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       zshcontrib - user contributions to zsh

       The  Zsh source distribution includes a number of items contributed by the user community.
       These are not inherently a part of the shell, and some may not be available in  every  zsh
       installation.   The  most  significant of these are documented here.  For documentation on
       other contributed items such as shell functions, look for comments in the function  source

   Accessing On-Line Help
       The  key  sequence ESC h is normally bound by ZLE to execute the run-help widget (see zsh-
       zle(1)).  This invokes the run-help command with the command word from the  current  input
       line as its argument.  By default, run-help is an alias for the man command, so this often
       fails when the command word is a shell builtin or a user-defined function.  By  redefining
       the run-help alias, one can improve the on-line help provided by the shell.

       The  helpfiles utility, found in the Util directory of the distribution, is a Perl program
       that can be used to process the zsh manual to produce a separate help file for each  shell
       builtin	and  for  many other shell features as well.  The autoloadable run-help function,
       found in Functions/Misc, searches for these helpfiles and performs several other tests  to
       produce the most complete help possible for the command.

       There  may  already be a directory of help files on your system; look in /usr/share/zsh or
       /usr/local/share/zsh and subdirectories below those, or ask your system administrator.

       To create your own help files with helpfiles, choose or create a directory where the indi-
       vidual  command help files will reside.	For example, you might choose ~/zsh_help.  If you
       unpacked the zsh distribution in your home directory, you would use the commands:

	      mkdir ~/zsh_help
	      cd ~/zsh_help
	      man zshall | colcrt - | \
	      perl ~/zsh-5.0.2/Util/helpfiles

       Next, to use the run-help function, you need to add lines something like the following  to
       your .zshrc or equivalent startup file:

	      unalias run-help
	      autoload run-help

       The  HELPDIR  parameter	tells  run-help where to look for the help files.  If your system
       already has a help file directory installed, set HELPDIR to the	path  of  that	directory

       Note  that  in  order for `autoload run-help' to work, the run-help file must be in one of
       the directories named in your fpath array (see zshparam(1)).  This should already  be  the
       case  if  you have a standard zsh installation; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/run-help
       to an appropriate directory.

   Recompiling Functions
       If you frequently edit your zsh functions, or periodically update your zsh installation to
       track  the latest developments, you may find that function digests compiled with the zcom-
       pile builtin are frequently out of date with respect to the function source  files.   This
       is  not	usually  a  problem,  because zsh always looks for the newest file when loading a
       function, but it may cause slower shell startup and function loading.  Also, if	a  digest
       file  is explicitly used as an element of fpath, zsh won't check whether any of its source
       files has changed.

       The zrecompile autoloadable function, found in Functions/Misc, can be used to  keep  func-
       tion digests up to date.

       zrecompile [ -qt ] [ name ... ]
       zrecompile [ -qt ] -p args [ -- args ... ]
	      This tries to find *.zwc files and automatically re-compile them if at least one of
	      the original files is newer than the compiled file.  This works only if  the  names
	      stored  in  the compiled files are full paths or are relative to the directory that
	      contains the .zwc file.

	      In the first form, each name is the name of a compiled file or a directory contain-
	      ing *.zwc files that should be checked.  If no arguments are given, the directories
	      and *.zwc files in fpath are used.

	      When -t is given, no compilation is performed, but a return status of  zero  (true)
	      is  set  if there are files that need to be re-compiled and non-zero (false) other-
	      wise.  The -q option quiets the chatty output that  describes  what  zrecompile  is

	      Without the -t option, the return status is zero if all files that needed re-compi-
	      lation could be compiled and non-zero if compilation for at least one of the  files

	      If  the  -p  option is given, the args are interpreted as one or more sets of argu-
	      ments for zcompile, separated by `--'.  For example:

		     zrecompile -p \
				-R ~/.zshrc -- \
				-M ~/.zcompdump -- \
				~/zsh/comp.zwc ~/zsh/Completion/*/_*

	      This compiles ~/.zshrc into ~/.zshrc.zwc if that doesn't exist or if  it	is  older
	      than ~/.zshrc. The compiled file will be marked for reading instead of mapping. The
	      same is done for ~/.zcompdump and  ~/.zcompdump.zwc,  but  this  compiled  file  is
	      marked  for mapping. The last line re-creates the file ~/zsh/comp.zwc if any of the
	      files matching the given pattern is newer than it.

	      Without the -p option, zrecompile does not create  function  digests  that  do  not
	      already exist, nor does it add new functions to the digest.

       The  following  shell loop is an example of a method for creating function digests for all
       functions in your fpath, assuming that you have write permission to the directories:

	      for ((i=1; i <= $#fpath; ++i)); do
		if [[ $dir == (.|..) || $dir == (.|..)/* ]]; then
		if [[ -w $dir:h && -n $files ]]; then
		  if ( cd $dir:h &&
		       zrecompile -p -U -z $zwc $files ); then

       The -U and -z options are appropriate for functions in the default zsh installation fpath;
       you may need to use different options for your personal function directories.

       Once  the digests have been created and your fpath modified to refer to them, you can keep
       them up to date by running zrecompile with no arguments.

   Keyboard Definition
       The large number of possible combinations of keyboards,	workstations,  terminals,  emula-
       tors,  and  window  systems  makes it impossible for zsh to have built-in key bindings for
       every situation.  The zkbd utility, found in Functions/Misc, can help you  quickly  create
       key bindings for your configuration.

       Run zkbd either as an autoloaded function, or as a shell script:

	      zsh -f ~/zsh-5.0.2/Functions/Misc/zkbd

       When you run zkbd, it first asks you to enter your terminal type; if the default it offers
       is correct, just press return.  It then asks you to press a number of  different  keys  to
       determine  characteristics  of your keyboard and terminal; zkbd warns you if it finds any-
       thing out of the ordinary, such as a Delete key that sends neither ^H nor ^?.

       The keystrokes read by zkbd are recorded as a definition for an	associative  array  named
       key, written to a file in the subdirectory .zkbd within either your HOME or ZDOTDIR direc-
       tory.  The name of the file is composed from  the  TERM,  VENDOR  and  OSTYPE  parameters,
       joined by hyphens.

       You  may  read this file into your .zshrc or another startup file with the `source' or `.'
       commands, then reference the key parameter in bindkey commands, like this:

	      source ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.zkbd/$TERM-$VENDOR-$OSTYPE
	      [[ -n ${key[Left]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Left]}" backward-char
	      [[ -n ${key[Right]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Right]}" forward-char
	      # etc.

       Note that in order for `autoload zkbd' to work, the zkdb file must be in one of the direc-
       tories  named  in  your fpath array (see zshparam(1)).  This should already be the case if
       you have a standard zsh installation; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/zkbd to an  appro-
       priate directory.

   Dumping Shell State
       Occasionally  you may encounter what appears to be a bug in the shell, particularly if you
       are using a beta version of zsh or a development release.  Usually  it  is  sufficient  to
       send  a description of the problem to one of the zsh mailing lists (see zsh(1)), but some-
       times one of the zsh developers will need to recreate your environment in order	to  track
       the problem down.

       The  script  named  reporter, found in the Util directory of the distribution, is provided
       for this purpose.  (It is  also	possible  to  autoload	reporter,  but	reporter  is  not
       installed  in  fpath by default.)  This script outputs a detailed dump of the shell state,
       in the form of another script that can be read with `zsh -f' to recreate that state.

       To use reporter, read the script into your shell with the `.'  command  and  redirect  the
       output into a file:

	      . ~/zsh-5.0.2/Util/reporter > zsh.report

       You  should  check the zsh.report file for any sensitive information such as passwords and
       delete them by hand before sending the script to the developers.  Also, as the output  can
       be  voluminous,	it's  best  to wait for the developers to ask for this information before
       sending it.

       You can also use reporter to dump only a subset of the shell  state.   This  is	sometimes
       useful for creating startup files for the first time.  Most of the output from reporter is
       far more detailed than usually is necessary for a startup file, but the aliases,  options,
       and zstyles states may be useful because they include only changes from the defaults.  The
       bindings state may be useful if you have created any of your own keymaps, because reporter
       arranges to dump the keymap creation commands as well as the bindings for every keymap.

       As  is  usual with automated tools, if you create a startup file with reporter, you should
       edit the results to remove unnecessary commands.  Note that if you're using the	new  com-
       pletion	system,  you  should  not  dump  the  functions  state to your startup files with
       reporter; use the compdump function instead (see zshcompsys(1)).

       reporter [ state ... ]
	      Print to standard output the indicated subset of	the  current  shell  state.   The
	      state arguments may be one or more of:

	      all    Output everything listed below.
		     Output alias definitions.
		     Output ZLE key maps and bindings.
		     Output  old-style	compctl commands.  New completion is covered by functions
		     and zstyles.
		     Output autoloads and function definitions.
	      limits Output limit commands.
		     Output setopt commands.
	      styles Same as zstyles.
		     Output shell parameter assignments, plus export commands for any environment
		     Output zstyle commands.

	      If the state is omitted, all is assumed.

       With  the  exception of `all', every state can be abbreviated by any prefix, even a single
       letter; thus a is the same as aliases, z is the same as zstyles, etc.

   Manipulating Hook Functions
       add-zsh-hook [-dD] hook function
	      Several functions are special to the shell, as described	in  the  section  SPECIAL
	      FUNCTIONS,  see  zshmisc(1),  in that they are automatic called at a specific point
	      during shell execution.  Each has an associated array consisting of names of  func-
	      tions  to  be  called at the same point; these are so-called `hook functions'.  The
	      shell function add-zsh-hook provides a simple way of adding or  removing	functions
	      from the array.

	      hook  is	one  of  chpwd,  periodic,  precmd,  preexec,  zshaddhistory, zshexit, or
	      zsh_directory_name, the  special	functions  in  question.   Note  that  zsh_direc-
	      tory_name  is  called in a different way from the other functions, but may still be
	      manipulated as a hook.

	      function is name of an ordinary shell function.  If no options are given this  will
	      be added to the array of functions to be executed in the given context.

	      If  the  option -d is given, the function is removed from the array of functions to
	      be executed.

	      If the option -D is given, the function is treated as a pattern  and  any  matching
	      names of functions are removed from the array of functions to be executed.

	      The  options  -U,  -z and -k are passed as arguments to autoload for function.  For
	      functions contributed with zsh, the options -Uz are appropriate.

       The function cdr allows you to change the working directory to a previous  working  direc-
       tory  from  a  list  maintained	automatically.	It is similar in concept to the directory
       stack controlled by the pushd, popd and dirs builtins, but is more configurable, and as it
       stores all entries in files it is maintained across sessions and (by default) between ter-
       minal emulators in the current session.	(The pushd directory stack is not actually  modi-
       fied  or  used  by  cdr unless you configure it to do so as described in the configuration
       section below.)

       The system works by means of a hook function that  is  called  every  time  the	directory
       changes.   To install the system, autoload the required functions and use the add-zsh-hook
       function described above:

	      autoload -Uz chpwd_recent_dirs cdr add-zsh-hook
	      add-zsh-hook chpwd chpwd_recent_dirs

       Now every time you change directly interactively, no matter which  command  you	use,  the
       directory to which you change will be remembered in most-recent-first order.

       All direct user interaction is via the cdr function.

       The argument to cdr is a number N corresponding to the Nth most recently changed-to direc-
       tory.  1 is the immediately preceding directory; the current directory is  remembered  but
       is  not offered as a destination.  Note that if you have multiple windows open 1 may refer
       to a directory changed to in another window; you can avoid  this  by  having  per-terminal
       files for storing directory as described for the recent-dirs-file style below.

       If you set the recent-dirs-default style described below cdr will behave the same as cd if
       given a non-numeric argument, or more than one argument.  The  recent  directory  list  is
       updated just the same however you change directory.

       If  the	argument is omitted, 1 is assumed.  This is similar to pushd's behaviour of swap-
       ping the two most recent directories on the stack.

       Completion for the argument to cdr is available if compinit has been run;  menu	selection
       is recommended, using:

	      zstyle ':completion:*:*:cdr:*:*' menu selection

       to  allow  you  to  cycle through recent directories; the order is preserved, so the first
       choice is the most recent directory before the current one.  The  verbose  style  is  also
       recommended  to ensure the directory is shown; this style is on by default so no action is
       required unless you have changed it.

       The behaviour of cdr may be modified by the following options.

       -l     lists the numbers and the corresponding directories in abbreviated form (i.e.  with
	      ~ substitution reapplied), one per line.	The directories here are not quoted (this
	      would only be an issue if a directory name contained a newline).	This is  used  by
	      the completion system.

       -r     sets  the variable reply to the current set of directories.  Nothing is printed and
	      the directory is not changed.

       -e     allows you to edit the list of directories, one per line.  The list can  be  edited
	      to  any extent you like; no sanity checking is performed.  Completion is available.
	      No quoting is necessary (except for newlines, where I have in any  case  no  sympa-
	      thy); directories are in unabbreviated from and contain an absolute path, i.e. they
	      start with /.  Usually the first entry should be left as the current directory.

       Configuration is by means of the styles mechanism that should be familiar from completion;
       if  not,  see the description of the zstyle command in see zshmodules(1).  The context for
       setting styles should be ':chpwd:*' in case the meaning of  the	context  is  extended  in
       future, for example:

	      zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-max 0

       sets  the value of the recent-dirs-max style to 0.  In practice the style name is specific
       enough that a context of '*' should be fine.

