	      third argument is a single-character separator which will be used to join the  ele-
	      ments  of  the array to form the scalar; if absent, a colon is used, as with $PATH.
	      Only the first character of the separator is significant; any remaining  characters
	      are ignored.  Only the scalar parameter may be assigned an initial value.  Both the
	      scalar and the array may otherwise be manipulated as normal.  If one is unset,  the
	      other  will  automatically  be unset too.  There is no way of untying the variables
	      without unsetting them, or converting the type of one of them with another  typeset
	      command;	+T does not work, assigning an array to SCALAR is an error, and assigning
	      a scalar to array sets it to be a single-element array.  Note  that  both  `typeset
	      -xT  ...'  and `export -T ...' work, but only the scalar will be marked for export.
	      Setting the value using the scalar version causes a split on all separators  (which
	      cannot  be  quoted).  It is possible to use the same two tied variables with a dif-
	      ferent separator character in which case the variables remain joined as before  but
	      the separator is changed.  This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
	      below.

	      The -g (global) flag is treated specially: it means that	any  resulting	parameter
	      will  not  be  restricted to local scope.  Note that this does not necessarily mean
	      that the parameter will be global, as the flag will apply to any existing parameter
	      (even  if unset) from an enclosing function.  This flag does not affect the parame-
	      ter after creation, hence it has no effect when listing  existing  parameters,  nor
	      does the flag +g have any effect except in combination with -m (see below).

	      If no name is present, the names and values of all parameters are printed.  In this
	      case the attribute flags restrict the display to only those  parameters  that  have
	      the  specified attributes, and using `+' rather than `-' to introduce the flag sup-
	      presses printing of the values of parameters  when  there  is  no  parameter  name.
	      Also,  if  the  last  option is the word `+', then names are printed but values are
	      not.

	      If the -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as patterns (which  should  be
	      quoted).	 With  no attribute flags, all parameters (or functions with the -f flag)
	      with matching names are printed (the shell option TYPESET_SILENT	is  not  used  in
	      this  case).   Note that -m is ignored if no patterns are given.	If the +g flag is
	      combined with -m, a new local parameter is created  for  every  matching	parameter
	      that  is not already local.  Otherwise -m applies all other flags or assignments to
	      the existing parameters.	Except when assignments are made with  name=value,  using
	      +m forces the matching parameters to be printed, even inside a function.

	      If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present or the +m form was
	      used, each parameter name printed is preceded by a list of the attributes  of  that
	      parameter  (array,  association,	exported, integer, readonly).  If +m is used with
	      attribute flags, and all those flags are introduced with +, the matching	parameter
	      names are printed but their values are not.

	      Attribute flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z, -l, u) are only applied
	      to the expanded value at the point of a parameter expansion expression  using  `$'.
	      They  are not applied when a parameter is retrieved internally by the shell for any
	      purpose.

	      The following attribute flags may be specified:

	      -A     The names refer to associative array parameters; see `Array  Parameters'  in
		     zshparam(1).

	      -L     Left  justify  and  remove  leading  blanks from value.  If n is nonzero, it
		     defines the width of the field.  If n is zero, the width  is  determined  by
		     the  width  of  the  value  of the first assignment.  In the case of numeric
		     parameters, the length of the complete value assigned to  the  parameter  is
		     used to determine the width, not the value that would be output.

		     The  width  is the count of characters, which may be multibyte characters if
		     the MULTIBYTE option is in effect.  Note that the screen width of the  char-
		     acter  is	not  taken  into  account;  if this is required, use padding with
		     parameter expansion flags ${(ml...)...} as described in `Parameter Expansion
		     Flags' in zshexpn(1).

		     When  the	parameter  is  expanded, it is filled on the right with blanks or
		     truncated if necessary to fit the field.  Note truncation can lead to  unex-
		     pected results with numeric parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if the -Z
		     flag is also set.

	      -R     Similar to -L, except that right justification is used; when  the	parameter
		     is expanded, the field is left filled with blanks or truncated from the end.
		     May not be combined with the -Z flag.

	      -U     For arrays (but not for associative arrays), keep only the first  occurrence
		     of  each duplicated value.  This may also be set for colon-separated special
		     parameters like PATH or FIGNORE, etc.  This flag  has  a  different  meaning
		     when used with -f; see below.

	      -Z     Specially	handled if set along with the -L flag.	Otherwise, similar to -R,
		     except that leading zeros are used for padding  instead  of  blanks  if  the
		     first non-blank character is a digit.  Numeric parameters are specially han-
		     dled: they are always eligible for padding with zeroes, and the  zeroes  are
		     inserted at an appropriate place in the output.

	      -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array parameter may be created this
		     way, but it may not be assigned to in the typeset statement.  When  display-
		     ing, both normal and associative arrays are shown.

	      -f     The  names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No assignments can be
		     made, and the only other valid flags are -t, -T, -k, -u,  -U  and	-z.   The
		     flag  -t  turns on execution tracing for this function; the flag -T does the
		     same, but turns off tracing on any function called  from  the  present  one,
		     unless  that function also has the -t or -T flag.	The -u and -U flags cause
		     the function to be marked for autoloading; -U also causes alias expansion to
		     be  suppressed  when  the	function  is loaded.  The fpath parameter will be
		     searched to find the function definition when the function is  first  refer-
		     enced; see the section `Functions'. The -k and -z flags make the function be
		     loaded using ksh-style or zsh-style autoloading respectively. If neither  is
		     given, the setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option determines how the function is
		     loaded.

	      -h     Hide: only useful for special parameters (those marked `<S>' in the table in
		     zshparam(1)),  and  for  local  parameters  with  the same name as a special
		     parameter, though harmless  for  others.	A  special  parameter  with  this
		     attribute	will  not  retain its special effect when made local.  Thus after
		     `typeset -h PATH', a function containing `typeset PATH' will create an ordi-
		     nary  local  parameter  without the usual behaviour of PATH.  Alternatively,
		     the local parameter may itself be given this attribute; hence inside a func-
		     tion  `typeset  -h PATH' creates an ordinary local parameter and the special
		     PATH parameter is not altered in any way.	It is also possible to	create	a
		     local  parameter using `typeset +h special', where the local copy of special
		     will retain its special properties regardless of having  the  -h  attribute.
		     Global  special  parameters  loaded  from	shell modules (currently those in
		     zsh/mapfile and zsh/parameter) are automatically given the -h  attribute  to
		     avoid name clashes.

	      -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not display the value of the parame-
		     ter when listing parameters; the display for such parameters is always as if
		     the `+' flag had been given.  Use of the parameter is in other respects nor-
		     mal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is specified by name, or
		     by  pattern with the -m option.  This is on by default for the parameters in
		     the zsh/parameter and zsh/mapfile modules.  Note, however, that  unlike  the
		     -h flag this is also useful for non-special parameters.

	      -i     Use an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero it defines the out-
		     put arithmetic base, otherwise it is determined  by  the  first  assignment.
		     Bases from 2 to 36 inclusive are allowed.

	      -E     Use  an  internal double-precision floating point representation.	On output
		     the variable will be converted to scientific notation.  If n is  nonzero  it
		     defines the number of significant figures to display; the default is ten.

	      -F     Use  an  internal double-precision floating point representation.	On output
		     the variable will be converted to fixed-point decimal  notation.	If  n  is
		     nonzero  it defines the number of digits to display after the decimal point;
		     the default is ten.

	      -l     Convert the result to lower case whenever the parameter  is  expanded.   The
		     value is not converted when assigned.

	      -r     The given names are marked readonly.  Note that if name is a special parame-
		     ter, the readonly attribute can be turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

	      -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning to the shell.  This
		     flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see above.

	      -u     Convert  the  result  to upper case whenever the parameter is expanded.  The
		     value is not converted when assigned.  This flag  has  a  different  meaning
		     when used with -f; see above.

	      -x     Mark  for	automatic export to the environment of subsequently executed com-
		     mands.  If the option GLOBAL_EXPORT is set,  this	implies  the  option  -g,
		     unless +g is also explicitly given; in other words the parameter is not made
		     local to the enclosing function.  This is for  compatibility  with  previous
		     versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ [ -SHacdfilmnpqrstvx | -N resource [ limit ] ... ]
	      Set or display resource limits of the shell and the processes started by the shell.
	      The value of limit can be a number in the unit specified below or one of the values
	      `unlimited',  which  removes  the  limit on the resource, or `hard', which uses the
	      current value of the hard limit on the resource.

	      By default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is given use hard lim-
	      its  instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is given together with the -H flag set
	      both hard and soft limits.

	      If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

	      If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources are printed.  When
	      more  than one resource value is printed, the limit name and unit is printed before
	      each value.

	      When looping over multiple resources,  the  shell  will  abort  immediately  if  it
	      detects  a  badly  formed  argument.   However, if it fails to set a limit for some
	      other reason it will continue trying to set the remaining limits.

	      Not all the following resources are supported on all systems.   Running  ulimit  -a
	      will show which are supported.

	      -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
	      -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
	      -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
	      -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
	      -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
	      -i     The number of pending signals.
	      -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
	      -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
	      -n     open file descriptors.
	      -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
	      -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
	      -t     CPU seconds to be used.
	      -r     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
	      -u     The number of processes available to the user.
	      -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems this refers to the
		     limit called `address space'.
	      -x     The number of locks on files.

	      A resource may also be specified by  integer  in	the  form  `-N	resource',  where
	      resource	corresponds to the integer defined for the resource by the operating sys-
	      tem.  This may be used to set the limits for resources known to the shell which  do
	      not  correspond to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by number in the out-
	      put of `ulimit -a'.

	      The number may alternatively be out of the range of limits compiled into the shell.
	      The  shell  will try to read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if
	      this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
	      The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or a  symbolic  value
	      as  described  in chmod(1).  If mask is omitted, the current value is printed.  The
	      -S option causes the mask to be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise,	the  mask
	      is  printed as an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the permissions you
	      specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied) to the users specified.

       unalias
	      Same as unhash -a.

       unfunction
	      Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
	      Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.  The default  is  remove
	      elements	from the command hash table.  The -a option causes unhash to remove regu-
	      lar or global aliases; note when removing a global aliases that the  argument  must
	      be  quoted  to  prevent  it from being expanded before being passed to the command.
	      The -s option causes unhash to remove suffix aliases.  The -f option causes  unhash
	      to  remove  shell functions.  The -d options causes unhash to remove named directo-
	      ries.  If the -m flag is given the arguments  are  taken	as  patterns  (should  be
	      quoted)  and  all elements of the corresponding hash table with matching names will
	      be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
	      The resource limit for each resource is set to the hard limit.  If the -h  flag  is
	      given  and  the  shell has appropriate privileges, the hard resource limit for each
	      resource is removed.  The resources of the shell process are only changed if the -s
	      flag is given.

	      The  unlimit  command  is  not made available by default when the shell starts in a
	      mode emulating another shell.  It can be made available with the command	`zmodload
	      -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
	      Each  named  parameter is unset.	Local parameters remain local even if unset; they
	      appear unset within scope, but the previous value  will  still  reappear	when  the
	      scope ends.

	      Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset by using subscript
	      syntax on name, which should be quoted (or the entire command prefixed with noglob)
	      to protect the subscript from filename generation.

	      If  the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted)
	      and all parameters with matching names are unset.  Note that this  cannot  be  used
	      when unsetting associative array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part
	      of the pattern.

	      The -v flag specifies that name refers to parameters. This is  the  default  behav-
	      iour.

	      unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
	      Unset  the  options  for	the shell.  All options specified either with flags or by
	      name are unset.  If no arguments are supplied, the names of all  options	currently
	      unset  are  printed.   If  the -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns
	      (which should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob  patterns),
	      and all options with names matching these patterns are unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
	      Wait  for  the specified jobs or processes.  If job is not given then all currently
	      active child processes are waited for.  Each job can be either a job  specification
	      or  the process ID of a job in the job table.  The exit status from this command is
	      that of the job waited for.

       whence [ -vcwfpams ] name ...
	      For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a command name.

	      -v     Produce a more verbose report.

	      -c     Print the results in a csh-like format.  This takes precedence over -v.

	      -w     For each name, print `name: word' where word is one of alias, builtin,  com-
		     mand,  function,  hashed, reserved or none, according as name corresponds to
		     an alias, a built-in command, an external command, a shell function, a  com-
		     mand  defined  with the hash builtin, a reserved word, or is not recognised.
		     This takes precedence over -v and -c.

	      -f     Causes the contents of a shell function to be displayed, which would  other-
		     wise not happen unless the -c flag were used.

	      -p     Do a path search for name even if it is an alias, reserved word, shell func-
		     tion or builtin.

	      -a     Do a search for all occurrences of name throughout the command  path.   Nor-
		     mally only the first occurrence is printed.

	      -m     The  arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted), and the information
		     is displayed for each command matching one of these patterns.

	      -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free pathname as well.

       where [ -wpms ] name ...
	      Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpams ] name ...
	      Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
	      This builtin command can be used to compile functions or scripts, storing the  com-
	      piled  form  in  a  file,  and to examine files containing the compiled form.  This
	      allows faster autoloading of functions and execution of scripts by avoiding parsing
	      of the text when the files are read.

	      The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a compiled file.  If only
	      the file argument is given, the output file has the name	`file.zwc'  and  will  be
	      placed  in  the  same directory as the file.  The shell will load the compiled file
	      instead of the normal function file when the function is autoloaded; see	the  sec-
	      tion  `Autoloading  Functions'  in  zshmisc(1)  for a description of how autoloaded
	      functions are searched.  The extension .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

	      If there is at least one name argument, all the named files are compiled	into  the
	      output file given as the first argument.	If file does not end in .zwc, this exten-
	      sion is automatically appended.  Files containing multiple compiled  functions  are
	      called  `digest'	files, and are intended to be used as elements of the FPATH/fpath
	      special array.

	      The second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled definitions for all
	      the  named  functions  into  file.   For	-c, the names must be functions currently
	      defined in the shell, not those marked for autoloading.  Undefined  functions  that
	      are marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in which case the
	      fpath is searched and the contents of the definition files for those functions,  if
	      found,  are compiled into file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined
	      functions and functions marked for autoloading may be given.  In either  case,  the
	      functions  in  files  written with the -c or -a option will be autoloaded as if the
	      KSH_AUTOLOAD option were unset.

	      The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with different  options
	      is  that some definition files for autoloading define multiple functions, including
	      the function with the same name as the file, and, at the end, call  that	function.
	      In such cases the output of `zcompile -c' does not include the additional functions
	      defined in the file, and any other initialization code in the file is lost.   Using
	      `zcompile -a' captures all this extra information.

	      If  the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used as patterns and all
	      functions whose names match one of these patterns will be written. If  no  name  is
	      given,  the  definitions of all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded
	      will be written.

	      The third form, with the -t option, examines an existing	compiled  file.   Without
	      further  arguments,  the	names  of the original files compiled into it are listed.
	      The first line of output shows the version of the shell which compiled the file and
	      how  the	file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by mapping it into mem-
	      ory).  With arguments, nothing is output and the return status is set  to  zero  if
	      definitions for all names were found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the def-
	      inition for at least one name was not found.

	      Other options:

	      -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

	      -R     When the compiled file is read, its contents are  copied  into  the  shell's
		     memory,  rather  than memory-mapped (see -M).  This happens automatically on
		     systems that do not support memory mapping.

		     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions, it is often desir-
		     able  to  use  this  option; otherwise the whole file, including the code to
		     define functions which have already been defined, will remain mapped, conse-
		     quently wasting memory.

	      -M     The  compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory when read. This is done
		     in such a way that multiple instances of the shell running on the same  host
		     will  share  this	mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
		     builtin decides what to do based on the size of the compiled file.

	      -k
	      -z     These options are used when the compiled file contains functions  which  are
		     to  be autoloaded. If -z is given, the function will be autoloaded as if the
		     KSH_AUTOLOAD option is not set, even if it is set at the time  the  compiled
		     file  is  read,  while if the -k is given, the function will be loaded as if
		     KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options also take precedence over any -k  or  -z
		     options  specified  to  the autoload builtin. If neither of these options is
		     given, the function will be loaded as  determined	by  the  setting  of  the
		     KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time the compiled file is read.

		     These  options may also appear as many times as necessary between the listed
		     names to specify the loading style of all following  functions,  up  to  the
		     next -k or -z.

		     The  created  file  always contains two versions of the compiled format, one
		     for big-endian machines and one for small-endian machines.   The  upshot  of
		     this  is  that the compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
		     mapped, only one half of the file is actually used (and mapped).

       zformat
	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -lLme -P param ] module [+-]feature...
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
	      Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading of  modules  while
	      the  shell  is running (`dynamical loading') is not available on all operating sys-
	      tems, or on all installations on a particular operating system, although the  zmod-
	      load command itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules built
	      into versions of the shell executable without dynamical loading.

	      Without arguments the names of all currently loaded  binary  modules  are  printed.
	      The  -L option causes this list to be in the form of a series of zmodload commands.
	      Forms with arguments are:

	      zmodload [ -i ] name ...
	      zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
		     In the simplest case, zmodload loads a binary module.  The module must be in
		     a	file  with a name consisting of the specified name followed by a standard
		     suffix, usually `.so' (`.sl' on HPUX).   If  the  module  to  be  loaded  is
		     already  loaded  the  duplicate  module  is ignored.  If zmodload detects an
		     inconsistency, such as an invalid module name or circular	dependency  list,
		     the  current code block is aborted.   Hence `zmodload module 2>/dev/null' is
		     sufficient to test whether a module is available.	If it is  available,  the
		     module is loaded if necessary, while if it is not available, non-zero status
		     is silently returned.  The option -i is accepted for compatibility  but  has
		     no effect.

		     The  named  module is searched for in the same way a command is, using $mod-
		     ule_path instead of $path.  However, the path search is performed even  when
		     the  module  name contains a `/', which it usually does.  There is no way to
		     prevent the path search.

		     If the module supports features (see below), zmodload tries  to  enable  all
		     features  when  loading a module.	If the module was successfully loaded but
		     not all features could be enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

		     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must  be  given	that  was
		     given  when the module was loaded, but it is not necessary for the module to
		     exist in the file system.	The -i option suppresses the error if the  module
		     is already unloaded (or was never loaded).

		     Each  module  has	a  boot  and  a cleanup function.  The module will not be
		     loaded if its boot function fails.  Similarly a module can only be  unloaded
		     if its cleanup function runs successfully.

	      zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [+-]feature...
		     zmodload -F allows more selective control over the features provided by mod-
		     ules.  With no options apart from -F, the module named module is loaded,  if
		     it  was  not already loaded, and the list of features is set to the required
		     state.  If no features are specified, the module is loaded, if  it  was  not
		     already loaded, but the state of features is unchanged.  Each feature may be
		     preceded by a + to turn the feature on, or -  to  turn  it  off;  the  +  is
		     assumed  if  neither  character is present.  Any feature not explicitly men-
		     tioned is left in its current state; if the module was not previously loaded
		     this  means  any  such  features will remain disabled.  The return status is
		     zero if all features were set, 1 if the module failed to load, and 2 if some
		     features  could  not  be  set  (for  example,  a parameter couldn't be added
		     because there was a different parameter of the same name) but the module was
		     loaded.

		     The  standard  features  are builtins, conditions, parameters and math func-
		     tions; these are indicated by the prefix `b:', `c:' (`C:' for an infix  con-
		     dition),  `p:'  and `f:', respectively, followed by the name that the corre-
		     sponding feature would have in the shell.	For example,  `b:strftime'  indi-
		     cates  a  builtin	named  strftime  and p:EPOCHSECONDS indicates a parameter
		     named EPOCHSECONDS.  The module may provide other (`abstract')  features  of
		     its own as indicated by its documentation; these have no prefix.

		     With -l or -L, features provided by the module are listed.  With -l alone, a
		     list of features together with their states is shown, one feature per  line.
		     With  -L  alone,  a zmodload -F command that would cause enabled features of
		     the module to be turned on is shown.  With -lL, a zmodload -F  command  that
		     would  cause all the features to be set to their current state is shown.  If
		     one of these combinations is given the option -P param  then  the	parameter
		     param  is	set  to an array of features, either features together with their
		     state or (if -L alone is given) enabled features.

		     With the option -L the module name may  be  omitted;  then  a  list  of  all
		     enabled  features	for all modules providing features is printed in the form
		     of zmodload -F commands.  If -l is also given, the state of both enabled and
		     disabled features is output in that form.

		     A	set of features may be provided together with -l or -L and a module name;
		     in that case only the state of those features is considered.   Each  feature
		     may  be  preceded	by  + or - but the character has no effect.  If no set of
		     features is provided, all features are considered.

		     With -e, the command first tests that the module is loaded; if  it  is  not,
		     status  1	is returned.  If the module is loaded, the list of features given
		     as an argument is examined.  Any feature given  with  no  prefix  is  simply
		     tested  to  see if the module provides it; any feature given with a prefix +
		     or - is tested to see if is provided and in the given state.  If  the  tests
		     on all features in the list succeed, status 0 is returned, else status 1.

		     With  -m,	each entry in the given list of features is taken as a pattern to
		     be matched against the list of features provided by the module.  An  initial
		     +	or  -  must  be  given	explicitly.  This may not be combined with the -a
		     option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

		     With -a, the given list of features is marked for autoload from  the  speci-
		     fied  module,  which may not yet be loaded.  An optional + may appear before
		     the feature name.	If the feature is prefixed with -, any existing  autoload
		     is removed.  The options -l and -L may be used to list autoloads.	Autoload-
		     ing is specific to individual features; when the module is loaded	only  the
		     requested feature is enabled.  Autoload requests are preserved if the module
		     is subsequently unloaded until an explicit `zmodload -Fa module -feature' is
		     issued.  It is not an error to request an autoload for a feature of a module
		     that is already loaded.

		     When the module is loaded each autoload  is  checked  against  the  features
		     actually provided by the module; if the feature is not provided the autoload
		     request is deleted.  A warning message is output; if  the	module	is  being
		     loaded  to  provide  a  different	feature, and that autoload is successful,
		     there is no effect on the status of the current command.  If the  module  is
		     already  loaded  at  the  time when zmodload -Fa is run, an error message is
		     printed and status 1 returned.

		     zmodload -Fa can be used with the -l, -L, -e and -P options for listing  and
		     testing  the existence of autoloadable features.  In this case -l is ignored
		     if -L is specified.  zmodload -FaL with no module name lists  autoloads  for
		     all modules.

		     Note that only standard features as described above can be autoloaded; other
		     features require the module to be loaded before enabling.

	      zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
	      zmodload -d name dep ...
	      zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
		     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.	The modules named
		     in  the  second  and  subsequent  arguments will be loaded before the module
		     named in the first argument.

		     With -d and one argument, all dependencies for that module are listed.  With
		     -d and no arguments, all module dependencies are listed.  This listing is by
		     default in a Makefile-like format.  The -L option changes this format  to	a
		     list of zmodload -d commands.

		     If  -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If only one argument
		     is given, all dependencies for that module are removed.

	      zmodload -ab [ -L ]
	      zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
	      zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
		     The -ab option  defines  autoloaded  builtins.   It  defines  the	specified
		     builtins.	When any of those builtins is called, the module specified in the
		     first argument is loaded and all its features  are  enabled  (for	selective
		     control  of  features use `zmodload -F -a' as described above).  If only the
		     name is given, one builtin is defined, with the same name as the module.  -i
		     suppresses  the  error  if the builtin is already defined or autoloaded, but
		     not if another builtin of the same name is already defined.

		     With -ab and no arguments, all autoloaded builtins are listed, with the mod-
		     ule name (if different) shown in parentheses after the builtin name.  The -L
		     option changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

		     If -b is used together with the -u option, it  removes  builtins  previously
		     defined  with  -ab.  This is only possible if the builtin is not yet loaded.
		     -i suppresses the	error  if  the	builtin  is  already  removed  (or  never
		     existed).

		     Autoload  requests are retained if the module is subsequently unloaded until
		     an explicit `zmodload -ub builtin' is issued.

	      zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
	      zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
	      zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
		     The -ac option is used  to  define  autoloaded  condition	codes.	The  cond
		     strings give the names of the conditions defined by the module. The optional
		     -I option is used to define infix condition names. Without this option  pre-
		     fix condition names are defined.

		     If  given	no  condition names, all defined names are listed (as a series of
		     zmodload commands if the -L option is given).

		     The -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded conditions.

	      zmodload -ap [ -L ]
	      zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
	      zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
		     The -p option is like the -b and -c options,  but	makes  zmodload  work  on
		     autoloaded parameters instead.

	      zmodload -af [ -L ]
	      zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
	      zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
		     The -f option is like the -b, -p, and -c options, but makes zmodload work on
		     autoloaded math functions instead.

	      zmodload -a [ -L ]
	      zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
	      zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
		     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

	      zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
		     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules; if the  -A  option
		     is  also  given,  module  aliases	corresponding  to loaded modules are also
		     shown.  If arguments are provided, nothing is printed; the return status  is
		     set  to  zero  if all strings given as arguments are names of loaded modules
		     and to one if at least on string is not the name of a loaded  module.   This
		     can  be  used to test for the availability of things implemented by modules.
		     In this case, any aliases are automatically resolved and the -A flag is  not
		     used.

	      zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
		     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given, define modalias to
		     be an alias for the module module.  If the module modalias  is  ever  subse-
		     quently  requested,  either  via a call to zmodload or implicitly, the shell
		     will attempt to load module instead.  If module is not given, show the defi-
		     nition  of  modalias.   If  no  arguments are given, list all defined module
		     aliases.  When listing, if the -L flag was also given, list  the  definition
		     as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

		     The  existence  of  aliases for modules is completely independent of whether
		     the name resolved is actually loaded as a module: while  the  alias  exists,
		     loading and unloading the module under any alias has exactly the same effect
		     as using the resolved name, and does not affect the connection  between  the
		     alias and the resolved name which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by
		     redefining the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the first resolved name
		     is  itself  an  alias)  are valid so long as these are not circular.  As the
		     aliases take the same format as module names, they may include path  separa-
		     tors:   in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the path named
		     to exist as the alias will be resolved first.  For example,  `any/old/alias'
		     is always a valid alias.

		     Dependencies  added  to  aliased  modules are actually added to the resolved
		     module; these remain if the alias is removed.  It	is  valid  to  create  an
		     alias  whose name is one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to
		     a different module.  However, if a module has dependencies, it will  not  be
		     possible  to  use	the module name as an alias as the module will already be
		     marked as a loadable module in its own right.

		     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload	command  anywhere
		     module  names  are required.  However, aliases will not be shown in lists of
		     loaded modules with a bare `zmodload'.

	      zmodload -R modalias ...
		     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as a module alias via
		     zmodload  -A,  delete the alias.  If any was not defined, an error is caused
		     and the remainder of the line is ignored.

	      Note that zsh makes no distinction between modules that were linked into the  shell
	      and  modules that are loaded dynamically. In both cases this builtin command has to
	      be used to make available the builtins and other things defined by modules  (unless
	      the  module is autoloaded on these definitions). This is true even for systems that
	      don't support dynamic loading of modules.

       zparseopts
	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
	      See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).

ZSHZLE(1)										ZSHZLE(1)

NAME
       zshzle - zsh command line editor

DESCRIPTION
       If the ZLE option is set (which it is by default in  interactive  shells)  and  the  shell
       input is attached to the terminal, the user is able to edit command lines.

       There are two display modes.  The first, multiline mode, is the default.  It only works if
       the TERM parameter is set to a valid terminal type that can move the cursor up.	The  sec-
       ond, single line mode, is used if TERM is invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up, or
       if the SINGLE_LINE_ZLE option is set.  This mode is similar to ksh, and	uses  no  termcap
       sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will be unset by default.

       The  parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line editor.  See Parameters
       Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       The parameter zle_highlight is also used by the line editor;  see  Character  Highlighting
       below.	Highlighting of special characters and the region between the cursor and the mark
       (as set with set-mark-command in Emacs mode) is enabled by default; consult this reference
       for more information.  Irascible conservatives will wish to know that all highlighting may
       be disabled by the following setting:

	      zle_highlight=(none)

KEYMAPS
       A keymap in ZLE contains a set of bindings between key sequences and  ZLE  commands.   The
       empty key sequence cannot be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one or more names.  If
       all of a keymap's names are deleted, it disappears.  bindkey can  be  used  to  manipulate
       keymap names.

       Initially, there are six keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       isearch
	      incremental search mode
       command
	      read a command name
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The  `.safe'  keymap  is  special.   It	can  never  be altered, and the name can never be
       removed.  However, it can be linked to other names, which can be removed.  In  the  future
       other  special keymaps may be added; users should avoid using names beginning with `.' for
       their own keymaps.

       In addition to these names, either `emacs' or `viins' is also linked to the  name  `main'.
       If  one	of  the  VISUAL  or EDITOR environment variables contain the string `vi' when the
       shell starts up then it will be `viins', otherwise it will be `emacs'.  bindkey's  -e  and
       -v options provide a convenient way to override this default choice.

       When  the  editor  starts  up,  it  will select the `main' keymap.  If that keymap doesn't
       exist, it will use `.safe' instead.

       In the `.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert, except for ^J (line  feed)
       and ^M (return) which are bound to accept-line.	This is deliberately not pleasant to use;
       if you are using it, it means you deleted the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When ZLE is reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence that is	bound  to
       some  command and is also a prefix of a longer bound string.  In this case ZLE will wait a
       certain time to see if more characters are typed, and if not  (or  they	don't  match  any
       longer  string)	it  will  execute the binding.	This timeout is defined by the KEYTIMEOUT
       parameter; its default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if the prefix string is not itself
       bound to a command.

       The  key  timeout is also applied when ZLE is reading the bytes from a multibyte character
       string when it is in the appropriate mode.  (This requires that	the  shell  was  compiled
       with  multibyte	mode  enabled;	typically  also  the locale has characters with the UTF-8
       encoding, although any multibyte encoding known to the operating system is supported.)  If
       the  second  or a subsequent byte is not read within the timeout period, the shell acts as
       if ? were typed and resets the input state.

       As well as ZLE commands, key sequences can be bound to other strings,  by  using  `bindkey
       -s'.   When  such  a sequence is read, the replacement string is pushed back as input, and
       the command reading process starts again using these  fake  keystrokes.	 This  input  can
       itself  invoke  further replacement strings, but in order to detect loops the process will
       be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real command being read.

       A key sequence typed by the user can be turned into a command name for use in user-defined
       widgets with the read-command widget, described below.

ZLE BUILTINS
       The  ZLE  module  contains three related builtin commands. The bindkey command manipulates
       keymaps and key bindings; the vared command invokes ZLE on the value of a shell parameter;
       and the zle command manipulates editing widgets and allows command line access to ZLE com-
       mands from within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l [ -L ] [ keymap ... ]
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
	      bindkey's options can be divided into three categories: keymap  selection  for  the
	      current  command,  operation  selection,	and others.  The keymap selection options
	      are:

	      -e     Selects keymap `emacs' for any operations by the current command,	and  also
		     links  `emacs' to `main' so that it is selected by default the next time the
		     editor starts.

	      -v     Selects keymap `viins' for any operations by the current command,	and  also
		     links  `viins' to `main' so that it is selected by default the next time the
		     editor starts.

	      -a     Selects keymap `vicmd' for any operations by the current command.

	      -M keymap
		     The keymap specifies a keymap name that is selected for  any  operations  by
		     the current command.

	      If  a  keymap  selection	is  required  and none of the options above are used, the
	      `main' keymap is used.  Some operations do not permit  a	keymap	to  be	selected,
	      namely:

	      -l     List  all existing keymap names; if any arguments are given, list just those
		     keymaps.

		     If the -L option is also used, list in the form of bindkey commands to  cre-
		     ate or link the keymaps.  `bindkey -lL main' shows which keymap is linked to
		     `main', if any, and hence if the  standard  emacs	or  vi	emulation  is  in
		     effect.   This  option  does  not show the .safe keymap because it cannot be
		     created in that fashion; however, neither is `bindkey -lL .safe' reported as
		     an error, it simply outputs nothing.

	      -d     Delete all existing keymaps and reset to the default state.

	      -D keymap ...
		     Delete the named keymaps.

	      -A old-keymap new-keymap
		     Make  the	new-keymap name an alias for old-keymap, so that both names refer
		     to the same keymap.  The names have equal standing; if  either  is  deleted,
		     the  other  remains.  If there is already a keymap with the new-keymap name,
		     it is deleted.

	      -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
		     Create a new keymap, named new-keymap.  If a keymap already has  that  name,
		     it  is  deleted.  If an old-keymap name is given, the new keymap is initial-
		     ized to be a duplicate of it, otherwise the new keymap will be empty.

	      To use a newly created keymap, it should be linked to main.  Hence the sequence  of
	      commands	to  create and use a new keymap `mymap' initialized from the emacs keymap
	      (which remains unchanged) is:

		     bindkey -N mymap emacs
		     bindkey -A mymap main

	      Note that while `bindkey -A newmap main' will work when newmap is emacs  or  viins,
	      it  will	not  work  for vicmd, as switching from vi insert to command mode becomes
	      impossible.

	      The following operations act on the `main' keymap if no keymap selection option was
	      given:

	      -m     Add the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected keymap.	Only keys
		     that are unbound or bound to self-insert are affected.

	      -r in-string ...
		     Unbind the specified in-strings in the selected  keymap.	This  is  exactly
		     equivalent to binding the strings to undefined-key.

		     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

		     When -p is also used, the in-strings specify prefixes.  Any binding that has
		     the given in-string as a prefix, not including the binding for the in-string
		     itself, if any, will be removed.  For example,

			    bindkey -rpM viins '^['

		     will  remove  all	bindings in the vi-insert keymap beginning with an escape
		     character (probably cursor keys), but leave the binding for the escape char-
		     acter  itself  (probably vi-cmd-mode).  This is incompatible with the option
		     -R.

	      -s in-string out-string ...
		     Bind each in-string to each out-string.  When in-string is typed, out-string
		     will  be  pushed  back  and treated as input to the line editor.  When -R is
		     also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

	      in-string command ...
		     Bind each in-string to  each  command.   When  -R	is  used,  interpret  the
		     in-strings as ranges.

	      [ in-string ]
		     List key bindings.  If an in-string is specified, the binding of that string
		     in the selected keymap is displayed.  Otherwise, all  key	bindings  in  the
		     selected  keymap  are displayed.  (As a special case, if the -e or -v option
		     is used alone, the keymap is not displayed - the implicit linking of keymaps
		     is the only thing that happens.)

		     When  the	option	-p  is	used, the in-string must be present.  The listing
		     shows all bindings which have the	given  key  sequence  as  a  prefix,  not
		     including any bindings for the key sequence itself.

		     When  the	-L option is used, the list is in the form of bindkey commands to
		     create the key bindings.

       When the -R option is used as noted above, a valid range consists of two characters,  with
       an  optional  `-'  between them.  All characters between the two specified, inclusive, are
       bound as specified.

       For either in-string or out-string, the following escape sequences are recognised:

       \a     bell character
       \b     backspace
       \e, \E escape
       \f     form feed
       \n     linefeed (newline)
       \r     carriage return
       \t     horizontal tab
       \v     vertical tab
       \NNN   character code in octal
       \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
       \M[-]X character with meta bit set
       \C[-]X control character
       ^X     control character

       In all other cases, `\' escapes the following character.  Delete is written as `^?'.  Note
       that  `\M^?' and `^\M?' are not the same, and that (unlike emacs), the bindings `\M-X' and
       `\eX' are entirely distinct, although they are initialized to the same bindings by  `bind-
       key -m'.

       vared [ -Aache ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ]
	 [ -M main-keymap ] [ -m vicmd-keymap ]
	 [ -t tty ] name
	      The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit buffer, and the line editor
	      is invoked.  When the editor exits, name is set to the string value returned by the
	      editor.	When the -c flag is given, the parameter is created if it doesn't already
	      exist.  The -a flag may be given with -c to create an array parameter,  or  the  -A
	      flag to create an associative array.  If the type of an existing parameter does not
	      match the type to be created, the parameter is unset and recreated.

	      If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters as defined in $IFS
	      will be shown quoted with a backslash, as will backslashes themselves.  Conversely,
	      when the edited text is split into an array, a backslash quotes an immediately fol-
	      lowing  separator character or backslash; no other special handling of backslashes,
	      or any handling of quotes, is performed.

	      Individual elements of existing array or associative array parameters may be edited
	      by  using  subscript  syntax on name.  New elements are created automatically, even
	      without -c.

	      If the -p flag is given, the following string will be taken as the prompt  to  dis-
	      play  at	the left.  If the -r flag is given, the following string gives the prompt
	      to display at the right.	If the -h flag is specified, the history can be  accessed
	      from  ZLE.  If  the -e flag is given, typing ^D (Control-D) on an empty line causes
	      vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

	      The -M option gives a keymap to link to the main keymap during editing, and the  -m
	      option  gives  a	keymap	to link to the vicmd keymap during editing.  For vi-style
	      editing, this  allows  a	pair  of  keymaps  to  override  viins	and  vicmd.   For
	      emacs-style  editing,  only  -M  is  normally needed but the -m option may still be
	      used.  On exit, the previous keymaps will be restored.

	      If `-t tty' is given, tty is the name of a terminal device to be	used  instead  of
	      the default /dev/tty.  If tty does not refer to a terminal an error is reported.

       zle
       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -K keymap
       zle -F [ -L ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
       zle -I
       zle -T [ tc function | -r tc | -L ]
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
	      The zle builtin performs a number of different actions concerning ZLE.

	      With  no	options and no arguments, only the return status will be set.  It is zero
	      if ZLE is currently active and widgets could be invoked using this builtin  command
	      and  non-zero  otherwise.   Note	that even if non-zero status is returned, zle may
	      still be active as part of the completion system; this does not allow direct  calls
	      to ZLE widgets.

	      Otherwise, which operation it performs depends on its options:

	      -l [ -L | -a ]
		     List  all	existing user-defined widgets.	If the -L option is used, list in
		     the form of zle commands to create the widgets.

		     When combined with the -a option, all widget names are listed, including the
		     builtin ones. In this case the -L option is ignored.

		     If  at least one string is given, and -a is present or -L is not used, noth-
		     ing will be printed.  The return status will be  zero  if	all  strings  are
		     names  of existing widgets and non-zero if at least one string is not a name
		     of a defined widget.  If -a is also present, all widget names are	used  for
		     the comparison including builtin widgets, else only user-defined widgets are
		     used.

		     If at least one string is present and the -L option  is  used,  user-defined
		     widgets matching any string are listed in the form of zle commands to create
		     the widgets.

	      -D widget ...
		     Delete the named widgets.

	      -A old-widget new-widget
		     Make the new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that both  names  refer
		     to  the  same  widget.  The names have equal standing; if either is deleted,
		     the other remains.  If there is already a widget with the	new-widget  name,
		     it is deleted.

	      -N widget [ function ]
		     Create  a user-defined widget.  If there is already a widget with the speci-
		     fied name, it is overwritten.  When the new widget is  invoked  from  within
		     the  editor, the specified shell function is called.  If no function name is
		     specified, it defaults to the same name as the widget.  For further informa-
		     tion, see the section Widgets in zshzle(1).

	      -C widget completion-widget function
		     Create  a user-defined completion widget named widget. The completion widget
		     will behave like the built-in completion-widget whose name is given as  com-
		     pletion-widget.  To  generate  the  completions, the shell function function
		     will be called.  For further information, see zshcompwid(1).

	      -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
		     Redisplay the command line; this is to be called from within a  user-defined
		     widget to allow changes to become visible.  If a display-string is given and
		     not empty, this is shown in the status  line  (immediately  below	the  line
		     being edited).

		     If  the  optional	strings are given they are listed below the prompt in the
		     same way as completion lists are printed. If no strings are given but the -c
		     option is used such a list is cleared.

		     Note  that  this  option is only useful for widgets that do not exit immedi-
		     ately after using it because the strings displayed will  be  erased  immedi-
		     ately after return from the widget.

		     This  command  can  safely be called outside user defined widgets; if zle is
		     active, the display will be refreshed, while if zle is not active, the  com-
		     mand has no effect.  In this case there will usually be no other arguments.

		     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

	      -M string
		     As  with the -R option, the string will be displayed below the command line;
		     unlike the -R option, the string will not be put into the	status	line  but
		     will  instead  be	printed  normally  below the prompt.  This means that the
		     string will still be displayed after the widget returns (until it	is  over-
		     written by subsequent commands).

	      -U string
		     This pushes the characters in the string onto the input stack of ZLE.  After
		     the widget currently executed finishes ZLE will behave as if the  characters
		     in the string were typed by the user.

		     As  ZLE  uses  a  stack,  if  this option is used repeatedly the last string
		     pushed onto the stack will be processed first.  However, the  characters  in
		     each  string  will  be  processed	in  the order in which they appear in the
		     string.

	      -K keymap
		     Selects the keymap named keymap.  An error  message  will	be  displayed  if
		     there is no such keymap.

		     This  keymap  selection  affects  the interpretation of following keystrokes
		     within this invocation of ZLE.  Any following  invocation	(e.g.,	the  next
		     command line) will start as usual with the `main' keymap selected.

	      -F [ -L ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
		     Only  available if your system supports one of the `poll' or `select' system
		     calls; most modern systems do.

		     Installs handler (the name of a shell function) to handle	input  from  file
		     descriptor  fd.   When  zle is attempting to read data, it will examine both
		     the terminal and the list of handled fd's.  If data becomes available  on	a
		     handled  fd, zle will call handler with the fd which is ready for reading as
		     the only argument.  If the handler  produces  output  to  the  terminal,  it
		     should  call  `zle  -I' before doing so (see below).  The handler should not
		     attempt to read from the terminal.  Note that zle makes no attempt to  check
		     whether  this fd is actually readable when installing the handler.  The user
		     must make their own arrangements for handling the file descriptor	when  zle
		     is not active.

		     Any  number  of  handlers for any number of readable file descriptors may be
		     installed.  Installing a handler for an fd which is already  handled  causes
		     the existing handler to be replaced.

		     If  no  handler  is  given, but an fd is present, any handler for that fd is
		     removed.  If there is none, an error message is  printed  and  status  1  is
		     returned.

		     If  no arguments are given, or the -L option is supplied, a list of handlers
		     is printed in a form which can be stored for later execution.

		     An fd (but not a handler) may optionally be given with  the  -L  option;  in
		     this  case,  the function will list the handler if any, else silently return
		     status 1.

		     Note that this feature should be used with care.  Activity  on  one  of  the
		     fd's  which  is  not properly handled can cause the terminal to become unus-
		     able.

		     Here is a simple example of using this feature.  A connection  to	a  remote
		     TCP  port	is  created  using  the  ztcp command; see the description of the
		     zsh/net/tcp module in zshmodules(1).  Then a handler is installed which sim-
		     ply  prints  out  any  data  which  arrives  on  this connection.	Note that
		     `select' will indicate that the file descriptor needs handling if the remote
		     side has closed the connection; we handle that by testing for a failed read.
			    if ztcp pwspc 2811; then
			      tcpfd=$REPLY
			      handler() {
				zle -I
				local line
				if ! read -r line <&$1; then
				  # select marks this fd if we reach EOF,
				  # so handle this specially.
				  print "[Read on fd $1 failed, removing.]" >&2
				  zle -F $1
				  return 1
				fi
				print -r - $line
			      }
			      zle -F $tcpfd handler
			    fi

	      -I     Unusually,  this  option  is  most useful outside ordinary widget functions,
		     though it may be used within if normal output to the terminal  is	required.
		     It  invalidates the current zle display in preparation for output; typically
		     this will be from a trap function.  It has no effect if zle is  not  active.
		     When  a  trap exits, the shell checks to see if the display needs restoring,
		     hence the following will print output in such a way as not  to  disturb  the
		     line being edited:

			    TRAPUSR1() {
				# Invalidate zle display
			      [[ -o zle ]] && zle -I
				# Show output
			      print Hello
			    }

		     In  general, the trap function may need to test whether zle is active before
		     using this method (as shown in the example), since the  zsh/zle  module  may
		     not even be loaded; if it is not, the command can be skipped.

		     It  is possible to call `zle -I' several times before control is returned to
		     the editor; the display will only be invalidated the first time to  minimise
		     disruption.

		     Note  that  there	are normally better ways of manipulating the display from
		     within zle widgets; see, for example, `zle -R' above.

		     The returned status is zero if zle was invalidated,  even	though	this  may
		     have  been  by  a previous call to `zle -I' or by a system notification.  To
		     test if a zle widget may be called at this point, execute zle with no  argu-
		     ments and examine the return status.

	      -T     This is used to add, list or remove internal transformations on the process-
		     ing performed by the line editor.	It is typically used only  for	debugging
		     or testing and is therefore of little interest to the general user.

		     `zle  -T  transformation  func' specifies that the given transformation (see
		     below) is effected by shell function func.

		     `zle -Tr transformation' removes the given transformation if it was  present
		     (it is not an error if none was).

		     `zle -TL' can be used to list all transformations currently in operation.

		     Currently the only transformation is tc.  This is used instead of outputting
		     termcap codes to the terminal.  When the transformation is in operation  the
		     shell  function is passed the termcap code that would be output as its first
		     argument; if the operation required a numeric argument, that is passed as	a
		     second  argument.	 The  function should set the shell variable REPLY to the
		     transformed termcap code.	Typically this is used	to  produce  some  simply
		     formatted	version  of the code and optional argument for debugging or test-
		     ing.  Note that this transformation is not  applied  to  other  non-printing
		     characters such as carriage returns and newlines.

	      widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
		     Invoke the specified widget.  This can only be done when ZLE is active; nor-
		     mally this will be within a user-defined widget.

		     With the options -n and -N, the current numerical argument will be saved and
		     then restored after the call to widget; `-n num' sets the numerical argument
		     temporarily to num, while `-N' sets it to the default, i.e. as if there were
		     none.

		     With  the	option	-K,  keymap will be used as the current keymap during the
		     execution of the widget.  The previous keymap will be restored when the wid-
		     get exits.

		     Normally,	calling  a  widget in this way does not set the special parameter
		     WIDGET and related parameters, so that the environment  appears  as  if  the
		     top-level	widget called by the user were still active.  With the option -w,
		     WIDGET and related parameters are set to reflect the widget  being  executed
		     by the zle call.

		     Any  further  arguments  will be passed to the widget; note that as standard
		     argument handling is performed, any general argument list should be preceded
		     by  --.   If  it  is  a  shell function, these are passed down as positional
		     parameters; for builtin widgets it is up to the widget in question  what  it
		     does  with  them.	 Currently  arguments  are  only handled by the incremen-
		     tal-search commands, the history-search-forward and -backward and the corre-
		     sponding  functions prefixed by vi-, and by universal-argument.  No error is
		     flagged if the command does not use the arguments,  or  only  uses  some  of
		     them.

		     The  return  status reflects the success or failure of the operation carried
		     out by the widget, or if it is a user-defined widget the  return  status  of
		     the shell function.

		     A	non-zero  return  status  causes the shell to beep when the widget exits,
		     unless the BEEP options was unset or the widget was called via the zle  com-
		     mand.   Thus  if a user defined widget requires an immediate beep, it should
		     call the beep widget directly.

WIDGETS
       All actions in the editor are performed by `widgets'.  A widget's job is simply to perform
       some  small  action.   The  ZLE commands that key sequences in keymaps are bound to are in
       fact widgets.  Widgets can be user-defined or built in.

       The standard widgets built into ZLE are listed in Standard Widgets below.  Other  built-in
       widgets can be defined by other modules (see zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two
       names: its normal canonical name, and the same name preceded by a `.'.  The  `.'  name  is
       special:  it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This makes the widget available even
       when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined widgets are defined using `zle -N', and implemented as shell functions.  When
       the  widget  is	executed,  the	corresponding shell function is executed, and can perform
       editing (or other) actions.  It is recommended that user-defined widgets should	not  have
       names starting with `.'.

USER-DEFINED WIDGETS
       User-defined  widgets,  being implemented as shell functions, can execute any normal shell
       command.  They can also run other widgets (whether built-in or user-defined) using the zle
       builtin	command.   The	standard input of the function is closed to prevent external com-
       mands from unintentionally blocking ZLE by reading from the terminal, but read -k or  read
       -q  can	be  used  to  read characters.	Finally, they can examine and edit the ZLE buffer
       being edited by reading and setting the special parameters described below.

       These special parameters are always available in widget functions, but are not in any  way
       special	outside ZLE.  If they have some normal value outside ZLE, that value is temporar-
       ily inaccessible, but will return when the widget function exits.  These  special  parame-
       ters in fact have local scope, like parameters created in a function using local.

       Inside  completion  widgets  and  traps	called	while ZLE is active, these parameters are
       available read-only.

       BUFFER (scalar)
	      The entire contents of the edit buffer.  If it is written to, the cursor remains at
	      the same offset, unless that would put it outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES (integer)
	      The number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer currently displayed on screen
	      (i.e. without any changes to the preceding parameters done after	the  last  redis-
	      play); read-only.

       CONTEXT (scalar)
	      The context in which zle was called to read a line; read-only.  One of the values:
       start  The start of a command line (at prompt PS1).

       cont   A continuation to a command line (at prompt PS2).

       select In a select loop.

       vared  Editing a variable in vared.

       CURSOR (integer)
	      The offset of the cursor, within the edit buffer.  This is in the range 0 to $#BUF-
	      FER, and is by definition equal to $#LBUFFER.  Attempts to move the cursor  outside
	      the buffer will result in the cursor being moved to the appropriate end of the buf-
	      fer.

       CUTBUFFER (scalar)
	      The last item cut using one of the `kill-' commands; the string which the next yank
	      would  insert  in  the line.  Later entries in the kill ring are in the array kill-
	      ring.  Note that the command `zle copy-region-as-kill string' can be  used  to  set
	      the  text  of  the  cut buffer from a shell function and cycle the kill ring in the
	      same way as interactively killing text.

       HISTNO (integer)
	      The current history number.  Setting this has the same effect as moving up or  down
	      in  the history to the corresponding history line.  An attempt to set it is ignored
	      if the line is not stored in the history.  Note this is not the same as the parame-
	      ter  HISTCMD,  which always gives the number of the history line being added to the
	      main shell's history.  HISTNO refers to the line being retrieved within zle.

       KEYMAP (scalar)
	      The name of the currently selected keymap; read-only.

       KEYS (scalar)
	      The keys typed to invoke this widget, as a literal string; read-only.

       killring (array)
	      The array of previously killed items, with the most recently  killed  first.   This
	      gives  the  items  that  would be retrieved by a yank-pop in the same order.  Note,
	      however, that the most recently killed item is in $CUTBUFFER; $killring  shows  the
	      array of previous entries.

	      The  default  size for the kill ring is eight, however the length may be changed by
	      normal array operations.	Any empty string in the  kill  ring  is  ignored  by  the
	      yank-pop	command,  hence the size of the array effectively sets the maximum length
	      of the kill ring, while the number of non-zero strings gives  the  current  length,
	      both as seen by the user at the command line.

       LASTABORTEDSEARCH (scalar)
	      The  last  search string used by an interactive search that was aborted by the user
	      (status 3 returned by the search widget).

       LASTSEARCH (scalar)
	      The last search string used by an interactive search; read-only.	This is set  even
	      if  the  search failed (status 0, 1 or 2 returned by the search widget), but not if
	      it was aborted by the user.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
	      The name of the last widget that was executed; read-only.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
	      The part of the buffer that lies to the left of the  cursor  position.   If  it  is
	      assigned	to,  only  that  part  of  the buffer is replaced, and the cursor remains
	      between the new $LBUFFER and the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
	      Like CURSOR, but for the mark.

       NUMERIC (integer)
	      The numeric argument. If no numeric argument was given, this  parameter  is  unset.
	      When  this  is  set  inside  a widget function, builtin widgets called with the zle
	      builtin command will use the value assigned. If it is unset inside a  widget  func-
	      tion, builtin widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
	      The  number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of bytes which have already
	      been typed and can immediately be read. On systems where the shell is not  able  to
	      get this information, this parameter will always have a value of zero.  Read-only.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
	      In  a  multi-line  input at the secondary prompt, this read-only parameter contains
	      the contents of the lines before the one the cursor is currently in.

       PREDISPLAY (scalar)
	      Text to be displayed before the start of the editable text buffer.  This	does  not
	      have  to be a complete line; to display a complete line, a newline must be appended
	      explicitly.  The text is reset on each new invocation (but  not  recursive  invoca-
	      tion) of zle.

       POSTDISPLAY (scalar)
	      Text to be displayed after the end of the editable text buffer.  This does not have
	      to be a complete line; to display a complete line,  a  newline  must  be	prepended
	      explicitly.   The  text  is reset on each new invocation (but not recursive invoca-
	      tion) of zle.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
	      The part of the buffer that lies to the right of the cursor  position.   If  it  is
	      assigned	to,  only  that  part  of  the buffer is replaced, and the cursor remains
	      between the old $LBUFFER and the new $RBUFFER.

       REGION_ACTIVE (integer)
	      Indicates if the region is currently active.  It can be assigned 0 or 1 to  deacti-
	      vate and activate the region respectively; see Character Highlighting below.

       region_highlight (array)
	      Each  element  of this array may be set to a string that describes highlighting for
	      an arbitrary region of the command line that will take effect  the  next	time  the
	      command line is redisplayed.  Highlighting of the non-editable parts of the command
	      line in PREDISPLAY and POSTDISPLAY are possible, but note that the P flag is needed
	      for character indexing to include PREDISPLAY.

	      Each string consists of the following parts:

	      Optionally, a `P' to signify that the start and end offset that
		     follow  include  any string set by the PREDISPLAY special parameter; this is
		     needed if the predisplay string itself is to be highlighted.  Whitespace may
		     follow the `P'.
	      A start offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
		     whitespace.
	      An end offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
		     whitespace.
	      A highlight specification in the same format as
		     used for contexts in the parameter zle_highlight, see Character Highlighting
		     below; for example, standout or fg=red,bold.