       An exception is recent-dirs-insert, which is used exclusively by the completion system and
       so  has	the  usual completion system context (':completion:*' if nothing more specific is
       needed), though again '*' should be fine in practice.

	      If true, and the command is expecting a recent directory index, and either there is
	      more  than  one  argument  or  the argument is not an integer, then fall through to
	      "cd".  This allows the lazy to use only one command for directory  changing.   Com-
	      pletion  recognises this, too; see recent-dirs-insert for how to control completion
	      when this option is in use.

	      The file	where  the  list  of  directories  is  saved.	The  default  is  ${ZDOT-
	      DIR:-$HOME}/.chpwd-recent-dirs, i.e. this is in your home directory unless you have
	      set the variable ZDOTDIR to point somewhere else.  Directory  names  are	saved  in
	      $'...'  quoted form, so each line in the file can be supplied directly to the shell
	      as an argument.

	      The value of this style may be an array.	In this case, the first file in the  list
	      will  always  be	used  for  saving  directories	while  any  other  files are left
	      untouched.  When reading the recent directory list, if there  are  fewer	than  the
	      maximum  number  of  entries  in the first file, the contents of later files in the
	      array will be appended with duplicates removed from the list shown.   The  contents
	      of  the  two  files are not sorted together, i.e. all the entries in the first file
	      are shown first.	The special value + can  appear  in  the  list	to  indicate  the
	      default file should be read at that point.  This allows effects like the following:

		     zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file \
		     ~/.chpwd-recent-dirs-${TTY##*/} +

	      Recent  directories  are	read  from a file numbered according to the terminal.  If
	      there are insufficient entries the list is supplemented from the default file.

	      It is possible to use zstyle -e to make the directory configurable at run time:

		     zstyle -e ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file pick-recent-dirs-file
		     pick-recent-dirs-file() {
		       if [[ $PWD = ~/text/writing(|/*) ]]; then

	      In this example, if the current directory is ~/text/writing or  a  directory  under
	      it, then use a special file for saving recent directories, else use the default.

	      Used  by	completion.   If  recent-dirs-default  is true, then setting this to true
	      causes the actual directory, rather than its index, to be inserted on  the  command
	      line; this has the same effect as using the corresponding index, but makes the his-
	      tory clearer and the line easier to edit.  With this setting, if part of	an  argu-
	      ment  was  already  typed, normal directory completion rather than recent directory
	      completion is done; this is because recent directory completion is expected  to  be
	      done by cycling through entries menu fashion.

	      If  the  value  of  the  style is always, then only recent directories will be com-
	      pleted; in that case, use the cd command when you want to complete  other  directo-

	      If  the  value  is  fallback,  recent  directories will be tried first, then normal
	      directory completion is performed if recent directory completion failed to  find	a

	      Finally,	if  the  value	is  both then both sets of completions are presented; the
	      usual tag mechanism can be used to distinguish  results,	with  recent  directories
	      tagged  as  recent-dirs.	Note that the recent directories inserted are abbreviated
	      with directory names where appropriate.

	      The maximum number of directories to save to the file.  If this is zero or negative
	      there is no maximum.  The default is 20.	Note this includes the current directory,
	      which isn't offered, so the highest number of directories you will  be  offered  is
	      one less than the maximum.

	      This style is an array determining what directories should (or should not) be added
	      to the recent list.  Elements of the array can include:

	      parent Prune parents  (more  accurately,	ancestors)  from  the  recent  list.   If
		     present, changing directly down by any number of directories causes the cur-
		     rent directory to be  overwritten.   For  example,  changing  from  ~pws  to
		     ~pws/some/other/dir  causes  ~pws	not  to  be  left on the recent directory
		     stack.  This only applies to direct changes to descendant directories;  ear-
		     lier  directories	on  the  list are not pruned.  For example, changing from
		     ~pws/yet/another to ~pws/some/other/dir does not cause ~pws to be pruned.

		     Gives a zsh pattern for directories that should not be added to  the  recent
		     list  (if not already there).  This element can be repeated to add different
		     patterns.	For example, 'pattern:/tmp(|/*)' stops /tmp  or  its  descendants
		     from  being  added.   The EXTENDED_GLOB option is always turned on for these

	      If set to true, cdr will use pushd instead of cd to change the  directory,  so  the
	      directory  is  saved  on the directory stack.  As the directory stack is completely
	      separate from the list of files saved by the mechanism used in this file	there  is
	      no obvious reason to do this.

   Use with dynamic directory naming
       It  is  possible to refer to recent directories using the dynamic directory name syntax by
       using the supplied function zsh_directory_name_cdr a hook:

	      autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook
	      add-zsh-hook -Uz zsh_directory_name zsh_directory_name_cdr

       When this is done, ~[1] will refer to the most recent directory other than  $PWD,  and  so
       on.  Completion after ~[...  also works.

   Details of directory handling
       This  section is for the curious or confused; most users will not need to know this infor-

       Recent directories are saved to a file immediately and hence  are  preserved  across  ses-
       sions.	Note  currently  no  file  locking is applied: the list is updated immediately on
       interactive commands and nowhere else (unlike history), and it is  assumed  you	are  only
       going to change directory in one window at once.  This is not safe on shared accounts, but
       in any case the system has limited utility when someone else is changing  to  a	different
       set of directories behind your back.

       To  make  this  a  little  safer, only directory changes instituted from the command line,
       either directly or indirectly through shell function calls  (but  not  through  subshells,
       evals, traps, completion functions and the like) are saved.  Shell functions should use cd
       -q or pushd -q to avoid side effects if the change to the directory is to be invisible  at
       the command line.  See the contents of the function chpwd_recent_dirs for more details.

       In  a  lot of cases, it is nice to automatically retrieve information from version control
       systems (VCSs), such as subversion, CVS or git, to be able to provide it to the user; pos-
       sibly  in the user's prompt. So that you can instantly tell which branch you are currently
       on, for example.

       In order to do that, you may use the vcs_info function.

       The following VCSs are supported, showing the abbreviated name by which they are  referred
       to within the system:
       Bazaar (bzr)
       Codeville (cdv)
       Concurrent Versioning System (cvs)
       Darcs (darcs)
       Fossil (fossil)
       Git (git)
       GNU arch (tla)
       Mercurial (hg)
       Monotone (mtn)
       Perforce (p4)
       Subversion (svn)
       SVK (svk)

       There   is   also   support   for   the	 patch	management  system  quilt  (http://savan-
       nah.nongnu.org/projects/quilt). See Quilt Support below for details.

       To load vcs_info:

	      autoload -Uz vcs_info

       It can be used in any existing prompt, because it does not require any $psvar  entries  to
       be left available.

       To  get	this feature working quickly (including colors), you can do the following (assum-
       ing, you loaded vcs_info properly - see above):

	      zstyle ':vcs_info:*' actionformats \
		  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{3}|%F{1}%a%F{5}]%f '
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:*' formats	 \
		  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{5}]%f '
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:(sv[nk]|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%F{1}:%F{3}%r'
	      precmd () { vcs_info }
	      PS1='%F{5}[%F{2}%n%F{5}] %F{3}%3~ ${vcs_info_msg_0_}%f%# '

       Obviously, the last two lines are there for demonstration. You need to call vcs_info  from
       your  precmd  function. Once that is done you need a single quoted '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' in
       your prompt.

       To be able to use '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' directly in your prompt like this, you will need to
       have the PROMPT_SUBST option enabled.

       Now call the vcs_info_printsys utility from the command line:

	      % vcs_info_printsys
	      ## list of supported version control backends:
	      ## disabled systems are prefixed by a hash sign (#)
	      ## flavours (cannot be used in the enable or disable styles; they
	      ## are enabled and disabled with their master [git-svn -> git])
	      ## they *can* be used in contexts: ':vcs_info:git-svn:*'.

       You may not want all of these because there is no point in running the code to detect sys-
       tems you do not use.  So there is a way to disable some backends altogether:

	      zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr cdv darcs mtn svk tla

       You may also pick a few from that list and enable only those:

	      zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable git cvs svn

       If you rerun vcs_info_printsys after one of these commands,  you  will  see  the  backends
       listed  in  the	disable  style	(or  backends not in the enable style - if you used that)
       marked as disabled by a hash sign.  That means the detection of these systems  is  skipped
       completely. No wasted time there.

       The vcs_info feature can be configured via zstyle.

       First, the context in which we are working:

	      is one of: git, git-svn, git-p4, hg, hg-git, hg-hgsubversion, hg-hgsvn, darcs, bzr,
	      cdv, mtn, svn, cvs, svk, tla, p4 or fossil. When hooks are active the hooks name is
	      added after a `+'. (See Hooks in vcs_info below.)

	      is  a  freely  configurable string, assignable by the user as the first argument to
	      vcs_info (see its description below).

	      is the name of a repository in which you want a style to match. So, if you  want	a
	      setting  specific  to  /usr/src/zsh,  with  that	being a CVS checkout, you can set
	      repo-root-name to zsh to make it so.

       There are three special values for vcs-string: The first  is  named  -init-,  that  is  in
       effect  as long as there was no decision what VCS backend to use. The second is -preinit-;
       it is used before vcs_info is run, when initializing the  data  exporting  variables.  The
       third  special  value  is  formats  and is used by the vcs_info_lastmsg for looking up its

       The initial value of repo-root-name is -all- and it is replaced with the actual	name,  as
       soon  as  it is known. Only use this part of the context for defining the formats, action-
       formats or branchformat styles, as it is guaranteed that repo-root-name	is  set  up  cor-
       rectly for these only. For all other styles, just use '*' instead.

       There are two pre-defined values for user-context:
	      the one used if none is specified
	      used by vcs_info_lastmsg to lookup its styles

       You can of course use ':vcs_info:*' to match all VCSs in all user-contexts at once.

       This is a description of all styles that are looked up.

	      A list of formats, used when actionformats is not used (which is most of the time).

	      A  list  of  formats,  used  if  there is a special action going on in your current
	      repository; like an interactive rebase or a merge conflict.

	      Some backends replace %b in the formats and actionformats styles above, not only by
	      a  branch  name  but also by a revision number. This style lets you modify how that
	      string should look.

	      These "formats" are exported when we didn't detect a version control system for the
	      current  directory or vcs_info was disabled. This is useful if you want vcs_info to
	      completely take over the generation of your prompt. You  would  do  something  like
	      PS1='${vcs_info_msg_0_}' to accomplish that.

	      hg  uses	both  a hash and a revision number to reference a specific changeset in a
	      repository. With this style you can format the revision string  (see  branchformat)
	      to  include  either  or both. It's only useful when get-revision is true. Note, the
	      full 40-character revision id is not available (except when  using  the  use-simple
	      option) because executing hg more than once per prompt is too slow; you may custom-
	      ize this behavior using hooks.

	      Defines the maximum number of vcs_info_msg_*_ variables vcs_info will export.

       enable A list of backends you want to use. Checked in the -init-  context.  If  this  list
	      contains	an  item called NONE no backend is used at all and vcs_info will do noth-
	      ing. If this list contains ALL, vcs_info will use all known backends. Only with ALL
	      in  enable  will	the disable style have any effect. ALL and NONE are case insensi-

	      A list of VCSs you don't want vcs_info to test for  repositories	(checked  in  the
	      -init- context, too). Only used if enable contains ALL.

	      A  list  of  patterns that are checked against $PWD. If a pattern matches, vcs_info
	      will be disabled. This style is checked in the :vcs_info:-init-:*:-all- context.

	      Say, ~/.zsh is a directory under version control, in which you do not want vcs_info
	      to be active, do:
		     zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable-patterns "$HOME/.zsh(|/*)"

	      If  enabled,  the  quilt support code is active in `addon' mode.	See Quilt Support
	      for details.

	      If enabled, `standalone' mode detection is attempted if no VCS is active in a given
	      directory. See Quilt Support for details.

	      Overwrite  the  value of the $QUILT_PATCHES environment variable. See Quilt Support
	      for details.

	      When quilt itself is called in quilt support the value of this style is used as the
	      command name.

	      If enabled, this style causes the %c and %u format escapes to show when the working
	      directory has uncommitted changes. The strings displayed by these  escapes  can  be
	      controlled  via  the  stagedstr and unstagedstr styles. The only backends that cur-
	      rently support this option are git and hg (hg only supports unstaged).

	      For this style to be evaluated with the hg backend, the get-revision style needs to
	      be  set  and the use-simple style needs to be unset. The latter is the default; the
	      former is not.

	      Note, the actions taken if this style is enabled are potentially	expensive  (read:
	      they  may  be slow, depending on how big the current repository is).  Therefore, it
	      is disabled by default.

	      This string will be used in the %c escape if there are staged changes in the repos-

	      This  string  will  be  used  in the %u escape if there are unstaged changes in the

	      This style causes vcs_info to use the supplied string as the command to use as  the
	      VCS's binary. Note, that setting this in ':vcs_info:*' is not a good idea.

	      If the value of this style is empty (which is the default), the used binary name is
	      the name of the backend in use (e.g. svn is used in an svn repository).

	      The repo-root-name part in the context is always the default -all- when this  style
	      is looked up.