	      For example,

		     region_highlight=("P0 20 bold")

	      specifies that the first twenty characters of the  text  including  any  predisplay
	      string should be highlighted in bold.

	      Note that the effect of region_highlight is not saved and disappears as soon as the
	      line is accepted.

       UNDO_CHANGE_NO (integer)
	      A number representing the state of the undo history.  The only use of this is pass-
	      ing  as an argument to the undo widget in order to undo back to the recorded point.
	      Read-only.

       WIDGET (scalar)
	      The name of the widget currently being executed; read-only.

       WIDGETFUNC (scalar)
	      The name of the shell function that implements a widget defined with either zle  -N
	      or  zle  -C.  In the former case, this is the second argument to the zle -N command
	      that defined the widget, or the first argument if there was no second argument.  In
	      the  latter  case this is the third argument to the zle -C command that defined the
	      widget.  Read-only.

       WIDGETSTYLE (scalar)
	      Describes the implementation behind the completion widget currently being executed;
	      the  second argument that followed zle -C when the widget was defined.  This is the
	      name of a builtin completion widget.  For widgets defined with zle -N this  is  set
	      to the empty string.  Read-only.

       ZLE_STATE (scalar)
	      Contains a set of space-separated words that describe the current zle state.

	      Currently,  the  states  shown  are the insert mode as set by the overwrite-mode or
	      vi-replace widgets and whether history commands will visit imported entries as con-
	      trolled  by  the set-local-history widget.  The string contains `insert' if charac-
	      ters to be inserted on the command line move existing characters to  the	right  or
	      `overwrite' if characters to be inserted overwrite existing characters. It contains
	      `localhistory' if only local history commands will be visited or `globalhistory' if
	      imported history commands will also be visited.

	      The substrings are sorted in alphabetical order so that if you want to test for two
	      specific substrings in a future-proof way, you can do match by doing:

		     if [[ $ZLE_STATE == *insert*globalhistory* ]]; then ...; fi

   Special Widgets
       There are a few user-defined widgets which are special to  the  shell.	If  they  do  not
       exist,  no special action is taken.  The environment provided is identical to that for any
       other editing widget.

       zle-isearch-exit
	      Executed at the end of incremental search at the point where the isearch prompt  is
	      removed from the display.  See zle-isearch-update for an example.

       zle-isearch-update
	      Executed	within incremental search when the display is about to be redrawn.  Addi-
	      tional output below the incremental search prompt can be generated  by  using  `zle
	      -M' within the widget.  For example,

		     zle-isearch-update() { zle -M "Line $HISTNO"; }
		     zle -N zle-isearch-update

	      Note  the  line  output by `zle -M' is not deleted on exit from incremental search.
	      This can be done from a zle-isearch-exit widget:

		     zle-isearch-exit() { zle -M ""; }
		     zle -N zle-isearch-exit

       zle-line-init
	      Executed every time the line editor is started to read a new line  of  input.   The
	      following example puts the line editor into vi command mode when it starts up.

		     zle-line-init() { zle -K vicmd; }
		     zle -N zle-line-init

	      (The  command inside the function sets the keymap directly; it is equivalent to zle
	      vi-cmd-mode.)

       zle-line-finish
	      This is similar to zle-line-init but is executed every time  the	line  editor  has
	      finished reading a line of input.

       zle-history-line-set
	      Executed when the history line changes.

       zle-keymap-select
	      Executed every time the keymap changes, i.e. the special parameter KEYMAP is set to
	      a different value, while the line editor is active.  Initialising the  keymap  when
	      the line editor starts does not cause the widget to be called.

	      The  value  $KEYMAP within the function reflects the new keymap.	The old keymap is
	      passed as the sole argument.

	      This can be used for detecting switches between the vi command (vicmd)  and  insert
	      (usually main) keymaps.

STANDARD WIDGETS
       The  following  is a list of all the standard widgets, and their default bindings in emacs
       mode, vi command mode and vi insert  mode  (the	`emacs',  `vicmd'  and	`viins'  keymaps,
       respectively).

       Note  that  cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three keymaps; the shell assumes
       that the cursor keys send the key sequences  reported  by  the  terminal-handling  library
       (termcap  or terminfo).	The key sequences shown in the list are those based on the VT100,
       common on many modern terminals, but in fact these are not necessarily bound.  In the case
       of  the	viins keymap, the initial escape character of the sequences serves also to return
       to the vicmd keymap: whether this happens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT  parameter,  see
       zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
	      Move  backward  one  word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank charac-
	      ters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
	      Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
	      Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
	      Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning of the  line,  move
	      to the beginning of the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
	      Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line, move to the end of
	      the next line, if any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
	      Move to the end of the line.  If an argument is given to this command,  the  cursor
	      will be moved to the end of the line (argument - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
	      Move forward one word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
	      Move  to the end of the current word, or, if at the end of the current word, to the
	      end of the next word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
	      Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
	      Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the next occurrence of  it  in  the
	      line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
	      Read  a  character from the keyboard, and move to the position just before the next
	      occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
	      Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the previous occurrence  of  it  in
	      the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
	      Read  a character from the keyboard, and move to the position just after the previ-
	      ous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
	      Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
	      Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move to the beginning of the next word.  The editor's idea of a word  is	specified
	      with the WORDCHARS parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
	      Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
	      Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
	      Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (`) (unbound)
	      Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
	      Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
	      Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
	      Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move  to	the beginning of the buffer, or if already there, move to the first event
	      in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
	      Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning of the buffer, move
	      to the previous history line.

       beginning-of-history
	      Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
	      Move  down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, move to the next
	      event in the history list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
	      Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, move to the  next
	      event in the history list.  Then move to the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
	      Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, search forward in
	      the history for a line beginning with the first word in the buffer.

	      If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument  is
	      taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
	      Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
	      Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the current line up to the
	      cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move to the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to the last event  in  the
	      history list.

       end-of-line-hist
	      Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the buffer, move to the next
	      history line.

       end-of-history
	      Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
	      Fetch the history line specified by the numeric argument.   This	defaults  to  the
	      current history line (i.e. the one that isn't history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Search  backward incrementally for a specified string.  The search is case-insensi-
	      tive if the search string does not have uppercase letters and no	numeric  argument
	      was  given.  The string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of
	      the line.  When called from a user-defined function returns the following statuses:
	      0,  if  the  search succeeded; 1, if the search failed; 2, if the search term was a
	      bad pattern; 3, if the search was aborted by the send-break command.

	      A restricted set of editing functions is available in the  mini-buffer.	Keys  are
	      looked  up in the special isearch keymap, and if not found there in the main keymap
	      (note that by default the isearch  keymap  is  empty).   An  interrupt  signal,  as
	      defined by the stty setting, will stop the search and go back to the original line.
	      An undefined key will have the same effect.  Note that the following always perform
	      the  same  task  within incremental searches and cannot be replaced by user defined
	      widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.  The supported functions are:

	      accept-and-hold
	      accept-and-infer-next-history
	      accept-line
	      accept-line-and-down-history
		     Perform the usual function after exiting incremental  search.   The  command
		     line displayed is executed.

	      backward-delete-char
	      vi-backward-delete-char
		     Back  up  one  place in the search history.  If the search has been repeated
		     this does not immediately erase a character in the minibuffer.

	      accept-search
		     Exit incremental search, retaining the command line but performing  no  fur-
		     ther  action.   Note  that  this function is not bound by default and has no
		     effect outside incremental search.

	      backward-delete-word
	      backward-kill-word
	      vi-backward-kill-word
		     Back up one character in the minibuffer; if multiple searches have been per-
		     formed since the character was inserted the search history is rewound to the
		     point just before the character was entered.  Hence this has the  effect  of
		     repeating backward-delete-char.

	      clear-screen
		     Clear the screen, remaining in incremental search mode.

	      history-incremental-search-backward
		     Find the next occurrence of the contents of the mini-buffer.

	      history-incremental-search-forward
		     Invert the sense of the search.

	      magic-space
		     Inserts a non-magical space.

	      quoted-insert
	      vi-quoted-insert
		     Quote the character to insert into the minibuffer.

	      redisplay
		     Redisplay the command line, remaining in incremental search mode.

	      vi-cmd-mode
		     Toggle  between  the  `main'  and `vicmd' keymaps; the `main' keymap (insert
		     mode) will be selected initially.

	      vi-repeat-search
	      vi-rev-repeat-search
		     Repeat the search.   The  direction  of  the  search  is  indicated  in  the
		     mini-buffer.

	      Any  character  that  is not bound to one of the above functions, or self-insert or
	      self-insert-unmeta, will cause the mode to be exited.  The character is then looked
	      up and executed in the keymap in effect at that point.

	      When  called from a widget function by the zle command, the incremental search com-
	      mands can take a string argument.  This will be treated as a string of keys, as for
	      arguments  to  the bindkey command, and used as initial input for the command.  Any
	      characters in the string which  are  unused  by  the  incremental  search  will  be
	      silently ignored.  For example,

		     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

	      will  search  backwards  for  forceps, leaving the minibuffer containing the string
	      `forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Search forward incrementally for a specified string.  The search	is  case-insensi-
	      tive  if	the search string does not have uppercase letters and no numeric argument
	      was given.  The string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning  of
	      the  line.   The	functions  available  in the mini-buffer are the same as for his-
	      tory-incremental-search-backward.

       history-incremental-pattern-search-backward
       history-incremental-pattern-search-forward
	      These widgets behave similarly to the corresponding widgets with no  -pattern,  but
	      the search string typed by the user is treated as a pattern, respecting the current
	      settings of the various options affecting pattern matching.  See	FILENAME  GENERA-
	      TION in zshexpn(1) for a description of patterns.  If no numeric argument was given
	      lowercase letters in the search string may match uppercase letters in the  history.
	      The string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

	      The  prompt  changes  to	indicate an invalid pattern; this may simply indicate the
	      pattern is not yet complete.

	      Note that only non-overlapping matches are reported, so an  expression  with  wild-
	      cards may return fewer matches on a line than are visible by inspection.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the first word in the buf-
	      fer.

	      If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument  is
	      taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
	      Search  backward	in the history for a specified string.	The string may begin with
	      `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

	      A restricted set of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.   An  inter-
	      rupt  signal, as defined by the stty setting,  will stop the search.  The functions
	      available in  the  mini-buffer  are:  accept-line,  backward-delete-char,  vi-back-
	      ward-delete-char,  backward-kill-word,  vi-backward-kill-word, clear-screen, redis-
	      play, quoted-insert and vi-quoted-insert.

	      vi-cmd-mode is treated the same as accept-line, and magic-space  is  treated  as	a
	      space.   Any other character that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta
	      will beep and be ignored. If the function is called from vi command mode, the bind-
	      ings of the current insert mode will be used.

	      If  called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is
	      taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the first word in the  buf-
	      fer.

	      If  called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is
	      taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
	      Search forward in the history for a specified string.  The string  may  begin  with
	      `^'  to  anchor the search to the beginning of the line. The functions available in
	      the mini-buffer are the same as for vi-history-search-backward.  Argument  handling
	      is also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Search  in the history list for a line matching the current one and fetch the event
	      following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Insert the last word from the previous history event at the cursor position.  If	a
	      positive	numeric  argument is given, insert that word from the end of the previous
	      history event.  If the argument is zero or negative insert that word from the  left
	      (zero inserts the previous command word).  Repeating this command replaces the word
	      just inserted with the last word from the history event prior to the one just used;
	      numeric arguments can be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

	      When  called  from a shell function invoked from a user-defined widget, the command
	      can take one to three arguments.	The first argument  specifies  a  history  offset
	      which  applies  to successive calls to this widget: if it is -1, the default behav-
	      iour is used, while if it is 1, successive calls will  move  forwards  through  the
	      history.	The value 0 can be used to indicate that the history line examined by the
	      previous execution of the command will be reexamined.  Note that	negative  numbers
	      should be preceded by a `--' argument to avoid confusing them with options.

	      If  two  arguments  are given, the second specifies the word on the command line in
	      normal array index notation (as a more natural alternative to the prefix argument).
	      Hence 1 is the first word, and -1 (the default) is the last word.

	      If  a third argument is given, its value is ignored, but it is used to signify that
	      the history offset is relative to the current history line,  rather  than  the  one
	      remembered after the previous invocations of insert-last-word.

	      For example, the default behaviour of the command corresponds to

		     zle insert-last-word -- -1 -1

	      while the command

		     zle insert-last-word -- -1 1 -

	      always copies the first word of the line in the history immediately before the line
	      being edited.  This has the side effect that later invocations of the  widget  will
	      be relative to that line.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
	      Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
	      Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
	      Move  up	a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, move to the previous
	      event in the history list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
	      Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, move to  the  previous
	      event in the history list.  Then move to the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
	      Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, search backward in the
	      history for a line beginning with the first word in the buffer.

	      If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument  is
	      taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
	      Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
	      Search  forward in the history for a line beginning with the current line up to the
	      cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its original position.

       set-local-history
	      By default, history movement commands visit the imported lines as well as the local
	      lines.  This  widget  lets  you  toggle this on and off, or set it with the numeric
	      argument. Zero for both local and imported lines and nonzero for only local lines.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
	      Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
	      Enter insert mode after the current cursor position, without changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
	      Delete the character behind the cursor, without changing lines.  If in insert mode,
	      this won't delete past the point where insert mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
	      Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
	      Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
	      Kill the word behind the cursor, without going past the point where insert mode was
	      last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
	      Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the cursor position to the
	      endpoint	of  the  movement.  Then enter insert mode.  If the command is vi-change,
	      change the current line.

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
	      Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
	      Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

	      If called from a ZLE widget function in the form `zle  copy-region-as-kill  string'
	      then  string will be taken as the text to copy to the kill buffer.  The cursor, the
	      mark and the text on the command line are not used in this case.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word
	      Like copy-prev-word, but	the  word  is  found  by  using  shell	parsing,  whereas
	      copy-prev-word  looks  for  blanks. This makes a difference when the word is quoted
	      and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
	      Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the cursor position to the
	      endpoint of the movement.  If the command is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
	      Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
	      Delete the character under the cursor, without going past the end of the line.

       delete-word
	      Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
	      Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
	      Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
	      Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
	      Move to the first non-blank character on the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
	      Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Kill  from  the  cursor to the end of the line.  If already on the end of the line,
	      kill the newline character.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
	      Kill from the cursor back to wherever insert mode was last entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
	      Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
	      Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
	      Move to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches the one under  the
	      cursor.	If  the  cursor is not on a bracket character, move forward without going
	      past the end of the line to find one, and then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
	      Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
	      Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case
	      Read a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case of all characters from
	      the  cursor  position  to the endpoint of the movement.  If the movement command is
	      vi-oper-swap-case, swap the case of all characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
	      Insert the contents of the kill buffer before the cursor.  If the kill buffer  con-
	      tains  a	sequence  of lines (as opposed to characters), paste it above the current
	      line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
	      Insert the contents of the kill buffer after the cursor.	If the kill  buffer  con-
	      tains  a	sequence  of lines (as opposed to characters), paste it below the current
	      line.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Insert the next character typed into the buffer literally.  An interrupt	character
	      will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
	      Display  a `^' at the cursor position, and insert the next character typed into the
	      buffer literally.  An interrupt character will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
	      Quote the current line; that is, put a `'' character at the beginning and the  end,
	      and convert all `'' characters to `'\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
	      Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
	      Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
	      Repeat  the last vi mode text modification.  If a count was used with the modifica-
	      tion, it is remembered.  If a count is given to  this  command,  it  overrides  the
	      remembered  count, and is remembered for future uses of this command.  The cut buf-
	      fer specification is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
	      Replace the character under the cursor with a character read from the keyboard.

       self-insert (printable characters) (unbound) (printable characters and some control  char-
       acters)
	      Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Insert  a  character into the buffer after stripping the meta bit and converting ^M
	      to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
	      Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
	      Swap the case of the character under the cursor and move past it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Exchange the two characters to the left of the cursor  if  at  end  of  line,  else
	      exchange the character under the cursor with the character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Exchange the current word with the one before it.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
	      Unindent a number of lines.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Remove the text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring (the history of previously killed
	      text) and yank the new top.  Only works following yank or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
	      Read a movement command from the keyboard, and copy  the	region	from  the  cursor
	      position	to  the endpoint of the movement into the kill buffer.	If the command is
	      vi-yank, copy the current line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
	      Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
	      Copy the region from the cursor position to the end of the line into the kill  buf-
	      fer.  Arguably, this is what Y should do in vi, but it isn't what it actually does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
	      Start   a   new	numeric   argument,   or  add  to  the	current  one.	See  also
	      vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.  This only works if bound to a key  sequence  ending
	      in a decimal digit.

	      Inside  a  widget  function, a call to this function treats the last key of the key
	      sequence which called the widget as the digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
	      Multiply the argument of the next command by 4.  Alternatively, if this command  is
	      followed	by  an	integer  (positive or negative), use that as the argument for the
	      next command.  Thus digits cannot be repeated using this command.  For example,  if
	      this  command occurs twice, followed immediately by forward-char, move forward six-
	      teen spaces; if instead it is followed by -2, then forward-char, move backward  two
	      spaces.

	      Inside a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. `zle universal-argument num',
	      the numerical argument will be set to num; this is equivalent to `NUMERIC=num'.

       argument-base
	      Use the existing numeric argument as a numeric base, which must be in the  range	2
	      to  36  inclusive.   Subsequent  use  of digit-argument and universal-argument will
	      input a new prefix in the given base.  The usual hexadecimal  convention	is  used:
	      the  letter a or A corresponds to 10, and so on.	Arguments in bases requiring dig-
	      its from 10 upwards are more  conveniently  input  with  universal-argument,  since
	      ESC-a etc. are not usually bound to digit-argument.

	      The function can be used with a command argument inside a user-defined widget.  The
	      following code sets the base to 16 and lets the user input a  hexadecimal  argument
	      until a key out of the digit range is typed:

		     zle argument-base 16
		     zle universal-argument

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
	      In a menu completion, insert the current completion into the buffer, and advance to
	      the next possible completion.

       complete-word
	      Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at the end  of  the  line,
	      list possible completions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
	      Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
	      Attempt shell expansion on the current word.  If that fails, attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
	      Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
	      List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
	      List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
	      Perform  history expansion and insert a space into the buffer.  This is intended to
	      be bound to space.

       menu-complete
	      Like complete-word, except that menu completion is  used.   See  the  MENU_COMPLETE
	      option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
	      Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
	      Perform  menu  completion,  like menu-complete, except that if a menu completion is
	      already in progress, move to the previous completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
	      When a previous completion displayed a list below the prompt, this  widget  can  be
	      used to move the prompt below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Push the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and execute it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
	      Execute the contents of the buffer.  Then search the history list for a line match-
	      ing the current one and push the event following onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
	      Finish editing the buffer.  Normally this causes the buffer to  be  executed  as	a
	      shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the buffer stack.

       auto-suffix-remove
	      If  the previous action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to the word on the com-
	      mand line, remove it.  Otherwise do nothing.  Removing the suffix ends  any  active
	      menu completion or menu selection.

	      This widget is intended to be called from user-defined widgets to enforce a desired
	      suffix-removal behavior.

       auto-suffix-retain
	      If the previous action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to the word on the  com-
	      mand  line,  force it to be preserved.  Otherwise do nothing.  Retaining the suffix
	      ends any active menu completion or menu selection.

	      This widget is intended to be called from user-defined widgets to enforce a desired
	      suffix-preservation behavior.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
	      Enter  command  mode;  that  is,	select the `vicmd' keymap.  Yes, this is bound by
	      default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
	      Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.	This is for vi users without  the  mental
	      capacity to keep track of their caps lock key (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
	      Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       describe-key-briefly
	      Reads a key sequence, then prints the function bound to that sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Exchange the cursor position (point) with the position of the mark.  Unless a nega-
	      tive prefix argument is given, the region between point and mark	is  activated  so
	      that  it	can  be  highlighted.	If a zero prefix argument is given, the region is
	      activated but point and mark are not swapped.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (:) (unbound)
	      Read the name of an editor command and execute it.  A  restricted  set  of  editing
	      functions  is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the special com-
	      mand keymap, and if not found there in the main keymap.  An  interrupt  signal,  as
	      defined  by  the	stty  setting,	will abort the function.  Note that the following
	      always perform the same task within the executed-named-cmd environment  and  cannot
	      be replaced by user defined widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.  The
	      allowed functions are: backward-delete-char, vi-backward-delete-char, clear-screen,
	      redisplay,    quoted-insert,    vi-quoted-insert,    backward-kill-word,	 vi-back-
	      ward-kill-word, kill-whole-line,	vi-kill-line,  backward-kill-line,  list-choices,
	      delete-char-or-list,    complete-word,	accept-line,	expand-or-complete    and
	      expand-or-complete-prefix.

	      kill-region  kills  the  last  word,  and  vi-cmd-mode  is  treated  the	same   as
	      accept-line.  The space and tab characters, if not bound to one of these functions,
	      will complete the name and then list the possibilities if the AUTO_LIST  option  is
	      set.   Any  other  character that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta
	      will beep and be ignored.  The bindings of the current insert mode will be used.

	      Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

	      Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Pop the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the cursor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
	      If there is no # character at the beginning of the buffer, add one to the beginning
	      of  each line.  If there is one, remove a # from each line that has one.	In either
	      case, accept the current line.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option  must  be  set  for
	      this to have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
	      If there is no # character at the beginning of the current line, add one.  If there
	      is one, remove it.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for  this  to  have
	      any usefulness.

       push-input
	      Push the entire current multiline construct onto the buffer stack and return to the
	      top-level (PS1) prompt.  If the current parser construct is  only  a  single  line,
	      this  is	exactly like push-line.  Next time the editor starts up or is popped with
	      get-line, the construct will be popped off the top of the buffer stack  and  loaded
	      into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Push  the current buffer onto the buffer stack and clear the buffer.  Next time the
	      editor starts up, the buffer will be popped off the top of  the  buffer  stack  and
	      loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line-or-edit
	      At  the  top-level  (PS1)  prompt,  equivalent  to push-line.  At a secondary (PS2)
	      prompt, move the entire current multiline construct into the  editor  buffer.   The
	      latter is equivalent to push-input followed by get-line.

       read-command
	      Only  useful  from  a  user-defined  widget.  A keystroke is read just as in normal
	      operation, but instead of the command being executed the name of the  command  that
	      would  be executed is stored in the shell parameter REPLY.  This can be used as the
	      argument of a future zle command.  If the key sequence is not bound,  status  1  is
	      returned;  typically,  however, REPLY is set to undefined-key to indicate a useless
	      key sequence.

       recursive-edit
	      Only useful from a user-defined widget.  At this point in the function, the  editor
	      regains control until one of the standard widgets which would normally cause zle to
	      exit (typically an accept-line caused by	hitting  the  return  key)  is	executed.
	      Instead,	control  returns  to  the  user-defined  widget.   The status returned is
	      non-zero if the return was caused by an error, but  the  function  still	continues
	      executing and hence may tidy up.	This makes it safe for the user-defined widget to
	      alter the command line or key bindings temporarily.

	      The following widget, caps-lock, serves as an example.
		     self-insert-ucase() {
		       LBUFFER+=${(U)KEYS[-1]}
		     }

		     integer stat

		     zle -N self-insert self-insert-ucase
		     zle -A caps-lock save-caps-lock
		     zle -A accept-line caps-lock

		     zle recursive-edit
		     stat=$?

		     zle -A .self-insert self-insert
		     zle -A save-caps-lock caps-lock
		     zle -D save-caps-lock

		     (( stat )) && zle send-break

		     return $stat
	      This causes typed letters to be inserted capitalised until either accept-line (i.e.
	      typically  the  return  key) is typed or the caps-lock widget is invoked again; the
	      later is handled by saving the old definition of caps-lock  as  save-caps-lock  and
	      then  rebinding  it  to  invoke accept-line.  Note that an error from the recursive
	      edit is detected as a non-zero return status and propagated by using the send-break
	      widget.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
	      Redisplays the edit buffer.

       reset-prompt (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Force  the prompts on both the left and right of the screen to be re-expanded, then
	      redisplay the edit buffer.  This reflects changes  both  to  the	prompt	variables
	      themselves and changes in the expansion of the values (for example, changes in time
	      or directory, or changes to the value of variables referred to by the prompt).

	      Otherwise, the prompt is only expanded each time zle starts, and when  the  display
	      as been interrupted by output from another part of the shell (such as a job notifi-
	      cation) which causes the command line to be reprinted.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Abort the current  editor  function,  e.g.  execute-named-command,  or  the  editor
	      itself,  e.g. if you are in vared. Otherwise abort the parsing of the current line;
	      in this case the aborted line is available in the shell variable ZLE_LINE_ABORTED.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and  execute  the	command  `run-help  cmd',
	      where cmd is the current command.  run-help is normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
	      Specify  a  buffer  to be used in the following command.	There are 35 buffers that
	      can be specified: the 26 `named' buffers "a to "z and the nine `queued' buffers  "1
	      to "9.  The named buffers can also be specified as "A to "Z.

	      When  a buffer is specified for a cut command, the text being cut replaces the pre-
	      vious contents of the specified buffer.  If a named buffer  is  specified  using	a
	      capital, the newly cut text is appended to the buffer instead of overwriting it.

	      If  no buffer is specified for a cut command, "1 is used, and the contents of "1 to
	      "8 are each shifted along one buffer; the contents of "9 is lost.

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
	      Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Set the mark at the cursor position.  If called with a negative prefix argument, do
	      not  set the mark but deactivate the region so that it is no longer highlighted (it
	      is still usable for other purposes).  Otherwise the region is marked as active.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       undefined-key
	      This command is executed when a key sequence that is not bound to  any  command  is
	      typed.  By default it beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Incrementally  undo  the	last  text modification.  When called from a user-defined
	      widget, takes an optional argument indicating a previous state of the undo  history
	      as  returned  by	the  UNDO_CHANGE_NO variable; modifications are undone until that
	      state is reached.

       redo   Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (u) (unbound)
	      Undo the last text modification.	If repeated, redo the modification.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Print the character under the cursor, its code as an octal, decimal and hexadecimal
	      number,  the current cursor position within the buffer and the column of the cursor
	      in the current line.

       where-is
	      Read the name of an editor command and print the	listing  of  key  sequences  that
	      invoke  the  specified command.  A restricted set of editing functions is available
	      in the mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the special command keymap, and  if  not
	      found there in the main keymap.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command `which-command cmd'.
	      where cmd is the current command.  which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
	      If the last command executed was a digit as part of an argument, continue the argu-
	      ment.  Otherwise, execute vi-beginning-of-line.

CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING
       The line editor has the ability to highlight characters or regions of the line that have a
       particular significance.  This is controlled by the array parameter zle_highlight,  if  it
       has been set by the user.

       If  the parameter contains the single entry none all highlighting is turned off.  Note the
       parameter is still expected to be an array.

       Otherwise each entry of the array should consist of a word indicating a context for  high-
       lighting,  then a colon, then a comma-separated list of the types of highlighting to apply
       in that context.

       The contexts available for highlighting are the following:

       default
	      Any text within the command line not affected by any other highlighting.	Text out-
	      side the editable area of the command line is not affected.

       isearch
	      When  one of the incremental history search widgets is active, the area of the com-
	      mand line matched by the search string or pattern.

       region The region between the cursor (point) and the mark as  set  with	set-mark-command.
	      The  region is only highlighted if it is active, which is the case if set-mark-com-
	      mand or exchange-point-and-mark has been called and the line has	not  been  subse-
	      quently modified.  The region can be deactivated by calling set-mark-command with a
	      negative prefix argument, or reactivated by calling exchange-point-and-mark with	a
	      zero  prefix argument.  Note that whether or not the region is active has no effect
	      on its use within widgets, it simply determines whether it is highlighted.

       special
	      Individual characters that have no direct printable representation but are shown in
	      a special manner by the line editor.  These characters are described below.

       suffix This  context is used in completion for characters that are marked as suffixes that
	      will be removed if the completion ends at that  point,  the  most  obvious  example
	      being  a	slash  (/)  after  a directory name.  Note that suffix removal is config-
	      urable; the circumstances under which the suffix will be	removed  may  differ  for
	      different completions.

       zle_highlight  may  contain  additional	fields	for controlling how terminal sequences to
       change colours are output.  Each of the following is followed by a colon and a  string  in
       the  same  form	as for key bindings.  This will not be necessary for the vast majority of
       terminals as the defaults shown in parentheses are widely used.

       fg_start_code (\e[3)
	      The start of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.  This is followed by an
	      ASCII digit representing the colour.

       fg_default_code (9)
	      The number to use instead of the colour to reset the default foreground colour.

       fg_end_code (m)
	      The end of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.

       bg_start_code (\e[4)
	      The start of the escape sequence for the background colour.  This is followed by an
	      ASCII digit representing the colour.

       bg_default_code (9)
	      The number to use instead of the colour to reset the default background colour.

       bg_end_code (m)
	      The end of the escape sequence for the background colour.

       The available types of highlighting are the following.  Note that not all types	of  high-
       lighting are available on all terminals:

       none   No  highlighting	is  applied  to  the given context.  It is not useful for this to
	      appear with other types of highlighting; it is used to override a default.

       fg=colour
	      The foreground colour should be set to colour, a decimal integer or the name of one
	      of the eight most widely-supported colours.

	      Not all terminals support this and, of those that do, not all provide facilities to
	      test the support, hence the user should decide based on the  terminal  type.   Most
	      terminals  support  the  colours black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and
	      white, which can be set by name.	In addition. default may be used to set the  ter-
	      minal's  default	foreground  colour.   Abbreviations  are allowed; b or bl selects
	      black.  Some terminals may generate additional colours if  the  bold  attribute  is
	      also present.

	      On  recent terminals and on systems with an up-to-date terminal database the number
	      of colours supported may be tested by the command `echotc Co'; if this succeeds, it
	      indicates  a limit on the number of colours which will be enforced by the line edi-
	      tor.  The number of colours is in any case limited to 256  (i.e.	the  range  0  to
	      255).

	      Colour is also known as color.

       bg=colour
	      The  background  colour should be set to colour.	This works similarly to the fore-
	      ground colour, except the background is not usually affected by the bold attribute.

       bold   The characters in the given context are shown in a bold font.   Not  all	terminals
	      distinguish bold fonts.

       standout
	      The characters in the given context are shown in the terminal's standout mode.  The
	      actual effect is specific to the terminal; on many terminals it is  inverse  video.
	      On  some	such  terminals, where the cursor does not blink it appears with standout
	      mode negated, making it less than clear where the cursor actually is.  On such ter-
	      minals  one  of the other effects may be preferable for highlighting the region and
	      matched search string.

       underline
	      The characters in the given context are shown underlined.  Some terminals show  the
	      foreground in a different colour instead; in this case whitespace will not be high-
	      lighted.

       The characters described above as `special' are as follows.  The formatting described here
       is used irrespective of whether the characters are highlighted:

       ASCII control characters
	      Control characters in the ASCII range are shown as `^' followed by the base charac-
	      ter.

       Unprintable multibyte characters
	      This item applies to control characters not in the ASCII range, plus other  charac-
	      ters as follows.	If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, multibyte characters not in
	      the ASCII character set that are reported as having zero width are treated as  com-
	      bining  characters when the option COMBINING_CHARS is on.  If the option is off, or
	      if a character appears where a combining character is not valid, the  character  is
	      treated as unprintable.

	      Unprintable  multibyte  characters  are shown as a hexadecimal number between angle
	      brackets.  The number is the code point of the character in the wide character set;
	      this may or may not be Unicode, depending on the operating system.

       Invalid multibyte characters
	      If  the  MULTIBYTE option is in effect, any sequence of one or more bytes that does
	      not form a valid character in the current character set is treated as a  series  of
	      bytes each shown as a special character.	This case can be distinguished from other
	      unprintable characters as the bytes  are	represented  as  two  hexadecimal  digits
	      between angle brackets, as distinct from the four or eight digits that are used for
	      unprintable characters that are nonetheless valid in the current character set.

	      Not all systems support this: for it to work, the system's representation  of  wide
	      characters  must be code values from the Universal Character Set, as defined by IS0
	      10646 (also known as Unicode).

       Wrapped double-width characters
	      When a double-width character appears in the final column of a line, it is  instead
	      shown  on  the  next  line.  The empty space left in the original position is high-
	      lighted as a special character.

       If zle_highlight is not set or no value applies to  a  particular  context,  the  defaults
       applied are equivalent to

	      zle_highlight=(region:standout special:standout
	      suffix:bold isearch:underline)

       i.e. both the region and special characters are shown in standout mode.

       Within  widgets, arbitrary regions may be highlighted by setting the special array parame-
       ter region_highlight; see above.

ZSHCOMPWID(1)									    ZSHCOMPWID(1)

NAME
       zshcompwid - zsh completion widgets

DESCRIPTION
       The shell's programmable completion mechanism can be manipulated in  two  ways;	here  the
       low-level features supporting the newer, function-based mechanism are defined.  A complete
       set of shell functions based on these features is described in  zshcompsys(1),  and  users
       with  no interest in adding to that system (or, potentially, writing their own -- see dic-
       tionary entry for `hubris') should skip the current section.  The older	system	based  on
       the compctl builtin command is described in zshcompctl(1).

       Completion widgets are defined by the -C option to the zle builtin command provided by the
       zsh/zle module (see zshzle(1)). For example,

	      zle -C complete expand-or-complete completer

       defines a widget named `complete'.  The second argument is the name of any of the  builtin
       widgets	 that	handle	completions:  complete-word,  expand-or-complete,  expand-or-com-
       plete-prefix, menu-complete, menu-expand-or-complete, reverse-menu-complete, list-choices,
       or delete-char-or-list.	Note that this will still work even if the widget in question has
       been re-bound.

       When this newly defined widget is bound to a key using the bindkey builtin command defined
       in  the zsh/zle module (see zshzle(1)), typing that key will call the shell function `com-
       pleter'. This function is responsible  for  generating  the  possible  matches  using  the
       builtins  described  below.   As  with  other ZLE widgets, the function is called with its
       standard input closed.

       Once the function returns, the completion code takes over control  again  and  treats  the
       matches	in  the  same manner as the specified builtin widget, in this case expand-or-com-
       plete.

COMPLETION SPECIAL PARAMETERS
       The parameters ZLE_REMOVE_SUFFIX_CHARS and ZLE_SPACE_SUFFIX_CHARS are used by the  comple-
       tion mechanism, but are not special.  See Parameters Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       Inside  completion  widgets, and any functions called from them, some parameters have spe-
       cial meaning; outside these functions they are not special to the shell in any way.  These
       parameters  are	used  to  pass information between the completion code and the completion
       widget. Some of the builtin commands and the condition codes use  or  change  the  current
       values  of  these parameters.  Any existing values will be hidden during execution of com-
       pletion widgets; except for compstate, the parameters are  reset  on  each  function  exit
       (including nested function calls from within the completion widget) to the values they had
       when the function was entered.

       CURRENT
	      This is the number of the current word, i.e. the word the cursor is currently on in
	      the  words  array.  Note that this value is only correct if the ksharrays option is
	      not set.

       IPREFIX
	      Initially this will be set to the empty string.  This parameter functions like PRE-
	      FIX;  it	contains  a string which precedes the one in PREFIX and is not considered
	      part of the list of matches.  Typically, a string is transferred from the beginning
	      of PREFIX to the end of IPREFIX, for example:

		     IPREFIX=${PREFIX%%\=*}=
		     PREFIX=${PREFIX#*=}

	      causes  the  part  of the prefix up to and including the first equal sign not to be
	      treated as part of a matched string.  This can be done automatically by the compset
	      builtin, see below.

       ISUFFIX
	      As  IPREFIX,  but  for  a suffix that should not be considered part of the matches;
	      note that the ISUFFIX string follows the SUFFIX string.

       PREFIX Initially this will be set to the part of the current word from  the  beginning  of
	      the  word up to the position of the cursor; it may be altered to give a common pre-
	      fix for all matches.

       QIPREFIX
	      This parameter is read-only and contains the quoted string up  to  the  word  being
	      completed.  E.g.	when completing `"foo', this parameter contains the double quote.
	      If the -q option of compset is used (see below), and the original string was  `"foo
	      bar' with the cursor on the `bar', this parameter contains `"foo '.

       QISUFFIX
	      Like QIPREFIX, but containing the suffix.

       SUFFIX Initially this will be set to the part of the current word from the cursor position
	      to the end; it may be altered to give a common suffix for all matches.  It is  most
	      useful  when the option COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set, as otherwise the whole word on the
	      command line is treated as a prefix.

       compstate
	      This is an associative array with various keys and values that the completion  code
	      uses to exchange information with the completion widget.	The keys are:

	      all_quotes
		     The  -q  option  of  the compset builtin command (see below) allows a quoted
		     string to be broken into separate words; if the cursor is on  one	of  those
		     words,  that  word  will be completed, possibly invoking `compset -q' recur-
		     sively.  With this key it is possible to test the types  of  quoted  strings
		     which  are  currently broken into parts in this fashion.  Its value contains
		     one character for each quoting level.  The characters are a single quote  or
		     a	double quote for strings quoted with these characters, a dollars sign for
		     strings quoted with $'...' and a backslash for strings not starting  with	a
		     quote character.  The first character in the value always corresponds to the
		     innermost quoting level.

	      context
		     This will be set by the completion code to the overall context in which com-
		     pletion is attempted. Possible values are:

		     array_value
			    when completing inside the value of an array parameter assignment; in
			    this case the words array contains the words inside the parentheses.

		     brace_parameter
			    when completing the name of a  parameter  in  a  parameter	expansion
			    beginning  with  ${.   This  context will also be set when completing
			    parameter flags following ${(; the full command line argument is pre-
			    sented  and the handler must test the value to be completed to ascer-
			    tain that this is the case.

		     assign_parameter
			    when completing the name of a parameter in a parameter assignment.

		     command
			    when completing for a normal command (either in command  position  or
			    for an argument of the command).

		     condition
			    when  completing  inside  a `[[...]]' conditional expression; in this
			    case the words array contains only the words inside  the  conditional
			    expression.

		     math   when  completing  in  a  mathematical environment such as a `((...))'
			    construct.

		     parameter
			    when completing the name of a  parameter  in  a  parameter	expansion
			    beginning with $ but not ${.

		     redirect
			    when completing after a redirection operator.

		     subscript
			    when completing inside a parameter subscript.

		     value  when completing the value of a parameter assignment.

	      exact  Controls  the behaviour when the REC_EXACT option is set.	It will be set to
		     accept if an exact match would be accepted, and will be unset otherwise.

		     If it was set when at least one match equal to the string on  the	line  was
		     generated, the match is accepted.

	      exact_string
		     The string of an exact match if one was found, otherwise unset.

	      ignored
		     The  number  of words that were ignored because they matched one of the pat-
		     terns given with the -F option to the compadd builtin command.

	      insert This controls the manner in which a match is inserted into the command line.
		     On  entry	to the widget function, if it is unset the command line is not to
		     be changed; if set to unambiguous, any prefix common to all matches is to be
		     inserted;	if  set  to  automenu-unambiguous,  the  common  prefix  is to be
		     inserted and the next invocation of the completion code may start menu  com-
		     pletion  (due to the AUTO_MENU option being set); if set to menu or automenu
		     menu completion will be started for the matches currently generated (in  the
		     latter  case  this  will happen because the AUTO_MENU is set). The value may
		     also contain the string `tab' when the completion code  would  normally  not
		     really do completion, but only insert the TAB character.

		     On  exit  it  may be set to any of the values above (where setting it to the
		     empty string is the same as unsetting it), or to a number, in which case the
		     match  whose  number is given will be inserted into the command line.  Nega-
		     tive numbers count backward from the last match  (with  `-1'  selecting  the
		     last  match)  and out-of-range values are wrapped around, so that a value of
		     zero selects the last match and a value one more than  the  maximum  selects
		     the  first.  Unless  the  value  of  this	key ends in a space, the match is
		     inserted as in a menu completion, i.e.  without  automatically  appending	a
		     space.

		     Both  menu  and automenu may also specify the number of the match to insert,
		     given after a colon.  For example, `menu:2' says to start	menu  completion,
		     beginning with the second match.

		     Note that a value containing the substring `tab' makes the matches generated
		     be ignored and only the TAB be inserted.

		     Finally, it may also be set to all, which makes  all  matches  generated  be
		     inserted into the line.

	      insert_positions
		     When  the	completion  system  inserts  an unambiguous string into the line,
		     there may be multiple places where characters are missing or where the char-
		     acter  inserted differs from at least one match.  The value of this key con-
		     tains a colon separated list of all these positions,  as  indexes	into  the
		     command line.

	      last_prompt
		     If  this  is set to a non-empty string for every match added, the completion
		     code will move the cursor back to the previous prompt after the list of com-
		     pletions  has  been  displayed.  Initially this is set or unset according to
		     the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option.

	      list   This controls whether or how the list of matches will be displayed.   If  it
		     is  unset or empty they will never be listed; if its value begins with list,
		     they will always be listed; if it begins with autolist  or  ambiguous,  they
		     will  be  listed  when  the AUTO_LIST or LIST_AMBIGUOUS options respectively
		     would normally cause them to be.

		     If the substring force appears in the value, this makes the  list	be  shown
		     even  if  there is only one match. Normally, the list would be shown only if
		     there are at least two matches.

		     The value contains the substring packed if the LIST_PACKED option is set. If
		     this  substring  is  given for all matches added to a group, this group will
		     show the LIST_PACKED behavior. The same  is  done	for  the  LIST_ROWS_FIRST
		     option with the substring rows.

		     Finally, if the value contains the string explanations, only the explanation
		     strings, if any, will be listed and if it contains messages, only	the  mes-
		     sages  (added with the -x option of compadd) will be listed.  If it contains
		     both explanations and messages both kinds of  explanation	strings  will  be
		     listed.   It  will  be set appropriately on entry to a completion widget and
		     may be changed there.

	      list_lines
		     This gives the number of lines that are needed to display the full  list  of
		     completions.   Note  that	to calculate the total number of lines to display
		     you need to add the number of lines needed for  the  command  line  to  this
		     value, this is available as the value of the BUFFERLINES special parameter.

	      list_max
		     Initially	this is set to the value of the LISTMAX parameter.  It may be set
		     to any other value; when the widget exits this value will	be  used  in  the
		     same way as the value of LISTMAX.

	      nmatches
		     The number of matches generated and accepted by the completion code so far.

	      old_insert
		     On entry to the widget this will be set to the number of the match of an old
		     list of completions that is currently inserted into the command line. If  no
		     match has been inserted, this is unset.

		     As  with  old_list,  the  value  of  this key will only be used if it is the
		     string keep. If it was set to this value by the widget and there was an  old
		     match  inserted  into  the  command line, this match will be kept and if the
		     value of the insert key specifies that another  match  should  be	inserted,
		     this will be inserted after the old one.

	      old_list
		     This is set to yes if there is still a valid list of completions from a pre-
		     vious completion at the time the widget is invoked.  This	will  usually  be
		     the case if and only if the previous editing operation was a completion wid-
		     get or one of the builtin completion functions.  If there is  a  valid  list
		     and  it  is  also	currently  shown  on the screen, the value of this key is
		     shown.

		     After the widget has exited the value of this key is only used if it was set
		     to  keep.	 In  this  case the completion code will continue to use this old
		     list.  If the widget generated new matches, they will not be used.

	      parameter
		     The name of the parameter when completing in a subscript or in the value  of
		     a parameter assignment.

	      pattern_insert
		     Normally  this  is set to menu, which specifies that menu completion will be
		     used whenever a set of matches was generated using pattern matching.  If  it
		     is  set to any other non-empty string by the user and menu completion is not
		     selected by other option settings, the code will instead insert  any  common
		     prefix for the generated matches as with normal completion.

	      pattern_match
		     Locally controls the behaviour given by the GLOB_COMPLETE option.	Initially
		     it is set to `*' if and only if the option is set.   The  completion  widget
		     may  set  it to this value, to an empty string (which has the same effect as
		     unsetting it), or to any  other  non-empty  string.   If  it  is  non-empty,
		     unquoted  metacharacters on the command line will be treated as patterns; if
		     it is `*', then additionally a wildcard `*' is assumed at the  cursor  posi-
		     tion; if it is empty or unset, metacharacters will be treated literally.

		     Note  that  the  matcher specifications given to the compadd builtin command
		     are not used if this is set to a non-empty string.

	      quote  When completing inside quotes, this contains the quotation  character  (i.e.
		     either  a	single	quote,	a  double quote, or a backtick).  Otherwise it is
		     unset.

	      quoting
		     When completing inside single quotes, this is  set  to  the  string  single;
		     inside  double quotes, the string double; inside backticks, the string back-
		     tick.  Otherwise it is unset.

	      redirect
		     The redirection operator when completing in a redirection position, i.e. one
		     of <, >, etc.

	      restore
		     This  is  set to auto before a function is entered, which forces the special
		     parameters mentioned above (words, CURRENT,  PREFIX,  IPREFIX,  SUFFIX,  and
		     ISUFFIX)  to  be  restored to their previous values when the function exits.
		     If a function unsets it or sets it to any other string,  they  will  not  be
		     restored.

	      to_end Specifies	the occasions on which the cursor is moved to the end of a string
		     when a match is inserted.	On entry to a widget function, it may  be  single
		     if this will happen when a single unambiguous match was inserted or match if
		     it will happen any time a match is inserted (for example,	by  menu  comple-
		     tion; this is likely to be the effect of the ALWAYS_TO_END option).

		     On exit, it may be set to single as above.  It may also be set to always, or
		     to the empty string or unset; in those cases the cursor will be moved to the
		     end of the string always or never respectively.  Any other string is treated
		     as match.

	      unambiguous
		     This key is read-only and will always be set  to  the  common  (unambiguous)
		     prefix the completion code has generated for all matches added so far.

	      unambiguous_cursor
		     This  gives  the position the cursor would be placed at if the common prefix
		     in the unambiguous key were inserted, relative to the value of that key. The
		     cursor  would  be	placed	before the character whose index is given by this
		     key.

	      unambiguous_positions
		     This contains all positions where characters in the unambiguous  string  are
		     missing  or  where  the  character inserted differs from at least one of the
		     matches.  The positions are given as indexes into the string  given  by  the
		     value of the unambiguous key.

	      vared  If  completion  is  called while editing a line using the vared builtin, the
		     value of this key is set to the name of the parameter given as  an  argument
		     to vared.	This key is only set while a vared command is active.

       words  This array contains the words present on the command line currently being edited.

COMPLETION BUILTIN COMMANDS
       compadd [ -akqQfenUld12C ] [ -F array ]
       [ -P prefix ] [ -S suffix ]
       [ -p hidden-prefix ] [ -s hidden-suffix ]
       [ -i ignored-prefix ] [ -I ignored-suffix ]
       [ -W file-prefix ] [ -d array ]
       [ -J name ] [ -V name ] [ -X explanation ] [ -x message ]
       [ -r remove-chars ] [ -R remove-func ]
       [ -D array ] [ -O array ] [ -A array ]
       [ -E number ]
       [ -M match-spec ] [ -- ] [ words ... ]

	      This builtin command can be used to add matches directly and control all the infor-
	      mation the completion code stores with each possible match. The  return  status  is
	      zero if at least one match was added and non-zero if no matches were added.

	      The completion code breaks the string to complete into seven fields in the order:

		     <ipre><apre><hpre><word><hsuf><asuf><isuf>

	      The  first  field is an ignored prefix taken from the command line, the contents of
	      the IPREFIX parameter plus the string given with the -i option. With the -U option,
	      only  the string from the -i option is used. The field <apre> is an optional prefix
	      string given with the -P option.	The <hpre> field is a string that  is  considered
	      part of the match but that should not be shown when listing completions, given with
	      the -p option; for example, functions that do filename generation might  specify	a
	      common path prefix this way.  <word> is the part of the match that should appear in
	      the list of completions, i.e. one of the words given at the end of the compadd com-
	      mand  line.  The	suffixes  <hsuf>,  <asuf>  and	<isuf> correspond to the prefixes
	      <hpre>, <apre> and <ipre> and are given by the options -s, -S and -I, respectively.

	      The supported flags are:

	      -P prefix
		     This gives a string to be inserted before the given words.  The string given
		     is  not  considered  as part of the match and any shell metacharacters in it
		     will not be quoted when the string is inserted.

	      -S suffix
		     Like -P, but gives a string to be inserted after the match.

	      -p hidden-prefix
		     This gives a string that should be inserted into the command line before the
		     match  but  that  should  not  appear  in the list of matches. Unless the -U
		     option is given, this string must be matched as part of the  string  on  the
		     command line.

	      -s hidden-suffix
		     Like `-p', but gives a string to insert after the match.

	      -i ignored-prefix
		     This  gives  a string to insert into the command line just before any string
		     given with the `-P' option.  Without `-P' the string is inserted before  the
		     string given with `-p' or directly before the match.

	      -I ignored-suffix
		     Like -i, but gives an ignored suffix.

	      -a     With  this  flag  the  words  are	taken as names of arrays and the possible
		     matches are their values.	If only some elements of the arrays  are  needed,
		     the words may also contain subscripts, as in `foo[2,-1]'.

	      -k     With  this  flag  the words are taken as names of associative arrays and the
		     possible matches are their keys.  As for -a, the words may also contain sub-
		     scripts, as in `foo[(R)*bar*]'.

	      -d array
		     This  adds  per-match  display strings. The array should contain one element
		     per word given. The completion code will  then  display  the  first  element
		     instead  of the first word, and so on. The array may be given as the name of
		     an array parameter or directly as a space-separated list of words in  paren-
		     theses.

		     If  there	are  fewer display strings than words, the leftover words will be
		     displayed unchanged and if there are more display strings	than  words,  the
		     leftover display strings will be silently ignored.

	      -l     This option only has an effect if used together with the -d option. If it is
		     given, the display strings are listed one per line, not arrayed in columns.

	      -o     This option only has an effect if used together with the -d option.   If  it
		     is  given, the order of the output is determined by the match strings;  oth-
		     erwise it is determined by the display strings (i.e. the  strings	given  by
		     the -d option).

	      -J name
		     Gives the name of the group of matches the words should be stored in.

	      -V name
		     Like  -J  but  naming an unsorted group. These are in a different name space
		     than groups created with the -J flag.

	      -1     If given together with the -V option, makes only consecutive  duplicates  in
		     the  group  be  removed. If combined with the -J option, this has no visible
		     effect. Note that groups with and without this flag are  in  different  name
		     spaces.

	      -2     If  given	together  with the -J or -V option, makes all duplicates be kept.
		     Again, groups with and without this flag are in different name spaces.

	      -X explanation
		     The explanation string will be printed with the list of matches,  above  the
		     group currently selected.

	      -x message
		     Like -X, but the message will be printed even if there are no matches in the
		     group.

	      -q     The suffix given with -S will be automatically removed if the next character
		     typed  is	a blank or does not insert anything, or if the suffix consists of
		     only one character and the next character typed is the same character.

	      -r remove-chars
		     This is a more versatile form of the -q option.  The suffix given with -S or
		     the slash automatically added after completing directories will be automati-
		     cally removed if the next character typed	inserts  one  of  the  characters
		     given  in the remove-chars.  This string is parsed as a characters class and
		     understands the backslash sequences used by the print command.  For example,
		     `-r  "a-z\t"' removes the suffix if the next character typed inserts a lower
		     case character or a TAB, and `-r "^0-9"' removes  the  suffix  if	the  next
		     character	typed  inserts anything but a digit. One extra backslash sequence
		     is understood in this string: `\-' stands for  all  characters  that  insert
		     nothing. Thus `-S "=" -q' is the same as `-S "=" -r "= \t\n\-"'.

		     This  option  may also be used without the -S option; then any automatically
		     added space will be removed when one of the characters in the list is typed.

	      -R remove-func
		     This is another form of the -r option. When a suffix has been  inserted  and
		     the  completion  accepted, the function remove-func will be called after the
		     next character typed.  It is passed the length of the suffix as an  argument
		     and  can  use  the special parameters available in ordinary (non-completion)
		     zle widgets (see zshzle(1)) to analyse and modify the command line.

	      -f     If this flag is given, all of the matches built from  words  are  marked  as
		     being the names of files.	They are not required to be actual filenames, but
		     if they are, and the option LIST_TYPES is set, the characters describing the
		     types of the files in the completion lists will be shown. This also forces a
		     slash to be added when the name of a directory is completed.

	      -e     This flag can be used to tell the completion code that the matches added are
		     parameter	 names	 for   a   parameter   expansion.   This  will	make  the
		     AUTO_PARAM_SLASH and AUTO_PARAM_KEYS options be used for the matches.

	      -W file-prefix
		     This string is a pathname that will be prepended  to  each  of  the  matches
		     formed  by  the  given  words  together  with any prefix specified by the -p
		     option to form a complete filename for testing.  Hence it is only useful  if
		     combined with the -f flag, as the tests will not otherwise be performed.

	      -F array
		     Specifies an array containing patterns. Words matching one of these patterns
		     are ignored, i.e. not considered to be possible matches.

		     The array may be the name of an array parameter or a list	of  literal  pat-
		     terns  enclosed  in parentheses and quoted, as in `-F "(*?.o *?.h)"'. If the
		     name of an array is given, the elements of the array are taken as	the  pat-
		     terns.

	      -Q     This  flag  instructs the completion code not to quote any metacharacters in
		     the words when inserting them into the command line.

	      -M match-spec
		     This gives local match specifications as  described  below  in  the  section
		     `Completion  Matching Control'. This option may be given more than once.  In
		     this case all match-specs given are concatenated with spaces between them to
		     form  the	specification string to use.  Note that they will only be used if
		     the -U option is not given.

	      -n     Specifies that the words added are to be used as possible matches,  but  are
		     not to appear in the completion listing.

	      -U     If this flag is given, all words given will be accepted and no matching will
		     be done by the completion code. Normally this is used in functions  that  do
		     the matching themselves.

	      -O array
		     If this option is given, the words are not added to the set of possible com-
		     pletions.	Instead, matching is done as usual and all of the words given  as
		     arguments	that  match  the string on the command line will be stored in the
		     array parameter whose name is given as array.

	      -A array
		     As the -O option, except that instead of those  of  the  words  which  match
		     being  stored  in	array, the strings generated internally by the completion
		     code  are	stored.  For  example,	with  a  matching  specification  of  `-M
		     "L:|no="',  the string `nof' on the command line and the string `foo' as one
		     of the words, this option stores the string `nofoo' in  the  array,  whereas
		     the -O option stores the `foo' originally given.

	      -D array
		     As  with  -O,  the  words	are not added to the set of possible completions.
		     Instead, the completion code tests whether each word in turn matches what is
		     on  the  line.  If the nth word does not match, the nth element of the array
		     is removed.  Elements for	which  the  corresponding  word  is  matched  are
		     retained.

	      -C     This  option  adds  a  special match which expands to all other matches when
		     inserted into the line, even those that are added after this option is used.
		     Together  with  the -d option it is possible to specify a string that should
		     be displayed in the list for this special match.  If no string is given,  it
		     will  be shown as a string containing the strings that would be inserted for
		     the other matches, truncated to the width of the screen.

	      -E     This option adds number empty matches after the words have been  added.   An
		     empty match takes up space in completion listings but will never be inserted
		     in the line and can't be selected with menu completion  or  menu  selection.
		     This  makes empty matches only useful to format completion lists and to make
		     explanatory string be shown in completion lists (since empty matches can  be
		     given  display  strings  with the -d option).  And because all but one empty
		     string would otherwise be removed, this option implies the -V and -2 options
		     (even if an explicit -J option is given).

	      -
	      --     This flag ends the list of flags and options. All arguments after it will be
		     taken as the words to use as matches even if they begin with hyphens.

	      Except for the -M flag, if any of these flags is given more than	once,  the  first
	      one (and its argument) will be used.

       compset -p number
       compset -P [ number ] pattern
       compset -s number
       compset -S [ number ] pattern
       compset -n begin [ end ]
       compset -N beg-pat [ end-pat ]
       compset -q
	      This  command  simplifies  modification of the special parameters, while its return
	      status allows tests on them to be carried out.

	      The options are:

	      -p number
		     If the contents of the PREFIX parameter is longer	than  number  characters,
		     the first number characters are removed from it and appended to the contents
		     of the IPREFIX parameter.

	      -P [ number ] pattern
		     If the value of the PREFIX parameter begins with anything that  matches  the
		     pattern, the matched portion is removed from PREFIX and appended to IPREFIX.

		     Without  the  optional  number, the longest match is taken, but if number is
		     given, anything up to the numberth match is moved.  If the number	is  nega-
		     tive,  the  numberth longest match is moved. For example, if PREFIX contains
		     the string `a=b=c', then compset -P '*\=' will move the string  `a=b='  into
		     the  IPREFIX  parameter,  but  compset  -P 1 '*\=' will move only the string
		     `a='.

	      -s number
		     As -p, but transfer the last number characters from the value of  SUFFIX  to
		     the front of the value of ISUFFIX.

	      -S [ number ] pattern
		     As -P, but match the last portion of SUFFIX and transfer the matched portion
		     to the front of the value of ISUFFIX.

	      -n begin [ end ]
		     If the current word position  as  specified  by  the  parameter  CURRENT  is
		     greater  than  or equal to begin, anything up to the beginth word is removed
		     from the words array and the value of the parameter CURRENT  is  decremented
		     by begin.

		     If  the  optional end is given, the modification is done only if the current
		     word position is also less than or equal to end. In  this	case,  the  words
		     from position end onwards are also removed from the words array.

		     Both  begin and end may be negative to count backwards from the last element
		     of the words array.

	      -N beg-pat [ end-pat ]
		     If one of the elements of the words array before the one at the index  given
		     by  the value of the parameter CURRENT matches the pattern beg-pat, all ele-
		     ments up to and including the matching one are removed from the words  array
		     and the value of CURRENT is changed to point to the same word in the changed
		     array.

		     If the optional pattern end-pat is also given, and there is  an  element  in
		     the  words  array matching this pattern, the parameters are modified only if
		     the index of this word is higher than the one given by the CURRENT parameter
		     (so  that	the  matching word has to be after the cursor). In this case, the
		     words starting with the one matching end-pat are also removed from the words
		     array. If words contains no word matching end-pat, the testing and modifica-
		     tion is performed as if it were not given.

	      -q     The word currently being completed is split on spaces into  separate  words,
		     respecting  the  usual  shell  quoting conventions.  The resulting words are
		     stored in the words array, and CURRENT, PREFIX, SUFFIX, QIPREFIX, and QISUF-
		     FIX are modified to reflect the word part that is completed.

	      In  all  the  above  cases  the return status is zero if the test succeeded and the
	      parameters were modified and non-zero  otherwise.  This  allows  one  to	use  this
	      builtin in tests such as:

		     if compset -P '*\='; then ...

	      This  forces  anything up to and including the last equal sign to be ignored by the
	      completion code.

       compcall [ -TD ]
	      This allows the use of completions defined with the  compctl  builtin  from  within
	      completion  widgets.   The  list	of  matches  will  be  generated as if one of the
	      non-widget completion functions (complete-word, etc.)  had been called, except that
	      only  compctls  given for specific commands are used. To force the code to try com-
	      pletions defined with the -T  option  of	compctl  and/or  the  default  completion
	      (whether	defined  by compctl -D or the builtin default) in the appropriate places,
	      the -T and/or -D flags can be passed to compcall.

	      The return status can be used to test if a matching compctl definition  was  found.
	      It is non-zero if a compctl was found and zero otherwise.

	      Note that this builtin is defined by the zsh/compctl module.

COMPLETION CONDITION CODES
       The following additional condition codes for use within the [[ ... ]] construct are avail-
       able in completion widgets.  These work on the special parameters.  All of these tests can
       also  be performed by the compset builtin, but in the case of the condition codes the con-
       tents of the special parameters are not modified.

       -prefix [ number ] pattern
	      true if the test for the -P option of compset would succeed.

       -suffix [ number ] pattern
	      true if the test for the -S option of compset would succeed.

       -after beg-pat
	      true if the test of the -N option with only the beg-pat given would succeed.

       -between beg-pat end-pat
	      true if the test for the -N option with both patterns would succeed.

COMPLETION MATCHING CONTROL
       It is possible by use of the -M option of the compadd builtin command to specify  how  the
       characters  in  the string to be completed (referred to here as the command line) map onto
       the characters in the list of matches produced by the completion code (referred to here as
       the  trial  completions).  Note	that this is not used if the command line contains a glob
       pattern and the GLOB_COMPLETE option is set or the pattern_match of the compstate  special
       association is set to a non-empty string.

       The  match-spec	given as the argument to the -M option (see `Completion Builtin Commands'
       above) consists of one or  more	matching  descriptions	separated  by  whitespace.   Each
       description  consists  of  a  letter  followed by a colon and then the patterns describing
       which character sequences on the line match which character sequences in the trial comple-
       tion.   Any  sequence  of  characters  not  handled in this fashion must match exactly, as
       usual.

       The forms of match-spec understood are as follows. In each case, the form  with	an  upper
       case  initial  character retains the string already typed on the command line as the final
       result of completion, while with a lower case initial character the string on the  command
       line is changed into the corresponding part of the trial completion.

       m:lpat=tpat
       M:lpat=tpat
	      Here,  lpat  is  a  pattern that matches on the command line, corresponding to tpat
	      which matches in the trial completion.

       l:lanchor|lpat=tpat
       L:lanchor|lpat=tpat
       l:lanchor||ranchor=tpat
       L:lanchor||ranchor=tpat
       b:lpat=tpat
       B:lpat=tpat
	      These letters are for patterns that are anchored by another  pattern  on	the  left
	      side. Matching for lpat and tpat is as for m and M, but the pattern lpat matched on
	      the command line must be preceded by the pattern lanchor.  The lanchor can be blank
	      to  anchor  the match to the start of the command line string; otherwise the anchor
	      can occur anywhere, but must match in both the command line  and	trial  completion
	      strings.

	      If  no  lpat  is	given  but  a ranchor is, this matches the gap between substrings
	      matched by lanchor and ranchor. Unlike lanchor, the ranchor only needs to match the
	      trial completion string.

	      The  b  and  B forms are similar to l and L with an empty anchor, but need to match
	      only the beginning of the trial completion or the word on the command line, respec-
	      tively.

       r:lpat|ranchor=tpat
       R:lpat|ranchor=tpat
       r:lanchor||ranchor=tpat
       R:lanchor||ranchor=tpat
       e:lpat=tpat
       E:lpat=tpat
	      As  l,  L,  b and B, with the difference that the command line and trial completion
	      patterns are anchored on the right side.	Here an empty ranchor and  the	e  and	E
	      forms force the match to the end of the trial completion or command line string.

       Each  lpat,  tpat or anchor is either an empty string or consists of a sequence of literal
       characters (which may be quoted with a backslash), question marks, character classes,  and
       correspondence  classes;  ordinary  shell patterns are not used.  Literal characters match
       only themselves, question marks match any character, and character classes are  formed  as
       for globbing and match any character in the given set.

       Correspondence  classes are defined like character classes, but with two differences: they
       are delimited by a pair of braces, and negated classes are not allowed, so the  characters
       !  and  ^  have no special meaning directly after the opening brace.  They indicate that a
       range of characters on the line match a range of characters in the trial  completion,  but
       (unlike	ordinary character classes) paired according to the corresponding position in the
       sequence.  For example, to make any ASCII lower case letter on the line match  the  corre-
       sponding  upper case letter in the trial completion, you can use `m:{a-z}={A-Z}' (however,
       see below for the recommended form for this).  More than one pair of classes can occur, in
       which  case the first class before the = corresponds to the first after it, and so on.  If
       one side has more such classes than the other side, the superfluous  classes  behave  like
       normal character classes.  In anchor patterns correspondence classes also behave like nor-
       mal character classes.

       The standard `[:name:]' forms described for standard shell patterns, see the section FILE-
       NAME  GENERATION  in  zshexpn(1),  may  appear in correspondence classes as well as normal
       character classes.  The only special behaviour in correspondence classes is if the form on
       the  left  and the form on the right are each one of [:upper:], [:lower:].  In these cases
       the character in the word and the character on the line must be the same up to  a  differ-
       ence  in case.  Hence to make any lower case character on the line match the corresponding
       upper case character in the trial  completion  you  can	use  `m:{[:lower:]}={[:upper:]}'.
       Although  the  matching system does not yet handle multibyte characters, this is likely to
       be a future extension, at which point this syntax will handle arbitrary	alphabets;  hence
       this  form,  rather  than  the  use of explicit ranges, is the recommended form.  In other
       cases `[:name:]' forms are allowed.  If the two forms on the left and right are the  same,
       the  characters	must  match  exactly.	In  remaining  cases, the corresponding tests are
       applied to both characters, but they are not otherwise constrained; any matching character
       in  one	set goes with any matching character in the other set:	this is equivalent to the
       behaviour of ordinary character classes.

       The pattern tpat may also be one or two stars, `*' or `**'. This means that the pattern on
       the  command line can match any number of characters in the trial completion. In this case
       the pattern must be anchored (on either side); in the case of a single  star,  the  anchor
       then  determines how much of the trial completion is to be included -- only the characters
       up to the next appearance of the anchor	will  be  matched.  With  two  stars,  substrings
       matched by the anchor can be matched, too.

       Examples:

       The  keys  of the options association defined by the parameter module are the option names
       in all-lower-case form, without underscores, and without the optional no at the	beginning
       even  though the builtins setopt and unsetopt understand option names with upper case let-
       ters, underscores, and the optional no.	The following alters the matching rules  so  that
       the  prefix  no	and any underscore are ignored when trying to match the trial completions
       generated and upper case letters on the line match the corresponding lower case letters in
       the words:

	      compadd -M 'L:|[nN][oO]= M:_= M:{[:upper:]}={[:lower:]}' - \
		${(k)options}

       The  first part says that the pattern `[nN][oO]' at the beginning (the empty anchor before
       the pipe symbol) of the string on the line matches the empty string in the list	of  words
       generated  by  completion, so it will be ignored if present. The second part does the same
       for an underscore anywhere in the command line string, and the third part uses  correspon-
       dence  classes  so  that any upper case letter on the line matches the corresponding lower
       case letter in the word. The use of the upper case forms of the	specification  characters
       (L  and	M) guarantees that what has already been typed on the command line (in particular
       the prefix no) will not be deleted.

       Note that the use of L in the first part means that it matches only when at the	beginning
       of  both  the command line string and the trial completion. I.e., the string `_NO_f' would
       not be completed to `_NO_foo', nor would `NONO_f' be completed to  `NONO_foo'  because  of
       the  leading  underscore  or the second `NO' on the line which makes the pattern fail even
       though they are otherwise ignored. To fix this, one would use `B:[nN][oO]=' instead of the
       first  part.  As  described  above, this matches at the beginning of the trial completion,
       independent of other characters or substrings at the beginning of the  command  line  word
       which are ignored by the same or other match-specs.

       The  second  example  makes  completion case insensitive.  This is just the same as in the
       option example, except here we wish to retain the characters in the list of completions:

	      compadd -M 'm:{[:lower:]}={[:upper:]}' ...

       This makes lower case letters match their upper case counterparts.   To	make  upper  case
       letters match the lower case forms as well:

	      compadd -M 'm:{[:lower:][:upper:]}={[:upper:][:lower:]}' ...

       A  nice	example for the use of * patterns is partial word completion. Sometimes you would
       like to make strings like `c.s.u' complete to strings like  `comp.source.unix',	i.e.  the
       word  on  the command line consists of multiple parts, separated by a dot in this example,
       where each part should be completed separately -- note, however, that the case where  each
       part  of  the  word,  i.e. `comp', `source' and `unix' in this example, is to be completed
       from separate sets of matches is a different problem to be solved by the implementation of
       the completion widget.  The example can be handled by:

	      compadd -M 'r:|.=* r:|=*' \
		- comp.sources.unix comp.sources.misc ...

       The first specification says that lpat is the empty string, while anchor is a dot; tpat is
       *, so this can match anything except for the `.' from the anchor in the	trial  completion
       word.   So in `c.s.u', the matcher sees `c', followed by the empty string, followed by the
       anchor `.', and likewise for the second dot, and replaces the  empty  strings  before  the
       anchors,  giving  `c[omp].s[ources].u[nix]', where the last part of the completion is just
       as normal.

       With  the  pattern  shown  above,  the  string	`c.u'	could	not   be   completed   to
       `comp.sources.unix'  because the single star means that no dot (matched by the anchor) can
       be skipped. By using two stars as in `r:|.=**',	however,  `c.u'  could	be  completed  to
       `comp.sources.unix'.  This  also  shows	that in some cases, especially if the anchor is a
       real pattern, like a character class, the form with two stars may result in  more  matches
       than one would like.

       The  second  specification is needed to make this work when the cursor is in the middle of
       the string on the command line and the option COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set. In  this	case  the
       completion  code would normally try to match trial completions that end with the string as
       typed so far, i.e. it will only insert new characters at the cursor position  rather  than
       at the end.  However in our example we would like the code to recognise matches which con-
       tain extra characters after the string on the line (the `nix' in the example).	Hence  we
       say  that  the empty string at the end of the string on the line matches any characters at
       the end of the trial completion.

       More generally, the specification

	      compadd -M 'r:|[.,_-]=* r:|=*' ...

       allows one to complete words with abbreviations before any of the characters in the square
       brackets.   For	example,  to complete veryverylongfile.c rather than veryverylongheader.h
       with the above in effect, you can just type very.c before attempting completion.

       The specifications with both a left and a right anchor  are  useful  to	complete  partial
       words whose parts are not separated by some special character. For example, in some places
       strings have to be completed that are formed  `LikeThis'  (i.e.	the  separate  parts  are
       determined  by  a  leading  upper  case	letter) or maybe one has to complete strings with
       trailing numbers. Here one could use the simple form with only one anchor as in:

	      compadd -M 'r:|[[:upper:]0-9]=* r:|=*' LikeTHIS FooHoo 5foo123 5bar234

       But with this, the string `H' would neither complete to `FooHoo' nor to `LikeTHIS' because
       in  each  case  there  is  an  upper case letter before the `H' and that is matched by the
       anchor. Likewise, a `2' would not be completed. In both cases this  could  be  changed  by
       using `r:|[[:upper:]0-9]=**', but then `H' completes to both `LikeTHIS' and `FooHoo' and a
       `2' matches the other strings because characters can be inserted before every  upper  case
       letter and digit. To avoid this one would use:

	      compadd -M 'r:[^[:upper:]0-9]||[[:upper:]0-9]=** r:|=*' \
		  LikeTHIS FooHoo foo123 bar234

       By  using  these two anchors, a `H' matches only upper case `H's that are immediately pre-
       ceded by something matching the left anchor `[^[:upper:]0-9]'. The effect is,  of  course,
       that `H' matches only the string `FooHoo', a `2' matches only `bar234' and so on.

       When  using  the  completion system (see zshcompsys(1)), users can define match specifica-
       tions that are to be used for specific contexts by  using  the  matcher	and  matcher-list
       styles. The values for the latter will be used everywhere.

COMPLETION WIDGET EXAMPLE
       The first step is to define the widget:

	      zle -C complete complete-word complete-files

       Then the widget can be bound to a key using the bindkey builtin command:

	      bindkey '^X\t' complete

       After  that  the  shell function complete-files will be invoked after typing control-X and
       TAB. The function should then generate the matches, e.g.:

	      complete-files () { compadd - * }

       This function will complete files in the current directory matching the current word.

ZSHCOMPSYS(1)									    ZSHCOMPSYS(1)

NAME
       zshcompsys - zsh completion system

DESCRIPTION
       This describes the shell code for the `new' completion system, referred to as compsys.  It
       is written in shell functions based on the features described in zshcompwid(1).

       The  features are contextual, sensitive to the point at which completion is started.  Many
       completions are already provided.  For this reason, a user can perform a great many  tasks
       without	knowing any details beyond how to initialize the system, which is described below
       in INITIALIZATION.

       The context that decides what completion is to be performed may be
       o      an argument or option position: these describe the position on the command line  at
	      which  completion  is  requested.   For  example `first argument to rmdir, the word
	      being completed names a directory';

       o      a special context, denoting an element in the shell's syntax.  For example `a  word
	      in command position' or `an array subscript'.

       A full context specification contains other elements, as we shall describe.

       Besides	commands  names  and  contexts,  the system employs two more concepts, styles and
       tags.  These provide ways for the user to configure the system's behaviour.

       Tags play a dual role.  They serve as a classification system for the  matches,	typically
       indicating  a  class  of  object that the user may need to distinguish.	For example, when
       completing arguments of the ls command the user may prefer to try  files  before  directo-
       ries,  so  both of these are tags.  They also appear as the rightmost element in a context
       specification.

       Styles modify various operations of the completion system, such as output formatting,  but
       also  what  kinds  of completers are used (and in what order), or which tags are examined.
       Styles may accept arguments and are manipulated using the zstyle command described in  see
       zshmodules(1).

       In  summary,  tags  describe what the completion objects are, and style how they are to be
       completed.  At various points of execution,  the  completion  system  checks  what  styles
       and/or  tags  are  defined  for the current context, and uses that to modify its behavior.
       The full description of context handling, which determines how tags and other elements  of
       the  context  influence	the  behaviour of styles, is described below in COMPLETION SYSTEM
       CONFIGURATION.

       When a completion is requested, a dispatcher function is called; see  the  description  of
       _main_complete in the list of control functions below. This dispatcher decides which func-
       tion should be called to produce the completions, and calls it. The result  is  passed  to
       one  or more completers, functions that implement individual completion strategies: simple
       completion, error correction, completion with error correction, menu selection, etc.

       More generally, the shell functions contained in the completion system are of two types:
       o      those beginning `comp' are to be called directly; there are only a few of these;

       o      those beginning `_' are called by the completion code.  The shell functions of this
	      set,  which  implement  completion  behaviour  and  may be bound to keystrokes, are
	      referred to as `widgets'.  These proliferate as new completions are required.

INITIALIZATION
       If the system was installed completely, it should be enough to  call  the  shell  function
       compinit  from  your  initialization  file;  see  the next section.  However, the function
       compinstall can be run by a user to configure various aspects of the completion system.

       Usually, compinstall will insert code into .zshrc, although if that  is	not  writable  it
       will save it in another file and tell you that file's location.	Note that it is up to you
       to make sure that the lines added to .zshrc are actually run; you may, for  example,  need
       to  move them to an earlier place in the file if .zshrc usually returns early.  So long as
       you keep them all together (including the comment lines at the start and finish), you  can
       rerun  compinstall  and	it  will correctly locate and modify these lines.  Note, however,
       that any code you add to this section by hand is likely to be lost if  you  rerun  compin-
       stall, although lines using the command `zstyle' should be gracefully handled.

       The  new code will take effect next time you start the shell, or run .zshrc by hand; there
       is also an option to make them take  effect  immediately.   However,  if  compinstall  has
       removed definitions, you will need to restart the shell to see the changes.

       To run compinstall you will need to make sure it is in a directory mentioned in your fpath
       parameter, which should already be the case if zsh was properly configured as long as your
       startup	files  do  not	remove	the  appropriate directories from fpath.  Then it must be
       autoloaded (`autoload -U compinstall' is recommended).  You can abort the installation any
       time  you  are being prompted for information, and your .zshrc will not be altered at all;
       changes only take place right at the end, where you are specifically asked  for	confirma-
       tion.

   Use of compinit
       This  section  describes the use of compinit to initialize completion for the current ses-
       sion when called directly; if you have run compinstall it  will	be  called  automatically
       from your .zshrc.

       To  initialize the system, the function compinit should be in a directory mentioned in the
       fpath parameter, and should be autoloaded (`autoload -U	compinit'  is  recommended),  and
       then  run simply as `compinit'.	This will define a few utility functions, arrange for all
       the necessary shell functions to be autoloaded, and will then re-define all  widgets  that
       do  completion to use the new system.  If you use the menu-select widget, which is part of
       the zsh/complist module, you should make sure that that module is loaded before	the  call
       to  compinit so that that widget is also re-defined.  If completion styles (see below) are
       set up to perform expansion as well as completion by default, and the TAB key is bound  to
       expand-or-complete, compinit will rebind it to complete-word; this is necessary to use the
       correct form of expansion.

       Should you need to use the original completion commands, you can still bind  keys  to  the
       old widgets by putting a `.' in front of the widget name, e.g. `.expand-or-complete'.

       To speed up the running of compinit, it can be made to produce a dumped configuration that
       will be read in on future invocations; this is the default, but can be turned off by call-
       ing  compinit  with the option -D.  The dumped file is .zcompdump in the same directory as
       the startup files (i.e. $ZDOTDIR or $HOME); alternatively, an explicit file  name  can  be
       given  by  `compinit  -d  dumpfile'.  The next invocation of compinit will read the dumped
       file instead of performing a full initialization.

       If the number of completion files changes, compinit will recognise this and produce a  new
       dump  file.   However,  if  the name of a function or the arguments in the first line of a
       #compdef function (as described below) change, it is easiest to delete the  dump  file  by
       hand  so  that compinit will re-create it the next time it is run.  The check performed to
       see if there are new functions can be omitted by giving the option -C.  In this	case  the
       dump file will only be created if there isn't one already.

       The  dumping is actually done by another function, compdump, but you will only need to run
       this yourself if you change the configuration (e.g. using compdef) and then want  to  dump
       the new one.  The name of the old dumped file will be remembered for this purpose.

       If  the	parameter _compdir is set, compinit uses it as a directory where completion func-
       tions can be found; this is only necessary if they are not already in the function  search
       path.

       For  security  reasons  compinit  also checks if the completion system would use files not
       owned by root or by the	current  user,	or  files  in  directories  that  are  world-  or
       group-writable  or  that  are  not owned by root or by the current user.  If such files or
       directories are found, compinit will ask if the completion system should really	be  used.
       To  avoid  these tests and make all files found be used without asking, use the option -u,
       and to make compinit silently ignore all insecure files and directories use the option -i.
       This security check is skipped entirely when the -C option is given.

       The  security check can be retried at any time by running the function compaudit.  This is
       the same check used by compinit, but when it is executed directly any changes to fpath are
       made  local  to the function so they do not persist.  The directories to be checked may be
       passed as arguments; if none are given, compaudit uses fpath and _compdir to find  comple-
       tion  system  directories, adding missing ones to fpath as necessary.  To force a check of
       exactly the directories currently named in fpath, set _compdir to an empty  string  before
       calling compaudit or compinit.

       The  function bashcompinit provides compatibility with bash's programmable completion sys-
       tem.  When run it will define the functions, compgen and complete which correspond to  the
       bash  builtins with the same names.  It will then be possible to use completion specifica-
       tions and functions written for bash.

   Autoloaded files
       The convention for autoloaded functions used in completion is  that  they  start  with  an
       underscore;  as already mentioned, the fpath/FPATH parameter must contain the directory in
       which they are stored.  If zsh was properly installed on  your  system,	then  fpath/FPATH
       automatically contains the required directories for the standard functions.

       For  incomplete	installations,	if  compinit does not find enough files beginning with an
       underscore (fewer than twenty) in the search path, it will try to find more by adding  the
       directory  _compdir  to the search path.  If that directory has a subdirectory named Base,
       all subdirectories will be added to the path.  Furthermore, if the subdirectory Base has a
       subdirectory  named Core, compinit will add all subdirectories of the subdirectories is to
       the path: this allows the functions to be in the same format as in the zsh source  distri-
       bution.

       When  compinit is run, it searches all such files accessible via fpath/FPATH and reads the
       first line of each of them.  This line should contain one of  the  tags	described  below.
       Files whose first line does not start with one of these tags are not considered to be part
       of the completion system and will not be treated specially.

       The tags are:

       #compdef names... [ -[pP] patterns... [ -N names... ] ]
	      The file will be made autoloadable and the function defined in it  will  be  called
	      when  completing	names,	each of which is either the name of a command whose argu-
	      ments are to be completed or one of a number of special contexts in the form  -con-
	      text- described below.

	      Each  name may also be of the form `cmd=service'.  When completing the command cmd,
	      the function typically behaves as if the command (or special context)  service  was
	      being  completed	instead.   This provides a way of altering the behaviour of func-
	      tions that can perform many different completions.  It is  implemented  by  setting
	      the parameter $service when calling the function; the function may choose to inter-
	      pret this how it wishes, and simpler functions will probably ignore it.

	      If the #compdef line contains one of the options -p or -P, the words following  are
	      taken to be patterns.  The function will be called when completion is attempted for
	      a command or context that matches one of the patterns.  The options -p and  -P  are
	      used  to	specify  patterns  to  be tried before or after other completions respec-
	      tively.  Hence -P may be used to specify default actions.

	      The option -N is used after a list following -p or -P; it specifies that	remaining
	      words  no  longer  define  patterns.   It  is  possible to toggle between the three
	      options as many times as necessary.

       #compdef -k style key-sequences...
	      This option creates a widget behaving like the builtin widget style and binds it to
	      the given key-sequences, if any.	The style must be one of the builtin widgets that
	      perform completion, namely complete-word, delete-char-or-list,  expand-or-complete,
	      expand-or-complete-prefix, list-choices, menu-complete, menu-expand-or-complete, or
	      reverse-menu-complete.  If the zsh/complist module is  loaded  (see  zshmodules(1))
	      the widget menu-select is also available.

	      When one of the key-sequences is typed, the function in the file will be invoked to
	      generate the matches.  Note that a key will not be re-bound if it already was (that
	      is,  was	bound to something other than undefined-key).  The widget created has the
	      same name as the file and can be bound to any other keys using bindkey as usual.

       #compdef -K widget-name style key-sequences ...
	      This is similar to -k except that only one key-sequences argument may be given  for
	      each  widget-name  style	pair.	However, the entire set of three arguments may be
	      repeated with a different set of arguments.   Note  in  particular  that	the  wid-
	      get-name	must be distinct in each set.  If it does not begin with `_' this will be
	      added.  The widget-name should not clash with the  name  of  any	existing  widget:
	      names based on the name of the function are most useful.	For example,

		     #compdef -K _foo_complete complete-word "^X^C" \
		       _foo_list list-choices "^X^D"

	      (all  on	one line) defines a widget _foo_complete for completion, bound to `^X^C',
	      and a widget _foo_list for listing, bound to `^X^D'.

       #autoload [ options ]
	      Functions with the #autoload tag are marked for autoloading but are  not	otherwise
	      treated  specially.  Typically they are to be called from within one of the comple-
	      tion functions.  Any options supplied will be passed to  the  autoload  builtin;	a
	      typical use is +X to force the function to be loaded immediately.  Note that the -U
	      and -z flags are always added implicitly.

       The # is part of the tag name and no white space is allowed after it.  The  #compdef  tags
       use  the  compdef  function  described  below; the main difference is that the name of the
       function is supplied implicitly.

       The special contexts for which completion functions can be defined are:

       -array-value-
	      The right hand side of an array-assignment (`foo=(...)')

       -brace-parameter-
	      The name of a parameter expansion within braces (`${...}')

       -assign-parameter-
	      The name of a parameter in an assignment, i.e. on the left hand side of an `='

       -command-
	      A word in command position

       -condition-
	      A word inside a condition (`[[...]]')

       -default-
	      Any word for which no other completion is defined

       -equal-
	      A word beginning with an equals sign

       -first-
	      This is tried before any other completion function.  The function  called  may  set
	      the  _compskip  parameter  to  one of various values: all: no further completion is
	      attempted; a string containing the substring patterns: no pattern completion  func-
	      tions will be called; a string containing default: the function for the `-default-'
	      context will not be called, but functions defined for commands will

       -math- Inside mathematical contexts, such as `((...))'

       -parameter-
	      The name of a parameter expansion (`$...')

       -redirect-
	      The word after a redirection operator.

       -subscript-
	      The contents of a parameter subscript.

       -tilde-
	      After an initial tilde (`~'), but before the first slash in the word.

       -value-
	      On the right hand side of an assignment.

       Default implementations are supplied for each of these contexts.  In most cases	the  con-
       text  -context-	is implemented by a corresponding function _context, for example the con-
       text `-tilde-' and the function `_tilde').

       The contexts -redirect- and -value- allow  extra  context-specific  information.   (Inter-
       nally,  this is handled by the functions for each context calling the function _dispatch.)
       The extra information is added separated by commas.

       For the -redirect- context, the extra information is in the form  `-redirect-,op,command',
       where  op  is the redirection operator and command is the name of the command on the line.
       If there is no command on the line yet, the command field will be empty.

       For the -value- context, the form is `-value-,name,command', where name is the name of the
       parameter.   In	the  case  of  elements  of an associative array, for example `assoc=(key
       <TAB>', name is expanded to `name-key'.	In certain special contexts, such  as  completing
       after `make CFLAGS=', the command part gives the name of the command, here make; otherwise
       it is empty.

       It is not necessary to define fully specific completions as the	functions  provided  will
       try to generate completions by progressively replacing the elements with `-default-'.  For
       example, when completing after `foo=<TAB>', _value will try the names `-value-,foo,' (note
       the empty command part), `-value-,foo,-default-' and`-value-,-default-,-default-', in that
       order, until it finds a function to handle the context.

       As an example:

	      compdef '_files -g "*.log"' '-redirect-,2>,-default-'

       completes files matching `*.log' after `2> <TAB>' for any command with  no  more  specific
       handler defined.

       Also:

	      compdef _foo -value-,-default-,-default-

       specifies that _foo provides completions for the values of parameters for which no special
       function has been defined.  This is usually handled by the function _value itself.

       The same lookup rules are used when looking up styles (as described below); for example

	      zstyle ':completion:*:*:-redirect-,2>,*:*' file-patterns '*.log'

       is another way to make completion after `2> <TAB>' complete files matching `*.log'.

   Functions
       The following function is defined by compinit and may be called directly.

       compdef [ -ane ] function names... [ -[pP] patterns... [ -N names... ] ]
       compdef -d names...
       compdef -k [ -an ] function style key-sequences...
       compdef -K [ -an ] function name style key-sequences ...
	      The first form defines the function to call for completion in the given contexts as
	      described for the #compdef tag above.

	      Alternatively,  all  the	arguments  may have the form `cmd=service'.  Here service
	      should already have been defined by `cmd1=service'  lines  in  #compdef  files,  as
	      described  above.   The  argument for cmd will be completed in the same way as ser-
	      vice.

	      The function argument may alternatively be a string  containing  almost  any  shell
	      code.   If  the string contains an equal sign, the above will take precedence.  The
	      option -e may be used to specify the first argument is to  be  evaluated	as  shell
	      code even if it contains an equal sign.  The string will be executed using the eval
	      builtin command to generate completions.	This provides a way of avoiding having to
	      define a new completion function.  For example, to complete files ending in `.h' as
	      arguments to the command foo:

		     compdef '_files -g "*.h"' foo

	      The option -n prevents any completions already defined for the command  or  context
	      from being overwritten.

	      The option -d deletes any completion defined for the command or contexts listed.

	      The names may also contain -p, -P and -N options as described for the #compdef tag.
	      The effect on the argument list is identical, switching between definitions of pat-
	      terns tried initially, patterns tried finally, and normal commands and contexts.

	      The  parameter $_compskip may be set by any function defined for a pattern context.
	      If it is set to a value containing  the  substring  `patterns'  none  of	the  pat-
	      tern-functions  will  be	called;  if it is set to a value containing the substring
	      `all', no other function will be called.

	      The form with -k defines a widget with the same name as the function that  will  be
	      called  for each of the key-sequences; this is like the #compdef -k tag.	The func-
	      tion should generate the completions needed and  will  otherwise	behave	like  the
	      builtin  widget  whose name is given as the style argument.  The widgets usable for
	      this are: complete-word,	delete-char-or-list,  expand-or-complete,  expand-or-com-
	      plete-prefix,    list-choices,	menu-complete,	  menu-expand-or-complete,    and
	      reverse-menu-complete, as well as menu-select if the zsh/complist module is loaded.
	      The  option  -n prevents the key being bound if it is already to bound to something
	      other than undefined-key.

	      The form with -K is similar and defines multiple widgets based on  the  same  func-
	      tion,  each  of  which  requires	the  set  of  three  arguments	name,  style  and
	      key-sequences, where the latter two are as for -k and the first must  be	a  unique
	      widget name beginning with an underscore.

	      Wherever	applicable,  the -a option makes the function autoloadable, equivalent to
	      autoload -U function.

       The function compdef can be used to associate existing completion functions with new  com-
       mands.  For example,

	      compdef _pids foo

       uses the function _pids to complete process IDs for the command foo.

       Note also the _gnu_generic function described below, which can be used to complete options
       for commands that understand the `--help' option.

COMPLETION SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
       This section gives a short overview of how the completion  system  works,  and  then  more
       detail on how users can configure how and when matches are generated.

   Overview
       When  completion  is  attempted	somewhere on the command line the completion system first
       works out the context.  This takes account of a number of  things  including  the  command
       word  (such  as	`grep' or `zsh') and options to which the current word may be an argument
       (such as the `-o' option to zsh which takes a shell option as an argument).

       This context information is condensed into a string consisting of  multiple  fields  sepa-
       rated  by  colons,  referred to simply as `the context' in the remainder of the documenta-
       tion.  This is used to look up styles, context-sensitive options that can be used to  con-
       figure  the  completion system.	The context used for lookup may vary during the same call
       to the completion system.

       The context string always consists of a fixed set of fields, separated by colons and  with
       a leading colon before the first, in the form :completion:function:completer:command:argu-
       ment:tag.  These have the following meaning:

       o      The literal string completion, saying that this style is	used  by  the  completion
	      system.	This  distinguishes the context from those used by, for example, zle wid-
	      gets and ZFTP functions.

       o      The function, if completion is called from a named widget rather than  through  the
	      normal  completion  system.  Typically this is blank, but it is set by special wid-
	      gets such as predict-on and the various functions in the Widget  directory  of  the
	      distribution to the name of that function, often in an abbreviated form.

       o      The completer currently active, the name of the function without the leading under-
	      score and with other underscores converted to hyphens.  A `completer' is in overall
	      control of how completion is to be performed; `complete' is the simplest, but other
	      completers exist to perform related tasks such as correction, or to modify the  be-
	      haviour  of  a later completer.  See the section `Control Functions' below for more
	      information.

       o      The command or a special -context-, just at it appears following the  #compdef  tag
	      or  the compdef function.  Completion functions for commands that have sub-commands
	      usually modify this field to contain the name of the command followed  by  a  minus
	      sign and the sub-command.  For example, the completion function for the cvs command
	      sets this field to cvs-add when completing arguments to the add subcommand.

       o      The argument; this indicates which command line or option argument we are  complet-
	      ing.   For  command  arguments this generally takes the form argument-n, where n is
	      the number of the argument, and for arguments  to  options  the  form  option-opt-n
	      where  n	is  the  number of the argument to option opt.	However, this is only the
	      case if the command line is parsed with standard UNIX-style options and  arguments,
	      so many completions do not set this.

       o      The  tag.  As described previously, tags are used to discriminate between the types
	      of matches a completion function can generate in a certain context.  Any completion
	      function may use any tag name it likes, but a list of the more common ones is given
	      below.

       The context is gradually put together as the functions are  executed,  starting	with  the
       main entry point, which adds :completion: and the function element if necessary.  The com-
       pleter then adds the completer element.	The contextual completion adds	the  command  and
       argument  options.  Finally, the tag is added when the types of completion are known.  For
       example, the context name

	      :completion::complete:dvips:option-o-1:files

       says that normal completion was attempted as the first argument to the option  -o  of  the
       command dvips:

	      dvips -o ...

       and the completion function will generate filenames.

       Usually completion will be tried for all possible tags in an order given by the completion
       function.  However, this can be altered by using the tag-order style.  Completion is  then
       restricted to the list of given tags in the given order.

       The  _complete_help bindable command shows all the contexts and tags available for comple-
       tion at a particular point.   This  provides  an  easy  way  of	finding  information  for
       tag-order and other styles.  It is described in the section `Bindable Commands' below.

       Styles  determine such things as how the matches are generated, similarly to shell options
       but with much more control.  They can have any number of strings as their value.  They are
       defined with the zstyle builtin command (see zshmodules(1)).

       When  looking  up styles the completion system uses full context names, including the tag.
       Looking up the value of a style therefore consists of two things:  the context, which  may
       be matched as a pattern, and the name of the style itself, which must be given exactly.

       For example, many completion functions can generate matches in a simple and a verbose form
       and use the verbose style to decide which form should be used.  To make all such functions
       use the verbose form, put

	      zstyle ':completion:*' verbose yes

       in  a startup file (probably .zshrc).  This gives the verbose style the value yes in every
       context inside the completion system, unless that context has a more specific  definition.
       It  is  best to avoid giving the context as `*' in case the style has some meaning outside
       the completion system.

       Many such general purpose styles can be configured simply by using the  compinstall  func-
       tion.

       A  more specific example of the use of the verbose style is by the completion for the kill
       builtin.  If the style is set, the builtin lists full job texts and process command lines;
       otherwise  it  shows  the  bare	job numbers and PIDs.  To turn the style off for this use
       only:

	      zstyle ':completion:*:*:kill:*' verbose no

       For even more control, the style can use one of the tags `jobs' or `processes'.	 To  turn
       off verbose display only for jobs:

	      zstyle ':completion:*:*:kill:*:jobs' verbose no

       The  -e option to zstyle even allows completion function code to appear as the argument to
       a style; this requires some understanding of the internals of  completion  functions  (see
       see zshcompwid(1))).  For example,

	      zstyle -e ':completion:*' hosts 'reply=($myhosts)'

       This  forces the value of the hosts style to be read from the variable myhosts each time a
       host name is needed; this is useful if the value of myhosts can change  dynamically.   For
       another	useful	example, see the example in the description of the file-list style below.
       This form can be slow and should be avoided for commonly examined styles such as menu  and
       list-rows-first.

       Note  that the order in which styles are defined does not matter; the style mechanism uses
       the most specific possible match for a particular style to determine the  set  of  values.
       More  precisely,  strings  are  preferred  over	patterns (for example, `:completion::com-
       plete:foo' is more specific than `:completion::complete:*'), and longer patterns are  pre-
       ferred over shorter patterns.

       Style  names like those of tags are arbitrary and depend on the completion function.  How-
       ever, the following two sections list some of the most common tags and styles.

   Standard Tags
       Some of the following are only used when looking up particular styles and do not refer  to
       a type of match.

       accounts
	      used to look up the users-hosts style

       all-expansions
	      used by the _expand completer when adding the single string containing all possible
	      expansions

       all-files
	      for the names of	all  files  (as  distinct  from  a  particular	subset,  see  the
	      globbed-files tag).

       arguments
	      for arguments to a command

       arrays for names of array parameters

       association-keys
	      for keys of associative arrays; used when completing inside a subscript to a param-
	      eter of this type

       bookmarks
	      when completing bookmarks (e.g. for URLs and the zftp function suite)

       builtins
	      for names of builtin commands

       characters
	      for single characters in arguments of commands such as stty.   Also used when  com-
	      pleting character classes after an opening bracket

       colormapids
	      for X colormap ids

       colors for color names

       commands
	      for  names  of  external	commands.  Also used by complex commands such as cvs when
	      completing names subcommands.

       contexts
	      for contexts in arguments to the zstyle builtin command

       corrections
	      used by the _approximate and _correct completers for possible corrections

       cursors
	      for cursor names used by X programs

       default
	      used in some contexts to provide a way of supplying a default  when  more  specific
	      tags  are  also  valid.  Note that this tag is used when only the function field of
	      the context name is set

       descriptions
	      used when looking up the value of the format style  to  generate	descriptions  for
	      types of matches

       devices
	      for names of device special files

       directories
	      for names of directories -- local-directories is used instead when completing argu-
	      ments of cd and related builtin commands when the cdpath array is set

       directory-stack
	      for entries in the directory stack

       displays
	      for X display names

       domains
	      for network domains

       expansions
	      used by the _expand completer for individual words (as opposed to the complete  set
	      of expansions) resulting from the expansion of a word on the command line

       extensions
	      for X server extensions

       file-descriptors
	      for numbers of open file descriptors

       files  the generic file-matching tag used by functions completing filenames

       fonts  for X font names

       fstypes
	      for file system types (e.g. for the mount command)

       functions
	      names  of  functions  --	normally  shell  functions, although certain commands may
	      understand other kinds of function

       globbed-files
	      for filenames when the name has been generated by pattern matching

       groups for names of user groups

       history-words
	      for words from the history

       hosts  for hostnames

       indexes
	      for array indexes

       jobs   for jobs (as listed by the `jobs' builtin)

       interfaces
	      for network interfaces

       keymaps
	      for names of zsh keymaps

       keysyms
	      for names of X keysyms

       libraries
	      for names of system libraries

       limits for system limits

       local-directories
	      for names of directories that are subdirectories of the current  working	directory
	      when completing arguments of cd and related builtin commands (compare path-directo-
	      ries) -- when the cdpath array is unset, directories is used instead

       manuals
	      for names of manual pages

       mailboxes
	      for e-mail folders

       maps   for map names (e.g. NIS maps)

       messages
	      used to look up the format style for messages

       modifiers
	      for names of X modifiers

       modules
	      for modules (e.g. zsh modules)

       my-accounts
	      used to look up the users-hosts style

       named-directories
	      for named directories (you wouldn't have guessed that, would you?)

       names  for all kinds of names

       newsgroups
	      for USENET groups

       nicknames
	      for nicknames of NIS maps

       options
	      for command options

       original
	      used by the _approximate, _correct and _expand completers when offering the  origi-
	      nal string as a match

       other-accounts
	      used to look up the users-hosts style

       other-files
	      for  the	names of any non-directory files.  This is used instead of all-files when
	      the list-dirs-first style is in effect.

       packages
	      for packages (e.g. rpm or installed Debian packages)

       parameters
	      for names of parameters

       path-directories
	      for names of directories found by searching the cdpath array when completing  argu-
	      ments of cd and related builtin commands (compare local-directories)

       paths  used to look up the values of the expand, ambiguous and special-dirs styles

       pods   for perl pods (documentation files)

       ports  for communication ports

       prefixes
	      for prefixes (like those of a URL)

       printers
	      for print queue names

       processes
	      for process identifiers

       processes-names
	      used  to	look up the command style when generating the names of processes for kil-
	      lall

       sequences
	      for sequences (e.g. mh sequences)

       sessions
	      for sessions in the zftp function suite

       signals
	      for signal names

       strings
	      for strings (e.g. the replacement strings for the cd builtin command)

       styles for styles used by the zstyle builtin command

       suffixes
	      for filename extensions

       tags   for tags (e.g. rpm tags)

       targets
	      for makefile targets

       time-zones
	      for time zones (e.g. when setting the TZ parameter)

       types  for types of whatever (e.g. address types for the xhost command)

       urls   used to look up the urls and local styles when completing URLs

       users  for usernames

       values for one of a set of values in certain lists

       variant
	      used by _pick_variant to look up the command to run when determining  what  program
	      is installed for a particular command name.

       visuals
	      for X visuals

       warnings
	      used to look up the format style for warnings

       widgets
	      for zsh widget names

       windows
	      for IDs of X windows

       zsh-options
	      for shell options

   Standard Styles
       Note  that  the	values	of  several of these styles represent boolean values.  Any of the
       strings `true', `on', `yes', and `1' can be used for the  value	`true'	and  any  of  the
       strings	`false',  `off', `no', and `0' for the value `false'.  The behavior for any other
       value is undefined except where explicitly mentioned.  The default  value  may  be  either
       true or false if the style is not set.

       Some  of  these	styles are tested first for every possible tag corresponding to a type of
       match, and if no style was found, for the default tag.  The most notable  styles  of  this
       type  are  menu, list-colors and styles controlling completion listing such as list-packed
       and last-prompt.  When tested for the default tag, only the function field of the  context
       will be set so that a style using the default tag will normally be defined along the lines
       of:

	      zstyle ':completion:*:default' menu ...

       accept-exact
	      This is tested for the default tag in addition to the tags valid	for  the  current
	      context.	 If  it  is set to `true' and any of the trial matches is the same as the
	      string on the command line, this match will immediately be  accepted  (even  if  it
	      would otherwise be considered ambiguous).

	      When  completing	pathnames  (where the tag used is `paths') this style accepts any
	      number of patterns as the value in  addition  to	the  boolean  values.	Pathnames
	      matching	one  of  these	patterns will be accepted immediately even if the command
	      line contains some more partially typed pathname components and these match no file
	      under the directory accepted.

	      This  style is also used by the _expand completer to decide if words beginning with
	      a tilde or parameter expansion should be	expanded.   For  example,  if  there  are
	      parameters  foo and foobar, the string `$foo' will only be expanded if accept-exact
	      is set to `true'; otherwise the completion system will be allowed to complete  $foo
	      to  $foobar. If the style is set to `continue', _expand will add the expansion as a
	      match and the completion system will also be allowed to continue.

       accept-exact-dirs
	      This is used by filename completion.  Unlike accept-exact  it  is  a  boolean.   By
	      default,	filename completion examines all components of a path to see if there are
	      completions of that component, even if the component matches an existing directory.
	      For  example,  when completion after /usr/bin/, the function examines possible com-
	      pletions to /usr.

	      When this style is true, any prefix of a path that matches an existing directory is
	      accepted	without any attempt to complete it further.  Hence, in the given example,
	      the path /usr/bin/ is accepted immediately and completion tried in that directory.

	      If you wish to inhibit this behaviour entirely, set the path-completion style  (see
	      below) to false.

       add-space
	      This  style is used by the _expand completer.  If it is true (the default), a space
	      will be inserted after all words resulting from the expansion, or a  slash  in  the
	      case  of	directory  names.   If the value is `file', the completer will only add a
	      space to names of existing files.  Either a boolean true or the value `file' may be
	      combined	with  `subst',	in which case the completer will not add a space to words
	      generated from the expansion of a substitution of the form `$(...)' or `${...}'.

	      The _prefix completer uses this style as a simple boolean  value	to  decide  if	a
	      space should be inserted before the suffix.

       ambiguous
	      This applies when completing non-final components of filename paths, in other words
	      those with a trailing slash.  If it is set, the cursor  is  left	after  the  first
	      ambiguous component, even if menu completion is in use.  The style is always tested
	      with the paths tag.

       assign-list
	      When completing after an equals sign that is being treated as  an  assignment,  the
	      completion  system  normally  completes only one filename.  In some cases the value
	      may be a list of filenames separated by colons, as with PATH  and  similar  parame-
	      ters.   This  style  can	be  set  to a list of patterns matching the names of such
	      parameters.

	      The default is to complete lists when the word  on  the  line  already  contains	a
	      colon.

       auto-description
	      If set, this style's value will be used as the description for options that are not
	      described by the completion functions, but that have  exactly  one  argument.   The
	      sequence	`%d'  in the value will be replaced by the description for this argument.
	      Depending on personal preferences, it may be useful to set this style to	something
	      like `specify: %d'.  Note that this may not work for some commands.

       avoid-completer
	      This  is	used  by the _all_matches completer to decide if the string consisting of
	      all matches should be added to the list currently being generated.  Its value is	a
	      list  of	names  of  completers.	If any of these is the name of the completer that
	      generated the matches in this completion, the string will not be added.

	      The default value for this style is `_expand _old_list _correct _approximate', i.e.
	      it contains the completers for which a string with all matches will almost never be
	      wanted.

       cache-path
	      This style defines the path where any cache files containing dumped completion data
	      are  stored.   It  defaults  to  `$ZDOTDIR/.zcompcache',	or `$HOME/.zcompcache' if
	      $ZDOTDIR is not defined.	 The  completion  cache  will  not  be	used  unless  the
	      use-cache style is set.

       cache-policy
	      This  style  defines  the  function  that will be used to determine whether a cache
	      needs rebuilding.  See the section on the _cache_invalid function below.

       call-command
	      This style is used in the function for commands such as make and ant where  calling
	      the command directly to generate matches suffers problems such as being slow or, as
	      in the case of make can potentially cause actions in the makefile to  be	executed.
	      If it is set to `true' the command is called to generate matches. The default value
	      of this style is `false'.

       command
	      In many places, completion functions need to call external commands to generate the
	      list of completions.  This style can be used to override the command that is called
	      in some such cases.  The elements of the value are joined with  spaces  to  form	a
	      command line to execute.	The value can also start with a hyphen, in which case the
	      usual command will be added to the end; this is most useful for  putting	`builtin'
	      or  `command' in front to make sure the appropriate version of a command is called,
	      for example to avoid calling a shell function with the same  name  as  an  external
	      command.

	      As  an  example,	the  completion function for process IDs uses this style with the
	      processes tag to generate the IDs to complete and the list of processes to  display
	      (if  the	verbose  style	is `true').  The list produced by the command should look
	      like the output of the ps command.   The	first  line  is  not  displayed,  but  is
	      searched for the string `PID' (or `pid') to find the position of the process IDs in
	      the following lines.  If the line does not contain `PID', the first numbers in each
	      of the other lines are taken as the process IDs to complete.

	      Note  that  the completion function generally has to call the specified command for
	      each attempt to generate the completion list.  Hence care should be taken to  spec-
	      ify  only  commands  that  take a short time to run, and in particular to avoid any
	      that may never terminate.

       command-path
	      This is a list of directories to search for commands to complete.  The default  for
	      this style is the value of the special parameter path.

       commands
	      This  is used by the function completing sub-commands for the system initialisation
	      scripts (residing in /etc/init.d or somewhere not too far  away  from  that).   Its
	      values  give the default commands to complete for those commands for which the com-
	      pletion function isn't able to find them out automatically.  The default	for  this
	      style are the two strings `start' and `stop'.

       complete
	      This  is used by the _expand_alias function when invoked as a bindable command.  If
	      set to `true' and the word on the command line is not the name of an alias,  match-
	      ing alias names will be completed.

       complete-options
	      This  is	used by the completer for cd, chdir and pushd.	For these commands a - is
	      used to introduce a directory stack entry and completion of these is far more  com-
	      mon  than completing options.  Hence unless the value of this style is true options
	      will not be completed, even after an initial -.  If it is  true,	options  will  be
	      completed after an initial - unless there is a preceding -- on the command line.

       completer
	      The  strings  given  as  the value of this style provide the names of the completer
	      functions to use. The available completer functions are described  in  the  section
	      `Control Functions' below.

	      Each  string may be either the name of a completer function or a string of the form
	      `function:name'.	In the first case the completer field of the context will contain
	      the  name of the completer without the leading underscore and with all other under-
	      scores replaced by hyphens.  In the second case the function is  the  name  of  the
	      completer  to  call, but the context will contain the user-defined name in the com-
	      pleter field of the context.  If the name starts with a hyphen, the string for  the
	      context  will be build from the name of the completer function as in the first case
	      with the name appended to it.  For example:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete _complete:-foo

	      Here, completion will call the _complete completer twice, once using `complete' and
	      once  using  `complete-foo' in the completer field of the context.  Normally, using
	      the same completer more than once only  makes  sense  when  used	with  the  `func-
	      tions:name'  form, because otherwise the context name will be the same in all calls
	      to the completer; possible exceptions to this rule are  the  _ignored  and  _prefix
	      completers.

	      The  default  value for this style is `_complete _ignored': only completion will be
	      done, first using the ignored-patterns style and the $fignore array and then  with-
	      out ignoring matches.

       condition
	      This  style  is  used  by  the  _list  completer function to decide if insertion of
	      matches should be delayed unconditionally. The default is `true'.

       delimiters
	      This style is used when adding a delimiter for use with history modifiers  or  glob
	      qualifiers  that	have delimited arguments.  It is an array of preferred delimiters
	      to add.  Non-special characters are preferred as the completion system  may  other-
	      wise become confused.  The default list is :, +, /, -, %.  The list may be empty to
	      force a delimiter to be typed.

       disabled
	      If this is set to `true', the _expand_alias completer and bindable command will try
	      to expand disabled aliases, too.	The default is `false'.

       domains
	      A  list  of  names  of  network domains for completion.  If this is not set, domain
	      names will be taken from the file /etc/resolv.conf.

       environ
	      The environ style is used when completing for `sudo'.  It is set	to  an	array  of
	      `VAR=value'  assignments	to be exported into the local environment before the com-
	      pletion for the target command is invoked.
	      zstyle ':completion:*:sudo::' environ \
		PATH="/sbin:/usr/sbin:$PATH" HOME="/root"

       expand This style is used when completing strings consisting of multiple  parts,  such  as
	      path names.