	      For  example,  this style can be used to use binaries from non-default installation
	      directories. Assume, git is installed in /usr/bin but  your  sysadmin  installed	a
	      newer version in /usr/bin/local. Instead of changing the order of your $PATH param-
	      eter, you can do this:
		     zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*:-all-' command /usr/local/bin/git

	      This is used by the Perforce backend (p4) to decide if it should contact	the  Per-
	      force  server  to find out if a directory is managed by Perforce.  This is the only
	      reliable way of doing this, but runs the risk of a delay if the server name  cannot
	      be  found.   If  the  server  (more specifically, the host:port pair describing the
	      server)  cannot  be  contacted,  its  name  is  put  into  the  associative   array
	      vcs_info_p4_dead_servers	and is not contacted again during the session until it is
	      removed by hand.	If you do not set this style, the p4 backend is  only  usable  if
	      you  have set the environment variable P4CONFIG to a file name and have correspond-
	      ing files in the root directories of each Perforce client.   See	comments  in  the
	      function VCS_INFO_detect_p4 for more detail.

	      If  there  are two different ways of gathering information, you can select the sim-
	      pler one by setting this style to true; the default is to use  the  not-that-simple
	      code,  which is potentially a lot slower but might be more accurate in all possible
	      cases. This style is used by the bzr and hg backends. In the case  of  hg  it  will
	      invoke  the  external hexdump program to parse the binary dirstate cache file; this
	      method will not return the local revision number.

	      If set to true, vcs_info goes the extra mile to figure out the revision of a repos-
	      itory's work tree (currently for the git and hg backends, where this kind of infor-
	      mation is not always vital). For git, the hash value of the currently  checked  out
	      commit  is  available  via the %i expansion. With hg, the local revision number and
	      the corresponding global hash are available via %i.

       get-mq If set to true, the hg backend will look for a Mercurial Queue  (mq)  patch  direc-
	      tory. Information will be available via the `%m' replacement.

	      If  set  to  true, the hg backend will try to get a list of current bookmarks. They
	      will be available via the `%m' replacement.

	      Determines if we assume that the assembled string  from  vcs_info  includes  prompt
	      escapes. (Used by vcs_info_lastmsg.)

       debug  Enable  debugging  output  to track possible problems. Currently this style is only
	      used by vcs_info's hooks system.

       hooks  A list style that defines hook-function names. See  Hooks  in  vcs_info  below  for

       The default values for these styles in all contexts are:

	      " (%s)-[%b]%u%c-"
	      " (%s)-[%b|%a]%u%c-"
	      "%b:%r" (for bzr, svn, svk and hg)
       enable ALL
	      (empty list)
	      (empty list)
	      (string: "S")
	      (string: "U")
	      (empty string)
       get-mq true
       debug  false
       hooks  (empty list)
	      empty - use $QUILT_PATCHES

       In normal formats and actionformats the following replacements are done:

       %s     The VCS in use (git, hg, svn, etc.).
       %b     Information about the current branch.
       %a     An identifier that describes the action. Only makes sense in actionformats.
       %i     The current revision number or identifier. For hg the hgrevformat style may be used
	      to customize the output.
       %c     The string from the stagedstr style if there are staged changes in the repository.
       %u     The string from the unstagedstr style if there are unstaged changes in the  reposi-
       %R     The base directory of the repository.
       %r     The repository name. If %R is /foo/bar/repoXY, %r is repoXY.
       %S     A  subdirectory  within  a repository. If $PWD is /foo/bar/repoXY/beer/tasty, %S is
       %m     A "misc" replacement. It is at the discretion of the backend to  decide  what  this
	      replacement  expands to. It is currently used by the hg and git backends to display
	      patch information from the mq and stgit extensions.

       In branchformat these replacements are done:

       %b     The branch name.
       %r     The current revision number or the hgrevformat style for hg.

       In hgrevformat these replacements are done:

       %r     The current local revision number.
       %h     The current global revision identifier.

       In patch-format and nopatch-format these replacements are done:

       %p     The name of the top-most applied patch (applied-string).
       %u     The number of unapplied patches (unapplied-string).
       %n     The number of applied patches.
       %c     The number of unapplied patches.
       %a     The number of all patches.
       %g     The names of active mq guards (hg backend).
       %G     The number of active mq guards (hg backend).

       Not all VCS backends have to support all replacements. For nvcsformats no replacements are
       performed at all, it is just a string.

       If you want to use the %b (bold off) prompt expansion in formats, which expands %b itself,
       use %%b. That will cause the vcs_info expansion to replace %%b  with  %b,  so  that  zsh's
       prompt  expansion  mechanism  can handle it. Similarly, to hand down %b from branchformat,
       use %%%%b. Sorry for this inconvenience, but it cannot be easily avoided.  Luckily  we  do
       not clash with a lot of prompt expansions and this only needs to be done for those.

   Quilt Support
       Quilt  is not a version control system, therefore this is not implemented as a backend. It
       can help keeping track of a series of patches. People use it to keep a set of changes they
       want  to  use  on  top  of software packages (which is tightly integrated into the package
       build process - the Debian project does this for a large number of  packages).  Quilt  can
       also  help  individual  developers  keep track of their own patches on top of real version
       control systems.

       The vcs_info integration tries to support both ways of using quilt by having two  slightly
       different modes of operation: `addon' mode and `standalone' mode).

       For  `addon' mode to become active vcs_info must have already detected a real version con-
       trol system controlling the directory. If that is the case, a directory that holds quilt's
       patches needs to be found. That directory is configurable via the `QUILT_PATCHES' environ-
       ment variable. If that variable exists its value is used, otherwise the value `patches' is
       assumed. The value from $QUILT_PATCHES can be overwritten using the `quilt-patches' style.
       (Note: you can use vcs_info to keep the value of $QUILT_PATCHES correct all the	time  via
       the post-quilt hook).

       When  the  directory  in  question is found, quilt is assumed to be active. To gather more
       information, vcs_info looks for a directory called `.pc'; Quilt	uses  that  directory  to
       track  its current state. If this directory does not exist we know that quilt has not done
       anything to the working directory (read: no patches have been applied yet).

       If patches are applied, vcs_info will try to find out which. If you  want  to  know  which
       patches	of  a series are not yet applied, you need to activate the get-unapplied style in
       the appropriate context.

       vcs_info allows for very detailed control over how the gathered information  is	presented
       (see the below sections, Styles and Hooks in vcs_info), all of which are documented below.
       Note there are a number of other patch tracking systems that work on top of a certain ver-
       sion control system (like stgit for git, or mq for hg); the configuration for systems like
       that are generally configured the same way as the quilt support.

       If the quilt support is working in `addon' mode, the produced string  is  available  as	a
       simple  format replacement (%Q to be precise), which can be used in formats and actionfor-
       mats; see below for details).

       If, on the other hand, the support code is working in  `standalone'  mode,  vcs_info  will
       pretend	as  if	quilt  were an actual version control system. That means that the version
       control system identifier (which otherwise would be something like `svn' or `cvs') will be
       set to `-quilt-'. This has implications on the used style context where this identifier is
       the second element. vcs_info will have filled in a proper  value  for  the  "repository's"
       root  directory	and  the  string  containing  the information about quilt's state will be
       available as the `misc' replacement (and %Q for compatibility with `addon' mode.

       What is left to discuss is how `standalone' mode is detected. The detection  itself  is	a
       series  of  searches  for directories. You can have this detection enabled all the time in
       every directory that is not otherwise under version control. If you know there is  only	a
       limited	set  of  trees where you would like vcs_info to try and look for Quilt in `stand-
       alone' mode to minimise the amount of searching on every call to  vcs_info,  there  are	a
       number of ways to do that:

       Essentially,  `standalone'  mode  detection  is controlled by a style called `quilt-stand-
       alone'. It is a string style and its value can have different effects. The simplest values
       are:  `always' to run detection every time vcs_info is run, and `never' to turn the detec-
       tion off entirely.

       If the value of quilt-standalone is something else, it is interpreted differently. If  the
       value  is  the  name  of  a scalar variable the value of that variable is checked and that
       value is used in the same `always'/`never' way as described above.

       If the value of quilt-standalone is an array, the elements  of  that  array  are  used  as
       directory names under which you want the detection to be active.

       If  quilt-standalone  is an associative array, the keys are taken as directory names under
       which you want the detection to be active, but only if  the  corresponding  value  is  the
       string `true'.

       Last, but not least, if the value of quilt-standalone is the name of a function, the func-
       tion is called without arguments and the return value decides whether detection should  be
       active. A `0' return value is true; a non-zero return value is interpreted as false.

       Note,  if  there  is  both  a function and a variable by the name of quilt-standalone, the
       function will take precedence.

   Function Descriptions (Public API)
       vcs_info [user-context]
	      The  main  function,  that  runs	all  backends  and  assembles	all   data   into
	      ${vcs_info_msg_*_}.  This  is the function you want to call from precmd if you want
	      to include up-to-date information in your prompt (see Variable description  below).
	      If  an  argument	is  given,  that  string  will	be used instead of default in the
	      user-context field of the style context.

	      Statically registers a number of functions to a given hook. The hook  needs  to  be
	      given  as the first argument; what follows is a list of hook-function names to reg-
	      ister to the hook. The `+vi-' prefix needs to  be  left  out  here.  See	Hooks  in
	      vcs_info below for details.

	      Remove  hook-functions  from  a given hook. The hook needs to be given as the first
	      non-option argument; what follows is a list of hook-function names  to  un-register
	      from  the  hook. If `-a' is used as the first argument, all occurances of the func-
	      tions are unregistered. Otherwise only the last occurance is removed (if a function
	      was  registered  to a hook more than once) . The `+vi-' prefix needs to be left out
	      here. See Hooks in vcs_info below for details.

	      Outputs the last ${vcs_info_msg_*_} value.  Takes into account  the  value  of  the
	      use-prompt-escapes  style in ':vcs_info:formats:command:-all-'. It also only prints
	      max-exports values.

       vcs_info_printsys [user-context]
	      Prints a list of all supported version control systems. Useful to find out possible
	      contexts (and which of them are enabled) or values for the disable style.

	      Initializes vcs_info's internal list of available backends. With this function, you
	      can add support for new VCSs without restarting the shell.

       All functions named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Variable Description
       ${vcs_info_msg_N_} (Note the trailing underscore)
	      Where N is an integer, e.g., vcs_info_msg_0_. These variables are the  storage  for
	      the  informational message the last vcs_info call has assembled. These are strongly
	      connected to the formats, actionformats and  nvcsformats	styles	described  above.
	      Those  styles  are  lists.  The  first  member  of  that	list  gets  expanded into
	      ${vcs_info_msg_0_},  the	second	into  ${vcs_info_msg_1_}   and	 the   Nth   into
	      ${vcs_info_msg_N-1_}.  These parameters are exported into the environment. (See the
	      max-exports style above.)

       All variables named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Hooks in vcs_info
       Hooks are places in vcs_info where you can run your own code. That  code  can  communicate
       with the code that called it and through that, change the system's behaviour.

       For configuration, hooks change the style context:

       To register functions to a hook, you need to list them in the hooks style in the appropri-
       ate context.

	      zstyle ':vcs_info:*+foo:*' hooks bar baz

       This registers functions to the hook `foo' for all backends. In order to  avoid	namespace
       problems, all registered function names are prepended by a `+vi-', so the actual functions
       called for the `foo' hook are `+vi-bar' and `+vi-baz'.

       If you would like to register a function to a hook regardless of the current context,  you
       may  use the vcs_info_hookadd function. To remove a function that was added like that, the
       vcs_info_hookdel function can be used.

       If something seems weird, you can enable the `debug' boolean style in the  proper  context
       and  the hook-calling code will print what it tried to execute and whether the function in
       question existed.

       When you register more than one function to a hook, all functions are executed  one  after
       another	until one function returns non-zero or until all functions have been called. Con-
       text-sensitive hook functions are executed before statically  registered  ones  (the  ones
       added by vcs_info_hookadd).

       You may pass data between functions via an associative array, user_data.  For example:
		  # do something with ${user_data[myval]}

       There are a number of variables that are special in hook contexts:

       ret    The return value that the hooks system will return to the caller. The default is an
	      integer `zero'. If and how a changed ret value changes the execution of the  caller
	      depends on the specific hook. See the hook documentation below for details.

	      An  associated  array which is used for bidirectional communication from the caller
	      to hook functions. The used keys depend on the specific hook.

	      The active context of the hook. Functions that wish to change this variable  should
	      make it local scope first.

       vcs    The  current  VCS  after	it was detected. The same values as in the enable/disable
	      style are used. Available in all hooks except start-up.

       Finally, the full list of currently available hooks:

	      Called after starting vcs_info but before the VCS in this directory is  determined.
	      It  can be used to deactivate vcs_info temporarily if necessary. When ret is set to
	      1, vcs_info aborts and does nothing; when set to 2, vcs_info sets up everything  as
	      if no version control were active and exits.

	      Same as start-up but after the VCS was detected.

	      Called  in the Mercurial backend when a bookmark string is generated; the get-revi-
	      sion and get-bookmarks styles must be true.

	      This hook gets the names of the Mercurial bookmarks that	vcs_info  collected  from

	      When setting ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[hg-bookmark-string]} will be
	      used in the %m escape in formats and actionformats and  will  be	availabe  in  the
	      global backend_misc array as ${backend_misc[bookmarks]}.

	      Called in the git (with stgit), and hg (with mq) backends and in quilt support when
	      the applied-string is generated; the use-quilt zstyle must be true for  quilt  (the
	      mq and stgit backends are active by default).