	      If one of its values is the string `prefix', the partially typed word from the line
	      will be expanded as far as possible even if trailing parts cannot be completed.

	      If one of its values is the string `suffix', matching names  for	components  after
	      the  first  ambiguous one will also be added.  This means that the resulting string
	      is the longest unambiguous string possible.  However, menu completion can  be  used
	      to cycle through all matches.

       fake   This  style may be set for any completion context.  It specifies additional strings
	      that will always be completed  in  that  context.   The  form  of  each  string  is
	      `value:description';  the  colon	and  description  may be omitted, but any literal
	      colons in value must be quoted with a backslash.	Any description provided is shown
	      alongside the value in completion listings.

	      It  is  important  to  use  a sufficiently restrictive context when specifying fake
	      strings.	Note that the styles fake-files and  fake-parameters  provide  additional
	      features when completing files or parameters.

       fake-always
	      This  works identically to the fake style except that the ignored-patterns style is
	      not applied to it.  This makes it possible to override a set of matches  completely
	      by setting the ignored patterns to `*'.

	      The  following shows a way of supplementing any tag with arbitrary data, but having
	      it behave for display purposes like a separate tag.  In this  example  we  use  the
	      features	of  the tag-order style to divide the named-directories tag into two when
	      performing completion with the standard completer complete  for  arguments  of  cd.
	      The  tag	named-directories-normal  behaves  as  normal, but the tag named-directo-
	      ries-mine contains a fixed set of directories.  This has the effect of  adding  the
	      match group `extra directories' with the given completions.

		     zstyle ':completion::complete:cd:*' tag-order \
		       'named-directories:-mine:extra\ directories
		       named-directories:-normal:named\ directories *'
		     zstyle ':completion::complete:cd:*:named-directories-mine' \
		       fake-always mydir1 mydir2
		     zstyle ':completion::complete:cd:*:named-directories-mine' \
		       ignored-patterns '*'

       fake-files
	      This  style  is used when completing files and looked up without a tag.  Its values
	      are of the form `dir:names...'.  This will add the names (strings separated by spa-
	      ces)  as	possible  matches  when  completing in the directory dir, even if no such
	      files really exist.  The dir may be a pattern; pattern characters or colons in  dir
	      should be quoted with a backslash to be treated literally.

	      This  can  be  useful  on systems that support special file systems whose top-level
	      pathnames can not be listed or generated with glob patterns.  It can also  be  used
	      for directories for which one does not have read permission.

	      The pattern form can be used to add a certain `magic' entry to all directories on a
	      particular file system.

       fake-parameters
	      This is used by the completion function for parameter names.  Its values are  names
	      of  parameters that might not yet be set but should be completed nonetheless.  Each
	      name may also be followed by a colon and a string specifying the type of the param-
	      eter  (like  `scalar',  `array' or `integer').  If the type is given, the name will
	      only be completed if parameters of that type are required in  the  particular  con-
	      text.  Names for which no type is specified will always be completed.

       file-list
	      This  style  controls  whether files completed using the standard builtin mechanism
	      are to be listed with a long list similar to ls -l.  Note that  this  feature  uses
	      the  shell  module zsh/stat for file information; this loads the builtin stat which
	      will replace any external stat executable.  To avoid this the following code can be
	      included in an initialization file:

		     zmodload -i zsh/stat
		     disable stat

	      The  style  may  either  be  set	to  a true value (or `all'), or one of the values
	      `insert' or `list', indicating that files are to be listed in long  format  in  all
	      circumstances, or when attempting to insert a file name, or when listing file names
	      without attempting to insert one.

	      More generally, the value may be an array of any of the  above  values,  optionally
	      followed	by  =num.   If	num is present it gives the maximum number of matches for
	      which long listing style will be used.  For example,

		     zstyle ':completion:*' file-list list=20 insert=10

	      specifies that long format will be used when listing up to 20 files or inserting	a
	      file  with  up to 10 matches (assuming a listing is to be shown at all, for example
	      on an ambiguous completion), else short format will be used.

		     zstyle -e ':completion:*' file-list '(( ${+NUMERIC} )) && reply=(true)'

	      specifies that long format will be used any time a numeric  argument  is	supplied,
	      else short format.

       file-patterns
	      This  is	used  by  the standard function for completing filenames, _files.  If the
	      style is unset up to three  tags	are  offered,  `globbed-files',`directories'  and
	      `all-files',  depending  on  the	types of files	expected by the caller of _files.
	      The first two (`globbed-files' and `directories') are normally offered together  to
	      make it easier to complete files in sub-directories.

	      The  file-patterns  style  provides alternatives to the default tags, which are not
	      used.  Its value consists of elements of the form `pattern:tag';	each  string  may
	      contain any number of such specifications separated by spaces.

	      The  pattern is a pattern that is to be used to generate filenames.  Any occurrence
	      of the sequence `%p' is replaced by any pattern(s) passed by the	function  calling
	      _files.  Colons in the pattern must be preceded by a backslash to make them distin-
	      guishable from the colon before the tag.	If more than one pattern is  needed,  the
	      patterns can be given inside braces, separated by commas.

	      The  tags of all strings in the value will be offered by _files and used when look-
	      ing up other styles.  Any tags in the same word will be offered at  the  same  time
	      and before later words.  If no `:tag' is given the `files' tag will be used.

	      The  tag	may also be followed by an optional second colon and a description, which
	      will be used for the `%d' in the value of the format style (if that is set) instead
	      of the default description supplied by the completion function.  If the description
	      given here contains itself a `%d', that is replaced with the  description  supplied
	      by the completion function.

	      For  example,  to make the rm command first complete only names of object files and
	      then the names of all files if there is no matching object file:

		     zstyle ':completion:*:*:rm:*' file-patterns \
			 '*.o:object-files' '%p:all-files'

	      To alter the default behaviour of file completion -- offer files matching a pattern
	      and  directories	on  the  first	attempt, then all files -- to offer only matching
	      files on the first attempt, then directories, and finally all files:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' file-patterns \
			 '%p:globbed-files' '*(-/):directories' '*:all-files'

	      This works even where there is no special pattern: _files matches all  files  using
	      the  pattern  `*' at the first step and stops when it sees this pattern.	Note also
	      it will never try a pattern more than once for a single completion attempt.

	      During the execution of  completion  functions,  the  EXTENDED_GLOB  option  is  in
	      effect, so the characters `#', `~' and `^' have special meanings in the patterns.

       file-sort
	      The  standard  filename completion function uses this style without a tag to deter-
	      mine in which order the names should be listed; menu completion will cycle  through
	      them in the same order.  The possible values are: `size' to sort by the size of the
	      file; `links' to sort by the number of links to the file; `modification' (or `time'
	      or  `date')  to  sort  by  the last modification time; `access' to sort by the last
	      access time; and `inode' (or `change') to sort by the last inode change  time.   If
	      the  style  is set to any other value, or is unset, files will be sorted alphabeti-
	      cally by name.  If the value contains the string `reverse', sorting is done in  the
	      opposite	order.	If the value contains the string `follow', timestamps are associ-
	      ated with the targets of symbolic links; the default is to use  the  timestamps  of
	      the links themselves.

       filter This  is	used  by  the  LDAP  plugin  for e-mail address completion to specify the
	      attributes to match against when filtering entries.  So for example, if  the  style
	      is set to `sn', matching is done against surnames.  Standard LDAP filtering is used
	      so normal completion matching is bypassed.  If this style  is  not  set,	the  LDAP
	      plugin  is  skipped.   You may also need to set the command style to specify how to
	      connect to your LDAP server.

       force-list
	      This forces a list of completions to be shown at any point where listing	is  done,
	      even  in	cases  where the list would usually be suppressed.  For example, normally
	      the list is only shown if there are at least two	different  matches.   By  setting
	      this style to `always', the list will always be shown, even if there is only a sin-
	      gle match that will immediately be accepted.  The style may also be set to  a  num-
	      ber.   In this case the list will be shown if there are at least that many matches,
	      even if they would all insert the same string.

	      This style is tested for the default tag as well as for each tag valid for the cur-
	      rent completion.	Hence the listing can be forced only for certain types of match.

       format If  this	is set for the descriptions tag, its value is used as a string to display
	      above matches in completion lists.  The  sequence  `%d'  in  this  string  will  be
	      replaced	with a short description of what these matches are.  This string may also
	      contain the following sequences to specify output attributes, as described  in  the
	      section  EXPANSION  OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1): `%B', `%S', `%U', `%F', `%K'
	      and their lower case counterparts, as well as `%{...%}'.	`%F', `%K' and	`%{...%}'
	      take  arguments in the same form as prompt expansion.  Note that the %G sequence is
	      not available; an argument to `%{' should be used instead.

	      The style is tested with each tag valid for the current  completion  before  it  is
	      tested for the descriptions tag.	Hence different format strings can be defined for
	      different types of match.

	      Note also that some completer functions define additional `%'-sequences.	These are
	      described for the completer functions that make use of them.

	      Some  completion	functions display messages that may be customised by setting this
	      style for the messages tag.  Here, the `%d' is replaced with a message given by the
	      completion function.

	      Finally,	the  format  string  is  looked up with the warnings tag, for use when no
	      matches could be generated at all.  In this case the  `%d'  is  replaced	with  the
	      descriptions  for the matches that were expected separated by spaces.  The sequence
	      `%D' is replaced with the same descriptions separated by newlines.

	      It is possible to use printf-style field width specifiers  with  `%d'  and  similar
	      escape  sequences.   This  is  handled  by  the  zformat	builtin  command from the
	      zsh/zutil module, see zshmodules(1).

       glob   This is used by the _expand completer.  If it is set to `true' (the default), glob-
	      bing will be attempted on the words resulting from a previous substitution (see the
	      substitute style) or else the original string from the line.

       global If this is set to `true' (the default), the _expand_alias  completer  and  bindable
	      command will try to expand global aliases.

       group-name
	      The  completion  system can group different types of matches, which appear in sepa-
	      rate lists.  This style can be used to give the  names  of  groups  for  particular
	      tags.   For  example,  in command position the completion system generates names of
	      builtin and external commands, names of aliases, shell functions and parameters and
	      reserved	words  as  possible completions.  To have the external commands and shell
	      functions listed separately:

		     zstyle ':completion:*:*:-command-:*:commands' group-name commands
		     zstyle ':completion:*:*:-command-:*:functions' group-name functions

	      As a consequence, any match with the same tag will be displayed in the same group.

	      If the name given is the empty string the name of the tag for the matches  will  be
	      used  as	the  name  of the group.  So, to have all different types of matches dis-
	      played separately, one can just set:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' group-name ''

	      All matches for which no group name is  defined  will  be  put  in  a  group  named
	      -default-.

       group-order
	      This  style  is additional to the group-name style to specify the order for display
	      of the groups defined by that style (compare tag-order, which determines which com-
	      pletions	appear at all).  The groups named are shown in the given order; any other
	      groups are shown in the order defined by the completion function.

	      For example, to have names of builtin commands, shell functions and  external  com-
	      mands appear in that order when completing in command position:

		     zstyle ':completion:*:*:-command-:*' group-order \
			    builtins functions commands

       groups A list of names of UNIX groups.  If this is not set, group names are taken from the
	      YP database or the file `/etc/group'.

       hidden If this is set to true, matches for the given context will not be listed,  although
	      any  description for the matches set with the format style will be shown.  If it is
	      set to `all', not even the description will be displayed.

	      Note that the matches will still be completed; they are just not shown in the list.
	      To  avoid  having  matches considered as possible completions at all, the tag-order
	      style can be modified as described below.

       hosts  A list of names of hosts that should be completed.  If this is not  set,	hostnames
	      are taken from the file `/etc/hosts'.

       hosts-ports
	      This  style  is  used  by commands that need or accept hostnames and network ports.
	      The strings in the value should be of the form `host:port'.  Valid ports are deter-
	      mined by the presence of hostnames; multiple ports for the same host may appear.

       ignore-line
	      This  is	tested	for  each  tag valid for the current completion.  If it is set to
	      `true', none of the words that are already on the line will be considered as possi-
	      ble  completions.  If it is set to `current', the word the cursor is on will not be
	      considered as a possible completion.  The value `current-shown' is similar but only
	      applies  if  the list of completions is currently shown on the screen.  Finally, if
	      the style is set to `other', all words on the line except for the current one  will
	      be excluded from the possible completions.

	      The  values  `current'  and  `current-shown'  are  a  bit  like the opposite of the
	      accept-exact style:  only strings with missing characters will be completed.

	      Note that you almost certainly don't want to set this to `true' or  `other'  for	a
	      general context such as `:completion:*'.	This is because it would disallow comple-
	      tion of, for example, options multiple  times  even  if  the  command  in  question
	      accepts the option more than once.

       ignore-parents
	      The  style is tested without a tag by the function completing pathnames in order to
	      determine whether to ignore the names of directories already mentioned in the  cur-
	      rent  word,  or  the name of the current working directory.  The value must include
	      one or both of the following strings:

	      parent The name of any directory whose path is already contained in the word on the
		     line  is ignored.	For example, when completing after foo/../, the directory
		     foo will not be considered a valid completion.

	      pwd    The name of the current working directory will not be completed; hence,  for
		     example,  completion  after  ../ will not use the name of the current direc-
		     tory.

	      In addition, the value may include one or both of:

	      ..     Ignore the specified directories only when the word on the line contains the
		     substring `../'.

	      directory
		     Ignore  the  specified  directories  only when names of directories are com-
		     pleted, not when completing names of files.

	      Excluded values act in a similar fashion to values of the  ignored-patterns  style,
	      so they can be restored to consideration by the _ignored completer.

       extra-verbose
	      If  set,	the completion listing is more verbose at the cost of a probable decrease
	      in completion speed.  Completion performance will suffer if this style  is  set  to
	      `true'.

       ignored-patterns
	      A  list  of  patterns;  any  trial  completion matching one of the patterns will be
	      excluded from consideration.  The _ignored completer can appear in the list of com-
	      pleters to restore the ignored matches.  This is a more configurable version of the
	      shell parameter $fignore.

	      Note that the EXTENDED_GLOB option is set during the execution of completion  func-
	      tions, so the characters `#', `~' and `^' have special meanings in the patterns.

       insert This  style  is  used by the _all_matches completer to decide whether to insert the
	      list of all matches unconditionally instead of adding the list as another match.

       insert-ids
	      When completing process IDs, for example as arguments to the kill and wait builtins
	      the  name  of  a command may be converted to the appropriate process ID.	A problem
	      arises when the process name typed is not unique.  By default (or if this style  is
	      set explicitly to `menu') the name will be converted immediately to a set of possi-
	      ble IDs, and menu completion will be started to cycle through them.

	      If the value of the style is `single', the shell will wait until the user has typed
	      enough  to make the command unique before converting the name to an ID; attempts at
	      completion will be unsuccessful until that  point.   If  the  value  is  any  other
	      string, menu completion will be started when the string typed by the user is longer
	      than the common prefix to the corresponding IDs.

       insert-tab
	      If this is set to `true', the completion system will insert a TAB character (assum-
	      ing  that was used to start completion) instead of performing completion when there
	      is no non-blank character to the left of the cursor.  If it is set to `false', com-
	      pletion will be done even there.

	      The  value  may  also  contain  the substrings `pending' or `pending=val'.  In this
	      case, the typed character will be inserted  instead  of  starting  completion  when
	      there is unprocessed input pending.  If a val is given, completion will not be done
	      if there are at least that many characters of unprocessed  input.   This	is  often
	      useful  when  pasting  characters into a terminal.  Note however, that it relies on
	      the $PENDING special parameter from the zsh/zle module being set properly which  is
	      not guaranteed on all platforms.

	      The  default  value  of  this  style  is	`true' except for completion within vared
	      builtin command where it is `false'.

       insert-unambiguous
	      This is used by the _match and _approximate completers.  These completers are often
	      used  with  menu completion since the word typed may bear little resemblance to the
	      final completion.  However, if this style is `true', the completer will start  menu
	      completion  only if it could find no unambiguous initial string at least as long as
	      the original string typed by the user.

	      In the case of the _approximate completer, the completer field in the context  will
	      already  have  been  set to one of correct-num or approximate-num, where num is the
	      number of errors that were accepted.

	      In the case of the _match completer, the style may also be set to the string  `pat-
	      tern'.   Then  the pattern on the line is left unchanged if it does not match unam-
	      biguously.

       keep-prefix
	      This style is used by the _expand completer.  If it is `true', the  completer  will
	      try  to  keep a prefix containing a tilde or parameter expansion.  Hence, for exam-
	      ple, the string `~/f*' would be expanded to `~/foo'  instead  of	`/home/user/foo'.
	      If  the  style  is  set  to  `changed'  (the default), the prefix will only be left
	      unchanged if there were other changes between the expanded words and  the  original
	      word  from  the  command	line.	Any  other value forces the prefix to be expanded
	      unconditionally.

	      The behaviour of expand when this style is true is to cause _expand to give up when
	      a  single expansion with the restored prefix is the same as the original; hence any
	      remaining completers may be called.

       last-prompt
	      This is a more flexible form of the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option.  If it is true,  the
	      completion  system will try to return the cursor to the previous command line after
	      displaying a completion list.  It is tested for all tags valid for the current com-
	      pletion,	then the default tag.  The cursor will be moved back to the previous line
	      if  this	style  is  `true'  for	all  types  of	match.	 Note  that  unlike   the
	      ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option this is independent of the numeric prefix argument.

       known-hosts-files
	      This  style  should  contain  a  list of files to search for host names and (if the
	      use-ip style is set) IP addresses in  a  format  compatible  with  ssh  known_hosts
	      files.  If it is not set, the files /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and ~/.ssh/known_hosts
	      are used.

       list   This style is used by the _history_complete_word bindable command.  If it is set to
	      `true' it has no effect.	If it is set to `false' matches will not be listed.  This
	      overrides the setting of the options controlling listing behaviour,  in  particular
	      AUTO_LIST.  The context always starts with `:completion:history-words'.

       list-colors
	      If  the zsh/complist module is loaded, this style can be used to set color specifi-
	      cations.	This mechanism replaces the use of the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parame-
	      ters  described  in the section `The zsh/complist Module' in zshmodules(1), but the
	      syntax is the same.

	      If this style is set for the default tag, the strings in the  value  are	taken  as
	      specifications  that  are  to be used everywhere.  If it is set for other tags, the
	      specifications are used only for matches of the type described  by  the  tag.   For
	      this to work best, the group-name style must be set to an empty string.

	      In  addition  to setting styles for specific tags, it is also possible to use group
	      names specified explicitly by the group-name tag together with the `(group)' syntax
	      allowed  by  the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters and simply using the default
	      tag.

	      It is possible to use any color specifications already set up for the  GNU  version
	      of the ls command:

		     zstyle ':completion:*:default' list-colors ${(s.:.)LS_COLORS}

	      The  default  colors  are the same as for the GNU ls command and can be obtained by
	      setting the style to an empty string (i.e. '').

       list-dirs-first
	      This is used by file completion.	If set, directories to be  completed  are  listed
	      separately  from and before completion for other files, regardless of tag ordering.
	      In addition, the tag other-files is used in place of all-files  for  the	remaining
	      files, to indicate that no directories are presented with that tag.

       list-grouped
	      If  this style is `true' (the default), the completion system will try to make cer-
	      tain completion listings more compact by grouping matches.   For	example,  options
	      for commands that have the same description (shown when the verbose style is set to
	      `true') will appear as a single entry.  However, menu  selection	can  be  used  to
	      cycle through all the matches.

       list-packed
	      This  is	tested	for  each tag valid in the current context as well as the default
	      tag.  If it is set to `true', the corresponding matches appear in  listings  as  if
	      the  LIST_PACKED	option	were  set.  If it is set to `false', they are listed nor-
	      mally.

       list-prompt
	      If this style is set for the default tag, completion lists that don't  fit  on  the
	      screen  can  be scrolled (see the description of the zsh/complist module in zshmod-
	      ules(1)).  The value, if not the	empty  string,	will  be  displayed  after  every
	      screenful  and  the  shell  will prompt for a key press; if the style is set to the
	      empty string, a default prompt will be used.

	      The value may contain the escape sequences: `%l' or `%L', which will be replaced by
	      the  number of the last line displayed and the total number of lines; `%m' or `%M',
	      the number of the  last match shown and the total number of matches; and	`%p'  and
	      `%P',  `Top'  when  at  the beginning of the list, `Bottom' when at the end and the
	      position shown as a percentage of the total length otherwise.   In  each	case  the
	      form  with the uppercase letter will be replaced by a string of fixed width, padded
	      to the  right with spaces, while the lowercase form will be replaced by a  variable
	      width  string.   As in other prompt strings, the escape sequences `%S', `%s', `%B',
	      `%b', `%U', `%u' for entering and leaving the  display  modes  standout,	bold  and
	      underline,  and  `%F',  `%f',  `%K',  `%k'  for  changing the foreground background
	      colour, are also available, as is the form `%{...%}' for enclosing escape sequences
	      which display with zero (or, with a numeric argument, some other) width.

	      After  deleting this prompt the variable LISTPROMPT should be unset for the removal
	      to take effect.

       list-rows-first
	      This style is tested in the same	way  as  the  list-packed  style  and  determines
	      whether  matches are to be listed in a rows-first fashion as if the LIST_ROWS_FIRST
	      option were set.

       list-suffixes
	      This style is used by the function that completes filenames.  If it  is  true,  and
	      completion  is  attempted  on a string containing multiple partially typed pathname
	      components, all ambiguous components will be shown.  Otherwise, completion stops at
	      the first ambiguous component.

       list-separator
	      The  value  of  this  style is used in completion listing to separate the string to
	      complete from a description when	possible  (e.g.  when  completing  options).   It
	      defaults to `--' (two hyphens).

       local  This is for use with functions that complete URLs for which the corresponding files
	      are available directly from the file system.  Its value  should  consist	of  three
	      strings:	a  hostname,  the  path  to the default web pages for the server, and the
	      directory name used by a user placing web pages within their home area.

	      For example:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' local toast \
			 /var/http/public/toast public_html

	      Completion after	`http://toast/stuff/'  will  look  for	files  in  the	directory
	      /var/http/public/toast/stuff,   while completion after `http://toast/~yousir/' will
	      look for files in the directory ~yousir/public_html.

       mail-directory
	      If set, zsh will assume that mailbox files can be found in the directory specified.
	      It defaults to `~/Mail'.

       match-original
	      This  is	used  by  the _match completer.  If it is set to only, _match will try to
	      generate matches without inserting a `*' at the cursor position.	 If  set  to  any
	      other  non-empty value, it will first try to generate matches without inserting the
	      `*' and if that yields no matches, it will try again with the `*' inserted.  If  it
	      is  unset  or set to the empty string, matching will only be performed with the `*'
	      inserted.

       matcher
	      This style is tested separately for each tag valid in  the  current  context.   Its
	      value  is  added	to  any match specifications given by the matcher-list style.  It
	      should be in the form described in the section  `Completion  Matching  Control'  in
	      zshcompwid(1).

       matcher-list
	      This  style  can	be  set  to a list of match specifications that are to be applied
	      everywhere. Match specifications are described in the section `Completion  Matching
	      Control'	in  zshcompwid(1).  The completion system will try them one after another
	      for each completer selected.  For example, to try first simple completion  and,  if
	      that generates no matches, case-insensitive completion:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' matcher-list '' 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}'

	      By  default  each specification replaces the previous one; however, if a specifica-
	      tion is prefixed with +, it is added to the existing list.  Hence it is possible to
	      create increasingly general specifications without repetition:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' matcher-list '' '+m{a-z}={A-Z}' '+m{A-Z}={a-z}'

	      It  is  possible	to create match specifications valid for particular completers by
	      using the third field of the context.  For example, to use the completers _complete
	      and _prefix but only allow case-insensitive completion with _complete:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete _prefix
		     zstyle ':completion:*:complete:*' matcher-list \
			    '' 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}'

	      User-defined  names,  as	explained  for	the completer style, are available.  This
	      makes it possible to try the same completer more than  once  with  different  match
	      specifications  each  time.   For example, to try normal completion without a match
	      specification, then normal completion with case-insensitive matching, then  correc-
	      tion, and finally partial-word completion:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete _correct _complete:foo
		     zstyle ':completion:*:complete:*' matcher-list \
			 '' 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}'
		     zstyle ':completion:*:foo:*' matcher-list \
			 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z} r:|[-_./]=* r:|=*'

	      If  the style is unset in any context no match specification is applied.	Note also
	      that some completers such as _correct and _approximate do not use the match  speci-
	      fications at all, though these completers will only ever be called once even if the
	      matcher-list contains more than one element.

	      Where multiple specifications are useful, note that the entire completion  is  done
	      for each element of matcher-list, which can quickly reduce the shell's performance.
	      As a rough rule of thumb, one to three strings will  give  acceptable  performance.
	      On  the  other  hand,  putting multiple space-separated values into the same string
	      does not have an appreciable impact on performance.

	      If there is no current matcher or it is empty, and the option  NO_CASE_GLOB  is  in
	      effect,  the  matching for files is performed case-insensitively in any case.  How-
	      ever, any matcher must explicitly specify  case-insensitive  matching  if  that  is
	      required.

       max-errors
	      This  is used by the _approximate and _correct completer functions to determine the
	      maximum number of errors to allow.  The completer will try to generate  completions
	      by  first  allowing  one error, then two errors, and so on, until either a match or
	      matches were found or the maximum number of errors given by  this  style	has  been
	      reached.

	      If  the  value for this style contains the string `numeric', the completer function
	      will take any numeric argument as the maximum number of errors allowed.  For  exam-
	      ple, with

		     zstyle ':completion:*:approximate:::' max-errors 2 numeric

	      two errors are allowed if no numeric argument is given, but with a numeric argument
	      of six (as in `ESC-6 TAB'), up to six errors are accepted.  Hence with a	value  of
	      `0  numeric',  no correcting completion will be attempted unless a numeric argument
	      is given.

	      If the value contains the string `not-numeric', the completer will not try to  gen-
	      erate corrected completions when given a numeric argument, so in this case the num-
	      ber given should be greater than zero.  For example, `2 not-numeric' specifies that
	      correcting  completion  with two errors will usually be performed, but if a numeric
	      argument is given, correcting completion will not be performed.

	      The default value for this style is `2 numeric'.

       max-matches-width
	      This style is used to determine the trade off between the width of the display used
	      for  matches and the width used for their descriptions when the verbose style is in
	      effect.  The value gives the number of display columns to reserve for the  matches.
	      The default is half the width of the screen.

	      This has the most impact when several matches have the same description and so will
	      be grouped together.  Increasing the style will allow more matches  to  be  grouped
	      together; decreasing it will allow more of the description to be visible.

       menu   If  this	is true in the context of any of the tags defined for the current comple-
	      tion menu completion will be used.  The value for a specific tag will  take  prece-
	      dence over that for the `default' tag.

	      If  none of the values found in this way is true but at least one is set to `auto',
	      the shell behaves as if the AUTO_MENU option is set.

	      If one of the values is explicitly set to false, menu completion will be explicitly
	      turned off, overriding the MENU_COMPLETE option and other settings.

	      In  the  form  `yes=num', where `yes' may be any of the true values (`yes', `true',
	      `on' and `1'), menu completion will be turned on if there are at least num matches.
	      In  the form `yes=long', menu completion will be turned on if the list does not fit
	      on the screen.  This does not activate menu completion if the widget normally  only
	      lists completions, but menu completion can be activated in that case with the value
	      `yes=long-list' (Typically, the value `select=long-list' described  later  is  more
	      useful as it provides control over scrolling.)

	      Similarly, with any of the `false' values (as in `no=10'), menu completion will not
	      be used if there are num or more matches.

	      The value of this widget also  controls  menu  selection,  as  implemented  by  the
	      zsh/complist  module.   The following values may appear either alongside or instead
	      of the values above.

	      If the value contains the string `select', menu selection will be started  uncondi-
	      tionally.

	      In the form `select=num', menu selection will only be started if there are at least
	      num matches.  If the values for more than one tag provide a  number,  the  smallest
	      number is taken.

	      Menu  selection  can  be	turned	off explicitly by defining a value containing the
	      string`no-select'.

	      It is also possible to start menu selection only if the list of  matches	does  not
	      fit  on  the screen by using the value `select=long'.  To start menu selection even
	      if the current widget only performs listing, use the value `select=long-list'.

	      To turn on menu completion or menu selection when a there are a certain  number  of
	      matches  or  the	list  of  matches  does not fit on the screen, both of `yes=' and
	      `select=' may be	given  twice,  once  with  a  number  and  once  with  `long'  or
	      `long-list'.

	      Finally,	it is possible to activate two special modes of menu selection.  The word
	      `interactive' in the value causes interactive mode to be entered	immediately  when
	      menu  selection  is started; see the description of the zsh/complist module in zsh-
	      modules(1) for a description of interactive mode.  Including  the  string  `search'
	      does  the same for incremental search mode.  To select backward incremental search,
	      include the string `search-backward'.

       muttrc If set, gives the location of the mutt configuration file.  It defaults to `~/.mut-
	      trc'.

       numbers
	      This  is used with the jobs tag.	If it is `true', the shell will complete job num-
	      bers instead of the shortest unambiguous prefix of the job command  text.   If  the
	      value  is  a  number, job numbers will only be used if that many words from the job
	      descriptions are required to resolve ambiguities.  For example,  if  the	value  is
	      `1',  strings  will only be used if all jobs differ in the first word on their com-
	      mand lines.

       old-list
	      This is used by the _oldlist completer.  If it is set to	`always',  then  standard
	      widgets which perform listing will retain the current list of matches, however they
	      were generated; this can be turned off explicitly with the  value  `never',  giving
	      the  behaviour without the _oldlist completer.  If the style is unset, or any other
	      value, then the existing list of completions is displayed if  it	is  not  already;
	      otherwise, the standard completion list is generated; this is the default behaviour
	      of _oldlist.  However, if there is an old list and this style contains the name  of
	      the completer function that generated the list, then the old list will be used even
	      if it was generated by a widget which does not do listing.

	      For example, suppose you type ^Xc to use the _correct_word widget, which	generates
	      a list of corrections for the word under the cursor.  Usually, typing ^D would gen-
	      erate a standard list of completions for the word on the	command  line,	and  show
	      that.   With  _oldlist, it will instead show the list of corrections already gener-
	      ated.

	      As another example consider the _match completer: with the insert-unambiguous style
	      set  to  `true'  it inserts only a common prefix string, if there is any.  However,
	      this may remove parts of the original pattern, so  that  further	completion  could
	      produce  more  matches  than on the first attempt.  By using the _oldlist completer
	      and setting this style to _match, the  list  of  matches	generated  on  the  first
	      attempt will be used again.

       old-matches
	      This  is	used  by  the  _all_matches completer to decide if an old list of matches
	      should be used if one exists.  This is selected by one of the `true' values  or  by
	      the  string `only'.  If the value is `only', _all_matches will only use an old list
	      and won't have any effect on the list of matches currently being generated.

	      If this style is set it is generally unwise  to  call  the  _all_matches	completer
	      unconditionally.	 One possible use is for either this style or the completer style
	      to be defined with the -e option to zstyle to make the style conditional.

       old-menu
	      This is used by the _oldlist completer.  It controls how	menu  completion  behaves
	      when  a  completion has already been inserted and the user types a standard comple-
	      tion key such as TAB.  The default behaviour of _oldlist is  that  menu  completion
	      always  continues  with  the existing list of completions.  If this style is set to
	      `false', however, a new completion is started if the old list was  generated  by	a
	      different completion command; this is the behaviour without the _oldlist completer.

	      For  example, suppose you type ^Xc to generate a list of corrections, and menu com-
	      pletion is started in one of the usual ways.  Usually, or with this  style  set  to
	      false,  typing  TAB at this point would start trying to complete the line as it now
	      appears.	With _oldlist, it instead continues to cycle through the list of  correc-
	      tions.

       original
	      This  is used by the _approximate and _correct completers to decide if the original
	      string should be added as a possible completion.	Normally, this is  done  only  if
	      there are at least two possible corrections, but if this style is set to `true', it
	      is always added.	Note that the style will be examined with the completer field  in
	      the  context name set to correct-num or approximate-num, where num is the number of
	      errors that were accepted.

       packageset
	      This style is used when completing arguments of the Debian `dpkg' program.  It con-
	      tains an override for the default package set for a given context.  For example,

		     zstyle ':completion:*:complete:dpkg:option--status-1:*' \
				    packageset avail

	      causes available packages, rather than only installed packages, to be completed for
	      `dpkg --status'.

       path   The function that completes color names uses this style with the colors  tag.   The
	      value  should  be the pathname of a file containing color names in the format of an
	      X11 rgb.txt file.  If the style is not set but this file is found in one of various
	      standard locations it will be used as the default.

       path-completion
	      This  is used by filename completion.  By default, filename completion examines all
	      components of a path to see if there are completions of that component.  For  exam-
	      ple,  /u/b/z  can  be  completed to /usr/bin/zsh.  Explicitly setting this style to
	      false inhibits this behaviour for path components up to the /  before  the  cursor;
	      this overrides the setting of accept-exact-dirs.

	      Even  with  the style set to false, it is still possible to complete multiple paths
	      by setting the option COMPLETE_IN_WORD and moving the cursor back to the first com-
	      ponent  in  the  path  to  be  completed.   For example, /u/b/z can be completed to
	      /usr/bin/zsh if the cursor is after the /u.

       pine-directory
	      If set, specifies the  directory	containing  PINE  mailbox  files.   There  is  no
	      default,	since recursively searching this directory is inconvenient for anyone who
	      doesn't use PINE.

       ports  A list of Internet service names (network ports) to complete.  If this is not  set,
	      service names are taken from the file `/etc/services'.

       prefix-hidden
	      This  is used for certain completions which share a common prefix, for example com-
	      mand options beginning with dashes.  If it is `true', the prefix will not be  shown
	      in the list of matches.

	      The default value for this style is `false'.

       prefix-needed
	      This  style  is  also  relevant  for matches with a common prefix.  If it is set to
	      `true' this common prefix must be typed by the user to generate the matches.

	      The style is applicable to the options, signals, jobs,  functions,  and  parameters
	      completion tags.

	      For  command  options,  this means that the initial `-', `+', or `--' must be typed
	      explicitly before option names will be completed.

	      For signals, an initial `-' is required before signal names will be completed.

	      For jobs, an initial `%' is required before job names will be completed.

	      For function and parameter names, an initial `_' or `.' is required before function
	      or parameter names starting with those characters will be completed.

	      The default value for this style is `false' for function and parameter completions,
	      and  `true' otherwise.

       preserve-prefix
	      This style is used when completing path names.   Its  value  should  be  a  pattern
	      matching	an  initial  prefix of the word to complete that should be left unchanged
	      under all circumstances.	For example, on  some  Unices  an  initial  `//'  (double
	      slash)  has  a special meaning; setting this style to the string `//' will preserve
	      it.  As another example, setting this style to `?:/' under Cygwin would allow  com-
	      pletion after `a:/...' and so on.

       range  This is used by the _history completer and the _history_complete_word bindable com-
	      mand to decide which words should be completed.

	      If it is a singe number, only the last N words from the history will be completed.

	      If it is a range of the form `max:slice', the last slice words will  be  completed;
	      then  if	that yields no matches, the slice words before those will be tried and so
	      on.  This process stops either when at least one match was been found, or max words
	      have been tried.

	      The default is to complete all words from the history at once.

       recursive-files
	      If  this	style  is  set,  its  value  is an array of patterns to be tested against
	      `$PWD/': note the trailing slash, which allows directories in  the  pattern  to  be
	      delimited  unambiguously	by  including slashes on both sides.  If an ordinary file
	      completion fails and the word on the command line does not  yet  have  a	directory
	      part  to	its name, the style is retrieved using the same tag as for the completion
	      just attempted, then the elements tested against $PWD/ in turn.	If  one  matches,
	      then  the  shell	reattempts  completion by prepending the word on the command line
	      with each directory in the expansion of **/*(/) in turn.	Typically the elements of
	      the style will be set to restrict the number of directories beneath the current one
	      to a manageable number, for example `*/.git/*'.

	      For example,

		     zstyle ':completion:*' recursive-files '*/zsh/*'

	      If the current directory is /home/pws/zsh/Src, then zle_trTAB can be  completed  to
	      Zle/zle_tricky.c.

       regular
	      This  style is used by the _expand_alias completer and bindable command.	If set to
	      `true' (the default), regular aliases will be expanded but only  in  command  posi-
	      tion.   If it is set to `false', regular aliases will never be expanded.	 If it is
	      set to `always', regular aliases will be expanded even if not in command position.

       rehash If this is set when completing external commands, the internal list (hash) of  com-
	      mands  will  be  updated for each search by issuing the rehash command.  There is a
	      speed penalty for this which is only likely to be noticeable  when  directories  in
	      the path have slow file access.

       remote-access
	      If  set  to  false, certain commands will be prevented from making Internet connec-
	      tions to retrieve remote information.  This includes the	completion  for  the  CVS
	      command.

	      It  is  not always possible to know if connections are in fact to a remote site, so
	      some may be prevented unnecessarily.

       remove-all-dups
	      The _history_complete_word bindable command and the _history completer use this  to
	      decide  if  all  duplicate  matches should be removed, rather than just consecutive
	      duplicates.

       select-prompt
	      If this is set for the default tag, its value will be displayed during menu  selec-
	      tion (see the menu style above) when the completion list does not fit on the screen
	      as a whole.  The same escapes as for the list-prompt style are  understood,  except
	      that  the  numbers  refer to the match or line the mark is on.  A default prompt is
	      used when the value is the empty string.

       select-scroll
	      This style is tested for the default tag and determines how a  completion  list  is
	      scrolled	during	a  menu  selection (see the menu style above) when the completion
	      list does not fit on the screen as a whole.  If the value is `0' (zero),	the  list
	      is  scrolled  by half-screenfuls; if it is a positive integer, the list is scrolled
	      by the given number of lines; if it is a negative number, the list is scrolled by a
	      screenful minus the absolute value of the given number of lines.	The default is to
	      scroll by single lines.

       separate-sections
	      This style is used with the manuals tag when completing names of manual pages.   If
	      it  is  `true', entries for different sections are added separately using tag names
	      of the form `manual.X', where X is the section number.  When the	group-name  style
	      is  also	in  effect,  pages  from different sections will appear separately.  This
	      style is also used similarly with the words style when  completing  words  for  the
	      dict command. It allows words from different dictionary databases to be added sepa-
	      rately.  The default for this style is `false'.

       show-completer
	      Tested whenever a new completer is tried.  If it is  true,  the  completion  system
	      outputs  a  progress  message  in  the listing area showing what completer is being
	      tried.  The message will be overwritten by any output when  completions  are  found
	      and is removed after completion is finished.

       single-ignored
	      This  is used by the _ignored completer when there is only one match.  If its value
	      is `show', the single match will be displayed but not inserted.  If  the	value  is
	      `menu', then the single match and the original string are both added as matches and
	      menu completion is started, making it easy to select either of them.

       sort   Many completion widgets call _description at some point which decides  whether  the
	      matches  are added sorted or unsorted (often indirectly via _wanted or _requested).
	      This style can be set explicitly to one of the usual true or  false  values  as  an
	      override.   If it is not set for the context, the standard behaviour of the calling
	      widget is used.

	      The style is tested first against the full context including the tag, and  if  that
	      fails to produce a value against the context without the tag.

	      If  the  calling	widget explicitly requests unsorted matches, this is usually hon-
	      oured.  However, the default (unsorted) behaviour of  completion	for  the  command
	      history may be overridden by setting the style to true.

	      In  the  _expand	completer,  if it is set to `true', the expansions generated will
	      always be sorted.  If it is set to `menu', then the expansions are only sorted when
	      they  are  offered  as single strings but not in the string containing all possible
	      expansions.

       special-dirs
	      Normally, the completion code will not produce the directory names `.' and `..'  as
	      possible	completions.   If  this  style is set to `true', it will add both `.' and
	      `..' as possible completions; if it is set to `..', only `..' will be added.

	      The following example sets special-dirs to `..' when the current prefix  is  empty,
	      is  a  single  `.', or consists only of a path beginning with `../'.  Otherwise the
	      value is `false'.

		     zstyle -e ':completion:*' special-dirs \
			'[[ $PREFIX = (../)#(|.|..) ]] && reply=(..)'

       squeeze-slashes
	      If set  to  `true',  sequences  of  slashes  in  filename  paths	(for  example  in
	      `foo//bar') will be treated as a single slash.  This is the usual behaviour of UNIX
	      paths.  However, by default the file completion function behaves as if there were a
	      `*' between the slashes.

       stop   If  set  to `true', the _history_complete_word bindable command will stop once when
	      reaching the beginning or end of the history.  Invoking _history_complete_word will
	      then  wrap  around  to  the  opposite  end of the history.  If this style is set to
	      `false' (the default), _history_complete_word will loop immediately as  in  a  menu
	      completion.

       strip-comments
	      If  set  to `true', this style causes non-essential comment text to be removed from
	      completion matches.  Currently it is only used  when  completing	e-mail	addresses
	      where  it  removes  any display name from the addresses, cutting them down to plain
	      user@host form.

       subst-globs-only
	      This is used by the _expand completer.  If it is set to `true', the expansion  will
	      only  be	used if it resulted from globbing; hence, if expansions resulted from the
	      use of the substitute style described below, but these were not further changed  by
	      globbing, the expansions will be rejected.

	      The default for this style is `false'.

       substitute
	      This  boolean style controls whether the _expand completer will first try to expand
	      all substitutions in the string (such as `$(...)' and `${...}').

	      The default is `true'.

       suffix This is used by the _expand completer if the word starts with a tilde or contains a
	      parameter  expansion.  If it is set to `true', the word will only be expanded if it
	      doesn't have a suffix, i.e. if it is something like `~foo' or  `$foo'  rather  than
	      `~foo/'  or  `$foo/bar', unless that suffix itself contains characters eligible for
	      expansion.  The default for this style is `true'.

       tag-order
	      This provides a mechanism for sorting how the tags available in a  particular  con-
	      text will be used.

	      The  values  for	the style are sets of space-separated lists of tags.  The tags in
	      each value will be tried at the same time; if no match is found, the next value  is
	      used.  (See the file-patterns style for an exception to this behavior.)

	      For example:

		     zstyle ':completion:*:complete:-command-:*' tag-order \
			 'commands functions'

	      specifies  that  completion  in command position first offers external commands and
	      shell functions.	Remaining tags will be tried if no completions are found.

	      In addition to tag names, each string in the value may take one  of  the	following
	      forms:

	      -      If  any value consists of only a hyphen, then only the tags specified in the
		     other values are generated.  Normally all tags not explicitly  selected  are
		     tried  last  if the specified tags fail to generate any matches.  This means
		     that a single value consisting only of a single hyphen turns off completion.

	      ! tags...
		     A string starting with an exclamation mark specifies names of tags that  are
		     not  to  be  used.  The effect is the same as if all other possible tags for
		     the context had been listed.

	      tag:label ...
		     Here, tag is one of the standard  tags  and  label  is  an  arbitrary  name.
		     Matches  are  generated  as  normal  but  the name label is used in contexts
		     instead of tag.  This is not useful in words starting with !.

		     If the label starts with a hyphen, the tag is prepended to the label to form
		     the  name	used  for lookup.  This can be used to make the completion system
		     try a certain tag more than once, supplying  different  style  settings  for
		     each attempt; see below for an example.

	      tag:label:description
		     As  before, but description will replace the `%d' in the value of the format
		     style instead of the default description supplied by  the	completion  func-
		     tion.   Spaces  in  the description must be quoted with a backslash.  A `%d'
		     appearing in description is replaced with the description given by the  com-
		     pletion function.

	      In  any of the forms above the tag may be a pattern or several patterns in the form
	      `{pat1,pat2...}'.  In this case all matching tags will be used except for any given
	      explicitly in the same string.

	      One  use	of  these features is to try one tag more than once, setting other styles
	      differently on each attempt, but still to use all the other tags without having  to
	      repeat  them  all.   For	example,  to make completion of function names in command
	      position ignore all the completion functions starting with an underscore the  first
	      time completion is tried:

		     zstyle ':completion:*:*:-command-:*' tag-order \
			 'functions:-non-comp *' functions
		     zstyle ':completion:*:functions-non-comp' ignored-patterns '_*'

	      On  the  first  attempt,	all  tags  will  be offered but the functions tag will be
	      replaced by functions-non-comp.  The ignored-patterns style is set for this tag  to
	      exclude functions starting with an underscore.  If there are no matches, the second
	      value of the tag-order style is used which completes functions  using  the  default
	      tag, this time presumably including all function names.

	      The matches for one tag can be split into different groups.  For example:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' tag-order \
			 'options:-long:long\ options
			  options:-short:short\ options
			  options:-single-letter:single\ letter\ options'

		     zstyle ':completion:*:options-long' ignored-patterns '[-+](|-|[^-]*)'
		     zstyle ':completion:*:options-short' ignored-patterns '--*' '[-+]?'
		     zstyle ':completion:*:options-single-letter' ignored-patterns '???*'

	      With the group-names style set, options beginning with `--', options beginning with
	      a single `-' or `+' but containing multiple characters, and  single-letter  options
	      will be displayed in separate groups with different descriptions.

	      Another  use of patterns is to try multiple match specifications one after another.
	      The matcher-list style offers something similar, but it is tested very early in the
	      completion  system and hence can't be set for single commands nor for more specific
	      contexts.  Here is how to try normal completion  without	any  match  specification
	      and,  if	that  generates  no  matches,  try  again with case-insensitive matching,
	      restricting the effect to arguments of the command foo:

		     zstyle ':completion:*:*:foo:*' tag-order '*' '*:-case'
		     zstyle ':completion:*-case' matcher 'm:{a-z}={A-Z}'

	      First, all the tags offered when completing after foo are tried  using  the  normal
	      tag  name.   If  that  generates no matches, the second value of tag-order is used,
	      which tries all tags again except that this time each has  -case	appended  to  its
	      name  for  lookup  of styles.  Hence this time the value for the matcher style from
	      the second call to zstyle in the example is used to make	completion  case-insensi-
	      tive.

	      It is possible to use the -e option of the zstyle builtin command to specify condi-
	      tions for the use of particular tags.  For example:

		     zstyle -e '*:-command-:*' tag-order '
			 if [[ -n $PREFIX$SUFFIX ]]; then
			   reply=( )
			 else
			   reply=( - )
			 fi'

	      Completion in command position will be attempted only if the string typed so far is
	      not empty.  This is tested using the PREFIX special parameter; see zshcompwid for a
	      description of parameters which are special  inside  completion  widgets.   Setting
	      reply  to an empty array provides the default behaviour of trying all tags at once;
	      setting it to an array containing only a hyphen disables the use of  all	tags  and
	      hence of all completions.

	      If  no tag-order style has been defined for a context, the strings `(|*-)argument-*
	      (|*-)option-* values' and `options' plus all tags offered by the	completion  func-
	      tion  will  be  used  to	provide a sensible default behavior that causes arguments
	      (whether normal command arguments or arguments of options) to be	completed  before
	      option names for most commands.

       urls   This is used together with the urls tag by functions completing URLs.

	      If  the value consists of more than one string, or if the only string does not name
	      a file or directory, the strings are used as the URLs to complete.

	      If the value contains only one string which is the name of a normal file	the  URLs
	      are  taken  from	that file (where the URLs may be separated by white space or new-
	      lines).

	      Finally, if the only string in the value names a directory, the directory hierarchy
	      rooted  at this directory gives the completions.	The top level directory should be
	      the file access method, such as `http', `ftp', `bookmark' and so on.  In many cases
	      the  next  level	of  directories  will be a filename.  The directory hierarchy can
	      descend as deep as necessary.

	      For example,

		     zstyle ':completion:*' urls ~/.urls
		     mkdir -p ~/.urls/ftp/ftp.zsh.org/pub

	      allows completion of all the components  of  the	URL  ftp://ftp.zsh.org/pub  after
	      suitable commands such as `netscape' or `lynx'.  Note, however, that access methods
	      and files are completed separately, so if the hosts style is set hosts can be  com-
	      pleted without reference to the urls style.

	      See  the	description in the function _urls itself for more information (e.g. `more
	      $^fpath/_urls(N)').

       use-cache
	      If this is set, the completion caching layer is activated for any completions which
	      use  it (via the _store_cache, _retrieve_cache, and _cache_invalid functions).  The
	      directory containing the cache files can be changed with the cache-path style.

       use-compctl
	      If this style is set to a string not equal to false, 0, no, and off, the completion
	      system  may use any completion specifications defined with the compctl builtin com-
	      mand.  If the style is unset, this is  done  only  if  the  zsh/compctl  module  is
	      loaded.	The  string  may  also	contain  the substring `first' to use completions
	      defined with `compctl -T', and  the  substring  `default'  to  use  the  completion
	      defined with `compctl -D'.

	      Note  that  this	is only intended to smooth the transition from compctl to the new
	      completion system and may disappear in the future.

	      Note also that the definitions from compctl will only be used if there is  no  spe-
	      cific  completion function for the command in question.  For example, if there is a
	      function _foo to complete arguments to the  command  foo,  compctl  will	never  be
	      invoked  for  foo.   However,  the  compctl  version will be tried if foo only uses
	      default completion.

       use-ip By default, the function _hosts that completes host names strips IP addresses  from
	      entries read from host databases such as NIS and ssh files.  If this style is true,
	      the corresponding IP addresses can be completed as well.	This style is not use  in
	      any context where the hosts style is set; note also it must be set before the cache
	      of host names is generated (typically the first completion attempt).

       users  This may be set to a list of usernames to be completed.  If it is not set all user-
	      names  will  be  completed.  Note that if it is set only that list of users will be
	      completed; this is because on some systems querying all users can take  a  prohibi-
	      tive amount of time.

       users-hosts
	      The  values  of  this style should be of the form `user@host' or `user:host'. It is
	      used for commands that need pairs of user- and hostnames.  These commands will com-
	      plete  usernames from this style (only), and will restrict subsequent hostname com-
	      pletion to hosts paired with that user in one of the values of the style.

	      It is possible to group values for sets of commands which  allow	a  remote  login,
	      such  as	rlogin and ssh, by using the my-accounts tag.  Similarly, values for sets
	      of commands which usually refer to the accounts of other people, such as	talk  and
	      finger,  can  be grouped by using the other-accounts tag.  More ambivalent commands
	      may use the accounts tag.

       users-hosts-ports
	      Like users-hosts but used for commands like telnet and containing  strings  of  the
	      form `user@host:port'.

       verbose
	      If set, as it is by default, the completion listing is more verbose.  In particular
	      many commands show descriptions for options if this style is `true'.

       word   This is used by the _list completer, which prevents the  insertion  of  completions
	      until a second completion attempt when the line has not changed.	The normal way of
	      finding out if the line has changed is to compare its entire contents  between  the
	      two  occasions.  If this style is true, the comparison is instead performed only on
	      the current word.  Hence if completion is performed on another word with	the  same
	      contents, completion will not be delayed.

CONTROL FUNCTIONS
       The  initialization  script compinit redefines all the widgets which perform completion to
       call the supplied widget function _main_complete.  This function acts as a wrapper calling
       the  so-called  `completer'  functions that generate matches.  If _main_complete is called
       with arguments, these are taken as the names of completer functions to be  called  in  the
       order  given.   If  no  arguments are given, the set of functions to try is taken from the
       completer style.  For example, to use normal completion and  correction	if  that  doesn't
       generate any matches:

	      zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete _correct

       after  calling  compinit.  The  default value for this style is `_complete _ignored', i.e.
       normally only ordinary completion is tried, first with the effect of the  ignored-patterns
       style and then without it.  The _main_complete function uses the return status of the com-
       pleter functions to decide if other completers should be called.  If the return status  is
       zero, no other completers are tried and the _main_complete function returns.

       If  the	first  argument  to  _main_complete is a single hyphen, the arguments will not be
       taken as names of completers.  Instead, the second argument gives a name  to  use  in  the
       completer  field  of the context and the other arguments give a command name and arguments
       to call to generate the matches.

       The following completer functions are contained in the distribution,  although  users  may
       write  their  own.   Note that in contexts the leading underscore is stripped, for example
       basic completion is performed in the context `:completion::complete:...'.

       _all_matches
	      This completer can be used to add a string consisting of all other matches.  As  it
	      influences later completers it must appear as the first completer in the list.  The
	      list of all matches is affected  by  the	avoid-completer  and  old-matches  styles
	      described above.

	      It  may be useful to use the _generic function described below to bind _all_matches
	      to its own keystroke, for example:

		     zle -C all-matches complete-word _generic
		     bindkey '^Xa' all-matches
		     zstyle ':completion:all-matches:*' old-matches only
		     zstyle ':completion:all-matches::::' completer _all_matches

	      Note that this does not generate completions by itself:  first use any of the stan-
	      dard  ways  of  generating a list of completions, then use ^Xa to show all matches.
	      It is possible instead to add a standard completer to the list and request that the
	      list of all matches should be directly inserted:

		     zstyle ':completion:all-matches::::' completer _all_matches _complete
		     zstyle ':completion:all-matches:*' insert true

	      In this case the old-matches style should not be set.