	      This  hook gets the names of all applied patches which vcs_info collected so far in
	      the opposite order, which means that the first argument is the top-most  patch  and
	      so forth.

	      When  setting  ret  to  non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[applied-string]} will be
	      used in the %m escape in formats and actionformats; it will  be  available  in  the
	      global  backend_misc  array as $backend_misc[patches]}; and it will be available as
	      %p in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

	      Called in the git (with stgit), and hg (with mq) backend and in quilt support  when
	      the unapplied-string is generated; the get-unapplied style must be true.

	      This  hook  gets the names of all unapplied patches which vcs_info collected so far
	      in the opposite order, which mean that the first argument is the patch next-in-line
	      to be applied and so forth.

	      When  setting  ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[unapplied-string]} will be
	      available as %u in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

	      Called in the hg backend when guards-string is generated; the get-mq style must  be
	      true (default).

	      This hook gets the names of any active mq guards.

	      When setting ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[guards-string]} will be used
	      in the %g escape in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

       no-vcs This hooks is called when no version control system was detected.

	      The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

	      Called after the quilt support is done. The  following  information  is  passed  as
	      arguments  to the hook: 1. the quilt-support mode (`addon' or `standalone'); 2. the
	      directory that contains the patch series; 3. the directory that holds quilt's  sta-
	      tus  information	(the  `.pc'  directory)  or the string "-nopc-" if that directory
	      wasn't found.

	      The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

	      Called before `branchformat' is set. The only argument to the hook  is  the  format
	      that is configured at this point.

	      The  `hook_com'  keys  considered are `branch' and `revision'.  They are set to the
	      values figured out so far by vcs_info and any change will be used directly when the
	      actual replacement is done.

	      If  ret  is set to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[branch-replace]} will be used
	      unchanged as the `%b' replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

	      Called before a `hgrevformat' is set. The only argument to the hook is  the  format
	      that is configured at this point.

	      The `hook_com' keys considered are `hash' and `localrev'.  They are set to the val-
	      ues figured out so far by vcs_info and any change will be used  directly	when  the
	      actual replacement is done.

	      If  ret  is  set	to  non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[rev-replace]} will be used
	      unchanged as the `%i' replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

	      Called each time before a `vcs_info_msg_N_' message is set.   It	takes  two  argu-
	      ments; the first being the `N' in the message variable name, the second is the cur-
	      rently configured formats or actionformats.

	      There are a number of `hook_com' keys, that  are	used  here:  `action',	`branch',
	      `base',  `base-name', `subdir', `staged', `unstaged', `revision', `misc', `vcs' and
	      one `miscN' entry for each backend-specific data field (N starting at  zero).  They
	      are  set	to  the values figured out so far by vcs_info and any change will be used
	      directly when the actual replacement is done.

	      Since this hook is triggered multiple times (once for each  configured  formats  or
	      actionformats),  each  of the `hook_com' keys mentioned above (except for the miscN
	      entries) has an `_orig' counterpart, so even if you changed a value to your  liking
	      you  can	still get the original value in the next run. Changing the `_orig' values
	      is probably not a good idea.

	      If ret is set  to  non-zero,  the  string  in  ${hook_com[message]}  will  be  used
	      unchanged as the message by vcs_info.

       If all of this sounds rather confusing, take a look at the Examples section below and also
       in the Misc/vcs_info-examples file in the Zsh source.  They contain some explanatory code.

       Don't use vcs_info at all (even though it's in your prompt):
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable NONE

       Disable the backends for bzr and svk:
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr svk

       Disable everything but bzr and svk:
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable bzr svk

       Provide a special formats for git:
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' formats	     ' GIT, BABY! [%b]'
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' actionformats ' GIT ACTION! [%b|%a]'

       All %x expansion in all sorts of formats ("formats",  "actionformats",  branchformat,  you
       name  it) are done using the `zformat' builtin from the `zsh/zutil' module. That means you
       can do everything with these %x items what zformat supports. In particular,  if	you  want
       something that is really long to have a fixed width, like a hash in a mercurial branchfor-
       mat, you can do this: %12.12i. That'll shrink the 40 character  hash  to  its  12  leading
       characters.  The  form  is  actually  `%min.maxx'. More is possible.  See the section `The
       zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1) for details.

       Use the quicker bzr backend
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:bzr:*' use-simple true

       If you do use use-simple, please report if it does `the-right-thing[tm]'.

       Display the revision number in yellow for bzr and svn:
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:(svn|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%{'${fg[yellow]}'%}:%r'

       If you want colors, make sure you enclose the color codes in %{...%} if you  want  to  use
       the string provided by vcs_info in prompts.

       Here is how to print the VCS information as a command (not in a prompt):
	      alias vcsi='vcs_info command; vcs_info_lastmsg'

       This  way,  you	can  even define different formats for output via vcs_info_lastmsg in the
       ':vcs_info:*:command:*' namespace.

       Now as promised, some code that uses hooks: say, you'd like to replace the string `svn' by
       `subversion' in vcs_info's %s formats replacement.

       First, we will tell vcs_info to call a function when populating the message variables with
       the gathered information:
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:*+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion

       Nothing happens. Which is reasonable, since we didn't define the actual function  yet.  To
       see what the hooks subsystem is trying to do, enable the `debug' style:
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug true

       That  should  give  you	an  idea what is going on. Specifically, the function that we are
       looking for is `+vi-svn2subversion'. Note, the `+vi-' prefix. So, everything is in  order,
       just as documented. When you are done checking out the debugging output, disable it again:
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug false

       Now, let's define the function:
	      function +vi-svn2subversion() {
		  [[ ${hook_com[vcs_orig]} == svn ]] && hook_com[vcs]=subversion

       Simple enough. And it could have even been simpler, if only we had registered our function
       in a less generic context. If we do it only in the `svn' backend's context, we don't  need
       to test which the active backend is:
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:svn+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion
	      function +vi-svn2subversion() {

       And finally a little more elaborate example, that uses a hook to create a customised book-
       mark string for the hg backend.

       Again, we start off by registering a function:
	      zstyle ':vcs_info:hg+gen-hg-bookmark-string:*' hooks hgbookmarks

       And then we define the `+vi-hgbookmarks function:
	      function +vi-hgbookmarks() {
		  # The default is to connect all bookmark names by
		  # commas. This mixes things up a little.
		  # Imagine, there's one type of bookmarks that is
		  # special to you. Say, because it's *your* work.
		  # Those bookmarks look always like this: "sh/*"
		  # (because your initials are sh, for example).
		  # This makes the bookmarks string use only those
		  # bookmarks. If there's more than one, it
		  # concatenates them using commas.
		  local s i
		  # The bookmarks returned by `hg' are available in
		  # the functions positional parameters.
		  (( $# == 0 )) && return 0
		  for i in "$@"; do
		      if [[ $i == sh/* ]]; then
			  [[ -n $s ]] && s=$s,
		  # Now, the communication with the code that calls
		  # the hook functions is done via the hook_com[]
		  # hash. The key, at which the `gen-hg-bookmark-string'
		  # hook looks at is `hg-bookmark-string'. So:
		  # And to signal, that we want to use the sting we
		  # just generated, set the special variable `ret' to
		  # something other than the default zero:
		  return 0

       Some longer examples and code snippets which might be useful are available in the examples
       file located at Misc/vcs_info-examples in the Zsh source directory.

       This concludes our guided tour through zsh's vcs_info.

       You  should make sure all the functions from the Functions/Prompts directory of the source
       distribution are available; they all begin with the string `prompt_' except for	the  spe-
       cial  function`promptinit'.  You also need the `colors' function from Functions/Misc.  All
       of these functions may already have been installed on your system; if not, you  will  need
       to  find  them  and  copy them.	The directory should appear as one of the elements of the
       fpath array (this should already be the case if they were installed),  and  at  least  the
       function promptinit should be autoloaded; it will autoload the rest.  Finally, to initial-
       ize the use of the system you need to call the promptinit function.  The following code in
       your  .zshrc  will  arrange  for  this;	assume	the functions are stored in the directory

	      fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
	      autoload -U promptinit

   Theme Selection
       Use the prompt command to select your preferred theme.  This command may be added to  your
       .zshrc  following  the  call  to  promptinit  in  order	to start zsh with a theme already

       prompt [ -c | -l ]
       prompt [ -p | -h ] [ theme ... ]
       prompt [ -s ] theme [ arg ... ]
	      Set or examine the prompt theme.	With no options and a theme argument,  the  theme
	      with that name is set as the current theme.  The available themes are determined at
	      run time; use the -l option to see a list.  The special theme `random'  selects  at
	      random one of the available themes and sets your prompt to that.

	      In  some	cases the theme may be modified by one or more arguments, which should be
	      given after the theme name.  See the help for each theme for descriptions of  these

	      Options are:

	      -c     Show the currently selected theme and its parameters, if any.
	      -l     List all available prompt themes.
	      -p     Preview the theme named by theme, or all themes if no theme is given.
	      -h     Show  help  for  the  theme named by theme, or for the prompt function if no
		     theme is given.
	      -s     Set theme as the current theme and save state.

	      Each available theme has a setup function which is called by the prompt function to
	      install that theme.  This function may define other functions as necessary to main-
	      tain the prompt, including functions used to preview the prompt or provide help for
	      its use.	You should not normally call a theme's setup function directly.

       These  functions all implement user-defined ZLE widgets (see zshzle(1)) which can be bound
       to keystrokes in interactive shells.  To use them, your .zshrc should contain lines of the

	      autoload function
	      zle -N function

       followed  by an appropriate bindkey command to associate the function with a key sequence.
       Suggested bindings are described below.

       bash-style word functions
	      If you are looking for functions to implement moving over and editing words in  the
	      manner  of bash, where only alphanumeric characters are considered word characters,
	      you can use the functions described in the next section.	The following  is  suffi-

		     autoload -U select-word-style
		     select-word-style bash

       forward-word-match, backward-word-match
       kill-word-match, backward-kill-word-match
       transpose-words-match, capitalize-word-match
       up-case-word-match, down-case-word-match
       select-word-style, match-word-context, match-words-by-style
	      The eight `-match' functions are drop-in replacements for the builtin widgets with-
	      out the suffix.  By default they behave in a similar way.  However, by the  use  of
	      styles  and  the	function  select-word-style,  the  way	words  are matched can be

	      The simplest way of configuring the functions is to  use	select-word-style,  which
	      can either be called as a normal function with the appropriate argument, or invoked
	      as a user-defined widget that will prompt for the first character of the word style
	      to be used.  The first time it is invoked, the eight -match functions will automat-
	      ically replace the builtin versions, so they do not need to be loaded explicitly.

	      The word styles available are as follows.  Only the first character is examined.

	      bash   Word characters are alphanumeric characters only.

	      normal As in normal shell operation:  word characters are  alphanumeric  characters
		     plus any characters present in the string given by the parameter $WORDCHARS.

	      shell  Words  are  complete  shell  command  arguments, possibly including complete
		     quoted strings, or any tokens special to the shell.

		     Words are any set of characters delimited by whitespace.

		     Restore the default settings; this is usually the same as `normal'.

	      All but `default' can be input as an upper  case	character,  which  has	the  same
	      effect  but  with  subword matching turned on.  In this case, words with upper case
	      characters are treated specially: each separate run of upper case characters, or an
	      upper  case  character  followed by any number of other characters, is considered a
	      word.  The style subword-range can supply an alternative	character  range  to  the
	      default `[:upper:]'; the value of the style is treated as the contents of a `[...]'
	      pattern (note that the outer brackets should not be supplied, only those	surround-
	      ing named ranges).

	      More  control  can  be  obtained	using the zstyle command, as described in zshmod-
	      ules(1).	Each style is looked up in the context :zle:widget where  widget  is  the
	      name  of	the user-defined widget, not the name of the function implementing it, so
	      in the case of the definitions supplied by select-word-style the	appropriate  con-
	      texts  are  :zle:forward-word,  and  so  on.  The function select-word-style itself
	      always defines styles for the context `:zle:*' which can be overridden by more spe-
	      cific (longer) patterns as well as explicit contexts.

	      The  style word-style specifies the rules to use.  This may have the following val-

	      normal Use the standard shell rules,  i.e.  alphanumerics  and  $WORDCHARS,  unless
		     overridden by the styles word-chars or word-class.

		     Similar  to normal, but only the specified characters, and not also alphanu-
		     merics, are considered word characters.

		     The negation of specified.  The given characters are those which will not be
		     considered part of a word.

	      shell  Words are obtained by using the syntactic rules for generating shell command
		     arguments.  In addition, special tokens which are	never  command	arguments
		     such as `()' are also treated as words.

		     Words are whitespace-delimited strings of characters.

	      The first three of those rules usually use $WORDCHARS, but the value in the parame-
	      ter can be overridden by the style word-chars, which works in exactly the same  way
	      as  $WORDCHARS.	In  addition, the style word-class uses character class syntax to
	      group characters and takes  precedence  over  word-chars	if  both  are  set.   The
	      word-class  style does not include the surrounding brackets of the character class;
	      for example, `-:[:alnum:]' is a valid word-class to include all alphanumerics  plus
	      the  characters  `-'  and  `:'.  Be careful including `]', `^' and `-' as these are
	      special inside character classes.

	      word-style may also have `-subword' appended to its value to turn on subword match-
	      ing, as described above.