       _approximate
	      This  is	similar  to  the  basic _complete completer but allows the completions to
	      undergo corrections.  The  maximum  number  of  errors  can  be  specified  by  the
	      max-errors style; see the description of approximate matching in zshexpn(1) for how
	      errors are counted.  Normally this completer will only be tried  after  the  normal
	      _complete completer:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete _approximate

	      This  will  give	correcting  completion if and only if normal completion yields no
	      possible completions.  When corrected completions are  found,  the  completer  will
	      normally start menu completion allowing you to cycle through these strings.

	      This  completer uses the tags corrections and original when generating the possible
	      corrections and the original string.  The format style for the former  may  contain
	      the  additional  sequences  `%e'	and  `%o' which will be replaced by the number of
	      errors accepted to generate the corrections and the original string, respectively.

	      The completer progressively increases the number of errors allowed up to the  limit
	      by  the max-errors style, hence if a completion is found with one error, no comple-
	      tions with two errors will be shown, and so on.  It modifies the completer name  in
	      the context to indicate the number of errors being tried: on the first try the com-
	      pleter field contains `approximate-1', on the second try	`approximate-2',  and  so
	      on.

	      When  _approximate  is called from another function, the number of errors to accept
	      may be passed with the -a option.  The argument  is  in  the  same  format  as  the
	      max-errors style, all in one string.

	      Note  that this completer (and the _correct completer mentioned below) can be quite
	      expensive to call, especially when a large number of errors are allowed.	 One  way
	      to  avoid  this  is  to set up the completer style using the -e option to zstyle so
	      that some completers are only used when completion is attempted a  second  time  on
	      the same string, e.g.:

		     zstyle -e ':completion:*' completer '
		       if [[ $_last_try != "$HISTNO$BUFFER$CURSOR" ]]; then
			 _last_try="$HISTNO$BUFFER$CURSOR"
			 reply=(_complete _match _prefix)
		       else
			 reply=(_ignored _correct _approximate)
		       fi'

	      This  uses  the  HISTNO parameter and the BUFFER and CURSOR special parameters that
	      are available inside zle and completion widgets to find out  if  the  command  line
	      hasn't  changed  since  the  last  time  completion  was	tried.	Only then are the
	      _ignored, _correct and _approximate completers called.

       _complete
	      This completer generates all possible completions in  a  context-sensitive  manner,
	      i.e.  using  the settings defined with the compdef function explained above and the
	      current settings of all special parameters.  This gives the normal  completion  be-
	      haviour.

	      To  complete  arguments  of  commands, _complete uses the utility function _normal,
	      which is in turn responsible for finding the particular function; it  is	described
	      below.   Various contexts of the form -context- are handled specifically. These are
	      all mentioned above as possible arguments to the #compdef tag.

	      Before trying to find a function for a specific context, _complete  checks  if  the
	      parameter  `compcontext'	is set. Setting `compcontext' allows the usual completion
	      dispatching to be overridden which is useful in places such as a function that uses
	      vared  for input. If it is set to an array, the elements are taken to be the possi-
	      ble matches which will be completed using the  tag  `values'  and  the  description
	      `value'.	If  it	is set to an associative array, the keys are used as the possible
	      completions and the values (if non-empty) are used as descriptions for the matches.
	      If  `compcontext'  is  set  to a string containing colons, it should be of the form
	      `tag:descr:action'.  In this case the tag and descr give the tag and description to
	      use  and the action indicates what should be completed in one of the forms accepted
	      by the _arguments utility function described below.

	      Finally, if `compcontext' is set to a string without colons, the value is taken  as
	      the  name  of  the context to use and the function defined for that context will be
	      called.  For this purpose, there is a special  context  named  -command-line-  that
	      completes  whole command lines (commands and their arguments).  This is not used by
	      the completion system itself but is nonetheless handled when explicitly called.

       _correct
	      Generate corrections, but not completions, for the current word; this is similar to
	      _approximate  but  will  not  allow any number of extra characters at the cursor as
	      that completer does.  The effect is similar to  spell-checking.	It  is	based  on
	      _approximate, but the completer field in the context name is correct.

	      For example, with:

		     zstyle ':completion:::::' completer _complete _correct _approximate
		     zstyle ':completion:*:correct:::' max-errors 2 not-numeric
		     zstyle ':completion:*:approximate:::' max-errors 3 numeric

	      correction  will	accept up to two errors.  If a numeric argument is given, correc-
	      tion will not be performed, but correcting completion will be, and will  accept  as
	      many  errors  as	given by the numeric argument.	Without a numeric argument, first
	      correction and then correcting completion will be tried, with the first one accept-
	      ing two errors and the second one accepting three errors.

	      When  _correct is called as a function, the number of errors to accept may be given
	      following the -a option.	The argument is in the same form a values to  the  accept
	      style, all in one string.

	      This  completer  function is intended to be used without the _approximate completer
	      or, as in the example, just before it.  Using it after the  _approximate	completer
	      is  useless  since _approximate will at least generate the corrected strings gener-
	      ated by the _correct completer -- and probably more.

       _expand
	      This completer function does not really perform completion, but instead  checks  if
	      the  word  on  the  command  line  is  eligible  for expansion and, if it is, gives
	      detailed control over how this expansion is done.  For this to happen, the  comple-
	      tion  system  needs  to  be invoked with complete-word, not expand-or-complete (the
	      default binding for TAB), as otherwise the string will be expanded by  the  shell's
	      internal	mechanism  before  the completion system is started.  Note also this com-
	      pleter should be called before the _complete completer function.

	      The tags used when generating expansions are all-expansions for the string contain-
	      ing all possible expansions, expansions when adding the possible expansions as sin-
	      gle matches and original when adding the original string from the line.  The  order
	      in  which  these	strings  are  generated,  if  at  all,	can  be controlled by the
	      group-order and tag-order styles, as usual.

	      The format string for all-expansions and for expansions may  contain  the  sequence
	      `%o' which will be replaced by the original string from the line.

	      The  kind  of  expansion	to  be	tried  is  controlled by the substitute, glob and
	      subst-globs-only styles.

	      It is also possible to call _expand as a function,  in  which  case  the	different
	      modes  may  be  selected	with  options:	-s for substitute, -g for glob and -o for
	      subst-globs-only.

       _expand_alias
	      If the word the cursor is on is an alias, it is expanded and  no	other  completers
	      are  called.   The types of aliases which are to be expanded can be controlled with
	      the styles regular, global and disabled.

	      This function is also a bindable	command,  see  the  section  `Bindable	Commands'
	      below.

       _history
	      Complete words from the shell's command  history.  This completer can be controlled
	      by the remove-all-dups, and sort styles as for the _history_complete_word  bindable
	      command, see the section `Bindable Commands' below and the section `Completion Sys-
	      tem Configuration' above.

       _ignored
	      The ignored-patterns style can be set to a list  of  patterns  which  are  compared
	      against possible completions; matching ones are removed.	With this completer those
	      matches can be reinstated, as if no ignored-patterns style were set.  The completer
	      actually	generates its own list of matches; which completers are invoked is deter-
	      mined in the same way as for the _prefix completer.  The	single-ignored	style  is
	      also available as described above.

       _list  This  completer  allows  the insertion of matches to be delayed until completion is
	      attempted a second time without the word on the line being changed.  On  the  first
	      attempt, only the list of matches will be shown.	It is affected by the styles con-
	      dition and word, see the section `Completion System Configuration' above.

       _match This completer is intended to be used after the _complete  completer.   It  behaves
	      similarly  but  the  string  on  the command line may be a pattern to match against
	      trial completions.  This gives the effect of the GLOB_COMPLETE option.

	      Normally completion will be performed by taking the pattern from the line,  insert-
	      ing  a `*' at the cursor position and comparing the resulting pattern with the pos-
	      sible completions generated.  This can be modified with  the  match-original  style
	      described above.

	      The  generated matches will be offered in a menu completion unless the insert-unam-
	      biguous style is set to `true'; see the description above  for  other  options  for
	      this style.

	      Note  that  matcher specifications defined globally or used by the completion func-
	      tions (the styles matcher-list and matcher) will not be used.

       _menu  This completer was written as simple example function to show how  menu  completion
	      can  be enabled in shell code. However, it has the notable effect of disabling menu
	      selection which can be useful with _generic based widgets. It should be used as the
	      first  completer	in the list.  Note that this is independent of the setting of the
	      MENU_COMPLETE option and does not work with the other menu completion widgets  such
	      as reverse-menu-complete, or accept-and-menu-complete.

       _oldlist
	      This completer controls how the standard completion widgets behave when there is an
	      existing list of completions which may have been generated by a special  completion
	      (i.e.  a	separately-bound  completion command).	It allows the ordinary completion
	      keys to continue to use the list of completions thus generated, instead of  produc-
	      ing a new list of ordinary contextual completions.  It should appear in the list of
	      completers before any of the widgets which generate matches.  It uses  two  styles:
	      old-list and old-menu, see the section `Completion System Configuration' above.

       _prefix
	      This  completer can be used to try completion with the suffix (everything after the
	      cursor) ignored.	In other words, the suffix will not be considered to be  part  of
	      the  word to complete.  The effect is similar to the expand-or-complete-prefix com-
	      mand.

	      The completer style is used to decide which other completers are to  be  called  to
	      generate	matches.  If this style is unset, the list of completers set for the cur-
	      rent context is used -- except, of course, the _prefix completer itself.	 Further-
	      more, if this completer appears more than once in the list of completers only those
	      completers not already tried by the last invocation of _prefix will be called.

	      For example, consider this global completer style:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' completer \
			 _complete _prefix _correct _prefix:foo

	      Here, the _prefix completer tries normal completion but ignoring	the  suffix.   If
	      that  doesn't  generate any matches, and neither does the call to the _correct com-
	      pleter after it, _prefix will be called a second time and, now only trying  correc-
	      tion  with  the suffix ignored.  On the second invocation the completer part of the
	      context appears as `foo'.

	      To use _prefix as the last resort  and  try  only  normal  completion  when  it  is
	      invoked:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' completer _complete ... _prefix
		     zstyle ':completion::prefix:*' completer _complete

	      The  add-space  style  is also respected.  If it is set to `true' then _prefix will
	      insert a space between the matches generated (if any) and the suffix.

	      Note that this completer is only useful if the COMPLETE_IN_WORD option is set; oth-
	      erwise,  the cursor will be moved to the end of the current word before the comple-
	      tion code is called and hence there will be no suffix.

       _user_expand
	      This completer behaves similarly to the  _expand	completer  but	instead  performs
	      expansions  defined by users.  The styles add-space and sort styles specific to the
	      _expand completer are usable with _user_expand in addition to other styles  handled
	      more generally by the completion system.	The tag all-expansions is also available.

	      The  expansion depends on the array style user-expand being defined for the current
	      context; remember that the context for completers is less specific  than	that  for
	      contextual completion as the full context has not yet been determined.  Elements of
	      the array may have one of the following forms:
	      $hash

		     hash is the name of an associative array.	Note this is not a full parameter
		     expression, merely a $, suitably quoted to prevent immediate expansion, fol-
		     lowed by the name of an associative array.   If  the  trial  expansion  word
		     matches a key in hash, the resulting expansion is the corresponding value.
	      _func

		     _func  is	the  name of a shell function whose name must begin with _ but is
		     not otherwise special to the completion system.  The function is called with
		     the  trial word as an argument.  If the word is to be expanded, the function
		     should set the array reply to a list of expansions.  Optionally, it can  set
		     REPLY  to	a  word  that will be used as a description for the set of expan-
		     sions.  The return status of the function is irrelevant.
BINDABLE COMMANDS
       In addition to the context-dependent completions provided, which are expected to  work  in
       an  intuitively	obvious way, there are a few widgets implementing special behaviour which
       can be bound separately to keys.  The following is a list of these and their default bind-
       ings.

       _bash_completions
	      This  function  is used by two widgets, _bash_complete-word and _bash_list-choices.
	      It exists to provide compatibility with completion  bindings  in	bash.	The  last
	      character  of  the  binding  determines what is completed: `!', command names; `$',
	      environment variables; `@', host names; `/', file names; `~' user names.	In  bash,
	      the  binding preceded by `\e' gives completion, and preceded by `^X' lists options.
	      As some of these bindings clash with standard zsh bindings, only	`\e~'  and  `^X~'
	      are  bound  by  default.	 To add the rest, the following should be added to .zshrc
	      after compinit has been run:

		     for key in '!' '$' '@' '/' '~'; do
		       bindkey "\e$key" _bash_complete-word
		       bindkey "^X$key" _bash_list-choices
		     done

	      This includes the bindings for `~' in case they were  already  bound  to	something
	      else; the completion code does not override user bindings.

       _correct_filename (^XC)
	      Correct  the  filename path at the cursor position.  Allows up to six errors in the
	      name.  Can also be called with an argument to correct  a	filename  path,  indepen-
	      dently of zle; the correction is printed on standard output.

       _correct_word (^Xc)
	      Performs	correction of the current argument using the usual contextual completions
	      as possible choices. This stores the string `correct-word' in the function field of
	      the context name and then calls the _correct completer.

       _expand_alias (^Xa)
	      This function can be used as a completer and as a bindable command.  It expands the
	      word the cursor is on if it is an alias.	The types of alias expanded can  be  con-
	      trolled with the styles regular, global and disabled.

	      When  used  as  a  bindable  command  there  is  one additional feature that can be
	      selected by setting the complete style to `true'.  In this case, if the word is not
	      the name of an alias, _expand_alias tries to complete the word to a full alias name
	      without expanding it.  It leaves the cursor directly after the  completed  word  so
	      that invoking _expand_alias once more will expand the now-complete alias name.

       _expand_word (^Xe)
	      Performs	expansion  on  the  current word:  equivalent to the standard expand-word
	      command, but using the _expand completer.  Before calling it, the function field of
	      the context is set to `expand-word'.

       _generic
	      This function is not defined as a widget and not bound by default.  However, it can
	      be used to define a widget and will then store the name of the widget in the  func-
	      tion  field of the context and call the completion system.  This allows custom com-
	      pletion widgets with their own set of style settings to  be  defined  easily.   For
	      example,	to define a widget that performs normal completion and starts menu selec-
	      tion:

		     zle -C foo complete-word _generic
		     bindkey '...' foo
		     zstyle ':completion:foo:*' menu yes select=1

	      Note in particular that the completer style may be set for the context in order  to
	      change  the  set	of  functions  used to generate possible matches.  If _generic is
	      called with arguments, those are passed through to _main_complete as  the  list  of
	      completers in place of those defined by the completer style.

       _history_complete_word (\e/)
	      Complete	 words	 from	the   shell's	command  history.  This  uses  the  list,
	      remove-all-dups, sort, and stop styles.

       _most_recent_file (^Xm)
	      Complete the name of the most recently modified file matching the  pattern  on  the
	      command line (which may be blank).  If given a numeric argument N, complete the Nth
	      most recently modified file.  Note the completion, if any, is always unique.

       _next_tags (^Xn)
	      This command alters the set of matches used to that for the next	tag,  or  set  of
	      tags,  either  as  given by the tag-order style or as set by default; these matches
	      would otherwise not be available.  Successive  invocations  of  the  command  cycle
	      through all possible sets of tags.

       _read_comp (^X^R)
	      Prompt  the  user  for  a string, and use that to perform completion on the current
	      word.  There are two possibilities for the string.  First, it can be a set of words
	      beginning  `_',  for example `_files -/', in which case the function with any argu-
	      ments will be called to generate the completions.  Unambiguous parts of  the  func-
	      tion  name  will	be completed automatically (normal completion is not available at
	      this point) until a space is typed.

	      Second, any other string will be passed as a set of arguments to compadd and should
	      hence be an expression specifying what should be completed.

	      A  very  restricted  set	of editing commands is available when reading the string:
	      `DEL' and `^H' delete the last character; `^U' deletes the line, and `^C' and  `^G'
	      abort  the  function,  while `RET' accepts the completion.  Note the string is used
	      verbatim as a command line, so arguments must be quoted in accordance with standard
	      shell rules.

	      Once  a  string  has  been  read, the next call to _read_comp will use the existing
	      string instead of reading a new one.  To force  a  new  string  to  be  read,  call
	      _read_comp with a numeric argument.

       _complete_debug (^X?)
	      This  widget performs ordinary completion, but captures in a temporary file a trace
	      of the shell commands executed by the completion system.	Each  completion  attempt
	      gets its own file.  A command to view each of these files is pushed onto the editor
	      buffer stack.

       _complete_help (^Xh)
	      This widget displays information about the context names, the tags, and the comple-
	      tion  functions  used  when  completing  at the current cursor position. If given a
	      numeric argument other than 1 (as in `ESC-2 ^Xh'), then the  styles  used  and  the
	      contexts for which they are used will be shown, too.

	      Note  that the information about styles may be incomplete; it depends on the infor-
	      mation available from the completion functions called, which in turn is  determined
	      by the user's own styles and other settings.

       _complete_help_generic
	      Unlike  other  commands  listed  here,  this must be created as a normal ZLE widget
	      rather than a completion widget (i.e. with zle -N).  It is used for generating help
	      with a widget bound to the _generic widget that is described above.

	      If this widget is created using the name of the function, as it is by default, then
	      when executed it will read a key sequence.  This is expected to be bound to a  call
	      to  a  completion function that uses the _generic widget.  That widget will be exe-
	      cuted, and information provided in the same format that the  _complete_help  widget
	      displays for contextual completion.

	      If  the widget's name contains debug, for example if it is created as `zle -N _com-
	      plete_debug_generic _complete_help_generic', it will read and execute the keystring
	      for  a generic widget as before, but then generate debugging information as done by
	      _complete_debug for contextual completion.

	      If the widget's name contains noread, it will not  read  a  keystring  but  instead
	      arrange  that  the next use of a generic widget run in the same shell will have the
	      effect as described above.

	      The widget works by setting the shell parameter ZSH_TRACE_GENERIC_WIDGET	which  is
	      read by _generic.  Unsetting the parameter cancels any pending effect of the noread
	      form.

	      For example, after executing the following:

		     zle -N _complete_debug_generic _complete_help_generic
		     bindkey '^x:' _complete_debug_generic

	      typing `C-x :' followed by the key sequence for a generic widget will  cause  trace
	      output for that widget to be saved to a file.

       _complete_tag (^Xt)
	      This  widget  completes  symbol tags created by the etags or ctags programmes (note
	      there is no connection with the completion system's tags) stored in a file TAGS, in
	      the  format  used  by etags, or tags, in the format created by ctags.  It will look
	      back up the path hierarchy for the first occurrence of either file; if both  exist,
	      the  file  TAGS is preferred.  You can specify the full path to a TAGS or tags file
	      by setting the parameter $TAGSFILE or $tagsfile  respectively.   The  corresponding
	      completion tags used are etags and vtags, after emacs and vi respectively.

UTILITY FUNCTIONS
       Descriptions follow for utility functions that may be useful when writing completion func-
       tions.  If functions are installed in subdirectories, most of these  reside  in	the  Base
       subdirectory.   Like  the  example functions for commands in the distribution, the utility
       functions generating matches all follow the convention of returning status  zero  if  they
       generated completions and non-zero if no matching completions could be added.

       Two more features are offered by the _main_complete function.  The arrays compprefuncs and
       comppostfuncs may contain names of functions that are to be called immediately  before  or
       after completion has been tried.  A function will only be called once unless it explicitly
       reinserts itself into the array.

       _all_labels [ -x ] [ -12VJ ] tag name descr [ command args ... ]
	      This is a convenient interface to the _next_label function below, implementing  the
	      loop shown in the _next_label example.  The command and its arguments are called to
	      generate the matches.  The options stored in the parameter name will  automatically
	      be  inserted  into the args passed to the command.  Normally, they are put directly
	      after the command, but if one of the args is a single  hyphen,  they  are  inserted
	      directly	before that.  If the hyphen is the last argument, it will be removed from
	      the argument list before the command is called.  This allows _all_labels to be used
	      in almost all cases where the matches can be generated by a single call to the com-
	      padd builtin command or by a call to one of the utility functions.

	      For example:

		     local expl
		     ...
		     if _requested foo; then
		       ...
		       _all_labels foo expl '...' compadd ... - $matches
		     fi

	      Will complete the strings from the matches parameter, using compadd with additional
	      options which will take precedence over those generated by _all_labels.

       _alternative [ -O name ] [ -C name ] spec ...
	      This  function is useful in simple cases where multiple tags are available.  Essen-
	      tially it implements a loop like the one described for the _tags function below.

	      The tags to use and the action to perform if a tag is requested are described using
	      the  specs  which  are of the form: `tag:descr:action'.  The tags are offered using
	      _tags and if the tag is requested, the action is executed with the  given  descrip-
	      tion  descr.   The actions are those accepted by the _arguments function (described
	      below), excluding the `->state' and `=...' forms.

	      For example, the action may be a simple function call:

		     _alternative \
			 'users:user:_users' \
			 'hosts:host:_hosts'

	      offers usernames and hostnames as possible matches, generated  by  the  _users  and
	      _hosts functions respectively.

	      Like  _arguments, this function uses _all_labels to execute the actions, which will
	      loop over all sets of tags.  Special handling is only required if there is an addi-
	      tional valid tag, for example inside a function called from _alternative.

	      The  option  `-O	name'  is used in the same way as by the _arguments function.  In
	      other words, the elements of the name array will be passed to compadd when  execut-
	      ing an action.

	      Like  _tags  this  function supports the -C option to give a different name for the
	      argument context field.

       _arguments [ -nswWACRS ] [ -O name ] [ -M matchspec ] [ : ] spec ...
	      This function can be used to give a complete specification  for  completion  for	a
	      command  whose arguments follow standard UNIX option and argument conventions.  The
	      following forms specify individual sets of options and arguments; to avoid  ambigu-
	      ity,  these  may	be  separated  from  the options to _arguments itself by a single
	      colon.  Options to _arguments itself must be in separate words,  i.e.  -s  -w,  not
	      -sw.

	      With  the  option  -n, _arguments sets the parameter NORMARG to the position of the
	      first normal argument in the $words array, i.e. the position after the end  of  the
	      options.	 If that argument has not been reached, NORMARG is set to -1.  The caller
	      should declare `integer NORMARG' if the -n option is passed; otherwise the  parame-
	      ter is not used.

	      n:message:action
	      n::message:action
		     This  describes the n'th normal argument.	The message will be printed above
		     the matches generated and the action indicates what can be completed in this
		     position  (see below).  If there are two colons before the message the argu-
		     ment is optional.	If the message contains only white space, nothing will be
		     printed  above  the  matches  unless  the	action adds an explanation string
		     itself.

	      :message:action
	      ::message:action
		     Similar, but describes the next argument, whatever number	that  happens  to
		     be.   If  all  arguments are specified in this form in the correct order the
		     numbers are unnecessary.

	      *:message:action
	      *::message:action
	      *:::message:action
		     This describes how arguments (usually non-option arguments, those not begin-
		     ning  with  -  or +) are to be completed when neither of the first two forms
		     was provided.  Any number of arguments can be completed in this fashion.

		     With two colons before the message, the words special array and the  CURRENT
		     special  parameter  are  modified to refer only to the normal arguments when
		     the action is executed or evaluated.  With three colons before  the  message
		     they  are	modified  to  refer  only to the normal arguments covered by this
		     description.

	      optspec
	      optspec:...
		     This describes an option.	The colon indicates  handling  for  one  or  more
		     arguments to the option; if it is not present, the option is assumed to take
		     no arguments.

		     By default, options are multi-character name, one `-word' per option.   With
		     -s,  options  may	be single characters, with more than one option per word,
		     although words starting with two hyphens, such as `--prefix', are still con-
		     sidered complete option names.  This is suitable for standard GNU options.

		     The combination of -s with -w allows single-letter options to be combined in
		     a single word even if one or more of the options take arguments.  For  exam-
		     ple,  if  -a  takes  an argument, with no -s `-ab' is considered as a single
		     (unhandled) option; with -s -ab is an option with	the  argument  `b';  with
		     both  -s  and  -w, -ab may be the option -a and the option -b with arguments
		     still to come.

		     The option -W takes this a stage further:	it is possible to  complete  sin-
		     gle-letter  options  even	after  an  argument that occurs in the same word.
		     However, it depends on the action performed whether options will  really  be
		     completed	at  this  point.   For	more control, use a utility function like
		     _guard as part of the action.

		     The following forms are available for the initial optspec,  whether  or  not
		     the option has arguments.

		     *optspec
			    Here optspec is one of the remaining forms below.  This indicates the
			    following optspec may be repeated.	Otherwise  if  the  corresponding
			    option is already present on the command line to the left of the cur-
			    sor it will not be offered again.

		     -optname
		     +optname
			    In the simplest form the optspec is just the  option  name	beginning
			    with  a minus or a plus sign, such as `-foo'.  The first argument for
			    the option (if any) must follow as a separate word directly after the
			    option.

			    Either  of	`-+optname'  and  `+-optname' can be used to specify that
			    -optname and +optname are both valid.

			    In all the remaining forms, the leading `-' may  be  replaced  by  or
			    paired with `+' in this way.

		     -optname-
			    The  first argument of the option must come directly after the option
			    name in the same word.  For example, `-foo-:...' specifies	that  the
			    completed option and argument will look like `-fooarg'.

		     -optname+
			    The  first	argument may appear immediately after optname in the same
			    word, or may appear as a separate word after the option.   For  exam-
			    ple,  `-foo+:...'  specifies  that	the completed option and argument
			    will look like either `-fooarg' or `-foo arg'.

		     -optname=
			    The argument may appear as the next word, or  in  same  word  as  the
			    option  name provided that it is separated from it by an equals sign,
			    for example `-foo=arg' or `-foo arg'.

		     -optname=-
			    The argument to the option must appear after an equals  sign  in  the
			    same word, and may not be given in the next argument.

		     optspec[explanation]
			    An	explanation  string may be appended to any of the preceding forms
			    of optspec by enclosing it in brackets, as in `-q[query operation]'.

			    The verbose style is used to decide whether the  explanation  strings
			    are displayed with the option in a completion listing.

			    If	no bracketed explanation string is given but the auto-description
			    style is set and only one argument is described for this optspec, the
			    value  of the style is displayed, with any appearance of the sequence
			    `%d' in it replaced by the message of the first optarg  that  follows
			    the optspec; see below.

	      It  is possible for options with a literal `+' or `=' to appear, but that character
	      must be quoted, for example `-\+'.

	      Each optarg following an optspec must take one of the following forms:

	      :message:action
	      ::message:action
		     An argument to the option; message and action are treated	as  for  ordinary
		     arguments.   In the first form, the argument is mandatory, and in the second
		     form it is optional.

		     This group may be repeated for options which take	multiple  arguments.   In
		     other  words,  :message1:action1:message2:action2	specifies that the option
		     takes two arguments.

	      :*pattern:message:action
	      :*pattern::message:action
	      :*pattern:::message:action
		     This describes multiple arguments.  Only the last optarg for an option  tak-
		     ing  multiple  arguments may be given in this form.  If the pattern is empty
		     (i.e., :*:), all the remaining words on the line  are  to	be  completed  as
		     described by the action; otherwise, all the words up to and including a word
		     matching the pattern are to be completed using the action.

		     Multiple colons are treated as for the `*:...' forms for ordinary arguments:
		     when  the message is preceded by two colons, the words special array and the
		     CURRENT special parameter are modified during the execution or evaluation of
		     the  action  to  refer only to the words after the option.  When preceded by
		     three colons, they are modified to refer only to the words covered  by  this
		     description.

       Any literal colon in an optname, message, or action must be preceded by a backslash, `\:'.

       Each of the forms above may be preceded by a list in parentheses of option names and argu-
       ment numbers.  If the given option is on the command line, the options and arguments indi-
       cated  in  parentheses  will  not be offered.  For example, `(-two -three 1)-one:...' com-
       pletes the option `-one'; if this appears on the command line, the options -two and -three
       and the first ordinary argument will not be completed after it.	`(-foo):...' specifies an
       ordinary argument completion; -foo will not be  completed  if  that  argument  is  already
       present.

       Other  items  may  appear  in the list of excluded options to indicate various other items
       that should not be applied when the current specification is matched: a	single	star  (*)
       for  the  rest  arguments  (i.e. a specification of the form `*:...'); a colon (:) for all
       normal (non-option-) arguments; and a hyphen (-) for all options.  For example,	if  `(*)'
       appears before an option and the option appears on the command line, the list of remaining
       arguments (those shown in the above table beginning with `*:') will not be completed.

       To aid in reuse of specifications, it is possible to precede any of the forms  above  with
       `!'; then the form will no longer be completed, although if the option or argument appears
       on the command line they will be skipped as normal.  The main use for  this  is	when  the
       arguments  are  given  by  an array, and _arguments is called repeatedly for more specific
       contexts: on the first call `_arguments $global_options' is used, and on subsequent  calls
       `_arguments !$^global_options'.

       In  each  of  the  forms  above the action determines how completions should be generated.
       Except for the `->string'  form	below,	the  action  will  be  executed  by  calling  the
       _all_labels  function  to  process  all tag labels.  No special handling of tags is needed
       unless a function call introduces a new one.

       The forms for action are as follows.

	 (single unquoted space)
	      This is useful where an argument is required but it is not possible or desirable to
	      generate	matches for it.  The message will be displayed but no completions listed.
	      Note that even in this case the colon at the end of the message is needed;  it  may
	      only be omitted when neither a message nor an action is given.

       (item1 item2 ...)
	      One of a list of possible matches, for example:

		     :foo:(foo bar baz)

       ((item1\:desc1 ...))
	      Similar  to  the	above,	but  with descriptions for each possible match.  Note the
	      backslash before the colon.  For example,

		     :foo:((a\:bar b\:baz))

	      The matches will be listed together with	their  descriptions  if  the  description
	      style is set with the values tag in the context.

       ->string
	      In  this form, _arguments processes the arguments and options and then returns con-
	      trol to the calling function with parameters set to indicate the state of  process-
	      ing;  the  calling  function then makes its own arrangements for generating comple-
	      tions.  For example, functions that implement a state machine can use this type  of
	      action.

	      Where  _arguments  encounters  action  in  the `->string' format, it will strip all
	      leading and trailing whitespace from string and set the array state to the  set  of
	      all  strings  for  which	an  action is to be performed.	The elements of the array
	      state_descr are assigned the corresponding message field from each optarg  contain-
	      ing such an action.

	      By  default  and in common with all other well behaved completion functions, _argu-
	      ments returns status zero if it was able to add  matches	and  non-zero  otherwise.
	      However,	if the -R option is given, _arguments will instead return a status of 300
	      to indicate that $state is to be handled.

	      In addition to $state and $state_descr, _arguments also sets the global  parameters
	      `context', `line' and `opt_args' as described below, and does not reset any changes
	      made to the special parameters such as PREFIX and words.	This  gives  the  calling
	      function the choice of resetting these parameters or propagating changes in them.

	      A function calling _arguments with at least one action containing a `->string' must
	      therefore declare appropriate local parameters:

		     local context state state_descr line
		     typeset -A opt_args

	      to prevent _arguments from altering the global environment.

       {eval-string}
	      A string in braces is  evaluated	as  shell  code  to  generate  matches.   If  the
	      eval-string  itself does not begin with an opening parenthesis or brace it is split
	      into separate words before execution.

       = action
	      If the action starts with `= ' (an equals sign followed  by  a  space),  _arguments
	      will  insert  the  contents of the argument field of the current context as the new
	      first element in the words special array and increment the  value  of  the  CURRENT
	      special  parameter.  This has the effect of inserting a dummy word onto the comple-
	      tion command line while not changing the point at which completion is taking place.

	      This is most useful with one of the specifiers that restrict the words on the  com-
	      mand line on which the action is to operate (the two- and three-colon forms above).
	      One particular use is when an action  itself  causes  _arguments	on  a  restricted
	      range; it is necessary to use this trick to insert an appropriate command name into
	      the range for the second call to _arguments to be able to parse the line.

	word...
       word...
	      This covers all forms other than those above.  If the action starts with	a  space,
	      the remaining list of words will be invoked unchanged.

	      Otherwise  it  will be invoked with some extra strings placed after the first word;
	      these are to be passed down as options to the compadd builtin.   They  ensure  that
	      the  state  specified  by _arguments, in particular the descriptions of options and
	      arguments, is correctly passed to the completion command.  These	additional  argu-
	      ments are taken from the array parameter `expl'; this will be set up before execut-
	      ing the action and hence may be referred to inside it, typically in an expansion of
	      the form `$expl[@]' which preserves empty elements of the array.

       During  the performance of the action the array `line' will be set to the command name and
       normal arguments from the command line, i.e. the words from the command line excluding all
       options	and their arguments.  Options are stored in the associative array `opt_args' with
       option names as keys and their arguments as the values.	For options that have  more  than
       one argument these are given as one string, separated by colons.  All colons in the origi-
       nal arguments are preceded with backslashes.

       The parameter `context' is set when returning to the calling function to perform an action
       of  the	form `->string'.  It is set to an array of elements corresponding to the elements
       of $state.  Each element is a suitable name for the argument field of the context:  either
       a  string of the form `option-opt-n' for the n'th argument of the option -opt, or a string
       of the form `argument-n' for the n'th argument.	For `rest' arguments, that  is	those  in
       the  list  at  the end not handled by position, n is the string `rest'.	For example, when
       completing the argument of the -o option, the name is `option-o-1', while for  the  second
       normal (non-option-) argument it is `argument-2'.

       Furthermore, during the evaluation of the action the context name in the curcontext param-
       eter is altered to append the same string that is stored in the context parameter.

       It is possible to specify multiple sets of options and arguments with the  sets	separated
       by  single hyphens.  The specifications before the first hyphen (if any) are shared by all
       the remaining sets.  The first word in every other set provides a name for the  set  which
       may  appear in exclusion lists in specifications, either alone or before one of the possi-
       ble values described above.  In the second case a `-' should appear between this name  and
       the remainder.

       For example:

	      _arguments \
		  -a \
		- set1 \
		  -c \
		- set2 \
		  -d \
		  ':arg:(x2 y2)'

       This  defines  two  sets.  When the command line contains the option `-c', the `-d' option
       and the argument will not be considered possible completions.  When it contains `-d' or an
       argument,  the  option  `-c'  will  not be considered.  However, after `-a' both sets will
       still be considered valid.

       If the name given for one of the mutually exclusive sets is of the form `(name)' then only
       one  value  from  each  set  will ever be completed; more formally, all specifications are
       mutually exclusive to all other specifications in the same set.	This is useful for defin-
       ing  multiple  sets  of	options which are mutually exclusive and in which the options are
       aliases for each other.	For example:

	      _arguments \
		  -a -b \
		- '(compress)' \
		  {-c,--compress}'[compress]' \
		- '(uncompress)' \
		  {-d,--decompress}'[decompress]'

       As the completion code has to parse the command line separately for each set this form  of
       argument is slow and should only be used when necessary.  A useful alternative is often an
       option specification with rest-arguments (as in `-foo:*:...'); here the option -foo  swal-
       lows up all remaining arguments as described by the optarg definitions.

       The options -S and -A are available to simplify the specifications for commands with stan-
       dard option parsing.  With -S, no option will be completed after a `--' appearing  on  its
       own on the line; this argument will otherwise be ignored; hence in the line

	      foobar -a -- -b

       the `-a' is considered an option but the `-b' is considered an argument, while the `--' is
       considered to be neither.

       With -A, no options will be completed after the first non-option  argument  on  the  line.
       The  -A	must  be  followed by a pattern matching all strings which are not to be taken as
       arguments.  For example, to make _arguments stop completing options after the first normal
       argument,  but  ignoring all strings starting with a hyphen even if they are not described
       by one of the optspecs, the form is `-A "-*"'.

       The option `-O name' specifies the name of an array whose elements will be passed as argu-
       ments  to  functions called to execute actions.	For example, this can be used to pass the
       same set of options for the compadd builtin to all actions.

       The option `-M spec' sets a match specification to use to completion option names and val-
       ues.   It  must appear before the first argument specification.	The default is `r:|[_-]=*
       r:|=*': this allows partial word completion after `_' and `-', for example `-f-b'  can  be
       completed to `-foo-bar'.

       The  option  -C	tells  _arguments to modify the curcontext parameter for an action of the
       form `->state'.	This is the standard parameter used to keep track of the current context.
       Here  it (and not the context array) should be made local to the calling function to avoid
       passing back the modified value and should be initialised to  the  current  value  at  the
       start of the function:

	      local curcontext="$curcontext"

       This is useful where it is not possible for multiple states to be valid together.

       The  option  `--' allows _arguments to work out the names of long options that support the
       `--help' option which is standard in many GNU commands.	The command word is  called  with
       the  argument  `--help' and the output examined for option names.  Clearly, it can be dan-
       gerous to pass this to commands which may not support this option as the behaviour of  the
       command is unspecified.

       In  addition  to options, `_arguments --' will try to deduce the types of arguments avail-
       able for options when the form `--opt=val' is valid.  It is also possible to provide hints
       by  examining the help text of the command and adding specifiers of the form `pattern:mes-
       sage:action'; note that normal _arguments specifiers are not used.  The pattern is matched
       against	the help text for an option, and if it matches the message and action are used as
       for other argument specifiers.  For example:

	      _arguments -- '*\*:toggle:(yes no)' \
			    '*=FILE*:file:_files' \
			    '*=DIR*:directory:_files -/' \
			    '*=PATH*:directory:_files -/'

       Here, `yes' and `no' will be completed as the argument of options whose	description  ends
       in  a star; file names will be completed for options that contain the substring `=FILE' in
       the description; and directories will be completed for options whose description  contains
       `=DIR'  or  `=PATH'.   The  last  three	are  in fact the default and so need not be given
       explicitly, although it is possible to override the use of these patterns.  A typical help
       text which uses this feature is:

		-C, --directory=DIR	     change to directory DIR

       so  that  the  above specifications will cause directories to be completed after `--direc-
       tory', though not after `-C'.

       Note also that _arguments tries to find out automatically if the argument for an option is
       optional.  This can be specified explicitly by doubling the colon before the message.

       If the pattern ends in `(-)', this will be removed from the pattern and the action will be
       used only directly after the `=', not in the next word.	This is the behaviour of a normal
       specification defined with the form `=-'.

       The  `_arguments  --'  can  be  followed  by the option `-i patterns' to give patterns for
       options which are not to be completed.  The patterns can be given as the name of an  array
       parameter or as a literal list in parentheses.  For example,

	      _arguments -- -i \
		  "(--(en|dis)able-FEATURE*)"

       will  cause  completion	to  ignore the options `--enable-FEATURE' and `--disable-FEATURE'
       (this example is useful with GNU configure).

       The `_arguments --' form can also be followed by the option `-s pair' to  describe  option
       aliases.   Each	pair  consists of a pattern and a replacement.	For example, some config-
       ure-scripts describe options only as `--enable-foo', but also accept `--disable-foo'.   To
       allow completion of the second form:

	      _arguments -- -s "(#--enable- --disable-)"

       Here is a more general example of the use of _arguments:

	      _arguments '-l+:left border:' \
			 '-format:paper size:(letter A4)' \
			 '*-copy:output file:_files::resolution:(300 600)' \
			 ':postscript file:_files -g \*.\(ps\|eps\)' \
			 '*:page number:'

       This  describes three options: `-l', `-format', and `-copy'.  The first takes one argument
       described as `left border' for which no completion will be offered because  of  the  empty
       action.	Its argument may come directly after the `-l' or it may be given as the next word
       on the line.

       The `-format' option takes one argument in the next word, described as  `paper  size'  for
       which only the strings `letter' and `A4' will be completed.

       The  `-copy' option may appear more than once on the command line and takes two arguments.
       The first is mandatory and will be completed  as  a  filename.	The  second  is  optional
       (because  of  the  second colon before the description `resolution') and will be completed
       from the strings `300' and `600'.

       The last two descriptions say what should be completed as arguments.  The first	describes
       the  first argument as a `postscript file' and makes files ending in `ps' or `eps' be com-
       pleted.	The last description gives all other arguments the description `page numbers' but
       does not offer completions.

       _cache_invalid cache_identifier
	      This  function  returns  status  zero if the completions cache corresponding to the
	      given cache identifier needs rebuilding.	It determines  this  by  looking  up  the
	      cache-policy  style  for	the current context.  This should provide a function name
	      which is run with the full path to the relevant cache file as the only argument.

	      Example:

		     _example_caching_policy () {
			 # rebuild if cache is more than a week old
			 local -a oldp
			 oldp=( "$1"(Nm+7) )
			 (( $#oldp ))
		     }

       _call_function return name [ args ... ]
	      If a function name exists, it is called with the arguments args.	The return  argu-
	      ment  gives  the	name  of a parameter in which the return status from the function
	      name should be stored; if return is empty or a single hyphen it is ignored.

	      The return status of _call_function itself is zero if the function name exists  and
	      was called and non-zero otherwise.

       _call_program tag string ...
	      This  function provides a mechanism for the user to override the use of an external
	      command.	It looks up the command style with the supplied tag.   If  the	style  is
	      set,  its  value	is  used as the command to execute.  The strings from the call to
	      _call_program, or from the style if set, are concatenated with spaces between  them
	      and  the	resulting string is evaluated.	The return status is the return status of
	      the command called.

       _combination [ -s pattern ] tag style spec ... field opts ...
	      This function is used to complete combinations of values,   for  example	pairs  of
	      hostnames  and  usernames.   The	style  argument gives the style which defines the
	      pairs; it is looked up in a context with the tag specified.

	      The  style  name	consists  of  field  names  separated  by  hyphens,  for  example
	      `users-hosts-ports'.   For  each	field for a value is already known, a spec of the
	      form `field=pattern' is given.  For example, if the command line so far specifies a
	      user `pws', the argument `users=pws' should appear.

	      The  next  argument with no equals sign is taken as the name of the field for which
	      completions should be generated (presumably not one of the  fields  for  which  the
	      value is known).

	      The matches generated will be taken from the value of the style.	These should con-
	      tain the possible values for the combinations  in  the  appropriate  order  (users,
	      hosts,  ports  in the example above).  The different fields the values for the dif-
	      ferent fields are separated by colons.  This can be altered with the option  -s  to
	      _combination  which  specifies  a pattern.  Typically this is a character class, as
	      for example `-s "[:@]"' in the case of the users-hosts style.	Each  `field=pat-
	      tern'  specification restricts the completions which apply to elements of the style
	      with appropriately matching fields.

	      If no style with the given name is defined for the given tag, or	if  none  of  the
	      strings  in style's value match, but a function name of the required field preceded
	      by an underscore is defined, that function will be called to generate the  matches.
	      For example, if there is no `users-hosts-ports' or no matching hostname when a host
	      is required, the function `_hosts' will automatically be called.

	      If the same name is used for more than one field, in both the  `field=pattern'  and
	      the  argument  that  gives the name of the field to be completed, the number of the
	      field (starting with one) may be given after the fieldname, separated from it by	a
	      colon.

	      All  arguments  after the required field name are passed to compadd when generating
	      matches from the style value, or to the  functions  for  the  fields  if	they  are
	      called.

       _describe [ -oO | -t tag ] descr name1 [ name2 ] opts ... -- ...
	      This  function associates completions with descriptions.	Multiple groups separated
	      by -- can be supplied, potentially with different completion options opts.

	      The descr is taken as a string to display above the matches if the format style for
	      the  descriptions  tag is set.  This is followed by one or two names of arrays fol-
	      lowed by options to pass to compadd.  The first array contains the possible comple-
	      tions  with  their  descriptions in the form `completion:description'.  Any literal
	      colons in completion must be quoted with a backslash.  If a second array is  given,
	      it  should  have	the same number of elements as the first; in this case the corre-
	      sponding elements are added as  possible	completions  instead  of  the  completion
	      strings  from  the  first  array.  The completion list will retain the descriptions
	      from the first array.  Finally, a set of completion options can appear.

	      If the option `-o' appears before the first argument, the  matches  added  will  be
	      treated as names of command options (N.B. not shell options), typically following a
	      `-', `--' or `+' on the command line.  In this case _describe uses the  prefix-hid-
	      den, prefix-needed and verbose styles to find out if the strings should be added as
	      completions and if the descriptions should be shown.  Without the `-o' option, only
	      the  verbose  style  is used to decide how descriptions are shown.  If `-O' is used
	      instead of `-o', command options are completed as above but _describe will not han-
	      dle the prefix-needed style.

	      With  the  -t option a tag can be specified.  The default is `values' or, if the -o
	      option is given, `options'.

	      If selected by the list-grouped style,  strings  with  the  same	description  will
	      appear together in the list.

	      _describe  uses  the  _all_labels  function to generate the matches, so it does not
	      need to appear inside a loop over tag labels.

       _description [ -x ] [ -12VJ ] tag name descr [ spec ... ]
	      This function is not to be confused with the previous one; it is used as	a  helper
	      function	for  creating options to compadd.  It is buried inside many of the higher
	      level completion functions and so often does not need to be called directly.

	      The styles listed below are tested in the current context using the given tag.  The
	      resulting options for compadd are put into the array named name (this is tradition-
	      ally `expl', but this convention is not enforced).  The description for the  corre-
	      sponding set of matches is passed to the function in descr.

	      The  styles  tested  are: format, hidden, matcher, ignored-patterns and group-name.
	      The format style is first tested for the given tag and then  for	the  descriptions
	      tag if no value was found, while the remainder are only tested for the tag given as
	      the first argument.  The function also calls _setup which tests some more styles.

	      The string returned by the format style (if any)	will  be  modified  so	that  the
	      sequence	`%d'  is  replaced  by	the descr given as the third argument without any
	      leading or trailing white space.	If, after removing the white space, the descr  is
	      the  empty  string,  the format style will not be used and the options put into the
	      name array will not contain  an  explanation  string  to	be  displayed  above  the
	      matches.

	      If  _description	is  called  with  more than three arguments, the additional specs
	      should be of the form `char:str'.  These supply escape  sequence	replacements  for
	      the format style: every appearance of `%char' will be replaced by string.

	      If  the  -x option is given, the description will be passed to compadd using the -x
	      option instead of the default -X.  This means that the  description  will  be  dis-
	      played even if there are no corresponding matches.

	      The  options  placed  in	the  array  name take account of the group-name style, so
	      matches are placed in a separate group where necessary.  The group normally has its
	      elements	sorted	(by  passing the option -J to compadd), but if an option starting
	      with `-V', `-J', `-1', or `-2' is passed	to  _description,  that  option  will  be
	      included	in  the  array.   Hence  it  is  possible  for the completion group to be
	      unsorted by giving the option `-V', `-1V', or `-2V'.

	      In most cases, the function will be used like this:

		     local expl
		     _description files expl file
		     compadd "$expl[@]" - "$files[@]"

	      Note the use of the parameter expl, the hyphen, and the list  of	matches.   Almost
	      all  calls  to  compadd  within  the  completion	system use a similar format; this
	      ensures that user-specified styles are correctly passed down to the builtins  which
	      implement the internals of completion.

       _dispatch context string ...
	      This sets the current context to context and looks for completion functions to han-
	      dle this context by hunting through the list of command names or	special  contexts
	      (as  described  above for compdef) given as string ....  The first completion func-
	      tion to be defined for one of the contexts in the list is used to generate matches.
	      Typically,  the  last string is -default- to cause the function for default comple-
	      tion to be used as a fallback.

	      The function sets the parameter $service to the string being tried,  and	sets  the
	      context/command  field  (the  fourth)  of  the $curcontext parameter to the context
	      given as the first argument.

       _files The function _files calls _path_files with all the arguments it was  passed  except
	      for  -g  and  -/.   The  use  of	these  two  options depends on the setting of the
	      file-patterns style.

	      This function accepts the full set of options  allowed  by  _path_files,	described
	      below.

       _gnu_generic
	      This  function  is a simple wrapper around the _arguments function described above.
	      It can be used to determine automatically the long options understood  by  commands
	      that  produce a list when passed the option `--help'.  It is intended to be used as
	      a top-level completion function in its own right.  For example,  to  enable  option
	      completion for the commands foo and bar, use

		     compdef _gnu_generic foo bar

	      after the call to compinit.

	      The  completion  system  as  supplied  is conservative in its use of this function,
	      since it is important to be sure the command understands the option `--help'.

       _guard [ options ] pattern descr
	      This function is intended to be used in the action for the specifications passed to
	      _arguments  and  similar	functions.  It returns immediately with a non-zero return
	      status if the string to be completed does not match the pattern.	 If  the  pattern
	      matches,	the descr is displayed; the function then returns status zero if the word
	      to complete is not empty, non-zero otherwise.

	      The pattern may be preceded by any of the options understood by  compadd	that  are
	      passed  down  from  _description, namely -M, -J, -V, -1, -2, -n, -F and -X.  All of
	      these options will be ignored.  This fits in conveniently with the argument-passing
	      conventions of actions for _arguments.

	      As an example, consider a command taking the options -n and -none, where -n must be
	      followed by a numeric value in the same word.  By using:

		     _arguments '-n-: :_guard "[0-9]#" "numeric value"' '-none'

	      _arguments can be made to both display the message  `numeric  value'  and  complete
	      options  after  `-n<TAB>'.   If  the `-n' is already followed by one or more digits
	      (the pattern passed to _guard) only the message will be displayed; if the  `-n'  is
	      followed by another character, only options are completed.

       _message [ -r12 ] [ -VJ group ] descr
       _message -e [ tag ] descr
	      The  descr  is used in the same way as the third argument to the _description func-
	      tion, except that the resulting string will always be shown whether or not  matches
	      were  generated.	 This  is useful for displaying a help message in places where no
	      completions can be generated.

	      The format style is examined with the messages tag to find  a  message;  the  usual
	      tag, descriptions, is used only if the style is not set with the former.

	      If  the  -r  option is given, no style is used; the descr is taken literally as the
	      string to display.  This is most useful when the descr comes from  a  pre-processed
	      argument list which already contains an expanded description.

	      The -12VJ options and the group are passed to compadd and hence determine the group
	      the message string is added to.

	      The second form gives a description for completions with the tag tag  to	be  shown
	      even  if	there  are no matches for that tag.  The tag can be omitted and if so the
	      tag is taken from the parameter $curtag; this is maintained by the completion  sys-
	      tem and so is usually correct.

       _multi_parts sep array
	      The  argument sep is a separator character.  The array may be either the name of an
	      array parameter or a literal array in the form `(foo bar)', a parenthesised list of
	      words  separated	by whitespace.	The possible completions are the strings from the
	      array.  However, each chunk delimited by sep will  be  completed	separately.   For
	      example, the _tar function uses `_multi_parts / patharray' to complete partial file
	      paths from the given array of complete file paths.

	      The -i option causes _multi_parts to insert a unique match even  if  that  requires
	      multiple	separators  to	be  inserted.  This is not usually the expected behaviour
	      with filenames, but certain other types of completion, for  example  those  with	a
	      fixed set of possibilities, may be more suited to this form.

	      Like  other  utility  functions,	this function accepts the `-V', `-J', `-1', `-2',
	      `-n', `-f', `-X', `-M', `-P', `-S', `-r', `-R', and `-q' options and passes them to
	      the compadd builtin.

       _next_label [ -x ] [ -12VJ ] tag name descr [ options ... ]
	      This function is used to implement the loop over different tag labels for a partic-
	      ular tag as described above for the tag-order style.  On each call it checks to see
	      if  there  are  any  more tag labels; if there is it returns status zero, otherwise
	      non-zero.  As this function requires a current tag to be set, it must always follow
	      a call to _tags or _requested.

	      The  -x12VJ  options  and  the first three arguments are passed to the _description
	      function.  Where appropriate the tag will be replaced by a tag label in this  call.
	      Any  description	given  in the tag-order style is preferred to the descr passed to
	      _next_label.

	      The options given after the descr are set in the parameter given by name, and hence
	      are to be passed to compadd or whatever function is called to add the matches.

	      Here  is	a  typical  use of this function for the tag foo.  The call to _requested
	      determines if tag foo is required at all; the loop  over	_next_label  handles  any
	      labels defined for the tag in the tag-order style.

		     local expl ret=1
		     ...
		     if _requested foo; then
		       ...
		       while _next_label foo expl '...'; do
			 compadd "$expl[@]" ... && ret=0
		       done
		       ...
		     fi
		     return ret

       _normal
	      This is the standard function called to handle completion outside any special -con-
	      text-.  It is called both to complete the command word and also the arguments for a
	      command.	 In the second case, _normal looks for a special completion for that com-
	      mand, and if there is none it uses the completion for the -default- context.

	      A second use is to reexamine the command line specified by the $words array and the
	      $CURRENT parameter after those have been modified.  For example, the function _pre-
	      command, which completes after pre-command specifiers such as  nohup,  removes  the
	      first word from the words array, decrements the CURRENT parameter, then calls _nor-
	      mal again.  The effect is that `nohup cmd ...' is treated in the same way  as  `cmd
	      ...'.

	      If  the  command name matches one of the patterns given by one of the options -p or
	      -P to compdef, the corresponding completion function is called and then the parame-
	      ter _compskip is checked.  If it is set completion is terminated at that point even
	      if no matches have been found.  This is the same effect as in the -first- context.

       _options
	      This can be used to complete the names of shell options.	 It  provides  a  matcher
	      specification   that  ignores  a	leading  `no',	ignores  underscores  and  allows
	      upper-case letters to match their lower-case  counterparts  (for	example,  `glob',
	      `noglob',  `NO_GLOB'  are all completed).  Any arguments are propagated to the com-
	      padd builtin.

       _options_set and _options_unset
	      These functions complete only set or unset options, with the same matching specifi-
	      cation used in the _options function.

	      Note  that  you  need  to  uncomment a few lines in the _main_complete function for
	      these functions to work properly.  The lines in question	are  used  to  store  the
	      option  settings in effect before the completion widget locally sets the options it
	      needs.  Hence these functions are not generally used by the completion system.

       _parameters
	      This is used to complete the names of shell parameters.

	      The option `-g pattern' limits the completion to parameters whose type matches  the
	      pattern.	The type of a parameter is that shown by `print ${(t)param}', hence judi-
	      cious use of `*' in pattern is probably necessary.

	      All other arguments are passed to the compadd builtin.

       _path_files
	      This function is used throughout the completion system to complete  filenames.   It
	      allows  completion  of  partial paths.  For example, the string `/u/i/s/sig' may be
	      completed to `/usr/include/sys/signal.h'.

	      The options accepted by both _path_files and _files are:

	      -f     Complete all filenames.  This is the default.

	      -/     Specifies that only directories should be completed.

	      -g pattern
		     Specifies that only files matching the pattern should be completed.

	      -W paths
		     Specifies path prefixes that are to be prepended to the string from the com-
		     mand  line to generate the filenames but that should not be inserted as com-
		     pletions nor shown in completion listings.  Here, paths may be the  name  of
		     an  array	parameter,  a literal list of paths enclosed in parentheses or an
		     absolute pathname.

	      -F ignored-files
		     This behaves as for the corresponding option to  the  compadd  builtin.   It
		     gives  direct control over which filenames should be ignored.  If the option
		     is not present, the ignored-patterns style is used.

	      Both _path_files and _files also accept the following options which are  passed  to
	      compadd:	`-J',  `-V',  `-1',  `-2',  `-n', `-X', `-M', `-P', `-S', `-q', `-r', and
	      `-R'.

	      Finally, the _path_files function  uses the styles expand, ambiguous, special-dirs,
	      list-suffixes and file-sort described above.

       _pick_variant [ -b builtin-label ] [ -c
	      command ] [ -r name ]
	  label=pattern ... label [ args ... ]
	      This  function  is  used to resolve situations where a single command name requires
	      more than one type of handling, either because it has  more  than  one  variant  or
	      because there is a name clash between two different commands.

	      The  command  to run is taken from the first element of the array words unless this
	      is overridden by the option -c.  This command is run and	its  output  is  compared
	      with  a series of patterns.  Arguments to be passed to the command can be specified
	      at the end after all the other arguments.  The patterns to try in order  are  given
	      by  the  arguments label=pattern; if the output of `command args ...' contains pat-
	      tern, then label is selected as the label for the command variant.  If none of  the
	      patterns match, the final command label is selected and status 1 is returned.

	      If  the `-b builtin-label' is given, the command is tested to see if it is provided
	      as a shell builtin, possibly autoloaded; if so, the label builtin-label is selected
	      as the label for the variant.

	      If the `-r name' is given, the label picked is stored in the parameter named name.

	      The  results  are  also cached in the _cmd_variant associative array indexed by the
	      name of the command run.

       _regex_arguments name spec ...
	      This function generates a completion function name which matches the specifications
	      spec  ...,  a  set  of  regular  expressions  as	described  below.   After running
	      _regex_arguments, the function name should be called as a normal	completion  func-
	      tion.   The pattern to be matched is given by the contents of the words array up to
	      the current cursor position joined together with null characters; no  quotation  is
	      applied.

	      The arguments are grouped as sets of alternatives separated by `|', which are tried
	      one after the other until one matches.  Each alternative consists of a one or  more
	      specifications  which  are  tried  left  to  right, with each pattern matched being
	      stripped in turn from the command line being tested, until all of  the  group  suc-
	      ceeds  or until one fails; in the latter case, the next alternative is tried.  This
	      structure can be repeated to arbitrary depth by using  parentheses;  matching  pro-
	      ceeds from inside to outside.

	      A  special  procedure is applied if no test succeeds but the remaining command line
	      string contains no null character (implying the remaining word is the one for which
	      completions  are	to  be	generated).   The  completion target is restricted to the
	      remaining word and any actions for the corresponding  patterns  are  executed.   In
	      this  case, nothing is stripped from the command line string.  The order of evalua-
	      tion of the actions can be determined by the tag-order style; the  various  formats
	      supported  by _alternative can be used in action.  The descr is used for setting up
	      the array parameter expl.

	      Specification arguments take one of following forms, in which  metacharacters  such
	      as `(', `)', `#' and `|' should be quoted.

	      /pattern/ [%lookahead%] [-guard] [:tag:descr:action]
		     This  is  a single primitive component.  The function tests whether the com-
		     bined pattern `(#b)((#B)pattern)lookahead*' matches the command line string.
		     If  so,  `guard' is evaluated and its return status is examined to determine
		     if the test has succeeded.  The pattern string `[]' is guaranteed	never  to
		     match.   The lookahead is not stripped from the command line before the next
		     pattern is examined.

		     The argument starting with : is used in the same manner as  an  argument  to
		     _alternative.

		     A	component  is  used as follows: pattern is tested to see if the component
		     already exists on the command line.  If it does,  any  following  specifica-
		     tions are examined to find something to complete.	If a component is reached
		     but no such pattern exists yet on the command line,  the  string  containing
		     the action is used to generate matches to insert at that point.

	      /pattern/+ [%lookahead%] [-guard] [:tag:descr:action]
		     This  is  similar	to  `/pattern/ ...' but the left part of the command line
		     string (i.e. the part already matched by previous patterns) is also  consid-
		     ered part of the completion target.

	      /pattern/- [%lookahead%] [-guard] [:tag:descr:action]
		     This is similar to `/pattern/ ...' but the actions of the current and previ-
		     ously matched patterns are ignored even if the following  `pattern'  matches
		     the empty string.

	      ( spec )
		     Parentheses  may  be used to groups specs; note each parenthesis is a single
		     argument to _regex_arguments.

	      spec # This allows any number of repetitions of spec.

	      spec spec
		     The two specs are to be matched one after the other as described above.

	      spec | spec
		     Either of the two specs can be matched.

	      The function _regex_words can be used as a helper function to generate matches  for
	      a  set  of  alternative  words  possibly with their own arguments as a command line
	      argument.

	      Examples:

		     _regex_arguments _tst /$'[^\0]#\0'/ \
		     /$'[^\0]#\0'/ :'compadd aaa'

	      This generates a function _tst that completes aaa as its only  argument.	 The  tag
	      and description for the action have been omitted for brevity (this works but is not
	      recommended in normal use).  The first component matches the command word, which is
	      arbitrary;  the  second  matches	any argument.  As the argument is also arbitrary,
	      any following component would not depend on aaa being present.

		     _regex_arguments _tst /$'[^\0]#\0'/ \
		     /$'aaa\0'/ :'compadd aaa'

	      This is a more typical use; it is similar, but any following  patterns  would  only
	      match if aaa was present as the first argument.

		     _regex_arguments _tst /$'[^\0]#\0'/ \( \
		     /$'aaa\0'/ :'compadd aaa' \
		     /$'bbb\0'/ :'compadd bbb' \) \#

	      In  this	example, an indefinite number of command arguments may be completed.  Odd
	      arguments are completed as aaa and even arguments as bbb.  Completion fails  unless
	      the set of aaa and bbb arguments before the current one is matched correctly.

		     _regex_arguments _tst /$'[^\0]#\0'/ \
		     \( /$'aaa\0'/ :'compadd aaa' \| \
		     /$'bbb\0'/ :'compadd bbb' \) \#

	      This  is similar, but either aaa or bbb may be completed for any argument.  In this
	      case _regex_words could be used to generate a suitable  expression  for  the  argu-
	      ments.

       _regex_words tag description spec ...
	      This  function  can  be used to generate arguments for the _regex_arguments command
	      which may be inserted at any point where a set of rules is expected.  The  tag  and
	      description  give a standard tag and description pertaining to the current context.
	      Each spec contains two or three arguments separated by a colon: note that there  is
	      no leading colon in this case.

	      Each spec gives one of a set of words that may be completed at this point, together
	      with arguments.  It is thus roughly equivalent to the _arguments function when used
	      in normal (non-regex) completion.

	      The  part of the spec before the first colon is the word to be completed.  This may
	      contain a *; the entire word, before and after the * is  completed,  but	only  the
	      text  before the * is required for the context to be matched, so that further argu-
	      ments may be completed after the abbreviated form.

	      The second part of spec is a description for the word being completed.

	      The optional third part of the spec describes how words  following  the  one  being
	      completed  are  themselves to be completed.  It will be evaluated in order to avoid
	      problems with quoting.  This means that typically it contains  a	reference  to  an
	      array containing previously generated regex arguments.

	      The  option -t term specifies a terminator for the word instead of the usual space.
	      This is handled as an auto-removable suffix in the manner of the option -s  sep  to
	      _values.

	      The  result  of  the processing by _regex_words is placed in the array reply, which
	      should be made local to the calling function.  If the set of  words  and	arguments
	      may  be  matched	repeatedly, a # should be appended to the generated array at that
	      point.

	      For example:

		     local -a reply
		     _regex_words mydb-commands 'mydb commands' \
		       'add:add an entry to mydb:$mydb_add_cmds' \
		       'show:show entries in mydb'
		     _regex_arguments _mydb "$reply[@]"
		     _mydb "$@"

	      This shows a completion function for a command mydb which takes two  command  argu-
	      ments,  add  and	show.	show takes no arguments, while the arguments for add have
	      already been prepared in an array mydb_add_cmds, quite possibly by a previous  call
	      to _regex_words.

       _requested [ -x ] [ -12VJ ] tag [ name descr [ command args ... ] ]
	      This  function  is  called  to decide whether a tag already registered by a call to
	      _tags (see below) has been requested by the user and  hence  completion  should  be
	      performed for it.  It returns status zero if the tag is requested and non-zero oth-
	      erwise.  The function is typically used as part of a loop over  different  tags  as
	      follows:

		     _tags foo bar baz
		     while _tags; do
		       if _requested foo; then
			 ... # perform completion for foo
		       fi
		       ... # test the tags bar and baz in the same way
		       ... # exit loop if matches were generated
		     done

	      Note  that  the  test for whether matches were generated is not performed until the
	      end of the _tags loop.  This is so that the user can set	the  tag-order	style  to
	      specify a set of tags to be completed at the same time.

	      If  name and descr are given, _requested calls the _description function with these
	      arguments together with the options passed to _requested.

	      If command is given, the _all_labels function will be called immediately	with  the
	      same arguments.  In simple cases this makes it possible to perform the test for the
	      tag and the matching in one go.  For example:

		     local expl ret=1
		     _tags foo bar baz
		     while _tags; do
		       _requested foo expl 'description' \
			   compadd foobar foobaz && ret=0
		       ...
		       (( ret )) || break
		     done

	      If the command is not compadd, it must nevertheless be prepared to handle the  same
	      options.

       _retrieve_cache cache_identifier
	      This function retrieves completion information from the file given by cache_identi-
	      fier, stored in a directory specified by the cache-path  style  which  defaults  to
	      ~/.zcompcache.   The  return  status  is zero if retrieval was successful.  It will
	      only attempt retrieval if the use-cache style is set, so you can call this function
	      without worrying about whether the user wanted to use the caching layer.

	      See _store_cache below for more details.

       _sep_parts
	      This function is passed alternating arrays and separators as arguments.  The arrays
	      specify completions for parts of strings to be separated by  the	separators.   The
	      arrays  may be the names of array parameters or a quoted list of words in parenthe-
	      ses.  For example, with the array `hosts=(ftp news)'  the  call  `_sep_parts  '(foo
	      bar)'  @	hosts'	will  complete	the  string  `f' to `foo' and the string `b@n' to
	      `bar@news'.

	      This function accepts the compadd options `-V', `-J', `-1', `-2', `-n', `-X', `-M',
	      `-P',  `-S', `-r', `-R', and `-q' and passes them on to the compadd builtin used to
	      add the matches.

       _setup tag [ group ]
	      This function sets up the special parameters used by the completion  system  appro-
	      priately	for the tag given as the first argument.  It uses the styles list-colors,
	      list-packed, list-rows-first, last-prompt, accept-exact, menu and force-list.

	      The optional group supplies the name of the group in  which  the	matches  will  be
	      placed.  If it is not given, the tag is used as the group name.

	      This  function  is called automatically from _description and hence is not normally
	      called explicitly.

       _store_cache cache_identifier params ...
	      This function, together  with  _retrieve_cache  and  _cache_invalid,  implements	a
	      caching  layer  which  can  be  used  in any completion function.  Data obtained by
	      costly operations are stored in parameters; this function then dumps the values  of
	      those  parameters to a file.  The data can then be retrieved quickly from that file
	      via _retrieve_cache, even in different instances of the shell.

	      The cache_identifier specifies the file which the data should be	dumped	to.   The
	      file  is	stored in a directory specified by the cache-path style which defaults to
	      ~/.zcompcache.  The remaining params arguments are the parameters to  dump  to  the
	      file.

	      The  return  status  is  zero  if  storage  was successful.  The function will only
	      attempt storage if the use-cache style is set, so you can call this function  with-
	      out worrying about whether the user wanted to use the caching layer.

	      The  completion  function may avoid calling _retrieve_cache when it already has the
	      completion data available as parameters.	However, in  that  case  it  should  call
	      _cache_invalid  to  check  whether  the data in the parameters and in the cache are
	      still valid.

	      See the _perl_modules completion function for a simple example of the usage of  the
	      caching layer.

       _tags [ [ -C name ] tags ... ]
	      If called with arguments, these are taken to be the names of tags valid for comple-
	      tions in the current context.  These tags are stored internally and sorted by using
	      the tag-order style.

	      Next,  _tags  is called repeatedly without arguments from the same completion func-
	      tion.  This successively selects the first, second, etc. set of tags  requested  by
	      the  user.   The return status is zero if at least one of the tags is requested and
	      non-zero otherwise.  To test if a particular tag is to  be  tried,  the  _requested
	      function should be called (see above).

	      If `-C name' is given, name is temporarily stored in the argument field (the fifth)
	      of the context in the curcontext parameter during the call to _tags; the	field  is
	      restored	on exit.  This allows _tags to use a more specific context without having
	      to change and reset the curcontext parameter (which has the same effect).

       _values [ -O name ] [ -s sep ] [ -S sep ] [ -wC ] desc spec ...
	      This is used to complete arbitrary keywords (values) and their arguments, or  lists
	      of such combinations.

	      If  the  first argument is the option `-O name', it will be used in the same way as
	      by the _arguments function.  In other words, the elements of the name array will be
	      passed to compadd when executing an action.

	      If  the  first  argument	(or the first argument after `-O name') is `-s', the next
	      argument is used as the character that separates multiple values.   This	character
	      is  automatically  added after each value in an auto-removable fashion (see below);
	      all values completed by `_values -s' appear in the same word on the  command  line,
	      unlike  completion  using _arguments.  If this option is not present, only a single
	      value will be completed per word.

	      Normally, _values will only use the current word	to  determine  which  values  are
	      already  present	on  the command line and hence are not to be completed again.  If
	      the -w option is given, other arguments are examined as well.

	      The first non-option argument is used as a string to print as a description  before
	      listing the values.

	      All  other  arguments  describe the possible values and their arguments in the same
	      format used for the description of options by the _arguments function (see  above).
	      The  only  differences are that no minus or plus sign is required at the beginning,
	      values can have only one argument, and the forms of action beginning with an  equal
	      sign are not supported.

	      The  character  separating a value from its argument can be set using the option -S
	      (like -s, followed by the character to use as the separator in the next  argument).
	      By  default  the equals sign will be used as the separator between values and argu-
	      ments.

	      Example:

		     _values -s , 'description' \
			     '*foo[bar]' \
			     '(two)*one[number]:first count:' \
			     'two[another number]::second count:(1 2 3)'

	      This describes three possible values:  `foo',  `one',  and  `two'.   The	first  is
	      described as `bar', takes no argument and may appear more than once.  The second is
	      described as `number', may appear more than once, and takes one mandatory  argument
	      described  as  `first  count'; no action is specified, so it will not be completed.
	      The `(two)' at the beginning says that if the value `one' is on the line, the value
	      `two'  will no longer be considered a possible completion.  Finally, the last value
	      (`two') is described as `another number' and takes an optional  argument	described
	      as  `second count' for which the completions (to appear after an `=') are `1', `2',
	      and `3'.	The _values function will complete lists of  these  values  separated  by
	      commas.

	      Like  _arguments,  this function temporarily adds another context name component to
	      the arguments element (the fifth)  of  the  current  context  while  executing  the
	      action.	Here  this  name  is just the name of the value for which the argument is
	      completed.

	      The style verbose is used to decide if the descriptions for  the	values	(but  not
	      those for the arguments) should be printed.

	      The  associative	array val_args is used to report values and their arguments; this
	      works similarly to the opt_args associative array used by  _arguments.   Hence  the
	      function	calling  _values  should declare the local parameters state, state_descr,
	      line, context and val_args:

		     local context state state_descr line
		     typeset -A val_args

	      when using an action of the form `->string'.  With this function the context param-
	      eter  will be set to the name of the value whose argument is to be completed.  Note
	      that for _values, the state and state_descr are scalars rather than arrays.  Only a
	      single matching state is returned.

	      Note  also  that	_values normally adds the character used as the separator between
	      values as an auto-removable suffix (similar to a `/' after a directory).	 However,
	      this  is	not  possible for a `->string' action as the matches for the argument are
	      generated by the calling function.  To get the usual behaviour, the  calling  func-
	      tion  can  add  the  separator  x as a suffix by passing the options `-qS x' either
	      directly or indirectly to compadd.

	      The option -C is treated in the same way as it is by _arguments.	In that case  the
	      parameter curcontext should be made local instead of context (as described above).

       _wanted [ -x ] [ -C name ]  [ -12VJ ] tag name descr command args ...
	      In  many contexts, completion can only generate one particular set of matches, usu-
	      ally corresponding to a single tag.  However,  it  is  still  necessary  to  decide
	      whether  the user requires matches of this type.	This function is useful in such a
	      case.

	      The arguments to _wanted are the same as those to _requested, i.e. arguments to  be
	      passed  to  _description.   However, in this case the command is not optional;  all
	      the processing of tags, including the loop over both tags and tag  labels  and  the
	      generation of matches, is carried out automatically by _wanted.

	      Hence  to offer only one tag and immediately add the corresponding matches with the
	      given description:

		     local expl
		     _wanted tag expl 'description' \
			 compadd matches...

	      Note that, as for _requested, the command must be able  to  accept  options  to  be
	      passed down to compadd.

	      Like  _tags  this  function supports the -C option to give a different name for the
	      argument context field.  The -x option has the same meaning as for _description.

COMPLETION DIRECTORIES
       In the source distribution, the files are contained in various subdirectories of the  Com-
       pletion directory.  They may have been installed in the same structure, or into one single
       function directory.  The following is a description of the files  found	in  the  original
       directory  structure.  If you wish to alter an installed file, you will need to copy it to
       some directory which appears earlier in your fpath than the standard  directory	where  it
       appears.

       Base   The core functions and special completion widgets automatically bound to keys.  You
	      will certainly need most of these, though will probably not  need  to  alter  them.
	      Many of these are documented above.

       Zsh    Functions  for completing arguments of shell builtin commands and utility functions
	      for this.  Some of these are also used by functions from the Unix directory.

       Unix   Functions for completing arguments of external commands  and  suites  of	commands.
	      They  may  need  modifying  for your system, although in many cases some attempt is
	      made to decide which version of a command is present.  For example, completion  for
	      the  mount command tries to determine the system it is running on, while completion
	      for many other utilities try to decide whether the GNU version of the command is in
	      use, and hence whether the --help option is supported.

       X, AIX, BSD, ...
	      Completion and utility function for commands available only on some systems.  These
	      are not arranged hierarchically, so, for example, both the Linux and Debian  direc-
	      tories, as well as the X directory, may be useful on your system.

ZSHCOMPCTL(1)									    ZSHCOMPCTL(1)

NAME
       zshcompctl - zsh programmable completion

DESCRIPTION
       This  version  of  zsh has two ways of performing completion of words on the command line.
       New users of the shell may prefer to use the newer and more powerful system based on shell
       functions;  this  is described in zshcompsys(1), and the basic shell mechanisms which sup-
       port it are described in zshcompwid(1).	This manual entry  describes  the  older  compctl
       command.
       compctl [ -CDT ] options [ command ... ]
       compctl [ -CDT ] options [ -x pattern options - ... -- ] [ + options [ -x ... -- ] ... [+]
       ] [ command ... ]
       compctl -M match-specs ...
       compctl -L [ -CDTM ] [ command ... ]
       compctl + command ...

       Control the editor's completion behavior according to the supplied set of options.   Vari-
       ous  editing commands, notably expand-or-complete-word, usually bound to tab, will attempt
       to complete a word typed by the user, while others, notably  delete-char-or-list,  usually
       bound  to  ^D  in  EMACS editing mode, list the possibilities; compctl controls what those
       possibilities are.  They may for example be filenames (the most common case, and hence the
       default), shell variables, or words from a user-specified list.

COMMAND FLAGS
       Completion  of the arguments of a command may be different for each command or may use the
       default.  The behavior when completing the command word	itself	may  also  be  separately
       specified.   These  correspond  to the following flags and arguments, all of which (except
       for -L) may be combined with any combination of the options described subsequently in  the
       section `Option Flags':

       command ...
	      controls	completion  for the named commands, which must be listed last on the com-
	      mand line.  If completion is attempted for a command  with  a  pathname  containing
	      slashes  and no completion definition is found, the search is retried with the last
	      pathname component. If the command starts with a =, completion is  tried	with  the
	      pathname of the command.

	      Any  of  the command strings may be patterns of the form normally used for filename
	      generation.  These should be quoted to protect them from immediate  expansion;  for
	      example  the command string 'foo*' arranges for completion of the words of any com-
	      mand beginning with foo.	When completion is attempted, all pattern completions are
	      tried in the reverse order of their definition until one matches.  By default, com-
	      pletion then proceeds as normal, i.e. the shell will try to generate  more  matches
	      for  the	specific command on the command line; this can be overridden by including
	      -tn in the flags for the pattern completion.

	      Note that aliases are expanded before the command name  is  determined  unless  the
	      COMPLETE_ALIASES option is set.  Commands may not be combined with the -C, -D or -T
	      flags.

       -C     controls completion when the command word itself is being completed.  If no compctl
	      -C  command  has	been issued,  the names of any executable command (whether in the
	      path or specific to the shell, such as aliases or functions) are completed.

       -D     controls default completion behavior for the arguments of commands not assigned any
	      special  behavior.   If  no  compctl -D command has been issued, filenames are com-
	      pleted.

       -T     supplies completion flags to be used before any  other  processing  is  done,  even
	      before  processing  for compctls defined for specific commands.  This is especially
	      useful when combined with  extended  completion  (the  -x  flag,	see  the  section
	      `Extended  Completion'  below).	Using  this  flag you can define default behavior
	      which will apply to all commands without exception, or you can alter  the  standard
	      behavior for all commands.  For example, if your access to the user database is too
	      slow and/or it contains too many users (so that completion after `~' is too slow to
	      be usable), you can use

		     compctl -T -x 's[~] C[0,[^/]#]' -k friends -S/ -tn

	      to  complete  the strings in the array friends after a `~'.  The C[...] argument is
	      necessary so that this form of ~-completion is not tried after the  directory  name
	      is finished.

       -L     lists  the  existing  completion	behavior  in a manner suitable for putting into a
	      start-up script; the existing behavior is not  changed.	Any  combination  of  the
	      above forms, or the -M flag (which must follow the -L flag), may be specified, oth-
	      erwise all defined completions are listed.  Any other flags supplied are ignored.

       no argument
	      If no argument is given, compctl lists all defined completions  in  an  abbreviated
	      form;   with  a list of options, all completions with those flags set (not counting
	      extended completion) are listed.

       If the + flag is alone and followed immediately by the command list, the completion behav-
       ior  for all the commands in the list is reset to the default.  In other words, completion
       will subsequently use the options specified by the -D flag.

       The form with -M as the first and only option defines global matching specifications  (see
       zshcompwid).  The  match  specifications  given	will be used for every completion attempt
       (only when using compctl, not with the new completion system) and are tried in  the  order
       in which they are defined until one generates at least one match. E.g.:

	      compctl -M '' 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}'

       This  will first try completion without any global match specifications (the empty string)
       and, if that generates no matches, will try case insensitive completion.

OPTION FLAGS
       [ -fcFBdeaRGovNAIOPZEnbjrzu/12 ]
       [ -k array ] [ -g globstring ] [ -s subststring ]
       [ -K function ]
       [ -Q ] [ -P prefix ] [ -S suffix ]
       [ -W file-prefix ] [ -H num pattern ]
       [ -q ] [ -X explanation ] [ -Y explanation ]
       [ -y func-or-var ] [ -l cmd ] [ -h cmd ] [ -U ]
       [ -t continue ] [ -J name ] [ -V name ]
       [ -M match-spec ]

       The remaining options specify the type of command arguments to look for during completion.
       Any  combination  of  these flags may be specified; the result is a sorted list of all the
       possibilities.  The options are as follows.

   Simple Flags
       These produce completion lists made up by the shell itself:

       -f     Filenames and file system paths.

       -/     Just file system paths.

       -c     Command names, including aliases, shell functions, builtins and reserved words.

       -F     Function names.

       -B     Names of builtin commands.

       -m     Names of external commands.

       -w     Reserved words.

       -a     Alias names.

       -R     Names of regular (non-global) aliases.

       -G     Names of global aliases.

       -d     This can be combined with -F, -B, -w, -a, -R and -G to get names of disabled  func-
	      tions, builtins, reserved words or aliases.

       -e     This option (to show enabled commands) is in effect by default, but may be combined
	      with -d; -de in combination with -F, -B, -w, -a, -R and -G will complete	names  of
	      functions, builtins, reserved words or aliases whether or not they are disabled.

       -o     Names of shell options (see zshoptions(1)).

       -v     Names of any variable defined in the shell.

       -N     Names of scalar (non-array) parameters.

       -A     Array names.

       -I     Names of integer variables.

       -O     Names of read-only variables.

       -p     Names of parameters used by the shell (including special parameters).

       -Z     Names of shell special parameters.

       -E     Names of environment variables.

       -n     Named directories.

       -b     Key binding names.

       -j     Job  names:   the first word of the job leader's command line.  This is useful with
	      the kill builtin.

       -r     Names of running jobs.

       -z     Names of suspended jobs.

       -u     User names.

   Flags with Arguments
       These have user supplied arguments to determine how the list of completions is to be  made
       up:

       -k array
	      Names  taken  from the elements of $array (note that the `$' does not appear on the
	      command line).  Alternatively, the argument array itself may be a set of space-  or
	      comma-separated values in parentheses, in which any delimiter may be escaped with a
	      backslash; in this case the argument should be quoted.  For example,

		     compctl -k "(cputime filesize datasize stacksize
				 coredumpsize resident descriptors)" limit

       -g globstring
	      The globstring is expanded using filename globbing; it should be quoted to  protect
	      it from immediate expansion. The resulting filenames are taken as the possible com-
	      pletions.  Use `*(/)' instead of `*/' for directories.  The fignore special parame-
	      ter is not applied to the resulting files.  More than one pattern may be given sep-
	      arated by blanks. (Note that brace expansion is not part of globbing.  Use the syn-
	      tax `(either|or)' to match alternatives.)

       -s subststring
	      The  subststring	is  split  into words and these words are than expanded using all
	      shell expansion mechanisms (see zshexpn(1)).  The resulting words are taken as pos-
	      sible  completions.   The fignore special parameter is not applied to the resulting
	      files.  Note that -g is faster for filenames.

       -K function
	      Call the given function to get the completions.  Unless the  name  starts  with  an
	      underscore,  the function is passed two arguments: the prefix and the suffix of the
	      word on which completion is to be attempted, in other words those characters before
	      the cursor position, and those from the cursor position onwards.	The whole command
	      line can be accessed with the -c and -l flags of the  read  builtin.  The  function
	      should  set  the variable reply to an array containing the completions (one comple-
	      tion per element); note that reply should not be made local to the function.   From
	      such  a  function  the command line can be accessed with the -c and -l flags to the
	      read builtin.  For example,

		     function whoson { reply=(`users`); }
		     compctl -K whoson talk

	      completes only logged-on users after `talk'.  Note that  `whoson'  must  return  an
	      array, so `reply=`users`' would be incorrect.

       -H num pattern
	      The  possible  completions  are  taken from the last num history lines.  Only words
	      matching pattern are taken.  If num is  zero  or	negative  the  whole  history  is
	      searched	and  if pattern is the empty string all words are taken (as with `*').	A
	      typical use is

		     compctl -D -f + -H 0 ''

	      which forces completion to look back in the history list for a word if no  filename
	      matches.

   Control Flags
       These  do  not  directly specify types of name to be completed, but manipulate the options
       that do:

       -Q     This instructs the shell not to quote any metacharacters in  the	possible  comple-
	      tions.   Normally  the  results  of a completion are inserted into the command line
	      with any metacharacters quoted so that they are interpreted as  normal  characters.
	      This  is	appropriate  for  filenames  and  ordinary strings.  However, for special
	      effects, such as inserting a backquoted expression from a completion array (-k)  so
	      that the expression will not be evaluated until the complete line is executed, this
	      option must be used.

       -P prefix
	      The prefix is inserted just before the completed string; any initial  part  already
	      typed  will be completed and the whole prefix ignored for completion purposes.  For
	      example,

		     compctl -j -P "%" kill

	      inserts a `%' after the kill command and then completes job names.

       -S suffix
	      When a completion is found the suffix is inserted after the completed  string.   In
	      the  case  of  menu  completion the suffix is inserted immediately, but it is still
	      possible to cycle through the list of completions by repeatedly  hitting	the  same
	      key.

       -W file-prefix
	      With  directory  file-prefix:  for command, file, directory and globbing completion
	      (options -c, -f, -/, -g), the file prefix is implicitly added in front of the  com-
	      pletion.	For example,

		     compctl -/ -W ~/Mail maildirs

	      completes  any  subdirectories  to any depth beneath the directory ~/Mail, although
	      that prefix does not appear on the command line.	The file-prefix may  also  be  of
	      the  form  accepted  by the -k flag, i.e. the name of an array or a literal list in
	      parenthesis. In this case all the directories in the list will be searched for pos-
	      sible completions.

       -q     If  used	with a suffix as specified by the -S option, this causes the suffix to be
	      removed if the next character typed is a blank or does not insert  anything  or  if
	      the  suffix consists of only one character and the next character typed is the same
	      character; this the same rule used for the AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH option.  The option is
	      most useful for list separators (comma, colon, etc.).

       -l cmd This  option  restricts  the  range of command line words that are considered to be
	      arguments.  If combined with one of  the	extended  completion  patterns	`p[...]',
	      `r[...]',  or  `R[...]'  (see the section `Extended Completion' below) the range is
	      restricted to the range of arguments specified in the brackets.  Completion is then
	      performed  as  if  these	had  been given as arguments to the cmd supplied with the
	      option. If the cmd string is empty the first word in the range is instead taken  as
	      the  command  name,  and command name completion performed on the first word in the
	      range.  For example,

		     compctl -x 'r[-exec,;]' -l '' -- find

	      completes arguments between `-exec' and the following `;' (or the end of	the  com-
	      mand line if there is no such string) as if they were a separate command line.

       -h cmd Normally	zsh completes quoted strings as a whole. With this option, completion can
	      be done separately on different parts of such strings. It works like the -l  option
	      but  makes the completion code work on the parts of the current word that are sepa-
	      rated by spaces. These parts are completed as if they were arguments to  the  given
	      cmd.  If cmd is the empty string, the first part is completed as a command name, as
	      with -l.

       -U     Use the whole list of possible completions, whether or not they actually match  the
	      word  on	the  command  line.  The word typed so far will be deleted.  This is most
	      useful with a function (given by the -K option) which can examine the  word  compo-
	      nents passed to it (or via the read builtin's -c and -l flags) and use its own cri-
	      teria to decide what matches.  If there is no  completion,  the  original  word  is
	      retained.   Since  the produced possible completions seldom have interesting common
	      prefixes and suffixes, menu completion is started immediately if AUTO_MENU  is  set
	      and this flag is used.

       -y func-or-var
	      The  list  provided  by func-or-var is displayed instead of the list of completions
	      whenever a listing is required; the actual  completions  to  be  inserted  are  not
	      affected.   It can be provided in two ways. Firstly, if func-or-var begins with a $
	      it defines a variable, or if it begins with a left  parenthesis  a  literal  array,
	      which  contains  the  list.   A  variable may have been set by a call to a function
	      using the -K option.  Otherwise it contains the name of a function  which  will  be
	      executed	to  create the list.  The function will be passed as an argument list all
	      matching completions, including prefixes and suffixes expanded in full, and  should
	      set  the	array  reply to the result.  In both cases, the display list will only be
	      retrieved after a complete list of matches has been created.

	      Note that the returned list does not have to correspond, even  in  length,  to  the
	      original	set  of  matches,  and may be passed as a scalar instead of an array.  No
	      special formatting of characters is performed on the output in this case;  in  par-
	      ticular,	newlines  are  printed	literally and if they appear output in columns is
	      suppressed.

       -X explanation
	      Print explanation when trying completion on the current set of options. A  `%n'  in
	      this  string is replaced by the number of matches that were added for this explana-
	      tion string.  The explanation only appears if completion was tried and there was no
	      unique  match,  or  when	listing  completions.  Explanation strings will be listed
	      together with the matches of the group specified together with the -X option (using
	      the  -J  or  -V  option).  If  the  same explanation string is given to multiple -X
	      options, the string appears only once (for each group) and the  number  of  matches
	      shown  for  the  `%n' is the total number of all matches for each of these uses. In
	      any case, the explanation string will only be shown if there was at least one match
	      added for the explanation string.

	      The sequences %B, %b, %S, %s, %U, and %u specify output attributes (bold, standout,
	      and underline), %F, %f, %K, %k  specify  foreground  and	background  colours,  and
	      %{...%} can be used to include literal escape sequences as in prompts.

       -Y explanation
	      Identical  to  -X,  except that the explanation first undergoes expansion following
	      the usual rules for strings in double quotes.  The expansion will  be  carried  out
	      after any functions are called for the -K or -y options, allowing them to set vari-
	      ables.

       -t continue
	      The continue-string contains a character that specifies  which  set  of  completion
	      flags should be used next.  It is useful:

	      (i)  With -T, or when trying a list of pattern completions, when compctl would usu-
	      ally continue with ordinary processing after finding  matches;  this  can  be  sup-
	      pressed with `-tn'.

	      (ii)  With  a list of alternatives separated by +, when compctl would normally stop
	      when one of the alternatives generates matches.  It can be forced to  consider  the
	      next  set of completions by adding `-t+' to the flags of the alternative before the
	      `+'.

	      (iii) In an extended completion list (see below), when compctl would normally  con-
	      tinue  until a set of conditions succeeded, then use only the immediately following
	      flags.  With `-t-', compctl will continue trying	extended  completions  after  the
	      next  `-';  with	`-tx' it will attempt completion with the default flags, in other
	      words those before the `-x'.

       -J name
	      This gives the name of the group the matches should be placed in. Groups are listed
	      and  sorted  separately;	likewise,  menu  completion will offer the matches in the
	      groups in the order in which the groups were defined. If no group name  is  explic-
	      itly given, the matches are stored in a group named default. The first time a group
	      name is encountered, a group with that name is created. After that all matches with
	      the same group name are stored in that group.

	      This can be useful with non-exclusive alternative completions.  For example, in

		     compctl -f -J files -t+ + -v -J variables foo

	      both  files  and variables are possible completions, as the -t+ forces both sets of
	      alternatives before and after the + to be considered at once.  Because  of  the  -J
	      options, however, all files are listed before all variables.

       -V name
	      Like  -J,  but  matches within the group will not be sorted in listings nor in menu
	      completion. These unsorted groups are in a different name  space	from  the  sorted
	      ones, so groups defined as -J files and -V files are distinct.

       -1     If  given  together  with  the  -V option, makes only consecutive duplicates in the
	      group be removed. Note that groups with and without this flag are in different name
	      spaces.

       -2     If  given  together  with the -J or -V option, makes all duplicates be kept. Again,
	      groups with and without this flag are in different name spaces.

       -M match-spec
	      This defines additional matching control specifications that should  be  used  only
	      when  testing  words  for the list of flags this flag appears in. The format of the
	      match-spec string is described in zshcompwid.

ALTERNATIVE COMPLETION
       compctl [ -CDT ] options + options [ + ... ] [ + ] command ...

       The form with `+' specifies alternative options. Completion  is	tried  with  the  options
       before the first `+'. If this produces no matches completion is tried with the flags after
       the `+' and so on. If there are no flags after the last `+' and a match has not been found
       up  to that point, default completion is tried.	If the list of flags contains a -t with a
       + character, the next list of flags is used even if the current list produced matches.

       Additional options are available that restrict completion to  some  part  of  the  command
       line; this is referred to as `extended completion'.

EXTENDED COMPLETION
       compctl [ -CDT ] options -x pattern options - ... --
		[ command ... ]
       compctl [ -CDT ] options [ -x pattern options - ... -- ]
		[ + options [ -x ... -- ] ... [+] ] [ command ... ]

       The  form with `-x' specifies extended completion for the commands given; as shown, it may
       be combined with alternative completion using `+'.  Each pattern is examined in turn; when
       a  match  is  found, the corresponding options, as described in the section `Option Flags'
       above, are used to generate possible completions.  If  no  pattern  matches,  the  options
       given before the -x are used.

       Note  that  each  pattern  should be supplied as a single argument and should be quoted to
       prevent expansion of metacharacters by the shell.

       A pattern is built of sub-patterns separated by commas; it matches  if  at  least  one  of
       these  sub-patterns  matches (they are `or'ed). These sub-patterns are in turn composed of
       other sub-patterns separated by white spaces which match if all of the sub-patterns  match
       (they  are  `and'ed).   An element of the sub-patterns is of the form `c[...][...]', where
       the pairs of brackets may be repeated as often as necessary, and matches  if  any  of  the
       sets of brackets match (an `or').  The example below makes this clearer.

       The elements may be any of the following:

       s[string]...
	      Matches  if  the	current  word  on the command line starts with one of the strings
	      given in brackets.  The string is not removed and is not part of the completion.

       S[string]...
	      Like s[string] except that the string is part of the completion.

       p[from,to]...
	      Matches if the number of the current word is between one of the from and	to  pairs
	      inclusive.  The  comma  and to are optional; to defaults to the same value as from.
	      The numbers may be negative: -n refers to the n'th last word on the line.

       c[offset,string]...
	      Matches if the string matches the word offset by offset from the current word posi-
	      tion.  Usually offset will be negative.

       C[offset,pattern]...
	      Like c but using pattern matching instead.

       w[index,string]...
	      Matches  if  the word in position index is equal to the corresponding string.  Note
	      that the word count is made after any alias expansion.

       W[index,pattern]...
	      Like w but using pattern matching instead.

       n[index,string]...
	      Matches if the current word contains string.  Anything  up  to  and  including  the
	      indexth  occurrence  of  this string will not be considered part of the completion,
	      but the rest will.  index may be negative to count from the  end:  in  most  cases,
	      index will be 1 or -1.  For example,

		     compctl -s '`users`' -x 'n[1,@]' -k hosts -- talk

	      will  usually complete usernames, but if you insert an @ after the name, names from
	      the array hosts (assumed to contain hostnames, though you must make the array your-
	      self) will be completed.	Other commands such as rcp can be handled similarly.

       N[index,string]...
	      Like  n  except that the string will be taken as a character class.  Anything up to
	      and including the indexth occurrence of any of the characters in string will not be
	      considered part of the completion.

       m[min,max]...
	      Matches if the total number of words lies between min and max inclusive.

       r[str1,str2]...
	      Matches  if  the	cursor is after a word with prefix str1.  If there is also a word
	      with prefix str2 on the command line after the one matched by str1 it matches  only
	      if the cursor is before this word. If the comma and str2 are omitted, it matches if
	      the cursor is after a word with prefix str1.

       R[str1,str2]...
	      Like r but using pattern matching instead.

       q[str]...
	      Matches the word currently being completed is in single quotes and the  str  begins
	      with  the letter `s', or if completion is done in double quotes and str starts with
	      the letter `d', or if completion is done in backticks and str starts with a `b'.

EXAMPLE
	      compctl -u -x 's[+] c[-1,-f],s[-f+]' \
		-g '~/Mail/*(:t)' - 's[-f],c[-1,-f]' -f -- mail

       This is to be interpreted as follows:

       If the current command is mail, then

	      if ((the current word begins with + and the previous word is -f)
	      or (the current word begins with -f+)), then complete the
	      non-directory part (the `:t' glob modifier) of files in the directory
	      ~/Mail; else

	      if the current word begins with -f or the previous word was -f, then
	      complete any file; else

	      complete user names.

ZSHMODULES(1)									    ZSHMODULES(1)

NAME
       zshmodules - zsh loadable modules

DESCRIPTION
       Some optional parts of zsh are in modules, separate from the core of the shell.	 Each  of
       these  modules  may  be linked in to the shell at build time, or can be dynamically linked
       while the shell is running if the installation supports this feature.  Modules are  linked
       at runtime with the zmodload command, see zshbuiltins(1).

       The modules that are bundled with the zsh distribution are:

       zsh/attr
	      Builtins for manipulating extended attributes (xattr).

       zsh/cap
	      Builtins for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability (privilege) sets.

       zsh/clone
	      A builtin that can clone a running shell onto another terminal.

       zsh/compctl
	      The compctl builtin for controlling completion.

       zsh/complete
	      The basic completion code.

       zsh/complist
	      Completion listing extensions.

       zsh/computil
	      A  module with utility builtins needed for the shell function based completion sys-
	      tem.

       zsh/curses
	      curses windowing commands

       zsh/datetime
	      Some date/time commands and parameters.

       zsh/deltochar
	      A ZLE function duplicating EMACS' zap-to-char.

       zsh/example
	      An example of how to write a module.

       zsh/files
	      Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.

       zsh/langinfo
	      Interface to locale information.

       zsh/mapfile
	      Access to external files via a special associative array.

       zsh/mathfunc
	      Standard scientific functions for use in mathematical evaluations.

       zsh/newuser
	      Arrange for files for new users to be installed.

       zsh/parameter
	      Access to internal hash tables via special associative arrays.

       zsh/pcre
	      Interface to the PCRE library.

       zsh/regex
	      Interface to the POSIX regex library.

       zsh/sched
	      A builtin that provides a timed execution facility within the shell.

       zsh/net/socket
	      Manipulation of Unix domain sockets

       zsh/stat
	      A builtin command interface to the stat system call.

       zsh/system
	      A builtin interface to various low-level system features.

       zsh/net/tcp
	      Manipulation of TCP sockets

       zsh/termcap
	      Interface to the termcap database.

       zsh/terminfo
	      Interface to the terminfo database.

       zsh/zftp
	      A builtin FTP client.

       zsh/zle
	      The Zsh Line Editor, including the bindkey and vared builtins.

       zsh/zleparameter
	      Access to internals of the Zsh Line Editor via parameters.

       zsh/zprof
	      A module allowing profiling for shell functions.

       zsh/zpty
	      A builtin for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.

       zsh/zselect
	      Block and return when file descriptors are ready.

       zsh/zutil
	      Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration via styles.

THE ZSH/ATTR MODULE
       The zsh/attr module is used for manipulating extended attributes.  The  -h  option  causes
       all  commands to operate on symbolic links instead of their targets.  The builtins in this
       module are:

       zgetattr [ -h ] filename attribute [ parameter ]
	      Get the extended attribute attribute from the specified filename. If  the  optional
	      argument	parameter  is  given,  the  attribute is set on that parameter instead of
	      being printed to stdout.

       zsetattr [ -h ] filename attribute value
	      Set the extended attribute attribute on the specified filename to value.

       zdelattr [ -h ] filename attribute
	      Remove the extended attribute attribute from the specified filename.

       zlistattr [ -h ] filename [ parameter ]
	      List the extended attributes currently  set  on  the  specified  filename.  If  the
	      optional argument parameter is given, the list of attributes is set on that parame-
	      ter instead of being printed to stdout.

       zgetattr and  zlistattr	allocate  memory  dynamically.	 If  the  attribute  or  list  of
       attributes  grows  between the allocation and the call to get them, they return 2.  On all
       other errors, 1 is returned.  This allows the calling function to check for this case  and
       retry.

THE ZSH/CAP MODULE
       The  zsh/cap  module  is used for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability sets.  If the
       operating system does not support this interface, the builtins defined by this module will
       do nothing.  The builtins in this module are:

       cap [ capabilities ]
	      Change the shell's process capability sets to the specified capabilities, otherwise
	      display the shell's current capabilities.

       getcap filename ...
	      This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.	It  displays  the
	      capability sets on each specified filename.

       setcap capabilities filename ...
	      This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.	It sets the capa-
	      bility sets on each specified filename to the specified capabilities.

THE ZSH/CLONE MODULE
       The zsh/clone module makes available one builtin command:

       clone tty
	      Creates a forked instance of the current shell, attached to the specified tty.   In
	      the  new shell, the PID, PPID and TTY special parameters are changed appropriately.
	      $! is set to zero in the new shell, and to the new  shell's  PID	in  the  original
	      shell.

	      The return status of the builtin is zero in both shells if successful, and non-zero
	      on error.

	      The target of clone should be an unused terminal, such as an unused virtual console
	      or a virtual terminal created by

	      xterm -e sh -c 'trap : INT QUIT TSTP; tty; while :; do sleep 100000000; done'

	      Some  words  of  explanation are warranted about this long xterm command line: when
	      doing clone on a pseudo-terminal, some other session ("session"  meant  as  a  unix
	      session  group, or SID) is already owning the terminal. Hence the cloned zsh cannot
	      acquire the pseudo-terminal as a controlling tty. That means two things:

	      the job control signals will go to the sh-started-by-xterm process
		    group (that's why we disable INT QUIT and TSTP with trap; otherwise
		    the while loop could get suspended or killed)

	      the cloned shell will have job control disabled, and the job
		    control keys (control-C, control-\ and control-Z) will not work.

	      This does not apply when cloning to an unused vc.

	      Cloning to a used (and unprepared) terminal will result in  two  processes  reading
	      simultaneously  from  the  same terminal, with input bytes going randomly to either
	      process.

	      clone is mostly useful as a shell built-in replacement for openvt.

THE ZSH/COMPCTL MODULE
       The zsh/compctl module makes available two builtin commands. compctl, is the  old,  depre-
       cated  way to control completions for ZLE.  See zshcompctl(1).  The other builtin command,
       compcall can be used in user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

THE ZSH/COMPLETE MODULE
       The zsh/complete module makes available several builtin commands  which	can  be  used  in
       user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

THE ZSH/COMPLIST MODULE
       The  zsh/complist  module  offers  three extensions to completion listings: the ability to
       highlight matches in such a list, the ability to scroll through long lists and a different
       style of menu completion.

   Colored completion listings
       Whenever  one of the parameters ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS is set and the zsh/complist mod-
       ule is loaded or linked into the shell, completion lists will be colored.  Note,  however,
       that  complist  will  not automatically be loaded if it is not linked in:  on systems with
       dynamic loading, `zmodload zsh/complist' is required.

       The parameters ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS describe how matches are highlighted.	 To  turn
       on  highlighting an empty value suffices, in which case all the default values given below
       will be used.  The format of the value of these parameters is the same as used by the  GNU
       version	of  the  ls  command:  a  colon-separated  list  of  specifications  of  the form
       `name=value'.  The name may be one of the following strings, most of  which  specify  file
       types for which the value will be used.	The strings and their default values are:

       no 0   for normal text (i.e. when displaying something other than a matched file)

       fi 0   for regular files

       di 32  for directories

       ln 36  for  symbolic  links.   If  this	has  the special value target, symbolic links are
	      dereferenced and the target file used to determine the display format.

       pi 31  for named pipes (FIFOs)

       so 33  for sockets

       bd 44;37
	      for block devices

       cd 44;37
	      for character devices

       or none
	      for a symlink to nonexistent file (default is the value defined for ln)

       mi none
	      for a non-existent file (default is the value defined for fi); this  code  is  cur-
	      rently not used

       su 37;41
	      for files with setuid bit set

       sg 30;43
	      for files with setgid bit set

       tw 30;42
	      for world writable directories with sticky bit set

       ow 34;43
	      for world writable directories without sticky bit set

       sa none
	      for  files with an associated suffix alias; this is only tested after specific suf-
	      fixes, as described below

       st 37;44
	      for directories with sticky bit set but not world writable

       ex 35  for executable files

       lc \e[ for the left code (see below)

       rc m   for the right code

       tc 0   for the character  indicating  the  file	type   printed	after  filenames  if  the
	      LIST_TYPES option is set

       sp 0   for the spaces printed after matches to align the next column

       ec none
	      for the end code

       Apart  from  these strings, the name may also be an asterisk (`*') followed by any string.
       The value given for such a string will be used for all files  whose  name  ends	with  the
       string.	 The  name  may  also  be  an  equals  sign  (`=')  followed  by  a  pattern; the
       EXTENDED_GLOB option will be turned on for evaluation of the pattern.  The value given for
       this  pattern  will  be used for all matches (not just filenames) whose display string are
       matched by the pattern.	Definitions for the form with the leading equal sign take  prece-
       dence  over the values defined for file types, which in turn take precedence over the form
       with the leading asterisk (file extensions).

       The leading-equals form also allows different parts of the displayed strings to be colored
       differently.   For  this,  the  pattern	has  to use the `(#b)' globbing flag and pairs of
       parentheses surrounding the parts of the strings that are to be colored	differently.   In
       this case the value may consist of more than one color code separated by equal signs.  The
       first code will be used for all parts for which no explicit code is specified and the fol-
       lowing  codes  will be used for the parts matched by the sub-patterns in parentheses.  For
       example, the specification `=(#b)(?)*(?)=0=3=7' will be used for all matches which are  at
       least  two  characters long and will use the code `3' for the first character, `7' for the
       last character and `0' for the rest.

       All three forms of name may be preceded by a pattern in parentheses.  If  this  is  given,
       the  value  will be used only for matches in groups whose names are matched by the pattern
       given in the parentheses.  For example, `(g*)m*=43' highlights all matches beginning  with
       `m' in groups whose names  begin with `g' using the color code `43'.  In case of the `lc',
       `rc', and `ec' codes, the group pattern is ignored.

       Note also that all patterns are tried in the order in which they appear in  the	parameter
       value until the first one matches which is then used.

       When printing a match, the code prints the value of lc, the value for the file-type or the
       last matching specification with a `*', the value of rc, the string  to	display  for  the
       match  itself, and then the value of ec if that is defined or the values of lc, no, and rc
       if ec is not defined.

       The default values are ISO 6429 (ANSI) compliant and can be used on vt100 compatible  ter-
       minals  such  as  xterms.  On monochrome terminals the default values will have no visible
       effect.	The colors function from the contribution can be used to get  associative  arrays
       containing  the	codes  for  ANSI  terminals (see the section `Other Functions' in zshcon-
       trib(1)).  For example, after loading colors, one could use `$colors[red]' to get the code
       for foreground color red and `$colors[bg-green]' for the code for background color green.

       If  the	completion system invoked by compinit is used, these parameters should not be set
       directly because the system controls them itself.  Instead, the list-colors  style  should
       be used (see the section `Completion System Configuration' in zshcompsys(1)).

   Scrolling in completion listings
       To  enable scrolling through a completion list, the LISTPROMPT parameter must be set.  Its
       value will be used as the prompt; if it is the empty string,  a	default  prompt  will  be
       used.   The  value  may	contain  escapes of the form `%x'.  It supports the escapes `%B',
       `%b', `%S', `%s', `%U', `%u', `%F', `%f', `%K', `%k' and  `%{...%}'  used  also	in  shell
       prompts	as well as three pairs of additional sequences: a `%l' or `%L' is replaced by the
       number of the last line shown and the total number of lines in the form `number/total';	a
       `%m'  or  `%M' is replaced with the number of the last match shown and the total number of
       matches; and `%p' or `%P' is replaced with `Top', `Bottom' or the position  of  the  first
       line  shown in percent of the total number of lines, respectively.  In each of these cases
       the form with the uppercase letter will be replaced with a string of fixed  width,  padded
       to the right with spaces, while the lowercase form will not be padded.

       If the parameter LISTPROMPT is set, the completion code will not ask if the list should be
       shown.  Instead it immediately starts  displaying  the  list,  stopping	after  the  first
       screenful,  showing  the  prompt  at  the bottom, waiting for a keypress after temporarily
       switching to the listscroll keymap.  Some of the zle  functions	have  a  special  meaning
       while scrolling lists:

       send-break
	      stops listing discarding the key pressed

       accept-line, down-history, down-line-or-history
       down-line-or-search, vi-down-line-or-history
	      scrolls forward one line

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-complete-or-expand
	      scrolls forward one screenful

       accept-search
	      stop listing but take no other action

       Every  other  character stops listing and immediately processes the key as usual.  Any key
       that is not bound in the listscroll keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is looked  up
       in the keymap currently selected.

       As  for	the  ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters, LISTPROMPT should not be set directly
       when using the shell function based completion system.	Instead,  the  list-prompt  style
       should be used.

   Menu selection
       The zsh/complist module also offers an alternative style of selecting matches from a list,
       called menu selection, which can be used if the shell is set up	to  return  to	the  last
       prompt  after  showing  a  completion  list  (see  the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option in zshop-
       tions(1)).

       Menu selection can be invoked directly by the widget menu-select defined by  this  module.
       This  is a standard ZLE widget that can be bound to a key in the usual way as described in
       zshzle(1).

       Alternatively, the parameter MENUSELECT can be set to an integer, which gives the  minimum
       number  of  matches that must be present before menu selection is automatically turned on.
       This second method requires that menu completion be started, either directly from a widget
       such  as menu-complete, or due to one of the options MENU_COMPLETE or AUTO_MENU being set.
       If MENUSELECT is set, but is 0, 1 or empty, menu selection will always be  started  during
       an ambiguous menu completion.

       When using the completion system based on shell functions, the MENUSELECT parameter should
       not be used (like the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters  described  above).	 Instead,
       the menu style should be used with the select=... keyword.