	      The  style  skip-chars  is mostly useful for transpose-words and similar functions.
	      If set, it gives a count of characters starting at the cursor position  which  will
	      not  be  considered  part  of the word and are treated as space, regardless of what
	      they actually are.  For example, if

		     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words' skip-chars 1

	      has been set, and transpose-words-match is called with  the  cursor  on  the  X  of
	      fooXbar, where X can be any character, then the resulting expression is barXfoo.

	      Finer grained control can be obtained by setting the style word-context to an array
	      of pairs of entries.  Each pair of entries consists of a pattern and a  subcontext.
	      The  shell  argument the cursor is on is matched against each pattern in turn until
	      one matches; if it does, the context is extended by a colon and  the  corresponding
	      subcontext.  Note that the test is made against the original word on the line, with
	      no stripping of quotes.  Special handling is done between words: the  current  con-
	      text  is examined and if it contains the string back, the word before the cursor is
	      considered, else the word after cursor  is  considered.  Some  examples  are  given

	      The  style  skip-whitespace-first is only used with the forward-word widget.  If it
	      is set to true, then forward-word skips any non-word-characters,	followed  by  any
	      non-word-characters: this is similar to the behaviour of other word-orientated wid-
	      gets, and also that used by other editors, however it differs from the standard zsh
	      behaviour.  When using select-word-style the widget is set in the context :zle:* to
	      true if the word style is bash and false otherwise.  It may be overridden  by  set-
	      ting it in the more specific context :zle:forward-word*.

	      Here  are  some  examples  of use of the styles, actually taken from the simplified
	      interface in select-word-style:

		     zstyle ':zle:*' word-style standard
		     zstyle ':zle:*' word-chars ''

	      Implements bash-style word handling for all widgets, i.e.  only  alphanumerics  are
	      word  characters; equivalent to setting the parameter WORDCHARS empty for the given

		     style ':zle:*kill*' word-style space

	      Uses space-delimited words for widgets with the word `kill' in the  name.   Neither
	      of the styles word-chars nor word-class is used in this case.

	      Here are some examples of use of the word-context style to extend the context.

		     zstyle ':zle:*' word-context "*/*" file "[[:space:]]" whitespace
		     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:whitespace' word-style shell
		     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-style normal
		     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-chars ''

	      This  provides two different ways of using transpose-words depending on whether the
	      cursor is on whitespace between words or on a filename, here any word containing	a
	      /.   On  whitespace,  complete arguments as defined by standard shell rules will be
	      transposed.  In a filename, only	alphanumerics  will  be  transposed.   Elsewhere,
	      words will be transposed using the default style for :zle:transpose-words.

	      The  word  matching and all the handling of zstyle settings is actually implemented
	      by the function match-words-by-style.  This can be used to create new  user-defined
	      widgets.	 The  calling  function  should  set  the  local  parameter curcontext to
	      :zle:widget, create the local parameter matched_words and call match-words-by-style
	      with  no arguments.  On return, matched_words will be set to an array with the ele-
	      ments: (1) the start of the line (2) the word before the cursor  (3)  any  non-word
	      characters  between that word and the cursor (4) any non-word character at the cur-
	      sor position plus any remaining non-word characters before the next word, including
	      all  characters specified by the skip-chars style, (5) the word at or following the
	      cursor (6) any non-word characters following that word (7)  the  remainder  of  the
	      line.  Any of the elements may be an empty string; the calling function should test
	      for this to decide whether it can perform its function.

	      It is possible to pass options with arguments to match-words-by-style  to  override
	      the use of styles.  The options are:
	      -w     word-style
	      -s     skip-chars
	      -c     word-class
	      -C     word-chars
	      -r     subword-range

	      For  example, match-words-by-style -w shell -c 0 may be used to extract the command
	      argument around the cursor.

	      The word-context style is implemented by	the  function  match-word-context.   This
	      should not usually need to be called directly.

	      This  widget works like a combination of insert-last-word and copy-prev-shell-word.
	      Repeated invocations of the widget retrieve earlier words on the	relevant  history
	      line.   With a numeric argument N, insert the Nth word from the history line; N may
	      be negative to count from the end of the line.

	      If insert-last-word has been used to retrieve the last word on a	previous  history
	      line,  repeated invocations will replace that word with earlier words from the same

	      Otherwise, the widget applies to words on the line  currently  being  edited.   The
	      widget  style  can  be  set  to the name of another widget that should be called to
	      retrieve	words.	 This  widget  must  accept   the   same   three   arguments   as

	      After inserting an unambiguous string into the command line, the new function based
	      completion system may know about multiple places in this	string	where  characters
	      are  missing  or	differ	from  at least one of the possible matches.  It will then
	      place the cursor on the position it considers to be the most interesting one,  i.e.
	      the one where one can disambiguate between as many matches as possible with as lit-
	      tle typing as possible.

	      This widget allows the cursor to be easily moved to the  other  interesting  spots.
	      It can be invoked repeatedly to cycle between all positions reported by the comple-
	      tion system.

	      This is another function which works like the -match  functions  described  immedi-
	      ately above, i.e. using styles to decide the word boundaries.  However, it is not a
	      replacement for any existing function.

	      The basic behaviour is to delete the word around the cursor.  There is  no  numeric
	      prefix handling; only the single word around the cursor is considered.  If the wid-
	      get contains the string kill, the removed text will be placed in the cutbuffer  for
	      future yanking.  This can be obtained by defining kill-whole-word-match as follows:

		     zle -N kill-whole-word-match delete-whole-word-match

	      and then binding the widget kill-whole-word-match.

       up-line-or-beginning-search, down-line-or-beginning-search
	      These   widgets	are  similar  to  the  builtin	functions  up-line-or-search  and
	      down-line-or-search:  if in a multiline buffer they move up or down within the buf-
	      fer,  otherwise  they  search  for a history line matching the start of the current
	      line.  In this case, however, they search for a line which matches the current line
	      up  to the current cursor position, in the manner of history-beginning-search-back-
	      ward and -forward, rather than the first word on the line.

	      Edit the command line using your visual editor, as in ksh.

		     bindkey -M vicmd v edit-command-line

	      This function implements the widgets history-beginning-search-backward-end and his-
	      tory-beginning-search-forward-end.  These commands work by first calling the corre-
	      sponding builtin widget (see `History Control' in zshzle(1)) and	then  moving  the
	      cursor  to  the  end  of	the line.  The original cursor position is remembered and
	      restored before calling the builtin widget a second time, so that the  same  search
	      is repeated to look farther through the history.

	      Although	you  autoload only one function, the commands to use it are slightly dif-
	      ferent because it implements two widgets.

		     zle -N history-beginning-search-backward-end \
		     zle -N history-beginning-search-forward-end \
		     bindkey '\e^P' history-beginning-search-backward-end
		     bindkey '\e^N' history-beginning-search-forward-end

	      This function implements yet another form of history searching.	The  text  before
	      the  cursor  is  used  to  select  lines	from  the  history, as for history-begin-
	      ning-search-backward except that all matches are shown in a numbered menu.   Typing
	      the  appropriate	digits	inserts  the full history line.  Note that leading zeroes
	      must be typed (they are only shown when necessary  for  removing	ambiguity).   The
	      entire history is searched; there is no distinction between forwards and backwards.

	      With  a  prefix  argument, the search is not anchored to the start of the line; the
	      string typed by the use may appear anywhere in the line in the history.

	      If the widget name contains `-end' the cursor is moved  to  the  end  of	the  line
	      inserted.   If  the  widget  name  contains `-space' any space in the text typed is
	      treated as a wildcard and can match anything (hence a leading space  is  equivalent
	      to giving a prefix argument).  Both forms can be combined, for example:

		     zle -N history-beginning-search-menu-space-end \

	      The  function  history-pattern-search implements widgets which prompt for a pattern
	      with which to search the history backwards or forwards.	The  pattern  is  in  the
	      usual  zsh format, however the first character may be ^ to anchor the search to the
	      start of the line, and the last character may be $ to anchor the search to the  end
	      of  the  line.  If the search was not anchored to the end of the line the cursor is
	      positioned just after the pattern found.

	      The commands to create bindable widgets are similar to those in the example immedi-
	      ately above:

		     autoload -U history-pattern-search
		     zle -N history-pattern-search-backward history-pattern-search
		     zle -N history-pattern-search-forward history-pattern-search

       incarg Typing  the  keystrokes for this widget with the cursor placed on or to the left of
	      an integer causes that integer to be incremented by one.	 With  a  numeric  prefix
	      argument,  the  number is incremented by the amount of the argument (decremented if
	      the prefix argument is negative).  The shell parameter incarg may be set to  change
	      the default increment to something other than one.

		     bindkey '^X+' incarg

	      This  allows incremental completion of a word.  After starting this command, a list
	      of completion choices can be shown after every character you type,  which  you  can
	      delete  with  ^H or DEL.	Pressing return accepts the completion so far and returns
	      you to normal editing (that is, the command line is not immediately executed).  You
	      can  hit	TAB  to  do  normal  completion,  ^G  to abort back to the state when you
	      started, and ^D to list the matches.

	      This works only with the new function based completion system.

		     bindkey '^Xi' incremental-complete-word

	      This function allows you to compose characters that don't appear on the keyboard to
	      be inserted into the command line.  The command is followed by two keys correspond-
	      ing to ASCII characters (there is no prompt).  For  accented  characters,  the  two
	      keys  are  a base character followed by a code for the accent, while for other spe-
	      cial characters the two characters together form a mnemonic for the character to be
	      inserted.  The two-character codes are a subset of those given by RFC 1345 (see for
	      example http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1345.html).

	      The function may optionally be followed by up to two characters which  replace  one
	      or  both of the characters read from the keyboard; if both characters are supplied,
	      no input is read.  For example, insert-composed-char a: can be used within a widget
	      to insert an a with umlaut into the command line.  This has the advantages over use
	      of a literal character that it is more portable.

	      For best results zsh should have been built with support for  multibyte  characters
	      (configured  with  --enable-multibyte); however, the function works for the limited
	      range of characters available in single-byte character sets such as ISO-8859-1.

	      The character is converted into the local representation and inserted into the com-
	      mand  line at the cursor position.  (The conversion is done within the shell, using
	      whatever facilities the C library provides.)  With a numeric argument, the  charac-
	      ter and its code are previewed in the status line

	      The function may be run outside zle in which case it prints the character (together
	      with a newline) to standard output.  Input is still read from keystrokes.

	      See insert-unicode-char for an alternative  way  of  inserting  Unicode  characters
	      using their hexadecimal character number.

	      The  set	of  accented  characters  is  reasonably complete up to Unicode character
	      U+0180, the set of special characters less so.  However, it is very  sporadic  from
	      that  point.   Adding new characters is easy, however; see the function define-com-
	      posed-chars.  Please send any additions to zsh-workers@zsh.org.

	      The codes for the second character when used to accent the first	are  as  follows.
	      Note that not every character can take every accent.
	      !      Grave.
	      '      Acute.
	      >      Circumflex.
	      ?      Tilde.  (This is not ~ as RFC 1345 does not assume that character is present
		     on the keyboard.)
	      -      Macron.  (A horizontal bar over the base character.)
	      (      Breve.  (A shallow dish shape over the base character.)
	      .      Dot above the base character, or in the case of i no dot, or in the case  of
		     L and l a centered dot.
	      :      Diaeresis (Umlaut).
	      c      Cedilla.
	      _      Underline, however there are currently no underlined characters.
	      /      Stroke through the base character.
	      "      Double acute (only supported on a few letters).
	      ;      Ogonek.   (A  little  forward facing hook at the bottom right of the charac-
	      <      Caron.  (A little v over the letter.)
	      0      Circle over the base character.
	      2      Hook over the base character.
	      9      Horn over the base character.

	      The most common characters from the Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek  and	Hebrew	alphabets
	      are  available; consult RFC 1345 for the appropriate sequences.  In addition, a set
	      of two letter codes not in RFC 1345 are available for the  double-width  characters
	      corresponding  to  ASCII	characters  from  !  to ~ (0x21 to 0x7e) by preceding the
	      character with ^, for example ^A for a double-width A.

	      The following other two-character sequences are understood.

	      ASCII characters
		     These are already present on most keyboards:
	      <(     Left square bracket
	      //     Backslash (solidus)
	      )>     Right square bracket
	      (!     Left brace (curly bracket)
	      !!     Vertical bar (pipe symbol)
	      !)     Right brace (curly bracket)
	      '?     Tilde

	      Special letters
		     Characters found in various variants of the Latin alphabet:
	      ss     Eszett (scharfes S)
	      D-, d- Eth
	      TH, th Thorn
	      kk     Kra
	      'n     'n
	      NG, ng Ng
	      OI, oi Oi
	      yr     yr
	      ED     ezh

	      Currency symbols
	      Ct     Cent
	      Pd     Pound sterling (also lira and others)
	      Cu     Currency
	      Ye     Yen
	      Eu     Euro (N.B. not in RFC 1345)

	      Punctuation characters
		     References to "right" quotes indicate the shape (like a  9  rather  than  6)
		     rather than their grammatical use.  (For example, a "right" low double quote
		     is used to open quotations in German.)
	      !I     Inverted exclamation mark
	      BB     Broken vertical bar
	      SE     Section
	      Co     Copyright
	      -a     Spanish feminine ordinal indicator
	      <<     Left guillemet
	      --     Soft hyphen
	      Rg     Registered trade mark
	      PI     Pilcrow (paragraph)
	      -o     Spanish masculine ordinal indicator
	      >>     Right guillemet
	      ?I     Inverted question mark
	      -1     Hyphen
	      -N     En dash
	      -M     Em dash
	      -3     Horizontal bar
	      :3     Vertical ellipsis
	      .3     Horizontal midline ellipsis
	      !2     Double vertical line
	      =2     Double low line
	      '6     Left single quote
	      '9     Right single quote
	      .9     "Right" low quote
	      9'     Reversed "right" quote
	      "6     Left double quote
	      "9     Right double quote
	      :9     "Right" low double quote
	      9"     Reversed "right" double quote
	      /-     Dagger
	      /=     Double dagger

	      Mathematical symbols
	      DG     Degree
	      -2, +-, -+
		     - sign, +/- sign, -/+ sign
	      2S     Superscript 2
	      3S     Superscript 3
	      1S     Superscript 1
	      My     Micro
	      .M     Middle dot
	      14     Quarter
	      12     Half
	      34     Three quarters
	      *X     Multiplication
	      -:     Division
	      %0     Per mille
	      FA, TE, /0
		     For all, there exists, empty set
	      dP, DE, NB
		     Partial derivative, delta (increment), del (nabla)
	      (-, -) Element of, contains
	      *P, +Z Product, sum
	      *-, Ob, Sb
		     Asterisk, ring, bullet
	      RT, 0(, 00
		     Root sign, proportional to, infinity

	      Other symbols
	      cS, cH, cD, cC
		     Card suits: spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs
	      Md, M8, M2, Mb, Mx, MX
		     Musical notation: crotchet (quarter note), quaver (eighth note), semiquavers
		     (sixteenth notes), flag sign, natural sign, sharp sign
	      Fm, Ml Female, male

	      Accents on their own
	      '>     Circumflex (same as caret, ^)
	      '!     Grave (same as backtick, `)
	      ',     Cedilla
	      ':     Diaeresis (Umlaut)
	      'm     Macron
	      ''     Acute

	      This  function allows you type a file pattern, and see the results of the expansion
	      at each step.  When you hit return, all expansions are inserted  into  the  command

		     bindkey '^Xf' insert-files

	      When  first  executed, the user inputs a set of hexadecimal digits.  This is termi-
	      nated with another call to insert-unicode-char.  The digits are  then  turned  into
	      the  corresponding  Unicode character.  For example, if the widget is bound to ^XU,
	      the character sequence `^XU 4 c ^XU' inserts L (Unicode U+004c).

	      See insert-composed-char for a way of inserting characters  using  a  two-character

       narrow-to-region [ -p pre ] [ -P post ]
	   [ -S statepm | -R statepm ] [ -n ] [ start end ])
	      Narrow  the editable portion of the buffer to the region between the cursor and the
	      mark, which may be in either order.  The region may not be empty.

	      narrow-to-region may  be	used  as  a  widget  or  called  as  a	function  from	a
	      user-defined  widget;  by default, the text outside the editable area remains visi-
	      ble.  A recursive-edit is performed  and	the  original  widening  status  is  then
	      restored.  Various options and arguments are available when it is called as a func-

	      The options -p pretext and -P posttext may be used to replace the text  before  and
	      after  the display for the duration of the function; either or both may be an empty

	      If the option -n is also given, pretext or posttext will only be inserted if  there
	      is text before or after the region respectively which will be made invisible.

	      Two  numeric  arguments  may  be given which will be used instead of the cursor and
	      mark positions.

	      The option -S statepm is used to narrow according to the other options while saving
	      the  original state in the parameter with name statepm, while the option -R statepm
	      is used to restore the state from the parameter; note in both cases the name of the
	      parameter is required.  In the second case, other options and arguments are irrele-
	      vant.  When this method is used, no recursive-edit is performed; the calling widget
	      should  call  this function with the option -S, perform its own editing on the com-
	      mand line or pass control to the user via  `zle  recursive-edit',  then  call  this
	      function	with  the option -R.  The argument statepm must be a suitable name for an
	      ordinary parameter, except that parameters beginning  with  the  prefix  _ntr_  are
	      reserved for use within narrow-to-region.  Typically the parameter will be local to
	      the calling function.

	      narrow-to-region-invisible is a simple widget  which  calls  narrow-to-region  with
	      arguments which replace any text outside the region with `...'.

	      The  display  is restored (and the widget returns) upon any zle command which would
	      usually cause the line to be accepted or aborted.  Hence an additional such command
	      is required to accept or abort the current line.

	      The return status of both widgets is zero if the line was accepted, else non-zero.

	      Here is a trivial example of a widget using this feature.
		     local state
		     narrow-to-region -p $'Editing restricted region\n' \
		       -P '' -S state
		     zle recursive-edit
		     narrow-to-region -R state

	      This  set  of  functions	implements predictive typing using history search.  After
	      predict-on, typing characters causes the editor to look backward in the history for
	      the first line beginning with what you have typed so far.  After predict-off, edit-
	      ing returns to normal for the line found.  In fact, you often don't  even  need  to
	      use predict-off, because if the line doesn't match something in the history, adding
	      a key performs standard completion, and then inserts itself if no completions  were
	      found.   However,  editing in the middle of a line is liable to confuse prediction;
	      see the toggle style below.

	      With the function based completion system (which is needed for this), you should be
	      able  to type TAB at almost any point to advance the cursor to the next ``interest-
	      ing'' character position (usually the end of the current word, but sometimes  some-
	      where in the middle of the word).  And of course as soon as the entire line is what
	      you want, you can accept with return, without needing to move the cursor to the end

	      The first time predict-on is used, it creates several additional widget functions:

		     Replaces  the  backward-delete-char  widget.   You  do not need to bind this
		     Implements predictive typing by replacing the self-insert	widget.   You  do
		     not need to bind this yourself.
		     Turns off predictive typing.

	      Although	you  autoload  only  the predict-on function, it is necessary to create a
	      keybinding for predict-off as well.

		     zle -N predict-on
		     zle -N predict-off
		     bindkey '^X^Z' predict-on
		     bindkey '^Z' predict-off

	      This is most useful when called as a function from inside a widget, but  will  work
	      correctly  as  a widget in its own right.  It prompts for a value below the current
	      command line; a value may be input using all of the standard  zle  operations  (and
	      not  merely  the	restricted  set  available  when  executing,  for  example,  exe-
	      cute-named-cmd).	The value is then returned to the calling function in the parame-
	      ter  $REPLY and the editing buffer restored to its previous state.  If the read was
	      aborted by a keyboard break (typically ^G),  the	function  returns  status  1  and
	      $REPLY is not set.

	      If one argument is supplied to the function it is taken as a prompt, otherwise `? '
	      is used.	If two arguments are supplied, they are the prompt and the initial  value
	      of  $LBUFFER, and if a third argument is given it is the initial value of $RBUFFER.
	      This provides a default value and  starting  cursor  placement.	Upon  return  the
	      entire buffer is the value of $REPLY.

	      One  option  is  available:  `-k	num' specifies that num characters are to be read
	      instead of a whole line.	The line editor is not invoked recursively in this  case,
	      so  depending  on  the terminal settings the input may not be visible, and only the
	      input keys are placed in $REPLY, not the entire buffer.  Note that unlike the  read
	      builtin num must be given; there is no default.

	      The  name  is a slight misnomer, as in fact the shell's own minibuffer is not used.
	      Hence it is still possible to call executed-named-cmd and similar  functions  while
	      reading a value.

       replace-string, replace-pattern
       replace-string-again, replace-pattern-again
	      The  function  replace-string  implements three widgets.	If defined under the same
	      name as the function, it prompts for two strings; the first (source) string will be
	      replaced by the second everywhere it occurs in the line editing buffer.

	      If  the widget name contains the word `pattern', for example by defining the widget
	      using the command `zle -N replace-pattern replace-string',  then	the  matching  is
	      performed  using	zsh  patterns.	All zsh extended globbing patterns can be used in
	      the source string; note that unlike filename generation the pattern does	not  need
	      to  match an entire word, nor do glob qualifiers have any effect.  In addition, the
	      replacement string can contain parameter or command substitutions.  Furthermore,	a
	      `&'  in the replacement string will be replaced with the matched source string, and
	      a backquoted digit `\N' will  be	replaced  by  the  Nth	parenthesised  expression
	      matched.	The form `\{N}' may be used to protect the digit from following digits.

	      If the widget instead contains the word `regex' (or `regexp'), then the matching is
	      performed  using	regular  expressions,  respecting  the	setting  of  the   option
	      RE_MATCH_PCRE (see the description of the function regexp-replace below).  The spe-
	      cial replacement facilities described above for pattern matching are available.

	      By default the previous source or replacement string will not be offered for  edit-
	      ing.   However, this feature can be activated by setting the style edit-previous in
	      the context :zle:widget (for example, :zle:replace-string) to true.  In addition, a
	      positive	numeric  argument forces the previous values to be offered, a negative or
	      zero argument forces them not to be.

	      The function replace-string-again can be used to repeat the  previous  replacement;
	      no  prompting  is done.  As with replace-string, if the name of the widget contains
	      the word `pattern' or `regex', pattern or regular expression matching is performed,
	      else  a  literal string replacement.  Note that the previous source and replacement
	      text are the same whether pattern, regular expression or string matching is used.

	      In addition, replace-string shows the previous replacement  above  the  prompt,  so
	      long  as	there  was one during the current session; if the source string is empty,
	      that replacement will be repeated without the widget prompting  for  a  replacement

	      For example, starting from the line:

		     print This line contains fan and fond

	      and  invoking  replace-pattern  with  the source string `f(?)n' and the replacement
	      string `c\1r' produces the not very useful line:

		     print This line contains car and cord

	      The  range  of  the  replacement	string	can  be  limited  by   using   the   nar-
	      row-to-region-invisible widget.  One limitation of the current version is that undo
	      will cycle through changes to the replacement and source strings before undoing the
	      replacement itself.

	      This is similar to read-from-minibuffer in that it may be called as a function from
	      a widget or as a widget of its own, and interactively reads  input  from	the  key-
	      board.  However, the input being typed is concealed and a string of asterisks (`*')
	      is shown instead.  The value is saved in the parameter $INVISIBLE to which a refer-
	      ence  is	inserted into the editing buffer at the restored cursor position.  If the
	      read was aborted by a keyboard break (typically ^G) or another escape from  editing
	      such  as	push-line, $INVISIBLE is set to empty and the original buffer is restored

	      If one argument is supplied to the function it is  taken	as  a  prompt,	otherwise
	      `Non-echoed text: ' is used (as in emacs).  If a second and third argument are sup-
	      plied they are used to begin and end the reference to $INVISIBLE that  is  inserted
	      into the buffer.	The default is to open with ${, then INVISIBLE, and close with },
	      but many other effects are possible.

	      This function may replace the insert-last-word widget, like so:

		     zle -N insert-last-word smart-insert-last-word

	      With a numeric prefix, or when passed command line arguments in a call from another
	      widget, it behaves like insert-last-word, except that words in comments are ignored
	      when INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS is set.

	      Otherwise, the rightmost ``interesting'' word from the previous  command	is  found
	      and  inserted.  The default definition of ``interesting'' is that the word contains
	      at least one alphabetic character, slash, or backslash.	This  definition  may  be
	      overridden by use of the match style.  The context used to look up the style is the
	      widget name, so usually the context is :insert-last-word.  However,  you	can  bind
	      this function to different widgets to use different patterns:

		     zle -N insert-last-assignment smart-insert-last-word
		     zstyle :insert-last-assignment match '[[:alpha:]][][[:alnum:]]#=*'
		     bindkey '\e=' insert-last-assignment

	      If no interesting word is found and the auto-previous style is set to a true value,
	      the search continues upward through the history.	When auto-previous  is	unset  or
	      false  (the default), the widget must be invoked repeatedly in order to search ear-
	      lier history lines.

	      Only useful with a multi-line editing buffer; the lines here are lines  within  the
	      current on-screen buffer, not history lines.  The effect is similar to the function
	      of the same name in Emacs.

	      Transpose the current line with the previous line and move the cursor to the  start
	      of  the  next  line.   Repeating	this  (which  can be done by providing a positive
	      numeric prefix argument) has the effect of moving the line above the cursor down by
	      a number of lines.

	      With  a  negative  numeric  prefix  argument,  requires two lines above the cursor.
	      These two lines are transposed and the cursor moved to the start	of  the  previous
	      line.   Using a numeric prefix less than -1 has the effect of moving the line above
	      the cursor up by minus that number of lines.

	      This function is a drop-in replacement for the builtin  widget  which-command.   It
	      has  enhanced  behaviour,  in  that it correctly detects whether or not the command
	      word needs to be expanded as an alias; if so, it continues tracing the command word
	      from the expanded alias until it reaches the command that will be executed.

	      The  style  whence  is available in the context :zle:$WIDGET; this may be set to an
	      array to give the command and options that will be used to investigate the  command
	      word found.  The default is whence -c.

   Utility Functions
       These  functions are useful in constructing widgets.  They should be loaded with `autoload
       -U function' and called as indicated from user-defined widgets.