       After  menu  selection  is  started, the matches will be listed. If there are more matches
       than fit on the screen, only the first screenful is shown.  The matches to insert into the
       command	line  can be selected from this list.  In the list one match is highlighted using
       the value for ma from the ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS parameter.  The default value for this
       is  `7'	which  forces  the  selected  match  to  be  highlighted using standout mode on a
       vt100-compatible terminal.  If neither ZLS_COLORS nor ZLS_COLOURS is set, the same  termi-
       nal control sequence as for the `%S' escape in prompts is used.

       If  there are more matches than fit on the screen and the parameter MENUPROMPT is set, its
       value will be shown below the matches.  It supports the same  escape  sequences	as  LIST-
       PROMPT,	but  the number of the match or line shown will be that of the one where the mark
       is placed.  If its value is the empty string, a default prompt will be used.

       The MENUSCROLL parameter can be used to specify how the list is scrolled.  If the  parame-
       ter  is unset, this is done line by line, if it is set to `0' (zero), the list will scroll
       half the number of lines of the screen.	If the value is positive, it gives the number  of
       lines  to  scroll  and if it is negative, the list will be scrolled the number of lines of
       the screen minus the (absolute) value.

       As for the ZLS_COLORS, ZLS_COLOURS  and	LISTPROMPT  parameters,  neither  MENUPROMPT  nor
       MENUSCROLL  should  be set directly when using the shell function based completion system.
       Instead, the select-prompt and select-scroll styles should be used.

       The completion code sometimes decides not to show all of the matches in the  list.   These
       hidden  matches	are  either  matches  for  which the completion function which added them
       explicitly requested that they not appear in the list (using the -n option of the  compadd
       builtin command) or they are matches which duplicate a string already in the list (because
       they differ only in things like prefixes or suffixes that are not displayed).  In the list
       used  for  menu selection, however, even these matches are shown so that it is possible to
       select them.  To highlight such matches the hi and du capabilities in the  ZLS_COLORS  and
       ZLS_COLOURS  parameters	are  supported	for  hidden matches of the first and second kind,
       respectively.

       Selecting matches is done by moving the mark around  using  the	zle  movement  functions.
       When  not all matches can be shown on the screen at the same time, the list will scroll up
       and down when crossing the top or bottom line.  The following zle functions  have  special
       meaning	during	menu  selection.   Note  that  the following always perform the same task
       within the menu selection map and cannot be replaced by user defined widgets, nor can  the
       set of functions be extended:

       accept-line, accept-search
	      accept  the  current  match  and leave menu selection (but do not cause the command
	      line to be accepted)

       send-break
	      leaves menu selection and restores the previous contents of the command line

       redisplay, clear-screen
	      execute their normal function without leaving menu selection

       accept-and-hold, accept-and-menu-complete
	      accept the currently inserted match and continue selection allowing to  select  the
	      next match to insert into the line

       accept-and-infer-next-history
	      accepts  the current match and then tries completion with menu selection again;  in
	      the case of files this allows one to select a directory and immediately attempt  to
	      complete	files in it;  if there are no matches, a message is shown and one can use
	      undo to go back to completion on the previous level, every other	key  leaves  menu
	      selection  (including  the  other  zle functions which are otherwise special during
	      menu selection)

       undo   removes matches inserted during the menu selection by one of  the  three	functions
	      before

       down-history, down-line-or-history
       vi-down-line-or-history,  down-line-or-search
	      moves the mark one line down

       up-history, up-line-or-history
       vi-up-line-or-history, up-line-or-search
	      moves the mark one line up

       forward-char, vi-forward-char
	      moves the mark one column right

       backward-char, vi-backward-char
	      moves the mark one column left

       forward-word, vi-forward-word
       vi-forward-word-end, emacs-forward-word
	      moves the mark one screenful down

       backward-word, vi-backward-word, emacs-backward-word
	      moves the mark one screenful up

       vi-forward-blank-word, vi-forward-blank-word-end
	      moves the mark to the first line of the next group of matches

       vi-backward-blank-word
	      moves the mark to the last line of the previous group of matches

       beginning-of-history
	      moves the mark to the first line

       end-of-history
	      moves the mark to the last line

       beginning-of-buffer-or-history, beginning-of-line
       beginning-of-line-hist, vi-beginning-of-line
	      moves the mark to the leftmost column

       end-of-buffer-or-history, end-of-line
       end-of-line-hist, vi-end-of-line
	      moves the mark to the rightmost column

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-expand-or-complete
	      moves the mark to the next match

       reverse-menu-complete
	      moves the mark to the previous match

       vi-insert
	      this  toggles  between  normal  and  interactive mode; in interactive mode the keys
	      bound to self-insert and self-insert-unmeta insert into the command line as in nor-
	      mal  editing  mode but without leaving menu selection; after each character comple-
	      tion is tried again and the list changes to contain only the new matches; the  com-
	      pletion widgets make the longest unambiguous string be inserted in the command line
	      and undo and backward-delete-char go back to the previous set of matches

       history-incremental-search-forward
       history-incremental-search-backward
	      this starts incremental searches in the list  of	completions  displayed;  in  this
	      mode,  accept-line  only	leaves	incremental search, going back to the normal menu
	      selection mode

       All movement functions wrap around at the edges; any other zle function not listed  leaves
       menu  selection	and  executes that function.  It is possible to make widgets in the above
       list do the same by using the form of the widget with a `.' in front.   For  example,  the
       widget  `.accept-line'  has  the effect of leaving menu selection and accepting the entire
       command line.

       During this selection the widget uses the keymap menuselect.  Any key that is not  defined
       in  this  keymap  or  that  is bound to undefined-key is looked up in the keymap currently
       selected.  This is used to ensure that the  most  important  keys  used	during	selection
       (namely	the  cursor  keys, return, and TAB) have sensible defaults.  However, keys in the
       menuselect keymap can be modified directly using the bindkey builtin command (see  zshmod-
       ules(1)).  For  example, to make the return key leave menu selection without accepting the
       match currently selected one could call

	      bindkey -M menuselect '^M' send-break

       after loading the zsh/complist module.

THE ZSH/COMPUTIL MODULE
       The zsh/computil module adds several builtin commands that are used by some of the comple-
       tion  functions	in  the  completion system based on shell functions (see zshcompsys(1) ).
       Except for compquote these builtin commands are very specialised and thus not very  inter-
       esting  when  writing  your  own completion functions.  In summary, these builtin commands
       are:

       comparguments
	      This is used by the _arguments function to do the argument and command  line  pars-
	      ing.   Like  compdescribe it has an option -i to do the parsing and initialize some
	      internal state and various options to access the state information to  decide  what
	      should be completed.

       compdescribe
	      This is used by the _describe function to build the displays for the matches and to
	      get the strings to add as matches with their options.  On the first call one of the
	      options -i or -I should be supplied as the first argument.  In the first case, dis-
	      play strings without the descriptions will be generated, in the  second  case,  the
	      string  used  to	separate the matches from their descriptions must be given as the
	      second argument and the descriptions (if any) will be shown.  All  other	arguments
	      are like the definition arguments to _describe itself.

	      Once  compdescribe  has  been called with either the -i or the -I option, it can be
	      repeatedly called with the -g option and the names of five arrays as its arguments.
	      This  will  step through the different sets of matches and store the options in the
	      first array, the strings with descriptions in the second, the matches for these  in
	      the third, the strings without descriptions in the fourth, and the matches for them
	      in the fifth array.  These are then directly  given  to  compadd	to  register  the
	      matches with the completion code.

       compfiles
	      Used  by the _path_files function to optimize complex recursive filename generation
	      (globbing).  It does three things.  With the -p and -P options it builds	the  glob
	      patterns	to  use,  including  the paths already handled and trying to optimize the
	      patterns with respect to the prefix and suffix from the line and the match specifi-
	      cation  currently used.  The -i option does the directory tests for the ignore-par-
	      ents style and the -r option tests if a component for some of the matches are equal
	      to the string on the line and removes all other matches if that is true.

       compgroups
	      Used  by	the  _tags  function to implement the internals of the group-order style.
	      This only takes its arguments as names of completion groups and creates the  groups
	      for  it (all six types: sorted and unsorted, both without removing duplicates, with
	      removing all duplicates and with removing consecutive duplicates).

       compquote [ -p ] names ...
	      There may be reasons to write completion functions that have  to	add  the  matches
	      using  the  -Q option to compadd and perform quoting themselves.	Instead of inter-
	      preting the first character of the all_quotes key of the compstate special associa-
	      tion  and  using the q flag for parameter expansions, one can use this builtin com-
	      mand.  The arguments are the names of scalar or array parameters and the values  of
	      these  parameters  are quoted as needed for the innermost quoting level.	If the -p
	      option is given, quoting is done as if there is some prefix before  the  values  of
	      the parameters, so that a leading equal sign will not be quoted.

	      The return status is non-zero in case of an error and zero otherwise.

       comptags
       comptry
	      These implement the internals of the tags mechanism.

       compvalues
	      Like comparguments, but for the _values function.

THE ZSH/CURSES MODULE
       The zsh/curses module makes available one builtin command and various parameters.

   Builtin
       zcurses init
       zcurses end
       zcurses addwin targetwin nlines ncols begin_y begin_x [ parentwin ]
       zcurses delwin targetwin
       zcurses refresh [ targetwin ... ]
       zcurses touch targetwin ...
       zcurses move targetwin new_y new_x
       zcurses clear targetwin [ redraw | eol | bot ]
       zcurses position targetwin array
       zcurses char targetwin character
       zcurses string targetwin string
       zcurses border targetwin border
       zcurses attr targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col ] [...]
       zcurses bg targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col | @char ] [...]
       zcurses scroll targetwin [ on | off | {+/-}lines ]
       zcurses input targetwin [ param [ kparam [ mparam ] ] ]
       zcurses mouse [ delay num | {+/-}motion ]
       zcurses timeout targetwin intval
       zcurses querychar targetwin [ param ]
	      Manipulate  curses  windows.   All  uses	of  this  command  should be bracketed by
	      `zcurses init' to initialise use of curses, and `zcurses end' to end  it;  omitting
	      `zcurses end' can cause the terminal to be in an unwanted state.

	      The  subcommand  addwin  creates a window with nlines lines and ncols columns.  Its
	      upper left corner will be placed at row begin_y and column begin_x of  the  screen.
	      targetwin  is  a	string	and  refers to the name of a window that is not currently
	      assigned.  Note in particular the curses convention  that  vertical  values  appear
	      before horizontal values.

	      If addwin is given an existing window as the final argument, the new window is cre-
	      ated as a subwindow of parentwin.  This differs from an ordinary new window in that
	      the  memory  of the window contents is shared with the parent's memory.  Subwindows
	      must be deleted before their parent.  Note that the coordinates of  subwindows  are
	      relative to the screen, not the parent, as with other windows.

	      Use  the	subcommand  delwin to delete a window created with addwin.  Note that end
	      does not implicitly delete windows, and that delwin does not erase the screen image
	      of the window.

	      The  window  corresponding  to  the full visible screen is called stdscr; it always
	      exists after `zcurses init' and cannot be delete with delwin.

	      The subcommand refresh will refresh window targetwin; this is necessary to make any
	      pending changes (such as characters you have prepared for output with char) visible
	      on the screen.  refresh without an argument causes the screen  to  be  cleared  and
	      redrawn.	If multiple windows are given, the screen is updated once at the end.

	      The  subcommand  touch  marks  the targetwins listed as changed.	This is necessary
	      before refreshing windows if a window that was in front of  another  window  (which
	      may be stdscr) is deleted.

	      The subcommand move moves the cursor position in targetwin to new coordinates new_y
	      and new_x.  Note that the subcommand string (but not the subcommand char)  advances
	      the cursor position over the characters added.

	      The  subcommand clear erases the contents of targetwin.  One (and no more than one)
	      of three options may be specified.  With the option redraw, in  addition	the  next
	      refresh  of  targetwin will cause the screen to be cleared and repainted.  With the
	      option eol, targetwin is only cleared to the end of the current cursor line.   With
	      the  option  bot,  targetwin is cleared to the end of the window, i.e everything to
	      the right and below the cursor is cleared.

	      The subcommand position writes various positions associated with targetwin into the
	      array named array.  These are, in order:

	      The y and x coordinates of the cursor relative to the top left
		     of targetwin

	      The y and x coordinates of the top left of targetwin on the
		     screen

	      The size of targetwin in y and x dimensions.

	      Outputting characters and strings are achieved by char and string respectively.

	      To  draw a border around window targetwin, use border.  Note that the border is not
	      subsequently handled specially:  in other words, the border  is  simply  a  set  of
	      characters  output  at  the  edge  of the window.  Hence it can be overwritten, can
	      scroll off the window, etc.

	      The subcommand attr will set targetwin's attributes or foreground/background  color
	      pair  for any successive character output.  Each attribute given on the line may be
	      prepended by a + to set or a - to unset that attribute; +  is  assumed  if  absent.
	      The attributes supported are blink, bold, dim, reverse, standout, and underline.

	      Each fg_col/bg_col attribute (to be read as `fg_col on bg_col') sets the foreground
	      and background color for character output.  The color default is	sometimes  avail-
	      able  (in particular if the library is ncurses), specifying the foreground or back-
	      ground color with which the terminal started.  The color	pair  default/default  is
	      always available.

	      bg  overrides  the color and other attributes of all characters in the window.  Its
	      usual use is to set the background initially, but it will overwrite the  attributes
	      of  any  characters  at  the  time when it is called.  In addition to the arguments
	      allowed with attr, an argument @char specifies a character to be shown in otherwise
	      blank  areas of the window.  Owing to limitations of curses this cannot be a multi-
	      byte character (use of ASCII characters only is recommended).  As the specified set
	      of attributes override the existing background, turning attributes off in the argu-
	      ments is not useful, though this does not cause an error.

	      The subcommand scroll can be used with on or off to enabled or disable scrolling of
	      a  window  when  the  cursor would otherwise move below the window due to typing or
	      output.  It can also be used with a positive or negative integer to scroll the win-
	      dow  up or down the given number of lines without changing the current cursor posi-
	      tion (which therefore appears to move in the opposite  direction	relative  to  the
	      window).	 In  the  second case, if scrolling is off it is temporarily turned on to
	      allow the window to be scrolled.

	      The subcommand input reads a single character from the window  without  echoing  it
	      back.   If param is supplied the character is assigned to the parameter param, else
	      it is assigned to the parameter REPLY.

	      If both param and kparam are supplied, the key is read in `keypad' mode.	 In  this
	      mode  special  keys such as function keys and arrow keys return the name of the key
	      in the parameter kparam.	The key names are the macros defined in the  curses.h  or
	      ncurses.h with the prefix `KEY_' removed; see also the description of the parameter
	      zcurses_keycodes below.  Other keys cause a value to be set in param as before.  On
	      a  successful  return  only one of param or kparam contains a non-empty string; the
	      other is set to an empty string.

	      If mparam is also supplied, input attempts to handle mouse  input.   This  is  only
	      available  with the ncurses library; mouse handling can be detected by checking for
	      the exit status of `zcurses mouse' with no arguments.  If a mouse button is clicked
	      (or  double-  or	triple-clicked,  or pressed or released with a configurable delay
	      from being clicked) then kparam is set to the string MOUSE, and mparam is set to an
	      array consisting of the following elements:
	      -      An  identifier  to discriminate different input devices; this is only rarely
		     useful.
	      -      The x, y and z coordinates of the mouse click relative to the  full  screen,
		     as  three elements in that order (i.e. the y coordinate is, unusually, after
		     the x coordinate).  The z coordinate is only available  for  a  few  unusual
		     input devices and is otherwise set to zero.
	      -      Any  events that occurred as separate items; usually there will be just one.
		     An  event	consists  of  PRESSED,	RELEASED,  CLICKED,   DOUBLE_CLICKED   or
		     TRIPLE_CLICKED  followed  immediately (in the same element) by the number of
		     the button.
	      -      If the shift key was pressed, the string SHIFT.
	      -      If the control key was pressed, the string CTRL.
	      -      If the alt key was pressed, the string ALT.

	      Not all mouse events may be passed through to the terminal  window;  most  terminal
	      emulators  handle  some  mouse  events  themselves.   Note  that the ncurses manual
	      implies that using input both with and without mouse handling may cause  the  mouse
	      cursor to appear and disappear.

	      The  subcommand  mouse  can be used to configure the use of the mouse.  There is no
	      window argument; mouse options are  global.   `zcurses  mouse'  with  no	arguments
	      returns status 0 if mouse handling is possible, else status 1.  Otherwise, the pos-
	      sible arguments (which may be combined on the same command line)	are  as  follows.
	      delay  num  sets the maximum delay in milliseconds between press and release events
	      to be considered as a click; the value 0 disables click resolution, and the default
	      is  one  sixth of a second.  motion proceeded by an optional `+' (the default) or -
	      turns on or off reporting of mouse  motion  in  addition	to  clicks,  presses  and
	      releases,  which are always reported.  However, it appears reports for mouse motion
	      are not currently implemented.

	      The subcommand timeout specifies a timeout value for input from targetwin.  If int-
	      val  is  negative,  `zcurses input' waits indefinitely for a character to be typed;
	      this is the default.  If intval is zero, `zcurses input'	returns  immediately;  if
	      there  is typeahead it is returned, else no input is done and status 1 is returned.
	      If intval is positive, `zcurses input' waits intval milliseconds for input  and  if
	      there is none at the end of that period returns status 1.

	      The subcommand querychar queries the character at the current cursor position.  The
	      return values are stored in the array named param if supplied, else  in  the  array
	      reply.  The first value is the character (which may be a multibyte character if the
	      system supports them); the second is the color  pair  in	the  usual  fg_col/bg_col
	      notation,  or  0	if  color is not supported.  Any attributes other than color that
	      apply to the character, as set with the subcommand attr, appear as additional  ele-
	      ments.

   Parameters
       ZCURSES_COLORS
	      Readonly	integer.  The maximum number of colors the terminal supports.  This value
	      is initialised by the curses library and is not  available  until  the  first  time
	      zcurses init is run.

       ZCURSES_COLOR_PAIRS
	      Readonly	integer.   The	maximum  number  of color pairs fg_col/bg_col that may be
	      defined in `zcurses attr' commands; note this limit applies to all color pairs that
	      have been used whether or not they are currently active.	This value is initialised
	      by the curses library and is not available until the first  time	zcurses  init  is
	      run.

       zcurses_attrs
	      Readonly	array.	 The attributes supported by zsh/curses; available as soon as the
	      module is loaded.

       zcurses_colors
	      Readonly array.  The colors supported by zsh/curses; available as soon as the  mod-
	      ule is loaded.

       zcurses_keycodes
	      Readonly	array.	 The values that may be returned in the second parameter supplied
	      to `zcurses input' in the order in which they are  defined  internally  by  curses.
	      Not all function keys are listed, only F0; curses reserves space for F0 up to F63.

       zcurses_windows
	      Readonly	array.	The current list of windows, i.e. all windows that have been cre-
	      ated with `zcurses addwin' and not removed with `zcurses delwin'.

THE ZSH/DATETIME MODULE
       The zsh/datetime module makes available one builtin command:

       strftime [ -s scalar ] format epochtime
       strftime -r [ -q ] [ -s scalar ] format timestring
	      Output the date denoted by epochtime in the format specified.

	      With the option -r (reverse), use the format  format  to	parse  the  input  string
	      timestring  and  output  the  number  of	seconds since the epoch at which the time
	      occurred.  If no timezone is parsed, the current timezone is used; other parameters
	      are  set	to  zero if not present.  If timestring does not match format the command
	      returns status 1; it will additionally print an error message unless the option  -q
	      (quiet)  is  given.   If	timestring  matches  format  but  not  all  characters in
	      timestring were used, the conversion succeeds; however, a warning is issued  unless
	      the  option  -q is given.  The matching is implemented by the system function strp-
	      time; see strptime(3).  This means that zsh format extensions  are  not  available,
	      however  for  reverse  lookup they are not required.  If the function is not imple-
	      mented, the command returns status 2 and (unless -q is given) prints a message.

	      If -s scalar is given, assign the date string (or epoch time in seconds  if  -r  is
	      given) to scalar instead of printing it.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available several parameters; all are readonly:

       EPOCHREALTIME
	      A  floating  point  value  representing the number of seconds since the epoch.  The
	      notional accuracy is to nanoseconds if the clock_gettime call is available  and  to
	      microseconds  otherwise,	but  in  practice  the range of double precision floating
	      point and shell scheduling latencies may be significant effects.

       EPOCHSECONDS
	      An integer value representing the number of seconds since the epoch.

       epochtime
	      An array value containing the number of seconds since the epoch in the  first  ele-
	      ment  and  the  remainder  of the time since the epoch in nanoseconds in the second
	      element.	To ensure the two elements are consistent the array should be  copied  or
	      otherwise referenced as a single substitution before the values are used.  The fol-
	      lowing idiom may be used:

		     for secs nsecs in $epochtime; do
		       ...
		     done

THE ZSH/DELTOCHAR MODULE
       The zsh/deltochar module makes available two ZLE functions:

       delete-to-char
	      Read a character from the keyboard, and delete from the cursor position up  to  and
	      including  the  next (or, with repeat count n, the nth) instance of that character.
	      Negative repeat counts mean delete backwards.

       zap-to-char
	      This behaves like delete-to-char, except that the final occurrence of the character
	      itself is not deleted.

THE ZSH/EXAMPLE MODULE
       The zsh/example module makes available one builtin command:

       example [ -flags ] [ args ... ]
	      Displays the flags and arguments it is invoked with.

       The purpose of the module is to serve as an example of how to write a module.

THE ZSH/FILES MODULE
       The  zsh/files  module  makes  available  some  common  commands  for file manipulation as
       builtins; these commands are probably not needed for many normal  situations  but  can  be
       useful  in  emergency recovery situations with constrained resources.  The commands do not
       implement all features now required by relevant standards committees.

       For all commands, a variant beginning zf_ is  also  available  and  loaded  automatically.
       Using the features capability of zmodload will let you load only those names you want.

       The commands loaded by default are:

       chgrp [ -hRs ] group filename ...
	      Changes  group  of  files  specified.  This is equivalent to chown with a user-spec
	      argument of `:group'.

       chown [ -hRs ] user-spec filename ...
	      Changes ownership and group of files specified.

	      The user-spec can be in four forms:

	      user   change owner to user; do not change group
	      user:: change owner to user; do not change group
	      user:  change owner to user; change group to user's primary group
	      user:group
		     change owner to user; change group to group
	      :group do not change owner; change group to group

	      In each case, the `:' may instead be a `.'.  The rule is that if	there  is  a  `:'
	      then  the  separator is `:', otherwise if there is a `.' then the separator is `.',
	      otherwise there is no separator.

	      Each of user and group may be either a username (or group name, as appropriate)  or
	      a  decimal user ID (group ID).  Interpretation as a name takes precedence, if there
	      is an all-numeric username (or group name).

	      If the target is a symbolic link, the -h option causes chown to set  the	ownership
	      of the link instead of its target.

	      The  -R  option  causes chown to recursively descend into directories, changing the
	      ownership of all files in the directory after changing the ownership of the  direc-
	      tory itself.

	      The  -s  option is a zsh extension to chown functionality.  It enables paranoid be-
	      haviour, intended to avoid security problems involving a chown being  tricked  into
	      affecting  files	other  than the ones intended.	It will refuse to follow symbolic
	      links, so that (for example) ``chown  luser  /tmp/foo/passwd''  can't  accidentally
	      chown  /etc/passwd  if  /tmp/foo	happens to be a link to /etc.  It will also check
	      where it is after leaving directories, so that a recursive chown of a  deep  direc-
	      tory  tree  can't end up recursively chowning /usr as a result of directories being
	      moved up the tree.

       ln [ -dfhins ] filename dest
       ln [ -dfhins ] filename ... dir
	      Creates hard (or, with -s, symbolic) links.  In the first form, the specified  des-
	      tination is created, as a link to the specified filename.  In the second form, each
	      of the filenames is taken in turn, and linked to a pathname in the specified direc-
	      tory that has the same last pathname component.

	      Normally,  ln will not attempt to create hard links to directories.  This check can
	      be overridden using the -d option.  Typically only the super-user can actually suc-
	      ceed  in creating hard links to directories.  This does not apply to symbolic links
	      in any case.

	      By default, existing files cannot be replaced by links.  The -i option  causes  the
	      user  to	be queried about replacing existing files.  The -f option causes existing
	      files to be silently deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

	      The -h and -n options are identical and both exist for  compatibility;  either  one
	      indicates that if the target is a symlink then it should not be dereferenced.  Typ-
	      ically this is used in combination with -sf so that if an existing link points to a
	      directory  then  it  will  be removed, instead of followed.  If this option is used
	      with multiple filenames and the target is a symbolic link pointing to  a	directory
	      then the result is an error.

       mkdir [ -p ] [ -m mode ] dir ...
	      Creates directories.  With the -p option, non-existing parent directories are first
	      created if necessary, and there will be  no  complaint  if  the  directory  already
	      exists.	The -m option can be used to specify (in octal) a set of file permissions
	      for the created directories, otherwise mode 777 modified by the current umask  (see
	      umask(2)) is used.

       mv [ -fi ] filename dest
       mv [ -fi ] filename ... dir
	      Moves  files.   In the first form, the specified filename is moved to the specified
	      destination.  In the second form, each of the filenames is taken in turn, and moved
	      to a pathname in the specified directory that has the same last pathname component.

	      By default, the user will be queried before replacing any file that the user cannot
	      write to, but writable files will be silently removed.  The -i  option  causes  the
	      user  to	be  queried about replacing any existing files.  The -f option causes any
	      existing files to be silently deleted, without querying.	-f takes precedence.

	      Note that this mv will not move files across devices.  Historical versions  of  mv,
	      when  actual  renaming  is  impossible, fall back on copying and removing files; if
	      this behaviour is desired, use cp and rm manually.  This may  change  in	a  future
	      version.

       rm [ -dfirs ] filename ...
	      Removes files and directories specified.

	      Normally,  rm  will  not	remove	directories  (except with the -r option).  The -d
	      option causes rm to try removing directories with unlink (see unlink(2)), the  same
	      method  used  for  files.   Typically  only  the super-user can actually succeed in
	      unlinking directories in this way.  -d takes precedence over -r.

	      By default, the user will be queried before removing any file that the user  cannot
	      write  to,  but  writable files will be silently removed.  The -i option causes the
	      user to be queried about removing any files.  The -f  option  causes  files  to  be
	      silently deleted, without querying, and suppresses all error indications.  -f takes
	      precedence.

	      The -r option causes rm to recursively descend into directories, deleting all files
	      in  the  directory  before  removing  the directory with the rmdir system call (see
	      rmdir(2)).

	      The -s option is a zsh extension to rm functionality.  It enables  paranoid  behav-
	      iour,  intended  to  avoid  common  security problems involving a root-run rm being
	      tricked into removing files other than the ones intended.  It will refuse to follow
	      symbolic	links,	so  that  (for example) ``rm /tmp/foo/passwd'' can't accidentally
	      remove /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a link to /etc.  It	will  also  check
	      where it is after leaving directories, so that a recursive removal of a deep direc-
	      tory tree can't end up recursively removing /usr as a result of  directories  being
	      moved up the tree.

       rmdir dir ...
	      Removes empty directories specified.

       sync   Calls  the  system call of the same name (see sync(2)), which flushes dirty buffers
	      to disk.	It might return before the I/O has actually been completed.

THE ZSH/LANGINFO MODULE
       The zsh/langinfo module makes available one parameter:

       langinfo
	      An associative array that maps langinfo elements to their values.

	      Your implementation may support a number of the following keys:

	      CODESET, D_T_FMT, D_FMT, T_FMT,  RADIXCHAR,  THOUSEP,  YESEXPR,  NOEXPR,	CRNCYSTR,
	      ABDAY_{1..7},  DAY_{1..7},  ABMON_{1..12}, MON_{1..12}, T_FMT_AMPM, AM_STR, PM_STR,
	      ERA, ERA_D_FMT, ERA_D_T_FMT, ERA_T_FMT, ALT_DIGITS

THE ZSH/MAPFILE MODULE
       The zsh/mapfile module provides one special associative array parameter of the same name.

       mapfile
	      This associative array takes as keys the names of files; the resulting value is the
	      content  of  the	file.	The value is treated identically to any other text coming
	      from a parameter.  The value may also be assigned to, in which  case  the  file  in
	      question	is  written  (whether or not it originally existed); or an element may be
	      unset,  which  will  delete  the	file  in  question.   For  example,  `vared  map-
	      file[myfile]' works as expected, editing the file `myfile'.

	      When  the array is accessed as a whole, the keys are the names of files in the cur-
	      rent directory, and the values are empty (to save a huge overhead in memory).  Thus
	      ${(k)mapfile}  has the same affect as the glob operator *(D), since files beginning
	      with a dot are not special.  Care  must  be  taken  with	expressions  such  as  rm
	      ${(k)mapfile},  which  will  delete every file in the current directory without the
	      usual `rm *' test.

	      The parameter mapfile may be made read-only; in that case, files referenced may not
	      be written or deleted.

	      A file may conveniently be read into an array as one line per element with the form
	      `array=("${(f)mapfile[filename]}")'.  The double quotes are  necessary  to  prevent
	      empty lines from being removed.

   Limitations
       Although  reading and writing of the file in question is efficiently handled, zsh's inter-
       nal memory management may be arbitrarily baroque; however, mapfile is  usually  very  much
       more efficient than anything involving a loop.  Note in particular that the whole contents
       of the file will always reside physically  in  memory  when  accessed  (possibly  multiple
       times, due to standard parameter substitution operations).  In particular, this means han-
       dling of sufficiently long files (greater than the machine's swap space, or than the range
       of the pointer type) will be incorrect.

       No errors are printed or flagged for non-existent, unreadable, or unwritable files, as the
       parameter mechanism is too low in the shell execution hierarchy to make this convenient.

       It is unfortunate that the mechanism for loading modules does not yet allow  the  user  to
       specify the name of the shell parameter to be given the special behaviour.

THE ZSH/MATHFUNC MODULE
       The  zsh/mathfunc  module provides standard mathematical functions for use when evaluating
       mathematical formulae.  The syntax agrees with normal C and FORTRAN conventions, for exam-
       ple,

	      (( f = sin(0.3) ))

       assigns the sine of 0.3 to the parameter f.

       Most  functions take floating point arguments and return a floating point value.  However,
       any necessary conversions from or to integer type will be performed automatically  by  the
       shell.	Apart  from atan with a second argument and the abs, int and float functions, all
       functions behave as noted in the manual page for the corresponding C function, except that
       any  arguments out of range for the function in question will be detected by the shell and
       an error reported.

       The following functions take a single floating point argument: acos, acosh,  asin,  asinh,
       atan,  atanh,  cbrt,  ceil,  cos, cosh, erf, erfc, exp, expm1, fabs, floor, gamma, j0, j1,
       lgamma, log, log10, log1p, logb, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh, y0, y1.   The  atan  function
       can optionally take a second argument, in which case it behaves like the C function atan2.
       The ilogb function takes a single floating point argument, but returns an integer.

       The function signgam takes no arguments, and returns an integer, which is the  C  variable
       of the same name, as described in gamma(3).  Note that it is therefore only useful immedi-
       ately after a call to gamma or lgamma.  Note also that `signgam(RPAR'  and  `signgam'  are
       distinct expressions.

       The  following  functions  take	two  floating  point  arguments:  copysign,  fmod, hypot,
       nextafter.

       The following take an integer first argument and a floating point second argument: jn, yn.

       The following take a floating point first argument and an integer second argument:  ldexp,
       scalb.

       The function abs does not convert the type of its single argument; it returns the absolute
       value of either a floating point number or an integer.  The functions float and	int  con-
       vert their arguments into a floating point or integer value (by truncation) respectively.

       Note that the C pow function is available in ordinary math evaluation as the `**' operator
       and is not provided here.

       The function rand48 is available if your system's mathematical library  has  the  function
       erand48(3).  It returns a pseudo-random floating point number between 0 and 1.  It takes a
       single string optional argument.

       If the argument is not present, the random number seed is initialised by  three	calls  to
       the rand(3) function --- this produces the same random numbers as the next three values of
       $RANDOM.

       If the argument is present, it gives the name of a scalar parameter where the current ran-
       dom number seed will be stored.	On the first call, the value must contain at least twelve
       hexadecimal digits (the remainder of the string is ignored), or	the  seed  will  be  ini-
       tialised in the same manner as for a call to rand48 with no argument.  Subsequent calls to
       rand48(param) will then maintain the seed in the parameter param as  a  string  of  twelve
       hexadecimal  digits,  with  no  base signifier.	The random number sequences for different
       parameters are completely independent, and are also independent from that used by calls to
       rand48 with no argument.

       For example, consider

	      print $(( rand48(seed) ))
	      print $(( rand48() ))
	      print $(( rand48(seed) ))

       Assuming  $seed	does  not exist, it will be initialised by the first call.  In the second
       call, the default seed is initialised; note, however, that because of  the  properties  of
       rand()  there  is a correlation between the seeds used for the two initialisations, so for
       more secure uses, you should generate your own 12-byte seed.  The third	call  returns  to
       the  same sequence of random numbers used in the first call, unaffected by the intervening
       rand48().

THE ZSH/NEWUSER MODULE
       The zsh/newuser module is loaded at boot if it is available, the RCS option  is	set,  and
       the  PRIVILEGED option is not set (all three are true by default).  This takes place imme-
       diately after commands in the global zshenv file (typically  /etc/zshenv),  if  any,  have
       been  executed.	 If  the module is not available it is silently ignored by the shell; the
       module may safely be removed from $MODULE_PATH by the administrator if it is not required.

       On loading, the module tests if any of the start-up files .zshenv,  .zprofile,  .zshrc  or
       .zlogin	exist  in  the directory given by the environment variable ZDOTDIR, or the user's
       home directory if that is not set.  The test is not performed and the  module  halts  pro-
       cessing	if  the shell was in an emulation mode (i.e. had been invoked as some other shell
       than zsh).

       If none of the start-up files were found, the module then looks for the file newuser first
       in a sitewide directory, usually the parent directory of the site-functions directory, and
       if that is not found the module searches in a version-specific directory, usually the par-
       ent  of the functions directory containing version-specific functions.  (These directories
       can  be	configured  when  zsh  is  built  using   the	--enable-site-scriptdir=dir   and
       --enable-scriptdir=dir flags to configure, respectively; the defaults are prefix/share/zsh
       and prefix/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION where the default prefix is /usr/local.)

       If the file newuser is found, it is then sourced in the same manner as  a  start-up  file.
       The  file  is expected to contain code to install start-up files for the user, however any
       valid shell code will be executed.

       The zsh/newuser module is then unconditionally unloaded.

       Note that it is possible to achieve exactly the same effect as the zsh/newuser  module  by
       adding  code to /etc/zshenv.  The module exists simply to allow the shell to make arrange-
       ments for new users without the need for intervention by package  maintainers  and  system
       administrators.

       The  script supplied with the module invokes the shell function zsh-newuser-install.  This
       may be invoked directly by the user even if the zsh/newuser  module  is	disabled.   Note,
       however,  that  if  the module is not installed the function will not be installed either.
       The function is documented in the section User Configuration Functions in zshcontrib(1).

THE ZSH/PARAMETER MODULE
       The zsh/parameter module gives access to some of the internal  hash  tables  used  by  the
       shell by defining some special parameters.

       options
	      The  keys  for  this associative array are the names of the options that can be set
	      and unset using the setopt and unsetopt builtins. The value of each key  is  either
	      the  string  on  if the option is currently set, or the string off if the option is
	      unset.  Setting a key to one of these strings is	like  setting  or  unsetting  the
	      option, respectively. Unsetting a key in this array is like setting it to the value
	      off.

       commands
	      This array gives access to the command hash table. The keys are the names of exter-
	      nal commands, the values are the pathnames of the files that would be executed when
	      the command would be invoked. Setting a key in this array defines a  new	entry  in
	      this  table  in the same way as with the hash builtin. Unsetting a key as in `unset
	      "commands[foo]"' removes the entry for the given key from the command hash table.

       functions
	      This associative array maps names of enabled functions to their  definitions.  Set-
	      ting a key in it is like defining a function with the name given by the key and the
	      body given by the value. Unsetting a key removes the definition  for  the  function
	      named by the key.

       dis_functions
	      Like functions but for disabled functions.

       builtins
	      This  associative  array	gives  information  about  the builtin commands currently
	      enabled. The keys are the names of the builtin commands and the values  are  either
	      `undefined' for builtin commands that will automatically be loaded from a module if
	      invoked or `defined' for builtin commands that are already loaded.

       dis_builtins
	      Like builtins but for disabled builtin commands.

       reswords
	      This array contains the enabled reserved words.

       dis_reswords
	      Like reswords but for disabled reserved words.

       aliases
	      This maps the names of the regular aliases currently enabled to their expansions.

       dis_aliases
	      Like aliases but for disabled regular aliases.

       galiases
	      Like aliases, but for global aliases.

       dis_galiases
	      Like galiases but for disabled global aliases.

       saliases
	      Like raliases, but for suffix aliases.

       dis_saliases
	      Like saliases but for disabled suffix aliases.

       parameters
	      The keys in this associative array  are  the  names  of  the  parameters	currently
	      defined.	The  values are strings describing the type of the parameter, in the same
	      format used by the t parameter flag, see zshexpn(1) .  Setting or unsetting keys in
	      this array is not possible.

       modules
	      An  associative  array  giving information about modules. The keys are the names of
	      the modules loaded, registered to be autoloaded, or aliased. The value  says  which
	      state  the  named module is in and is one of the strings `loaded', `autoloaded', or
	      `alias:name', where name is the name the module is aliased to.

	      Setting or unsetting keys in this array is not possible.

       dirstack
	      A normal array holding the elements of the directory stack. Note that the output of
	      the  dirs  builtin  command includes one more directory, the current working direc-
	      tory.

       history
	      This associative array maps history event numbers to the full history lines.

       historywords
	      A special array containing the words stored in the history.

       jobdirs
	      This associative array maps job numbers to the directories from which the  job  was
	      started (which may not be the current directory of the job).

	      The keys of the associative arrays are usually valid job numbers, and these are the
	      values output with, for example, ${(k)jobdirs}.  Non-numeric job references may  be
	      used  when  looking  up  a value; for example, ${jobdirs[%+]} refers to the current
	      job.

       jobtexts
	      This associative array maps job numbers to the texts of the command lines that were
	      used to start the jobs.

	      Handling of the keys of the associative array is as described for jobdirs above.

       jobstates
	      This  associative  array	gives  information about the states of the jobs currently
	      known. The keys are the job  numbers  and  the  values  are  strings  of	the  form
	      `job-state:mark:pid=state...'.  The job-state gives the state the whole job is cur-
	      rently in, one of `running', `suspended', or `done'. The mark is `+' for	the  cur-
	      rent  job,  `-'  for  the previous job and empty otherwise. This is followed by one
	      `pid=state' for every process in the job. The pids are, of course, the process  IDs
	      and the state describes the state of that process.

	      Handling of the keys of the associative array is as described for jobdirs above.

       nameddirs
	      This  associative  array	maps the names of named directories to the pathnames they
	      stand for.

       userdirs
	      This associative array maps user names to the pathnames of their home directories.

       usergroups
	      This associative array maps names of system groups of which the current user  is	a
	      member  to  the  corresponding group identifiers.  The contents are the same as the
	      groups output by the id command.

       funcfiletrace
	      This array contains the absolute line numbers and corresponding file names for  the
	      point  where  the  current  function, sourced file, or (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval
	      command was called.  The array is of the same length as funcsourcetrace  and  func-
	      trace,  but differs from funcsourcetrace in that the line and file are the point of
	      call, not the point of definition, and differs from functrace in	that  all  values
	      are  absolute  line  numbers in files, rather than relative to the start of a func-
	      tion, if any.

       funcsourcetrace
	      This array contains the file names and line numbers of the points where  the  func-
	      tions,  sourced  files,  and  (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval commands currently being
	      executed were defined.  The line number is the line where the  `function	name'  or
	      `name  ()'  started.   In  the  case  of an autoloaded function  the line number is
	      reported as zero.  The format of each element is	filename:lineno.   For	functions
	      autoloaded  from	a  file in native zsh format, where only the body of the function
	      occurs in the file, or for files that have been  executed  by  the  source  or  `.'
	      builtins,  the  trace  information is shown as filename:0, since the entire file is
	      the definition.

	      Most users will be  interested  in  the  information  in	the  funcfiletrace  array
	      instead.

       funcstack
	      This  array contains the names of the functions, sourced files, and (if EVAL_LINENO
	      is set) eval commands. currently being executed. The first element is the  name  of
	      the function using the parameter.

       functrace
	      This  array contains the names and line numbers of the callers corresponding to the
	      functions currently being executed.  The format of  each	element  is  name:lineno.
	      Callers  are also shown for sourced files; the caller is the point where the source
	      or `.' command was executed.

THE ZSH/PCRE MODULE
       The zsh/pcre module makes some commands available as builtins:

       pcre_compile [ -aimxs ] PCRE
	      Compiles a perl-compatible regular expression.

	      Option -a will force the	pattern  to  be  anchored.   Option  -i  will  compile	a
	      case-insensitive	pattern.  Option -m will compile a multi-line pattern; that is, ^
	      and $ will match newlines within the pattern.  Option -x will compile  an  extended
	      pattern,	wherein  whitespace  and # comments are ignored.  Option -s makes the dot
	      metacharacter match all characters, including those that indicate newline.

       pcre_study
	      Studies the previously-compiled PCRE which may result in faster matching.

       pcre_match [ -v var ] [ -a arr ] [ -n offset ] [ -b ] string
	      Returns successfully if string matches the previously-compiled PCRE.

	      Upon successful match, if the expression captures  substrings  within  parentheses,
	      pcre_match  will	set the array $match to those substrings, unless the -a option is
	      given, in which case it will set the array arr.  Similarly, the variable MATCH will
	      be  set to the entire matched portion of the string, unless the -v option is given,
	      in which case the variable var will be set.  No variables are altered if	there  is
	      no successful match.  A -n option starts searching for a match from the byte offset
	      position in string.  If the -b option is given, the variable ZPCRE_OP will  be  set
	      to  an  offset  pair  string,  representing the byte offset positions of the entire
	      matched portion within the string.  For example, a ZPCRE_OP set to  "32  45"  indi-
	      cates that the matched portion began on byte offset 32 and ended on byte offset 44.
	      Here, byte offset position 45 is the position directly after the	matched  portion.
	      Keep  in	mind  that  the byte position isn't necessarily the same as the character
	      position when UTF-8 characters are involved.  Consequently, the byte  offset  posi-
	      tions are only to be relied on in the context of using them for subsequent searches
	      on string, using an offset position as an argument  to  the  -n  option.	 This  is
	      mostly used to implement the "find all non-overlapping matches" functionality.

	      A simple example of "find all non-overlapping matches":

		     string="The following zip codes: 78884 90210 99513"
		     pcre_compile -m "\d{5}"
		     accum=()
		     pcre_match -b -- $string
		     while [[ $? -eq 0 ]] do
			 b=($=ZPCRE_OP)
			 accum+=$MATCH
			 pcre_match -b -n $b[2] -- $string
		     done
		     print -l $accum

       The zsh/pcre module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -pcre-match pcre
	      Matches a string against a perl-compatible regular expression.

	      For example,

	      [[ "$text" -pcre-match ^d+$ ]] && print text variable contains only "d's".

THE ZSH/REGEX MODULE
       The zsh/regex module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -regex-match regex
	      Matches a string against a POSIX extended regular expression.  On successful match,
	      matched portion of the string will normally be placed in the  MATCH  variable.   If
	      there are any capturing parentheses within the regex, then the match array variable
	      will contain those.  If the match is not successful, then the variables will not be
	      altered.

	      For example,

		     [[ alphabetical -regex-match ^a([^a]+)a([^a]+)a ]] &&
		     print -l $MATCH X $match

	      If the option REMATCH_PCRE is not set, then the =~ operator will automatically load
	      this module as needed and will invoke the -regex-match operator.

	      If BASH_REMATCH is set, then the array BASH_REMATCH will be set  instead	of  MATCH
	      and match.

THE ZSH/SCHED MODULE
       The zsh/sched module makes available one builtin command and one parameter.

       sched [-o] [+]hh:mm[:ss] command ...
       sched [-o] [+]seconds command ...
       sched [ -item ]
	      Make an entry in the scheduled list of commands to execute.  The time may be speci-
	      fied in either absolute or relative time, and either as hours, minutes and (option-
	      ally)  seconds  separated by a colon, or seconds alone.  An absolute number of sec-
	      onds indicates the time since the epoch (1970/01/01 00:00); this is useful in  com-
	      bination	with the features in the zsh/datetime module, see the zsh/datetime module
	      entry in zshmodules(1).

	      With no arguments, prints the list of scheduled commands.  If the scheduled command
	      has the -o flag set, this is shown at the start of the command.

	      With  the argument `-item', removes the given item from the list.  The numbering of
	      the list is continuous and entries are in time order, so the numbering  can  change
	      when entries are added or deleted.

	      Commands are executed either immediately before a prompt, or while the shell's line
	      editor is waiting for input.  In the latter case it is useful to be able to produce
	      output that does not interfere with the line being edited.  Providing the option -o
	      causes the shell to clear the command line before the event and  redraw  it  after-
	      wards.   This  should be used with any scheduled event that produces visible output
	      to the terminal; it is not needed, for example, with output that updates a terminal
	      emulator's title bar.

	      The  sched builtin is not made available by default when the shell starts in a mode
	      emulating another shell.	It can be made available with the  command  `zmodload  -F
	      zsh/sched b:sched'.

       zsh_scheduled_events
	      A  readonly  array corresponding to the events scheduled by the sched builtin.  The
	      indices of the array correspond to the numbers shown when  sched	is  run  with  no
	      arguments (provided that the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set).  The value of the array
	      consists of the scheduled time in seconds since the epoch  (see  the  section  `The
	      zsh/datetime  Module'  for  facilities for using this number), followed by a colon,
	      followed by any options (which may be empty but will be preceded by  a  `-'  other-
	      wise), followed by a colon, followed by the command to be executed.

	      The  sched builtin should be used for manipulating the events.  Note that this will
	      have an immediate effect on the contents of the array, so that indices  may  become
	      invalid.

THE ZSH/NET/SOCKET MODULE
       The zsh/net/socket module makes available one builtin command:

       zsocket [ -altv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
	      zsocket  is  implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell command line edit-
	      ing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

   Outbound Connections
       zsocket [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
	      Open a new Unix domain connection to filename.  The shell parameter REPLY  will  be
	      set to the file descriptor associated with that connection.  Currently, only stream
	      connections are supported.

	      If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target  file  descriptor  for
	      the connection.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       zsocket -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
	      zsocket  -l  will  open  a socket listening on filename.	The shell parameter REPLY
	      will be set to the file descriptor associated with that listener.

	      If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target  file  descriptor  for
	      the connection.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       zsocket -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
	      zsocket  -a  will  accept an incoming connection to the socket associated with lis-
	      tenfd.  The shell parameter REPLY will be set to	the  file  descriptor  associated
	      with the inbound connection.

	      If  -d  is  specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for
	      the connection.

	      If -t is specified, zsocket will return if no incoming connection is pending.  Oth-
	      erwise it will wait for one.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

THE ZSH/STAT MODULE
       The zsh/stat module makes available one builtin command under two possible names:

       zstat  [  -gnNolLtTrs  ] [ -f fd ] [ -H hash ] [ -A array ] [ -F fmt ] [ +element ] [ file
       ... ]
       stat ...
	      The command acts as a front end to the stat system call (see  stat(2)).	The  same
	      command  is  provided with two names; as the name stat is often used by an external
	      command it is recommended that only the zstat form of the command  is  used.   This
	      can  be  arranged  by  loading  the  module  with the command `zmodload -F zsh/stat
	      b:zstat'.

	      If the stat call fails, the appropriate system error message printed and	status	1
	      is  returned.   The fields of struct stat give information about the files provided
	      as arguments to the command.  In addition to those available from the stat call, an
	      extra element `link' is provided.  These elements are:

	      device The number of the device on which the file resides.

	      inode  The unique number of the file on this device (`inode' number).

	      mode   The mode of the file; that is, the file's type and access permissions.  With
		     the -s option, this will be returned as a string corresponding to the  first
		     column in the display of the ls -l command.

	      nlink  The number of hard links to the file.

	      uid    The user ID of the owner of the file.  With the -s option, this is displayed
		     as a user name.

	      gid    The group ID of the file.	With the -s option, this is displayed as a  group
		     name.

	      rdev   The raw device number.  This is only useful for special devices.

	      size   The size of the file in bytes.

	      atime
	      mtime
	      ctime  The  last	access,  modification and inode change times of the file, respec-
		     tively, as the number of seconds since midnight GMT on  1st  January,  1970.
		     With  the	-s  option, these are printed as strings for the local time zone;
		     the format can be altered with the -F option, and with  the  -g  option  the
		     times are in GMT.

	      blksize
		     The  number of bytes in one allocation block on the device on which the file
		     resides.

	      block  The number of disk blocks used by the file.

	      link   If the file is a link and the -L option is in effect, this contains the name
		     of  the file linked to, otherwise it is empty.  Note that if this element is
		     selected (``zstat +link'') then the -L option is automatically used.

	      A particular element may be selected by including its name preceded by a `+' in the
	      option  list;  only  one	element  is allowed.  The element may be shortened to any
	      unique set of leading characters.  Otherwise, all elements will be  shown  for  all
	      files.

	      Options:

	      -A array
		     Instead  of  displaying  the  results  on standard output, assign them to an
		     array, one struct stat element per array element for each file in order.  In
		     this  case neither the name of the element nor the name of the files appears
		     in array unless the -t or -n options were given,  respectively.   If  -t  is
		     given,  the  element  name appears as a prefix to the appropriate array ele-
		     ment; if -n is given, the file name appears as a separate array element pre-
		     ceding all the others.  Other formatting options are respected.

	      -H hash
		     Similar to -A, but instead assign the values to hash.  The keys are the ele-
		     ments listed above.  If the -n option is provided then the name of the  file
		     is included in the hash with key name.

	      -f fd  Use  the  file on file descriptor fd instead of named files; no list of file
		     names is allowed in this case.

	      -F fmt Supplies a strftime (see strftime(3)) string for the formatting of the  time
		     elements.	The -s option is implied.

	      -g     Show the time elements in the GMT time zone.  The -s option is implied.

	      -l     List  the	names  of  the	type  elements (to standard output or an array as
		     appropriate) and return immediately; options other than -A and arguments are
		     ignored.

	      -L     Perform  an  lstat  (see  lstat(2)) rather than a stat system call.  In this
		     case, if the file is a link, information about the link itself  rather  than
		     the  target file is returned.  This option is required to make the link ele-
		     ment useful.  It's important to note that this is the  exact  opposite  from
		     ls(1), etc.

	      -n     Always show the names of files.  Usually these are only shown when output is
		     to standard output and there is more than one file in the list.

	      -N     Never show the names of files.

	      -o     If a raw file mode is printed, show it in octal, which is	more  useful  for
		     human  consumption  than  the  default  of  decimal.  A leading zero will be
		     printed in this case.  Note that this does not affect whether a raw or  for-
		     matted file mode is shown, which is controlled by the -r and -s options, nor
		     whether a mode is shown at all.

	      -r     Print raw data (the default format) alongside string data (the  -s  format);
		     the string data appears in parentheses after the raw data.

	      -s     Print  mode, uid, gid and the three time elements as strings instead of num-
		     bers.  In each case the format is like that of ls -l.

	      -t     Always show the type names for the elements of struct stat.   Usually  these
		     are  only	shown when output is to standard output and no individual element
		     has been selected.

	      -T     Never show the type names of the struct stat elements.

THE ZSH/SYSTEM MODULE
       The zsh/system module makes available various builtin commands and parameters.

   Builtins
       syserror [ -e errvar ] [ -p prefix ] [ errno | errname ]
	      This command prints out the error message associated with  errno,  a  system  error
	      number, followed by a newline to standard error.

	      Instead  of the error number, a name errname, for example ENOENT, may be used.  The
	      set of names is the same as the contents of the array errnos, see below.

	      If the string prefix is given, it is printed in front of the error message, with no
	      intervening space.

	      If  errvar  is  supplied, the entire message, without a newline, is assigned to the
	      parameter names errvar and nothing is output.

	      A return status of 0 indicates the message was successfully  printed  (although  it
	      may not be useful if the error number was out of the system's range), a return sta-
	      tus of 1 indicates an error in the parameters, and a return status of  2	indicates
	      the error name was not recognised (no message is printed for this).

       sysread [ -c countvar ] [ -i infd ] [ -o outfd ]
	 [ -s bufsize ] [ -t timeout ] [ param ]
	      Perform  a  single  system  read	from file descriptor infd, or zero if that is not
	      given.  The result of the read is stored in param or REPLY if that  is  not  given.
	      If  countvar  is given, the number of bytes read is assigned to the parameter named
	      by countvar.

	      The maximum number of bytes read is bufsize or 8192 if that is not  given,  however
	      the command returns as soon as any number of bytes was successfully read.

	      If  timeout  is given, it specifies a timeout in seconds, which may be zero to poll
	      the file descriptor.  This is handled by the poll system call if available,  other-
	      wise the select system call if available.

	      If  outfd is given, an attempt is made to write all the bytes just read to the file
	      descriptor outfd.  If this fails, because of a system error  other  than	EINTR  or
	      because  of an internal zsh error during an interrupt, the bytes read but not writ-
	      ten are stored in the parameter named by param if supplied (no default is  used  in
	      this case), and the number of bytes read but not written is stored in the parameter
	      named by countvar if that is supplied.  If it was successful, countvar contains the
	      full number of bytes transferred, as usual, and param is not set.

	      The  error  EINTR  (interrupted  system  call)  is handled internally so that shell
	      interrupts are transparent to the caller.  Any other error causes a return.

	      The possible return statuses are
	      0      At least one byte of data was successfully read and, if  appropriate,  writ-
		     ten.