	      This function splits the line currently  being  edited  into  shell  arguments  and
	      whitespace.   The  result is stored in the array reply.  The array contains all the
	      parts of the line in order, starting with any whitespace before the first argument,
	      and  finishing  with any whitespace after the last argument.  Hence (so long as the
	      option KSH_ARRAYS is not set) whitespace is given by odd indices in the  array  and
	      arguments  by  even  indices.   Note  that  no stripping of quotes is done; joining
	      together all the elements of reply in order is guaranteed to produce  the  original

	      The  parameter  REPLY  is  set to the index of the word in reply which contains the
	      character after the cursor, where the first element has  index  1.   The	parameter
	      REPLY2  is  set  to the index of the character under the cursor in that word, where
	      the first character has index 1.

	      Hence reply, REPLY and REPLY2 should all be made local to the enclosing function.

	      See the function modify-current-argument, described below, for an example of how to
	      call this function.

       modify-current-argument expr-using-$ARG
	      This  function  provides a simple method of allowing user-defined widgets to modify
	      the command line argument under the cursor (or immediately to the left of the  cur-
	      sor  if  the  cursor  is	between arguments).  The argument should be an expression
	      which when evaluated operates on the shell parameter ARG, which will have been  set
	      to  the  command line argument under the cursor.	The expression should be suitably
	      quoted to prevent it being evaluated too early.

	      For example, a user-defined widget containing the following code converts the char-
	      acters in the argument under the cursor into all upper case:

		     modify-current-argument '${(U)ARG}'

	      The  following strips any quoting from the current word (whether backslashes or one
	      of the styles of quotes), and replaces it with single quoting throughout:

		     modify-current-argument '${(qq)${(Q)ARG}}'

       The behavior of several of the above widgets can be controlled by the use  of  the  zstyle
       mechanism.   In	particular,  widgets  that interact with the completion system pass along
       their context to any completions that they invoke.

	      This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget. Its value should  be	a
	      pattern, and all keys matching this pattern will cause the widget to stop incremen-
	      tal completion without the key having any further  effect.  Like	all  styles  used
	      directly	by  incremental-complete-word,	this style is looked up using the context

	      The incremental-complete-word and insert-and-predict widgets set up their top-level
	      context  name  before calling completion.  This allows one to define different sets
	      of completer functions for normal completion and for these widgets.   For  example,
	      to  use  completion, approximation and correction for normal completion, completion
	      and correction for incremental completion and only completion  for  prediction  one
	      could use:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' completer \
			     _complete _correct _approximate
		     zstyle ':completion:incremental:*' completer \
			     _complete _correct
		     zstyle ':completion:predict:*' completer \

	      It  is  a good idea to restrict the completers used in prediction, because they may
	      be automatically invoked as you type.  The _list and _menu completers should  never
	      be  used	with  prediction.   The  _approximate, _correct, _expand, and _match com-
	      pleters may be used, but be aware that they may change characters anywhere  in  the
	      word  behind the cursor, so you need to watch carefully that the result is what you

       cursor The insert-and-predict widget uses this style, in the context `:predict', to decide
	      where to place the cursor after completion has been tried.  Values are:

		     The  cursor is left where it was when completion finished, but only if it is
		     after a character equal to the one just inserted by  the  user.   If  it  is
		     after another character, this value is the same as `key'.

	      key    The  cursor is left after the nth occurrence of the character just inserted,
		     where n is the number of times that character appeared in	the  word  before
		     completion was attempted.	In short, this has the effect of leaving the cur-
		     sor after the character just typed even if the  completion  code  found  out
		     that no other characters need to be inserted at that position.

	      Any  other  value  for this style unconditionally leaves the cursor at the position
	      where the completion code left it.

       list   When using the incremental-complete-word widget, this style  says  if  the  matches
	      should  be  listed on every key press (if they fit on the screen).  Use the context
	      prefix `:completion:incremental'.

	      The insert-and-predict widget uses this style to decide if the completion should be
	      shown  even if there is only one possible completion.  This is done if the value of
	      this style is the string always.	In this  case  the  context  is  `:predict'  (not

       match  This  style  is  used  by  smart-insert-last-word  to provide a pattern (using full
	      EXTENDED_GLOB syntax) that matches an interesting word.  The context is the name of
	      the  widget  to  which  smart-insert-last-word  is  bound (see above).  The default
	      behavior of smart-insert-last-word is equivalent to:

		     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:]/\\]*'

	      However, you might want to include words that contain spaces:

		     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:][:space:]/\\]*'

	      Or include numbers as long as the word is at least two characters long:

		     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*([[:digit:]]?|[[:alpha:]/\\])*'

	      The above example causes redirections like "2>" to be included.

       prompt The incremental-complete-word widget shows the value of this style  in  the  status
	      line  during  incremental completion.  The string value may contain any of the fol-
	      lowing substrings in the manner of the PS1 and other prompt parameters:

	      %c     Replaced by the name of the completer function that  generated  the  matches
		     (without the leading underscore).

	      %l     When  the list style is set, replaced by `...' if the list of matches is too
		     long to fit on the screen and with an empty string otherwise.  If	the  list
		     style is `false' or not set, `%l' is always removed.

	      %n     Replaced by the number of matches generated.

	      %s     Replaced  by  `-no match-', `-no prefix-', or an empty string if there is no
		     completion matching the word on the line, if the matches have no common pre-
		     fix  different  from the word on the line, or if there is such a common pre-
		     fix, respectively.

	      %u     Replaced by the unambiguous part of all matches, if there is any, and if  it
		     is different from the word on the line.

	      Like `break-keys', this uses the `:incremental' context.

	      This  style  is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its value is treated
	      similarly to the one for the break-keys style (and uses the same context:  `:incre-
	      mental').   However,  in this case all keys matching the pattern given as its value
	      will stop incremental completion and will then execute their usual function.

       toggle This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related	widgets  in  the  context
	      `:predict'.   If	set  to  one  of the standard `true' values, predictive typing is
	      automatically toggled off in situations where it is unlikely to be useful, such  as
	      when editing a multi-line buffer or after moving into the middle of a line and then
	      deleting a character.  The default is  to  leave	prediction  turned  on	until  an
	      explicit call to predict-off.

	      This  boolean  style  is	used by predict-on and its related widgets in the context
	      `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard `true' values, these widgets  display	a
	      message below the prompt when the predictive state is toggled.  This is most useful
	      in combination with the toggle style.  The default does not display these messages.

       widget This style is similar to the command style: For widget functions that  use  zle  to
	      call  other  widgets, this style can sometimes be used to override the widget which
	      is called.  The context for this style is the name of the calling widget	(not  the
	      name  of the calling function, because one function may be bound to multiple widget

		     zstyle :copy-earlier-word widget smart-insert-last-word

	      Check the documentation for the calling widget or function to determine whether the
	      widget style is used.

       Two  functions  are  provided  to  enable zsh to provide exception handling in a form that
       should be familiar from other languages.

       throw exception
	      The function throw throws the named exception.  The name is an arbitrary string and
	      is  only	used by the throw and catch functions.	An exception is for the most part
	      treated the same as a shell error, i.e. an unhandled exception will cause the shell
	      to  abort  all processing in a function or script and to return to the top level in
	      an interactive shell.

       catch exception-pattern
	      The function catch returns status zero if an exception was thrown and  the  pattern
	      exception-pattern matches its name.  Otherwise it returns status 1.  exception-pat-
	      tern  is	a  standard  shell  pattern,  respecting  the  current	setting  of   the
	      EXTENDED_GLOB  option.   An  alias catch is also defined to prevent the argument to
	      the function from matching filenames, so patterns may be used unquoted.  Note  that
	      as  exceptions are not fundamentally different from other shell errors it is possi-
	      ble to catch shell errors by using an empty string  as  the  exception  name.   The
	      shell  variable  CAUGHT is set by catch to the name of the exception caught.  It is
	      possible to rethrow an exception by calling the throw function again once an excep-
	      tion has been caught.

       The functions are designed to be used together with the always construct described in zsh-
       misc(1).  This is important as only this  construct  provides  the  required  support  for
       exceptions.  A typical example is as follows.

		# "try" block
		# ... nested code here calls "throw MyExcept"
	      } always {
		# "always" block
		if catch MyExcept; then
		  print "Caught exception MyExcept"
		elif catch ''; then
		  print "Caught a shell error.	Propagating..."
		  throw ''
		# Other exceptions are not handled but may be caught further
		# up the call stack.

       If all exceptions should be caught, the following idiom might be preferable.

		# ... nested code here throws an exception
	      } always {
		if catch *; then
		  case $CAUGHT in
		    print "Caught my own exception"
		    print "Caught some other exception"

       In  common with exception handling in other languages, the exception may be thrown by code
       deeply nested inside the `try' block.  However, note that it must  be  thrown  inside  the
       current	shell,	not in a subshell forked for a pipeline, parenthesised current-shell con-
       struct, or some form of command or process substitution.

       The system internally uses the shell variable EXCEPTION to record the name of  the  excep-
       tion  between throwing and catching.  One drawback of this scheme is that if the exception
       is not handled the variable EXCEPTION remains set and may be incorrectly recognised as the
       name  of an exception if a shell error subsequently occurs.  Adding unset EXCEPTION at the
       start of the outermost layer of any code that uses exception handling will eliminate  this

       Three  functions  are  available to provide handling of files recognised by extension, for
       example to dispatch a file text.ps when executed as a command to an appropriate viewer.

       zsh-mime-setup [ -fv ] [ -l [ suffix ... ] ]
       zsh-mime-handler [-l] command arguments ...
	      These two functions use the files ~/.mime.types and  /etc/mime.types,  which  asso-
	      ciate types and extensions, as well as ~/.mailcap and /etc/mailcap files, which as-
	      sociate types and the programs that handle them.	These are provided on  many  sys-
	      tems with the Multimedia Internet Mail Extensions.

	      To  enable  the  system,	the function zsh-mime-setup should be autoloaded and run.
	      This allows files with extensions to be treated as executable; such files  be  com-
	      pleted by the function completion system.  The function zsh-mime-handler should not
	      need to be called by the user.

	      The system works by setting up suffix aliases  with  `alias  -s'.   Suffix  aliases
	      already installed by the user will not be overwritten.

	      For  suffixes defined in lower case, upper case variants will also automatically be
	      handled (e.g. PDF is automatically handled  if  handling	for  the  suffix  pdf  is
	      defined), but not vice versa.

	      Repeated	calls to zsh-mime-setup do not override the existing mapping between suf-
	      fixes and executable files unless the option -f is given.  Note, however, that this
	      does  not  override  existing  suffix  aliases  assigned	to  handlers  other  than

	      Calling zsh-mime-setup with the option  -l  lists  the  existing	mappings  without
	      altering	them.  Suffixes to list (which may contain pattern characters that should
	      be quoted from immediate interpretation on the command line) may be given as  addi-
	      tional arguments, otherwise all suffixes are listed.

	      Calling  zsh-mime-setup with the option -v causes verbose output to be shown during
	      the setup operation.

	      The system respects the mailcap flags needsterminal and  copiousoutput,  see  mail-

	      The  functions  use the following styles, which are defined with the zstyle builtin
	      command (see zshmodules(1)).  They should be defined before zsh-mime-setup is  run.
	      The  contexts used all start with :mime:, with additional components in some cases.
	      It is recommended that a trailing * (suitably quoted) be appended to style patterns
	      in case the system is extended in future.  Some examples are given below.

	      For files that have multiple suffixes, e.g. .pdf.gz, where the context includes the
	      suffix it will be looked up starting with the longest possible suffix until a match
	      for  the style is found.	For example, if .pdf.gz produces a match for the handler,
	      that will be used; otherwise the handler for .gz will be used.  Note that, owing to
	      the  way suffix aliases work, it is always required that there be a handler for the
	      shortest possible suffix, so in this example .pdf.gz can only be handled if .gz  is
	      also  handled  (though not necessarily in the same way).	Alternatively, if no han-
	      dling for .gz on its own is needed, simply adding the command

		     alias -s gz=zsh-mime-handler

	      to the initialisation code is sufficient; .gz will not be handled on its	own,  but
	      may be in combination with other suffixes.

		     If  this boolean style is true, the mailcap handler for the context in ques-
		     tion is run using the eval builtin instead of by starting a new sh  process.
		     This  is  more efficient, but may not work in the occasional cases where the
		     mailcap handler uses strict POSIX syntax.

		     This style gives a list of patterns to be matched against files  passed  for
		     execution	with  a  handler  program.   If the file matches the pattern, the
		     entire command line is executed in its current form, with no handler.   This
		     is  useful for files which might have suffixes but nonetheless be executable
		     in their own right.  If the style is not set, the pattern *(*) *(/) is used;
		     hence  executable	files  are executed directly and not passed to a handler,
		     and the option AUTO_CD may be used to change to directories that  happen  to
		     have MIME suffixes.

		     Used if the style find-file-in-path is true for the same context.	Set to an
		     array of directories that are used for searching for the file to be handled;
		     the  default  is  the command path given by the special parameter path.  The
		     shell option PATH_DIRS is respected; if that is set,  the	appropriate  path
		     will be searched even if the name of the file to be handled as it appears on
		     the command line contains a `/'.  The full  context  is  :mime:.suffix:,  as
		     described for the style handler.

		     If  set,  allows  files  whose  names  do	not  contain absolute paths to be
		     searched for in the command path or the  path  specified  by  the	file-path
		     style.   If  the  file  is  not  found in the path, it is looked for locally
		     (whether or not the current directory is in the path); if it  is  not  found
		     locally,  the handler will abort unless the handle-nonexistent style is set.
		     Files found in the path are tested as described for the style execute-as-is.
		     The full context is :mime:.suffix:, as described for the style handler.

	      flags  Defines flags to go with a handler; the context is as for the handler style,
		     and the format is as for the flags in mailcap.