	      1      There was an error in the parameters to the command.  This is the only error
		     for which a message is printed to standard error.

	      2      There was an error on the read, or on polling the input file descriptor  for
		     a timeout.  The parameter ERRNO gives the error.

	      3      Data  were  successfully read, but there was an error writing them to outfd.
		     The parameter ERRNO gives the error.

	      4      The attempt to read timed out.  Note this does not set ERRNO as this is  not
		     a system error.

	      5      No  system error occurred, but zero bytes were read.  This usually indicates
		     end of file.  The parameters are set according to the usual rules; no  write
		     to outfd is attempted.

       syswrite [ -c countvar ] [ -o outfd ] data
	      The  data (a single string of bytes) are written to the file descriptor outfd, or 1
	      if that is not given, using the write system call.  Multiple write  operations  may
	      be used if the first does not write all the data.

	      If  countvar  is given, the number of byte written is stored in the parameter named
	      by countvar; this may not be the full length of data if an error occurred.

	      The error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally by retrying; other-
	      wise an error causes the command to return.  For example, if the file descriptor is
	      set to non-blocking output, an error EAGAIN  (on	some  systems,	EWOULDBLOCK)  may
	      result in the command returning early.

	      The  return  status  may	be 0 for success, 1 for an error in the parameters to the
	      command, or 2 for an error on the write; no error message is printed  in	the  last
	      case, but the parameter ERRNO will reflect the error that occurred.

       zsystem flock [ -t timeout ] [ -f var ] [-er] file
       zsystem flock -u fd_expr
	      The  builtin  zsystem's  subcommand  flock  performs advisory file locking (via the
	      fcntl(2) system call) over the entire contents of the given  file.   This  form  of
	      locking  requires  the  processes accessing the file to cooperate; its most obvious
	      use is between two instances of the shell itself.

	      In the first form the named file, which must already exist, is locked by opening	a
	      file  descriptor	to the file and applying a lock to the file descriptor.  The lock
	      terminates when the shell process that created the  lock	exits;	it  is	therefore
	      often convenient to create file locks within subshells, since the lock is automati-
	      cally released when the subshell exits.  Status 0 is returned if the lock succeeds,
	      else status 1.

	      In  the  second form the file descriptor given by the arithmetic expression fd_expr
	      is closed, releasing a lock.  The file descriptor can be queried by using  the  `-f
	      var'  form  during the lock; on a successful lock, the shell variable var is set to
	      the file descriptor used for locking.  The  lock	will  be  released  if	the  file
	      descriptor  is  closed  by any other means, for example using `exec {var}>&-'; how-
	      ever, the form described here performs a safety check that the file  descriptor  is
	      in use for file locking.

	      By  default  the	shell  waits indefinitely for the lock to succeed.  The option -t
	      timeout specifies a timeout for the lock in seconds;  currently  this  must  be  an
	      integer.	The shell will attempt to lock the file once a second during this period.
	      If the attempt times out, status 2 is returned.

	      If the option -e is given, the file descriptor for the lock is preserved	when  the
	      shell  uses  exec  to start a new process; otherwise it is closed at that point and
	      the lock released.

	      If the option -r is given, the lock is only for reading, otherwise it is for  read-
	      ing and writing.	The file descriptor is opened accordingly.

       zsystem supports subcommand
	      The  builtin zsystem's subcommand supports tests whether a given subcommand is sup-
	      ported.  It returns status 0 if so, else status 1.   It  operates  silently  unless
	      there was a syntax error (i.e. the wrong number of arguments), in which case status
	      255 is returned.	Status 1 can indicate one of two things:  subcommand is known but
	      not supported by the current operating system, or subcommand is not known (possibly
	      because this is an older version of the shell before it was implemented).

   Parameters
       errnos A readonly array of the names of errors defined on the system.  These are typically
	      macros defined in C by including the system header file errno.h.	The index of each
	      name (assuming the option KSH_ARRAYS is unset) corresponds  to  the  error  number.
	      Error numbers num before the last known error which have no name are given the name
	      Enum in the array.

	      Note that aliases for errors are not handled; only the canonical name is used.

       sysparams
	      A readonly associative array.  The keys are:
       pid    Returns the process ID of the current process,  even  in	subshells.   Compare  $$,
	      which returns the process ID of the main shell process.

       ppid   Returns  the  process  ID  of the parent of the current process, even in subshells.
	      Compare $PPID, which returns the process	ID  of	the  parent  of  the  main  shell
	      process.

THE ZSH/NET/TCP MODULE
       The zsh/net/tcp module makes available one builtin command:

       ztcp [ -acflLtv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
	      ztcp  is	implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell command line editing,
	      file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

	      If ztcp is run with no options, it will output the contents of its session table.

	      If it is run with only the option -L, it will output the contents  of  the  session
	      table  in  a format suitable for automatic parsing.  The option is ignored if given
	      with a command to open or close a session.  The output consists of a set of  lines,
	      one per session, each containing the following elements separated by spaces:

	      File descriptor
		     The  file	descriptor in use for the connection.  For normal inbound (I) and
		     outbound (O) connections this may be read and written  by	the  usual  shell
		     mechanisms.  However, it should only be close with `ztcp -c'.

	      Connection type
		     A letter indicating how the session was created:

		     Z	    A session created with the zftp command.

		     L	    A connection opened for listening with `ztcp -l'.

		     I	    An inbound connection accepted with `ztcp -a'.

		     O	    An outbound connection created with `ztcp host ...'.

	      The local host
		     This  is  usually set to an all-zero IP address as the address of the local-
		     host is irrelevant.

	      The local port
		     This is likely to be zero unless the connection is for listening.

	      The remote host
		     This is the fully qualified domain name of the peer, if available,  else  an
		     IP  address.   It is an all-zero IP address for a session opened for listen-
		     ing.

	      The remote port
		     This is zero for a connection opened for listening.

   Outbound Connections
       ztcp [ -v ] [ -d fd ] host [ port ]
	      Open a new TCP connection to host.  If the port is omitted, it will default to port
	      23.   The  connection  will  be  added to the session table and the shell parameter
	      REPLY will be set to the file descriptor associated with that connection.

	      If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target  file  descriptor  for
	      the connection.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       ztcp -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] port
	      ztcp  -l will open a socket listening on TCP port.  The socket will be added to the
	      session table and the shell parameter REPLY will be  set	to  the  file  descriptor
	      associated with that listener.

	      If  -d  is  specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for
	      the connection.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       ztcp -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
	      ztcp -a will accept an incoming connection to the port  associated  with	listenfd.
	      The  connection  will  be  added to the session table and the shell parameter REPLY
	      will be set to the file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

	      If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target  file  descriptor  for
	      the connection.

	      If  -t is specified, ztcp will return if no incoming connection is pending.  Other-
	      wise it will wait for one.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Closing Connections
       ztcp -cf [ -v ] [ fd ]
       ztcp -c [ -v ] [ fd ]
	      ztcp -c will close the socket associated with fd.  The socket will be removed  from
	      the  session table.  If fd is not specified, ztcp will close everything in the ses-
	      sion table.

	      Normally, sockets registered by zftp (see zshmodules(1) )  cannot  be  closed  this
	      way.  In order to force such a socket closed, use -f.

	      In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Example
       Here  is  how to create a TCP connection between two instances of zsh.  We need to pick an
       unassigned port; here we use the randomly chosen 5123.

       On host1,
	      zmodload zsh/net/tcp
	      ztcp -l 5123
	      listenfd=$REPLY
	      ztcp -a $listenfd
	      fd=$REPLY
       The second from last command blocks until there is an incoming connection.

       Now create a connection from host2 (which may, of course, be the same machine):
	      zmodload zsh/net/tcp
	      ztcp host1 5123
	      fd=$REPLY

       Now on each host, $fd contains a file descriptor for talking to the other.   For  example,
       on host1:
	      print This is a message >&$fd
       and on host2:
	      read -r line <&$fd; print -r - $line
       prints `This is a message'.

       To tidy up, on host1:
	      ztcp -c $listenfd
	      ztcp -c $fd
       and on host2
	      ztcp -c $fd

THE ZSH/TERMCAP MODULE
       The zsh/termcap module makes available one builtin command:

       echotc cap [ arg ... ]
	      Output  the  termcap value corresponding to the capability cap, with optional argu-
	      ments.

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one parameter:

       termcap
	      An associative array that maps termcap capability codes to their values.

THE ZSH/TERMINFO MODULE
       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one builtin command:

       echoti cap [ arg ]
	      Output the terminfo value corresponding to the capability  cap,  instantiated  with
	      arg if applicable.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one parameter:

       terminfo
	      An associative array that maps terminfo capability names to their values.

THE ZSH/ZFTP MODULE
       The zsh/zftp module makes available one builtin command:

       zftp subcommand [ args ]
	      The  zsh/zftp  module  is  a client for FTP (file transfer protocol).  It is imple-
	      mented as a builtin to allow full use of shell command line editing, file I/O,  and
	      job  control mechanisms.	Often, users will access it via shell functions providing
	      a more powerful interface; a set is provided  with  the  zsh  distribution  and  is
	      described  in  zshzftpsys(1).   However, the zftp command is entirely usable in its
	      own right.

	      All commands consist of the command name zftp followed by the name of a subcommand.
	      These  are  listed  below.   The	return	status	of each subcommand is supposed to
	      reflect the success or failure of the remote operation.  See a description  of  the
	      variable	ZFTP_VERBOSE for more information on how responses from the server may be
	      printed.

   Subcommands
       open host[:port] [ user [ password [ account ] ] ]
	      Open a new FTP session to host, which may be the name of a TCP/IP connected host or
	      an  IP  number  in  the  standard  dot  notation.   If  the argument is in the form
	      host:port, open a connection to TCP port port instead of the standard FTP port  21.
	      This  may  be  the  name	of  a  TCP  service  or a number:  see the description of
	      ZFTP_PORT below for more information.

	      If IPv6 addresses in colon format are used, the host should be surrounded by quoted
	      square	brackets    to	  distinguish	 it    from   the   port,   for   example
	      '[fe80::203:baff:fe02:8b56]'.  For consistency this is allowed with  all	forms  of
	      host.

	      Remaining  arguments are passed to the login subcommand.	Note that if no arguments
	      beyond host are supplied, open will not automatically call login.  If no	arguments
	      at all are supplied, open will use the parameters set by the params subcommand.

	      After  a	successful  open,  the	shell variables ZFTP_HOST, ZFTP_PORT, ZFTP_IP and
	      ZFTP_SYSTEM are available; see `Variables' below.

       login [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
       user [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
	      Login the user name with parameters password and account.  Any  of  the  parameters
	      can  be  omitted,  and  will  be read from standard input if needed (name is always
	      needed).	If standard input is a terminal, a prompt for each one will be printed on
	      standard	error  and password will not be echoed.  If any of the parameters are not
	      used, a warning message is printed.

	      After a successful login, the shell variables ZFTP_USER, ZFTP_ACCOUNT and  ZFTP_PWD
	      are available; see `Variables' below.

	      This command may be re-issued when a user is already logged in, and the server will
	      first be reinitialized for a new user.

       params [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
       params -
	      Store the given parameters for a later open command with no arguments.  Only  those
	      given  on  the  command  line  will  be remembered.  If no arguments are given, the
	      parameters currently set are printed, although the password will appear as  a  line
	      of stars; the return status is one if no parameters were set, zero otherwise.

	      Any  of  the  parameters	may be specified as a `?', which may need to be quoted to
	      protect it from shell expansion.	In this case, the appropriate parameter  will  be
	      read  from  stdin as with the login subcommand, including special handling of pass-
	      word.  If the `?' is followed by a string, that is used as the prompt  for  reading
	      the  parameter instead of the default message (any necessary punctuation and white-
	      space should be included at the end of the prompt).  The first letter of the param-
	      eter  (only)  may be quoted with a `\'; hence an argument "\\$word" guarantees that
	      the string from the shell parameter $word will be treated literally, whether or not
	      it begins with a `?'.

	      If instead a single `-' is given, the existing parameters, if any, are deleted.  In
	      that case, calling open with no arguments will cause an error.

	      The list of parameters is not deleted after a close, however it will be deleted  if
	      the zsh/zftp module is unloaded.

	      For example,

		     zftp params ftp.elsewhere.xx juser '?Password for juser: '

	      will  store  the	host ftp.elsewhere.xx and the user juser and then prompt the user
	      for the corresponding password with the given prompt.

       test   Test the connection; if the server has reported that it has closed  the  connection
	      (maybe due to a timeout), return status 2; if no connection was open anyway, return
	      status 1; else return status 0.  The test subcommand is silent, apart from messages
	      printed by the $ZFTP_VERBOSE mechanism, or error messages if the connection closes.
	      There is no network overhead for this test.

	      The test is only supported on systems with either the select(2) or  poll(2)  system
	      calls; otherwise the message `not supported on this system' is printed instead.

	      The  test subcommand will automatically be called at the start of any other subcom-
	      mand for the current session when a connection is open.

       cd directory
	      Change the remote directory to directory.  Also alters the shell variable ZFTP_PWD.

       cdup   Change the remote directory to the one higher in the directory tree.  Note that  cd
	      .. will also work correctly on non-UNIX systems.

       dir [ args... ]
	      Give  a (verbose) listing of the remote directory.  The args are passed directly to
	      the server. The command's behaviour is implementation dependent, but a UNIX  server
	      will  typically interpret args as arguments to the ls command and with no arguments
	      return the result of `ls -l'. The directory is listed to standard output.

       ls [ args ]
	      Give a (short) listing of the remote directory.  With no args, produces a raw  list
	      of  the  files  in  the  directory, one per line.  Otherwise, up to vagaries of the
	      server implementation, behaves similar to dir.

       type [ type ]
	      Change the type for the transfer to type, or print the  current  type  if  type  is
	      absent.	The  allowed  values are `A' (ASCII), `I' (Image, i.e. binary), or `B' (a
	      synonym for `I').

	      The FTP default for a transfer is ASCII.	However, if zftp finds	that  the  remote
	      host  is	a  UNIX  machine  with	8-bit byes, it will automatically switch to using
	      binary for file transfers upon open.  This can subsequently be overridden.

	      The transfer type is only passed to the remote  host  when  a  data  connection  is
	      established; this command involves no network overhead.

       ascii  The same as type A.

       binary The same as type I.

       mode [ S | B ]
	      Set  the	mode  type to stream (S) or block (B).	Stream mode is the default; block
	      mode is not widely supported.

       remote files...
       local [ files... ]
	      Print the size and last modification time of the remote or local files.	If  there
	      is  more	than  one  item  on the list, the name of the file is printed first.  The
	      first number is the file size, the second is the last modification time of the file
	      in  the  format  CCYYMMDDhhmmSS  consisting of year, month, date, hour, minutes and
	      seconds in GMT.  Note that this format, including the  length,  is  guaranteed,  so
	      that  time strings can be directly compared via the [[ builtin's < and > operators,
	      even if they are too long to be represented as integers.

	      Not all servers support the commands for	retrieving  this  information.	 In  that
	      case, the remote command will print nothing and return status 2, compared with sta-
	      tus 1 for a file not found.

	      The local command (but not remote) may be used with no arguments, in which case the
	      information  comes  from	examining file descriptor zero.  This is the same file as
	      seen by a put command with no further redirection.

       get file [...]
	      Retrieve all files from the server, concatenating them and sending them to standard
	      output.

       put file [...]
	      For  each  file,	read  a file from standard input and send that to the remote host
	      with the given name.

       append file [...]
	      As put, but if the remote file already exists, data is appended to  it  instead  of
	      overwriting it.

       getat file point
       putat file point
       appendat file point
	      Versions of get, put and append which will start the transfer at the given point in
	      the remote file.	This is useful for appending to an incomplete local  file.   How-
	      ever,  note  that  this ability is not universally supported by servers (and is not
	      quite the behaviour specified by the standard).

       delete file [...]
	      Delete the list of files on the server.

       mkdir directory
	      Create a new directory directory on the server.

       rmdir directory
	      Delete the directory directory  on the server.

       rename old-name new-name
	      Rename file old-name to new-name on the server.

       site args...
	      Send a host-specific command to the server.  You will probably only  need  this  if
	      instructed by the server to use it.

       quote args...
	      Send  the  raw FTP command sequence to the server.  You should be familiar with the
	      FTP command set as defined in  RFC959  before  doing  this.   Useful  commands  may
	      include STAT and HELP.  Note also the mechanism for returning messages as described
	      for the variable ZFTP_VERBOSE below, in particular that all messages from the  con-
	      trol connection are sent to standard error.

       close
       quit   Close  the  current  data  connection.  This unsets the shell parameters ZFTP_HOST,
	      ZFTP_PORT, ZFTP_IP, ZFTP_SYSTEM, ZFTP_USER, ZFTP_ACCOUNT, ZFTP_PWD,  ZFTP_TYPE  and
	      ZFTP_MODE.

       session [ sessname ]
	      Allows  multiple	FTP  sessions  to be used at once.  The name of the session is an
	      arbitrary string of characters; the default session is called `default'.	 If  this
	      command  is called without an argument, it will list all the current sessions; with
	      an argument, it will either switch to the existing session called sessname, or cre-
	      ate a new session of that name.

	      Each session remembers the status of the connection, the set of connection-specific
	      shell parameters (the same set as are unset when a connection closes, as	given  in
	      the  description	of close), and any user parameters specified with the params sub-
	      command.	Changing to a previous session restores those values; changing to  a  new
	      session initialises them in the same way as if zftp had just been loaded.  The name
	      of the current session is given by the parameter ZFTP_SESSION.

       rmsession [ sessname ]
	      Delete a session; if a name is not given, the current session is deleted.   If  the
	      current  session	is deleted, the earliest existing session becomes the new current
	      session, otherwise the current session  is  not  changed.   If  the  session  being
	      deleted  is the only one, a new session called `default' is created and becomes the
	      current session; note that this is a new session even if the session being  deleted
	      is  also	called	`default'.  It	is recommended that sessions not be deleted while
	      background commands which use zftp are still active.

   Parameters
       The following shell parameters are used by zftp.  Currently none of them are special.

       ZFTP_TMOUT
	      Integer.	The time in seconds to wait for a network operation  to  complete  before
	      returning an error.  If this is not set when the module is loaded, it will be given
	      the default value 60.  A value of zero turns off timeouts.  If a timeout occurs  on
	      the  control  connection	it will be closed.  Use a larger value if this occurs too
	      frequently.

       ZFTP_IP
	      Readonly.  The IP address of the current connection in dot notation.

       ZFTP_HOST
	      Readonly.  The hostname of the current remote server.  If the host was opened as an
	      IP  number,  ZFTP_HOST  contains	that  instead; this saves the overhead for a name
	      lookup, as IP numbers are most commonly used when a nameserver is unavailable.

       ZFTP_PORT
	      Readonly.  The number of the remote TCP port to which the connection is open  (even
	      if  the  port  was  originally  specified as a named service).  Usually this is the
	      standard FTP port, 21.

	      In the unlikely event that your system does not  have  the  appropriate  conversion
	      functions,  this	appears  in network byte order.  If your system is little-endian,
	      the port then consists of two swapped bytes and the standard port will be  reported
	      as  5376.   In that case, numeric ports passed to zftp open will also need to be in
	      this format.

       ZFTP_SYSTEM
	      Readonly.  The system type string returned by the server in response to an FTP SYST
	      request.	 The  most  interesting case is a string beginning "UNIX Type: L8", which
	      ensures maximum compatibility with a local UNIX host.

       ZFTP_TYPE
	      Readonly.  The type to be used for data transfers , either `A' or  `I'.	 Use  the
	      type subcommand to change this.

       ZFTP_USER
	      Readonly.  The username currently logged in, if any.

       ZFTP_ACCOUNT
	      Readonly.   The  account	name  of  the  current user, if any.  Most servers do not
	      require an account name.

       ZFTP_PWD
	      Readonly.  The current directory on the server.

       ZFTP_CODE
	      Readonly.  The three digit code of the last FTP reply from the server as a  string.
	      This  can still be read after the connection is closed, and is not changed when the
	      current session changes.

       ZFTP_REPLY
	      Readonly.  The last line of the last reply sent by the server.  This can	still  be
	      read  after  the	connection is closed, and is not changed when the current session
	      changes.

       ZFTP_SESSION
	      Readonly.  The name of the current FTP session; see the description of the  session
	      subcommand.

       ZFTP_PREFS
	      A  string of preferences for altering aspects of zftp's behaviour.  Each preference
	      is a single character.  The following are defined:

	      P      Passive:  attempt to make the remote server initiate data	transfers.   This
		     is slightly more efficient than sendport mode.  If the letter S occurs later
		     in the string, zftp will use sendport mode if passive mode is not available.

	      S      Sendport:	initiate transfers by the  FTP	PORT  command.	 If  this  occurs
		     before any P in the string, passive mode will never be attempted.

	      D      Dumb:   use  only the bare minimum of FTP commands.  This prevents the vari-
		     ables ZFTP_SYSTEM and ZFTP_PWD from being set, and will mean all connections
		     default  to  ASCII  type.	 It may prevent ZFTP_SIZE from being set during a
		     transfer if the server does not send it anyway (many servers do).

	      If ZFTP_PREFS is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set to a default of  `PS',
	      i.e. use passive mode if available, otherwise fall back to sendport mode.

       ZFTP_VERBOSE
	      A  string  of digits between 0 and 5 inclusive, specifying which responses from the
	      server should be printed.  All responses go to standard error.  If any of the  num-
	      bers  1  to  5 appear in the string, raw responses from the server with reply codes
	      beginning with that digit will be printed to standard error.  The  first	digit  of
	      the three digit reply code is defined by RFC959 to correspond to:

	      1.     A positive preliminary reply.

	      2.     A positive completion reply.

	      3.     A positive intermediate reply.

	      4.     A transient negative completion reply.

	      5.     A permanent negative completion reply.

	      It  should  be  noted that, for unknown reasons, the reply `Service not available',
	      which forces termination of a connection, is classified  as  421,  i.e.  `transient
	      negative', an interesting interpretation of the word `transient'.

	      The  code  0  is	special:   it  indicates  that all but the last line of multiline
	      replies read from the server will be printed to standard error in a processed  for-
	      mat.   By  convention,  servers  use this mechanism for sending information for the
	      user to read.  The appropriate reply code, if it matches the same  response,  takes
	      priority.

	      If ZFTP_VERBOSE is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set to the default value
	      450, i.e., messages destined for the user and all errors will be printed.   A  null
	      string is valid and specifies that no messages should be printed.

   Functions
       zftp_chpwd
	      If  this function is set by the user, it is called every time the directory changes
	      on the server, including when a user is logged in, or when a connection is  closed.
	      In the last case, $ZFTP_PWD will be unset; otherwise it will reflect the new direc-
	      tory.

       zftp_progress
	      If this function is set by the user, it will be called during a get, put or  append
	      operation each time sufficient data has been received from the host.  During a get,
	      the data is sent to standard output, so it is vital that this function should write
	      to standard error or directly to the terminal, not to standard output.

	      When  it	is  called  with  a  transfer in progress, the following additional shell
	      parameters are set:

	      ZFTP_FILE
		     The name of the remote file being transferred from or to.

	      ZFTP_TRANSFER
		     A G for a get operation and a P for a put operation.

	      ZFTP_SIZE
		     The total size of the complete file being transferred: the same as the first
		     value  provided  by  the remote and local subcommands for a particular file.
		     If the server cannot supply this value for a remote file being retrieved, it
		     will  not	be  set.   If input is from a pipe the value may be incorrect and
		     correspond simply to a full pipe buffer.

	      ZFTP_COUNT
		     The amount of data so far transferred; a number between zero and $ZFTP_SIZE,
		     if that is set.  This number is always available.

	      The   function  is  initially  called  with  ZFTP_TRANSFER  set  appropriately  and
	      ZFTP_COUNT set to zero.  After the transfer  is  finished,  the  function  will  be
	      called  one more time with ZFTP_TRANSFER set to GF or PF, in case it wishes to tidy
	      up.  It is otherwise never called twice with the same value of ZFTP_COUNT.

	      Sometimes the progress meter may cause disruption.  It is up to the user to  decide
	      whether the function should be defined and to use unfunction when necessary.

   Problems
       A  connection  may  not be opened in the left hand side of a pipe as this occurs in a sub-
       shell and the file information is not updated in the main shell.  In the case of  type  or
       mode  changes  or  closing  the	connection in a subshell, the information is returned but
       variables are not updated until the next call to zftp.  Other status changes in	subshells
       will not be reflected by changes to the variables (but should be otherwise harmless).

       Deleting  sessions  while  a  zftp command is active in the background can have unexpected
       effects, even if it does not use the session being deleted.  This  is  because  all  shell
       subprocesses  share  information  on  the state of all connections, and deleting a session
       changes the ordering of that information.

       On some operating systems, the control connection is not valid after  a	fork(),  so  that
       operations in subshells, on the left hand side of a pipeline, or in the background are not
       possible, as they should be.  This is presumably a bug in the operating system.

THE ZSH/ZLE MODULE
       The zsh/zle module contains the Zsh Line Editor.  See zshzle(1).

THE ZSH/ZLEPARAMETER MODULE
       The zsh/zleparameter module defines two special parameters that	can  be  used  to  access
       internal information of the Zsh Line Editor (see zshzle(1)).

       keymaps
	      This array contains the names of the keymaps currently defined.

       widgets
	      This  associative array contains one entry per widget defined. The name of the wid-
	      get is the key and the value gives information about the widget. It is  either  the
	      string  `builtin'  for  builtin  widgets,  a  string  of	the  form `user:name' for
	      user-defined widgets, where name is the name of the shell function implementing the
	      widget,  or  it is a string of the form `completion:type:name', for completion wid-
	      gets. In the last case type is the name of the builtin widgets the completion  wid-
	      get  imitates in its behavior and name is the name of the shell function implement-
	      ing the completion widget.

THE ZSH/ZPROF MODULE
       When loaded, the zsh/zprof causes shell functions to be profiled.  The  profiling  results
       can be obtained with the zprof builtin command made available by this module.  There is no
       way to turn profiling off other than unloading the module.

       zprof [ -c ]
	      Without the -c option, zprof lists profiling results to standard output.	The  for-
	      mat is comparable to that of commands like gprof.

	      At the top there is a summary listing all functions that were called at least once.
	      This summary is sorted in decreasing order of the amount of  time  spent	in  each.
	      The lines contain the number of the function in order, which is used in other parts
	      of the list in suffixes of the form `[num]', then the number of calls made  to  the
	      function.   The next three columns list the time in milliseconds spent in the func-
	      tion and its descendants, the average time in milliseconds spent	in  the  function
	      and  its	descendants  per call and the percentage of time spent in all shell func-
	      tions used in this function and its descendants.	The following three columns  give
	      the same information, but counting only the time spent in the function itself.  The
	      final column shows the name of the function.

	      After the summary, detailed information about every function that  was  invoked  is
	      listed, sorted in decreasing order of the amount of time spent in each function and
	      its descendants.	Each of these entries consists of descriptions for the	functions
	      that  called  the  function  described, the function itself, and the functions that
	      were called from it.  The description for the function itself has the  same  format
	      as in the summary (and shows the same information).  The other lines don't show the
	      number of the function at the beginning and have their function named  indented  to
	      make  it	easier to distinguish the line showing the function described in the sec-
	      tion from the surrounding lines.

	      The information shown in this case is almost the same as in the summary,	but  only
	      refers  to the call hierarchy being displayed.  For example, for a calling function
	      the column showing the total running time lists the time	spent  in  the	described
	      function	and  its descendants only for the times when it was called from that par-
	      ticular calling function.  Likewise, for a called function, this columns lists  the
	      total time spent in the called function and its descendants only for the times when
	      it was called from the function described.

	      Also in this case, the column showing the number of calls to a function also  shows
	      a slash and then the total number of invocations made to the called function.

	      As  long	as  the  zsh/zprof  module is loaded, profiling will be done and multiple
	      invocations of the zprof builtin command will show the times and numbers	of  calls
	      since  the  module  was loaded.  With the -c option, the zprof builtin command will
	      reset its internal counters and will not show the listing.

THE ZSH/ZPTY MODULE
       The zsh/zpty module offers one builtin:

       zpty [ -e ] [ -b ] name [ arg ... ]
	      The arguments following name are concatenated with spaces between, then executed as
	      a  command,  as  if  passed  to  the  eval builtin.  The command runs under a newly
	      assigned pseudo-terminal; this is useful	for  running  commands	non-interactively
	      which  expect an interactive environment.  The name is not part of the command, but
	      is used to refer to this command in later calls to zpty.

	      With the -e option, the pseudo-terminal is set up  so  that  input  characters  are
	      echoed.

	      With  the  -b  option,  input  to  and  output  from  the  pseudo-terminal are made
	      non-blocking.

       zpty -d [ names ... ]
	      The second form, with the -d option, is used to delete commands previously started,
	      by  supplying  a	list  of  their  names.   If no names are given, all commands are
	      deleted.	Deleting a command causes the HUP signal to be sent to the  corresponding
	      process.

       zpty -w [ -n ] name [ strings ... ]
	      The  -w  option  can be used to send the to command name the given strings as input
	      (separated by spaces).  If the -n option is not given, a newline is  added  at  the
	      end.

	      If  no  strings  are provided, the standard input is copied to the pseudo-terminal;
	      this may stop before copying the full input if the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.

	      Note that the command under the pseudo-terminal sees  this  input  as  if  it  were
	      typed,  so  beware  when	sending special tty driver characters such as word-erase,
	      line-kill, and end-of-file.

       zpty -r [ -mt ] name [ param [ pattern ] ]
	      The -r option can be used to read the output of the command name.  With only a name
	      argument, the output read is copied to the standard output.  Unless the pseudo-ter-
	      minal is non-blocking, copying continues until the command under the  pseudo-termi-
	      nal  exits;  when  non-blocking, only as much output as is immediately available is
	      copied.  The return status is zero if any output is copied.

	      When also given a param argument, at most one line is read and stored in the param-
	      eter  named  param.   Less  than	a full line may be read if the pseudo-terminal is
	      non-blocking.  The return status is zero if at least one	character  is  stored  in
	      param.

	      If  a  pattern is given as well, output is read until the whole string read matches
	      the pattern, even in the non-blocking case.  The	return	status	is  zero  if  the
	      string  read  matches  the  pattern,  or if the command has exited but at least one
	      character could still be read.  If the option -m is present, the return  status  is
	      zero only if the pattern matches.  As of this writing, a maximum of one megabyte of
	      output can be consumed this way; if a full megabyte is read  without  matching  the
	      pattern, the return status is non-zero.

	      In  all  cases, the return status is non-zero if nothing could be read, and is 2 if
	      this is because the command has finished.

	      If the -r option is combined with the -t	option,  zpty  tests  whether  output  is
	      available  before  trying  to  read.   If  no output is available, zpty immediately
	      returns the status 1.  When used with a pattern, the behaviour on a failed poll  is
	      similar  to  when the command has exited:  the return value is zero if at least one
	      character could still be read even if the pattern failed to match.

       zpty -t name
	      The -t option without the -r option can be used to test whether the command name is
	      still  running.	It returns a zero status if the command is running and a non-zero
	      value otherwise.

       zpty [ -L ]
	      The last form, without any arguments,  is  used  to  list  the  commands	currently
	      defined.	 If the -L option is given, this is done in the form of calls to the zpty
	      builtin.

THE ZSH/ZSELECT MODULE
       The zsh/zselect module makes available one builtin command:

       zselect [ -rwe -t timeout -a array ] [ fd ... ]
	      The zselect builtin is a front-end to the `select' system call, which blocks  until
	      a  file descriptor is ready for reading or writing, or has an error condition, with
	      an optional timeout.  If this is not available on your system, the  command  prints
	      an  error  message  and returns status 2 (normal errors return status 1).  For more
	      information, see your systems documentation for select(3).  Note there is  no  con-
	      nection with the shell builtin of the same name.

	      Arguments  and  options may be intermingled in any order.  Non-option arguments are
	      file descriptors, which must be decimal integers.  By default, file descriptors are
	      to  be  tested  for  reading, i.e. zselect will return when data is available to be
	      read from the file descriptor, or more precisely, when a read  operation	from  the
	      file  descriptor will not block.	After a -r, -w and -e, the given file descriptors
	      are to be tested for reading, writing, or error conditions.  These options  and  an
	      arbitrary list of file descriptors may be given in any order.

	      (The  presence of an `error condition' is not well defined in the documentation for
	      many implementations of the select system call.  According to  recent  versions  of
	      the  POSIX  specification,  it  is really an exception condition, of which the only
	      standard example is out-of-band data received  on  a  socket.   So  zsh  users  are
	      unlikely to find the -e option useful.)

	      The option `-t timeout' specifies a timeout in hundredths of a second.  This may be
	      zero, in which case the file descriptors will simply be  polled  and  zselect  will
	      return  immediately.  It is possible to call zselect with no file descriptors and a
	      non-zero timeout for use as a finer-grained replacement for `sleep'; note, however,
	      the return status is always 1 for a timeout.

	      The  option  `-a	array'	indicates  that  array should be set to indicate the file
	      descriptor(s) which are ready.  If the option is not given, the array reply will be
	      used  for  this  purpose.  The array will contain a string similar to the arguments
	      for zselect.  For example,

		     zselect -t 0 -r 0 -w 1

	      might return immediately with status 0 and $reply containing `-r 0 -w  1'  to  show
	      that both file descriptors are ready for the requested operations.

	      The  option  `-A assoc' indicates that the associative array assoc should be set to
	      indicate the file descriptor(s( which are ready.	This option overrides the  option
	      -a,  nor	will  reply be modified.  The keys of assoc are the file descriptors, and
	      the corresponding values are any of the characters `rwe' to indicate the condition.

	      The command returns status 0 if some file descriptors are ready  for  reading.   If
	      the  operation  timed out, or a timeout of 0 was given and no file descriptors were
	      ready, or there was an error, it returns status 1 and the array  will  not  be  set
	      (nor  modified  in  any  way).   If  there was an error in the select operation the
	      appropriate error message is printed.

THE ZSH/ZUTIL MODULE
       The zsh/zutil module only adds some builtins:

       zstyle [ -L [ pattern [ style ] ] ]
       zstyle [ -e | - | -- ] pattern style strings ...
       zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
       zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
       zstyle -abs context style name [ sep ]
       zstyle -Tt context style [ strings ...]
       zstyle -m context style pattern
	      This builtin command is used to define and lookup  styles.   Styles  are	pairs  of
	      names  and  values,  where  the  values consist of any number of strings.  They are
	      stored together with patterns and lookup is done by giving  a  string,  called  the
	      `context',  which is compared to the patterns.  The definition stored for the first
	      matching pattern will be returned.

	      For ordering of comparisons, patterns are searched from most specific to least spe-
	      cific,  and  patterns  that  are equally specific keep the order in which they were
	      defined.	A pattern is considered to be more specific than another if  it  contains
	      more  components (substrings separated by colons) or if the patterns for the compo-
	      nents are more specific, where simple strings are considered to  be  more  specific
	      than patterns and complex patterns are considered to be more specific than the pat-
	      tern `*'.

	      The first form (without arguments) lists the  definitions.   Styles  are	shown  in
	      alphabetic order and patterns are shown in the order zstyle will test them.

	      If  the  -L  option  is given, listing is done in the form of calls to zstyle.  The
	      optional first argument is a pattern which will be matched against the string  sup-
	      plied as the pattern for the context; note that this means, for example, `zstyle -L
	      ":completion:*"' will match any supplied pattern beginning `:completion:', not just
	      ":completion:*":	use ":completion:\*" to match that.  The optional second argument
	      limits the output to a specific style (not a pattern).  -L is not  compatible  with
	      any other options.

	      The other forms are the following:

	      zstyle [ - | -- | -e ] pattern style strings ...
		     Defines  the  given style for the pattern with the strings as the value.  If
		     the -e option is given, the strings will be concatenated (separated by  spa-
		     ces)  and	the  resulting string will be evaluated (in the same way as it is
		     done by the eval builtin command) when the style is looked up.  In this case
		     the parameter `reply' must be assigned to set the strings returned after the
		     evaluation.  Before evaluating the value, reply is unset, and if it is still
		     unset after the evaluation, the style is treated as if it were not set.

	      zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
		     Delete  style  definitions.  Without  arguments all definitions are deleted,
		     with a pattern all definitions for that  pattern  are  deleted  and  if  any
		     styles are given, then only those styles are deleted for the pattern.

	      zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
		     Retrieve  a  style  definition.  The name is used as the name of an array in
		     which the results are stored. Without any further	arguments,  all  patterns
		     defined are returned. With a pattern the styles defined for that pattern are
		     returned and with both a pattern and a style, the value strings of that com-
		     bination is returned.

	      The other forms can be used to look up or test patterns.

	      zstyle -s context style name [ sep ]
		     The parameter name is set to the value of the style interpreted as a string.
		     If the value contains several strings they are concatenated with spaces  (or
		     with the sep string if that is given) between them.

	      zstyle -b context style name
		     The  value  is  stored in name as a boolean, i.e. as the string `yes' if the
		     value has only one string and that string is equal to one of `yes',  `true',
		     `on',  or `1'. If the value is any other string or has more than one string,
		     the parameter is set to `no'.

	      zstyle -a context style name
		     The value is stored in name as an array. If name is declared as an  associa-
		     tive  array,   the  first,  third, etc. strings are used as the keys and the
		     other strings are used as the values.

	      zstyle -t context style [ strings ...]
	      zstyle -T context style [ strings ...]
		     Test the value of a style, i.e. the -t option only returns  a  status  (sets
		     $?).   Without any strings the return status is zero if the style is defined
		     for at least one matching pattern, has only one string  in  its  value,  and
		     that is equal to one of `true', `yes', `on' or `1'. If any strings are given
		     the status is zero if and only if at least one of the strings is equal to at
		     least  one  of the strings in the value. If the style is defined but doesn't
		     match, the return status is 1. If the style is not defined, the status is 2.

		     The -T option tests the values of the style like -t, but it  returns  status
		     zero (rather than 2) if the style is not defined for any matching pattern.

	      zstyle -m context style pattern
		     Match  a  value.  Returns status zero if the pattern matches at least one of
		     the strings in the value.

       zformat -f param format specs ...
       zformat -a array sep specs ...
	      This builtin provides two different forms of formatting. The first form is selected
	      with  the  -f  option. In this case the format string will be modified by replacing
	      sequences starting with a percent sign in it with strings  from  the  specs.   Each
	      spec  should  be of the form `char:string' which will cause every appearance of the
	      sequence `%char' in format to be replaced by the string.	The `%' sequence may also
	      contain optional minimum and maximum field width specifications between the `%' and
	      the `char' in the form `%min.maxc', i.e. the minimum field width is given first and
	      if  the  maximum field width is used, it has to be preceded by a dot.  Specifying a
	      minimum field width makes the result be padded with spaces  to  the  right  if  the
	      string is shorter than the requested width.  Padding to the left can be achieved by
	      giving a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum field width is specified,  the
	      string  will  be truncated after that many characters.  After all `%' sequences for
	      the given specs have been processed, the resulting string is stored in the  parame-
	      ter param.

	      The %-escapes also understand ternary expressions in the form used by prompts.  The
	      % is followed by a `(' and then an ordinary format specifier character as described
	      above.   There may be a set of digits either before or after the `('; these specify
	      a test number, which defaults to zero.  Negative	numbers  are  also  allowed.   An
	      arbitrary  delimiter character follows the format specifier, which is followed by a
	      piece of `true' text, the delimiter character again, a piece of `false' text, and a
	      closing  parenthesis.  The complete expression (without the digits) thus looks like
	      `%(X.text1.text2)', except that the `.' character is arbitrary.	The  value  given
	      for the format specifier in the char:string expressions is evaluated as a mathemat-
	      ical expression, and compared with the test number.  If they are the same, text1 is
	      output, else text2 is output.  A parenthesis may be escaped in text2 as %).  Either
	      of text1 or text2 may contain nested %-escapes.

	      For example:

		     zformat -f REPLY "The answer is '%3(c.yes.no)'." c:3

	      outputs "The answer is 'yes'." to REPLY since the value for the format specifier	c
	      is 3, agreeing with the digit argument to the ternary expression.

	      The  second form, using the -a option, can be used for aligning strings.	Here, the
	      specs are of the form `left:right' where `left' and `right' are arbitrary  strings.
	      These  strings  are  modified by replacing the colons by the sep string and padding
	      the left strings with spaces to the right so that the sep  strings  in  the  result
	      (and hence the right strings after them) are all aligned if the strings are printed
	      below each other.  All strings without a colon are left unchanged and  all  strings
	      with  an	empty  right  string  have the trailing colon removed.	In both cases the
	      lengths of the strings are not used to determine how the other strings  are  to  be
	      aligned.	The resulting strings are stored in the array.

       zregexparse
	      This implements some internals of the _regex_arguments function.

       zparseopts [ -D ] [ -K ] [ -M ] [ -E ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] specs
	      This  builtin  simplifies the parsing of options in positional parameters, i.e. the
	      set of arguments given by $*.  Each spec describes one option and must  be  of  the
	      form  `opt[=array]'.   If  an  option  described	by opt is found in the positional
	      parameters it is copied into the	array  specified  with	the  -a  option;  if  the
	      optional `=array' is given, it is instead copied into that array.

	      Note  that it is an error to give any spec without an `=array' unless one of the -a
	      or -A options is used.

	      Unless the -E option is given,  parsing  stops  at  the  first  string  that  isn't
	      described  by one of the specs.  Even with -E, parsing always stops at a positional
	      parameter equal to `-' or `--'.

	      The opt description must be one of the following.  Any of  the  special  characters
	      can appear in the option name provided it is preceded by a backslash.

	      name
	      name+  The  name	is  the name of the option without the leading `-'.  To specify a
		     GNU-style long option, one of the usual two leading `-' must be included  in
		     name; for example, a `--file' option is represented by a name of `-file'.

		     If a `+' appears after name, the option is appended to array each time it is
		     found in the positional parameters; without the `+' only the last occurrence
		     of the option is preserved.

		     If  one  of  these  forms	is used, the option takes no argument, so parsing
		     stops if the next positional parameter does not also begin with `-'  (unless
		     the -E option is used).

	      name:
	      name:-
	      name:: If  one  or  two  colons  are  given, the option takes an argument; with one
		     colon, the argument is mandatory and with two colons it  is  optional.   The
		     argument is appended to the array after the option itself.

		     An  optional  argument is put into the same array element as the option name
		     (note that this makes empty  strings  as  arguments  indistinguishable).	A
		     mandatory	argument  is  added as a separate element unless the `:-' form is
		     used, in which case the argument is put into the same element.

		     A `+' as described above may appear between the name and the first colon.

       The options of zparseopts itself are:

       -a array
	      As described above, this names the default array in which to store  the  recognised
	      options.

       -A assoc
	      If  this	is  given,  the options and their values are also put into an associative
	      array with the option names as keys and the arguments (if any) as the values.

       -D     If this option is given, all options found are removed from the positional  parame-
	      ters  of	the  calling  shell  or  shell	function, up to but not including any not
	      described by the specs.  This is similar to using the shift builtin.

       -K     With this option, the arrays specified with the -a and  -A  options  and	with  the
	      `=array'	forms  are  kept unchanged when none of the specs for them is used.  This
	      allows assignment of default values to them before calling zparseopts.

       -M     This changes the assignment rules to implement a map among equivalent option names.
	      If  any spec uses the `=array' form, the string array is interpreted as the name of
	      another spec, which is used to choose where to store the values.	If no other  spec
	      is found, the values are stored as usual.  This changes only the way the values are
	      stored, not the way $* is parsed, so results may be  unpredicable  if  the  `name+'
	      specifier is used inconsistently.

       -E     This changes the parsing rules to not stop at the first string that isn't described
	      by one of the specs.  It can be used to test for or  (if	used  together	with  -D)
	      extract  options and their arguments, ignoring all other options and arguments that
	      may be in the positional parameters.

       For example,

	      set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
	      zparseopts a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar

       will have the effect of

	      foo=(-a)
	      bar=(-b x -c y -c z)

       The arguments from `baz' on will not be used.

       As an example for the -E option, consider:

	      set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1 arg2
	      zparseopts -E -D b:=bar

       will have the effect of

	      bar=(-b y)
	      set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2

       I.e., the option -b and its arguments are taken from the  positional  parameters  and  put
       into the array bar.

       The -M option can be used like this:

	      set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
	      zparseopts -A bar -M a=foo b+: c:=b

       to have the effect of

	      foo=(-a)
	      bar=(-a '' -b xyz)

ZSHCALSYS(1)									     ZSHCALSYS(1)

NAME
       zshcalsys - zsh calendar system

DESCRIPTION
       The  shell  is  supplied with a series of functions to replace and enhance the traditional
       Unix calendar programme, which warns the user of imminent or  future  events,  details  of
       which  are  stored  in a text file (typically calendar in the user's home directory).  The
       version provided here includes a mechanism for alerting the user when an event is due.

       In addition a function age is provided that can be used in a  glob  qualifier;  it  allows
       files to be selected based on their modification times.

       The  format  of	the calendar file and the dates used there in and in the age function are
       described first, then the functions that can be called to examine and modify the  calendar
       file.

       The  functions here depend on the availability of the zsh/datetime module which is usually
       installed with the shell.  The library  function  strptime()  must  be  available;  it  is
       present on most recent operating systems.

FILE AND DATE FORMATS
   Calendar File Format
       The  calendar  file is by default ~/calendar.  This can be configured by the calendar-file
       style, see the section STYLES below.  The basic format consists of a  series  of  separate
       lines,  with  no  indentation,  each including a date and time specification followed by a
       description of the event.

       Various enhancements to this format are supported, based on the syntax of  Emacs  calendar
       mode.   An  indented  line indicates a continuation line that continues the description of
       the event from the preceding line (note the date may not be continued in  this  way).   An
       initial ampersand (&) is ignored for compatibility.

       An  indented  line  on which the first non-whitespace character is # is not displayed with
       the calendar entry, but is still scanned for information.  This can be used to hide infor-
       mation  useful  to  the calendar system but not to the user, such as the unique identifier
       used by calendar_add.

       The Emacs extension that a date with no description may refer to a  number  of  succeeding
       events at different times is not supported.

       Unless  the  done-file  style  has  been altered, any events which have been processed are
       appended to the file with the same name as the calendar file with the suffix .done,  hence
       ~/calendar.done by default.

       An example is shown below.

   Date Format
       The format of the date and time is designed to allow flexibility without admitting ambigu-
       ity.  (The words `date' and `time' are both used in the documentation below; except  where
       specifically  noted this implies a string that may include both a date and a time specifi-
       cation.)  Note that there is no localization support; month and day names must be in  Eng-
       lish and separator characters are fixed.  Matching is case insensitive, and only the first
       three letters of the names are significant, although as a special case  a  form	beginning
       "month"	does  not match "Monday".  Furthermore, time zones are not handled; all times are
       assumed to be local.

       It is recommended that, rather than exploring the intricacies of the system, users find	a
       date  format that is natural to them and stick to it.  This will avoid unexpected effects.
       Various key facts should be noted.

       o      In particular, note the confusion between month/day/year	and  day/month/year  when
	      the  month  is  numeric;	these formats should be avoided if at all possible.  Many
	      alternatives are available.

       o      The year must be given in full to avoid confusion, and only years from 1900 to 2099
	      inclusive are matched.

       The  following  give  some obvious examples; users finding here a format they like and not
       subject to vagaries of style may skip the  full	description.   As  dates  and  times  are
       matched separately (even though the time may be embedded in the date), any date format may
       be mixed with any format for the time of day provide the separators are clear (whitespace,
       colons, commas).

	      2007/04/03 13:13
	      2007/04/03:13:13
	      2007/04/03 1:13 pm
	      3rd April 2007, 13:13
	      April 3rd 2007 1:13 p.m.
	      Apr 3, 2007 13:13
	      Tue Apr 03 13:13:00 2007
	      13:13 2007/apr/3

       More detailed rules follow.

       Times  are  parsed and extracted before dates.  They must use colons to separate hours and
       minutes, though a dot is allowed before seconds if they are  present.   This  limits  time
       formats to the following:

       o      HH:MM[:SS[.FFFFF]] [am|pm|a.m.|p.m.]

       o      HH:MM.SS[.FFFFF] [am|pm|a.m.|p.m.]

       Here,  square  brackets indicate optional elements, possibly with alternatives.	Fractions
       of a second are recognised but ignored.	For absolute times (the normal format require  by
       the  calendar file and the age function) a date is mandatory but a time of day is not; the
       time returned is at the start of the date.  One variation is allowed: if a.m. or  p.m.  or
       one of their variants is present, an hour without a minute is allowed, e.g. 3 p.m..

       Time  zones  are  not  handled, though if one is matched following a time specification it
       will be removed to allow a surrounding date to be parsed.  This only happens if the format
       of  the	timezone is not too unusual.  The following are examples of forms that are under-
       stood:

	      +0100
	      GMT
	      GMT-7
	      CET+1CDT

       Any part of the timezone that is not numeric must have exactly three  capital  letters  in
       the name.

       Dates suffer from the ambiguity between DD/MM/YYYY and MM/DD/YYYY.  It is recommended this
       form is avoided with purely numeric dates, but use  of  ordinals,  eg.  3rd/04/2007,  will
       resolve the ambiguity as the ordinal is always parsed as the day of the month.  Years must
       be four digits (and the first two must be 19 or 20); 03/04/08 is  not  recognised.   Other
       numbers may have leading zeroes, but they are not required.  The following are handled:

       o      YYYY/MM/DD

       o      YYYY-MM-DD

       o      YYYY/MNM/DD

       o      YYYY-MNM-DD

       o      DD[th|st|rd] MNM[,] [ YYYY ]

       o      MNM DD[th|st|rd][,] [ YYYY ]

       o      DD[th|st|rd]/MM[,] YYYY

       o      DD[th|st|rd]/MM/YYYY

       o      MM/DD[th|st|rd][,] YYYY

       o      MM/DD[th|st|rd]/YYYY

       Here, MNM is at least the first three letters of a month name, matched case-insensitively.
       The remainder of the month name may appear but its contents are irrelevant, so  janissary,
       febrile, martial, apricot, maybe, junta, etc. are happily handled.

       Where the year is shown as optional, the current year is assumed.  There are only two such
       cases, the form Jun 20 or 14 September (the only two commonly occurring forms, apart  from
       a  "the"  in  some forms of English, which isn't currently supported).  Such dates will of
       course become ambiguous in the future, so should ideally be avoided.

       Times may follow dates with a colon, e.g. 1965/07/12:09:45; this is in order to provide	a
       format  with  no  whitespace.  A comma and whitespace are allowed, e.g. 1965/07/12, 09:45.
       Currently the order of these separators is not  checked,  so  illogical	formats  such  as
       1965/07/12,  :  ,09:45 will also be matched.  For simplicity such variations are not shown
       in the list above.  Otherwise, a time is only recognised as being associated with  a  date
       if there is only whitespace in between, or if the time was embedded in the date.

       Days  of the week are not normally scanned, but will be ignored if they occur at the start
       of the date pattern only.  However, in contexts where it is useful to specify dates  rela-
       tive to today, days of the week with no other date specification may be given.  The day is
       assumed to be either today or within the past week.  Likewise, the words yesterday,  today
       and  tomorrow  are  handled.  All matches are case-insensitive.	Hence if today is Monday,
       then Sunday is equivalent to yesterday, Monday is equivalent to today, but Tuesday gives a
       date  six days ago.  This is not generally useful within the calendar file.  Dates in this
       format may be combined with a time specification; for example Tomorrow, 8 p.m..

       For example, the standard date format:

	      Fri Aug 18 17:00:48 BST 2006

       is handled by matching HH:MM:SS and removing it together with  the  matched  (but  unused)
       time zone.  This leaves the following:

	      Fri Aug 18 2006

       Fri is ignored and the rest is matched according to the standard rules.

   Relative Time Format
       In certain places relative times are handled.  Here, a date is not allowed; instead a com-
       bination of various supported periods are allowed, together with an  optional  time.   The
       periods must be in order from most to least significant.

       In some cases, a more accurate calculation is possible when there is an anchor date:  off-
       sets of months or years pick the correct day, rather than being rounded, and it is  possi-
       ble  to	pick  a  particular  day in a month as `(1st Friday)', etc., as described in more
       detail below.

       Anchors are available in the following cases.  If one or two times are passed to the func-
       tion  calendar,	the start time acts an anchor for the end time when the end time is rela-
       tive (even if the start time is implicit).  When examining calendar files,  the	scheduled
       event  being examined anchors the warning time when it is given explicitly by means of the
       WARN keyword; likewise, the scheduled event anchors a repetition period when given by  the
       RPT  keyword,  so that specifications such as RPT 2 months, 3rd Thursday are handled prop-
       erly.  Finally, the -R argument to calendar_scandate directly provides an anchor for rela-
       tive calculations.

       The periods handled, with possible abbreviations are:

       Years  years,  yrs,  ys,  year,	yr,  y, yearly.  A year is 365.25 days unless there is an
	      anchor.

       Months months, mons, mnths, mths, month, mon, mnth, mth, monthly.  Note that  m,  ms,  mn,
	      mns  are ambiguous and are not handled.  A month is a period of 30 days rather than
	      a calendar month unless there is an anchor.

       Weeks  weeks, wks, ws, week, wk, w, weekly

       Days   days, dys, ds, day, dy, d, daily

       Hours  hours, hrs, hs, hour, hr, h, hourly

       Minutes
	      minutes, mins, minute, min, but not m, ms, mn or mns

       Seconds
	      seconds, secs, ss, second, sec, s

       Spaces between the numbers are optional, but are required between items, although a  comma
       may be used (with or without spaces).

       The  forms  yearly  to  hourly allow the number to be omitted; it is assumed to be 1.  For
       example, 1 d and daily are equivalent.  Note that using those forms with plurals  is  con-
       fusing;	2 yearly