		     By default, arguments that don't correspond to files are not passed  to  the
		     MIME  handler in order to prevent it from intercepting commands found in the
		     path that happen to have suffixes.  This style may be set	to  an	array  of
		     extended glob patterns for arguments that will be passed to the handler even
		     if  they  don't  exist.   If  it  is  not	explicitly  set  it  defaults  to
		     [[:alpha:]]#:/*  which  allows  URLs  to  be passed to the MIME handler even
		     though they don't exist in that format in the file system.  The full context
		     is :mime:.suffix:, as described for the style handler.

		     Specifies	a  handler  for  a  suffix; the suffix is given by the context as
		     :mime:.suffix:, and the format of the handler is exactly  that  in  mailcap.
		     Note in particular the `.' and trailing colon to distinguish this use of the
		     context.  This overrides any handler specified by the mailcap files.  If the
		     handler  requires	a  terminal, the flags style should be set to include the
		     word needsterminal, or if the output is to be displayed through a pager (but
		     not if the handler is itself a pager), it should include copiousoutput.

		     A list of files in the format of ~/.mailcap and /etc/mailcap to be read dur-
		     ing setup, replacing the default list which consists  of  those  two  files.
		     The  context  is  :mime:.	 A  + in the list will be replaced by the default

		     This style is used to resolve multiple mailcap entries  for  the  same  MIME
		     type.   It  consists  of  an  array of the following elements, in descending
		     order of priority; later entries will be used if earlier entries are  unable
		     to  resolve  the  entries	being compared.  If none of the tests resolve the
		     entries, the first entry encountered is retained.

		     files  The order of files (entries in  the  mailcap  style)  read.   Earlier
			    files are preferred.  (Note this does not resolve entries in the same

			    The priority flag from the mailcap entry.  The priority is an integer
			    from 0 to 9 with the default value being 5.

		     flags  The  test  given  by the mailcap-prio-flags option is used to resolve

		     place  Later entries are preferred; as the  entries  are  strictly  ordered,
			    this test always succeeds.

		     Note  that  as  this  style is handled during initialisation, the context is
		     always :mime:, with no discrimination by suffix.

		     This style is used when the keyword flags is  encountered	in  the  list  of
		     tests specified by the mailcap-priorities style.  It should be set to a list
		     of patterns, each of which is tested against  the	flags  specified  in  the
		     mailcap  entry  (in  other  words,  the  sets of assignments found with some
		     entries in the mailcap file).  Earlier patterns in the list are preferred to
		     later ones, and matched patterns are preferred to unmatched ones.

		     A	list  of  files  in the format of ~/.mime.types and /etc/mime.types to be
		     read during setup, replacing the default list which consists  of  those  two
		     files.   The  context  is	:mime:.   A + in the list will be replaced by the
		     default files.

		     If this boolean style is set, the handler for the given  context  is  always
		     run  in the foreground, even if the flags provided in the mailcap entry sug-
		     gest it need not be (for example, it doesn't require a terminal).

	      pager  If set, will be used instead of $PAGER or more to handle suffixes where  the
		     copiousoutput  flag is set.  The context is as for handler, i.e. :mime:.suf-
		     fix: for handling a file with the given suffix.


		     zstyle ':mime:*' mailcap ~/.mailcap /usr/local/etc/mailcap
		     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' handler less %s
		     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' flags needsterminal

	      When zsh-mime-setup is subsequently run, it will look for mailcap  entries  in  the
	      two  files given.  Files of suffix .txt will be handled by running `less file.txt'.
	      The flag needsterminal is set to show that this program must run attached to a ter-

	      As  there  are  several  steps  to  dispatching  a command, the following should be
	      checked if attempting to execute a  file	by  extension  .ext  does  not	have  the
	      expected effect.

	      The  command  `alias  -s ext' should show `ps=zsh-mime-handler'.	If it shows some-
	      thing else, another suffix alias was already installed and was not overwritten.  If
	      it shows nothing, no handler was installed:  this is most likely because no handler
	      was found in the .mime.types and mailcap combination for .ext files.  In that case,
	      appropriate handling should be added to ~/.mime.types and mailcap.

	      If  the  extension  is  handled by zsh-mime-handler but the file is not opened cor-
	      rectly, either the handler defined for the type is incorrect, or the flags  associ-
	      ated  with  it are in appropriate.  Running zsh-mime-setup -l will show the handler
	      and, if there are any, the flags.  A %s in the handler  is  replaced  by	the  file
	      (suitably  quoted  if  necessary).  Check that the handler program listed lists and
	      can be run in the way shown.  Also check that  the  flags  needsterminal	or  copi-
	      ousoutput  are set if the handler needs to be run under a terminal; the second flag
	      is used if the output should be sent to a pager.	An example of a suitable  mailcap
	      entry for such a program is:

		     text/html; /usr/bin/lynx '%s'; needsterminal

	      Running  `zsh-mime-handler  -l  command line' prints the command line that would be
	      executed, simplified to remove the effect of any flags, and quoted so that the out-
	      put can be run as a complete zsh command line.  This is used by the completion sys-
	      tem to decide how to complete after a file handled by zsh-mime-setup.

	      This function is separate from the two MIME functions described above  and  can  be
	      assigned directly to a suffix:

		     autoload -U pick-web-browser
		     alias -s html=pick-web-browser

	      It  is  provided	as an intelligent front end to dispatch a web browser.	It may be
	      run as either a function or a shell script.  The	status	255  is  returned  if  no
	      browser could be started.

	      Various styles are available to customize the choice of browsers:

		     The  value  of  the style is an array giving preferences in decreasing order
		     for the type of browser to use.  The values of elements may be

			    Use a GUI browser that is already running when an X Window display is
			    available.	 The browsers listed in the x-browsers style are tried in
			    order until one is found; if it is, the file  will	be  displayed  in
			    that  browser, so the user may need to check whether it has appeared.
			    If no running browser is found, one is not started.   Browsers  other
			    than  Firefox,  Opera  and	Konqueror  are	assumed to understand the
			    Mozilla syntax for opening a URL remotely.

		     x	    Start a new GUI browser  when  an  X  Window  display  is  available.
			    Search  for  the  availability  of	one of the browsers listed in the
			    x-browsers style and start the first one that is found.  No check  is
			    made for an already running browser.

		     tty    Start  a  terminal-based browser.  Search for the availability of one
			    of the browsers listed in the tty-browsers style and start the  first
			    one that is found.

		     If the style is not set the default running x tty is used.

		     An  array	in decreasing order of preference of browsers to use when running
		     under the X Window System.  The array consists of	the  command  name  under
		     which to start the browser.  They are looked up in the context :mime: (which
		     may be extended in future, so appending `*' is recommended).  For example,

			    zstyle ':mime:*' x-browsers opera konqueror firefox

		     specifies that pick-web-browser should first look for a running instance  of
		     Opera,  Konqueror	or  Firefox,  in  that order, and if it fails to find any
		     should attempt to start Opera.  The  default  is  firefox	mozilla  netscape
		     opera konqueror.

		     An array similar to x-browsers, except that it gives browsers to use when no
		     X Window display is available.  The default is elinks links lynx.

		     If it is set this style is used to pick the command used to open a page  for
		     a	browser.   The	context  is  :mime:browser:new:$browser:  to  start a new
		     browser or :mime:browser:running:$browser:  to  open  a  URL  in  a  browser
		     already  running  on  the	current  X  display,  where $browser is the value
		     matched in the x-browsers or tty-browsers style.  The escape sequence %b  in
		     the style's value will be replaced by the browser, while %u will be replaced
		     by the URL.  If the style is not set, the default for all new  instances  is
		     equivalent  to %b %u and the defaults for using running browsers are equiva-
		     lent to the values kfmclient openURL %u for Konqueror, firefox  -new-tab  %u
		     for  Firefox,  opera -newpage %u for Opera, and %b -remote "openUrl(%u)" for
		     all others.

       zcalc [ expression ... ]
	      A reasonably powerful calculator based on  zsh's	arithmetic  evaluation	facility.
	      The  syntax  is  similar to that of formulae in most programming languages; see the
	      section `Arithmetic  Evaluation'	in  zshmisc(1)	for  details.	The  mathematical
	      library  zsh/mathfunc  will  be  loaded  if  it  is available; see the section `The
	      zsh/mathfunc Module' in zshmodules(1).  The mathematical	functions  correspond  to
	      the  raw	system libraries, so trigonometric functions are evaluated using radians,
	      and so on.

	      Each line typed is evaluated as an expression.  The prompt shows	a  number,  which
	      corresponds  to  a  positional  parameter  where	the result of that calculation is
	      stored.  For example, the result of the calculation on the line preceded by  `4>	'
	      is  available  as $4.  The last value calculated is available as ans.  Full command
	      line editing, including the history of previous  calculations,  is  available;  the
	      history is saved in the file ~/.zcalc_history.  To exit, enter a blank line or type
	      `:q' on its own (`q' is allowed for historical compatibility).

	      If arguments are given to zcalc on start up, they are used to prime the  first  few
	      positional  parameters.	A  visual indication of this is given when the calculator

	      The constants PI (3.14159...) and E (2.71828...) are provided.   Parameter  assign-
	      ment  is	possible, but note that all parameters will be put into the global names-

	      The output base can be initialised by passing  the  option  `-#base',  for  example
	      `zcalc  -#16'  (the  `#'	may  have to be quoted, depending on the globbing options

	      The prompt is configurable via the parameter ZCALCPROMPT, which undergoes  standard
	      prompt  expansion.   The	index of the current entry is stored locally in the first
	      element of the array psvar, which can be referred to in ZCALCPROMPT as `%1v'.   The
	      default prompt is `%1v> '.

	      A  few  special commands are available; these are introduced by a colon.	For back-
	      ward compatibility, the colon may be omitted for certain commands.   Completion  is
	      available if compinit has been run.

	      The  output  precision  may  be specified within zcalc by special commands familiar
	      from many calculators.
	      :norm  The default output format.  It corresponds to the printf  %g  specification.
		     Typically this shows six decimal digits.

	      :sci digits
		     Scientific  notation,  corresponding to the printf %g output format with the
		     precision given by digits.  This produces either fixed point or  exponential
		     notation depending on the value output.

	      :fix digits
		     Fixed  point notation, corresponding to the printf %f output format with the
		     precision given by digits.

	      :eng digits
		     Exponential notation, corresponding to the printf %E output format with  the
		     precision given by digits.

	      :raw   Raw  output:  this is the default form of the output from a math evaluation.
		     This may show more precision than the number actually possesses.

	      Other special commands:
		     Execute line... as a normal shell command line.  Note that it is executed in
		     the  context  of the function, i.e. with local variables.	Space is optional
		     after :!.

	      :local arg ...
		     Declare variables local to the function.  Note that  certain  variables  are
		     used  by  the  function  for its own purposes.  Other variables may be used,
		     too, but they will be taken from or put into the global scope.

	      :function name [ body ]
		     Define a mathematical function or (with no body) delete it.  The function is
		     defined using zmathfuncdef, see below.

		     Note that zcalc takes care of all quoting.  Hence for example:

			    function cube $1 * $1 * $1

		     defines a function to cube the sole argument.

		     This is not a special command, rather part of normal arithmetic syntax; how-
		     ever, when this form appears on a line by itself the default output radix is
		     set  to  base.  Use, for example, `[#16]' to display hexadecimal output pre-
		     ceded by an indication of the base, or `[##16]' just to display the raw num-
		     ber  in  the  given base.	Bases themselves are always specified in decimal.
		     `[#]' restores the normal output format.  Note that setting an  output  base
		     suppresses floating point output; use `[#]' to return to normal operation.

	      See the comments in the function for a few extra tips.

       zmathfuncdef [ mathfunc [ body ] ]
	      A convenient front end to functions -M.

	      With two arguments, define a mathematical function named mathfunc which can be used
	      in any form of arithmetic evaluation.  body is a mathematical expression to  imple-
	      ment  the  function.   It may contain references to position parameters $1, $2, ...
	      to refer to mandatory parameters and  ${1:-defvalue}  ...   to  refer  to  optional
	      parameters.   Note  that	the forms must be strictly adhered to for the function to
	      calculate the correct number of arguments.  The implementation is held in  a  shell
	      function	named  zsh_math_func_mathfunc; usually the user will not need to refer to
	      the shell function directly.  Any existing function of the same  name  is  silently

	      With  one  argument, remove the mathematical function mathfunc as well as the shell
	      function implementation.

	      With no arguments, list all mathfunc functions in a form suitable for restoring the
	      definition.  The functions have not necessarily been defined by zmathfuncdef.

       The  zsh/newuser  module comes with a function to aid in configuring shell options for new
       users.  If the module is installed, this function can also be run by hand.  It  is  avail-
       able  even  if  the module's default behaviour, namely running the function for a new user
       logging in without startup files, is inhibited.

       zsh-newuser-install [ -f ]
	      The function presents the user with various options for customizing their  initial-
	      ization  scripts.   Currently  only  ~/.zshrc  is handled.  $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc is used
	      instead if the parameter ZDOTDIR is set; this provides a way for the user  to  con-
	      figure a file without altering an existing .zshrc.

	      By  default  the	function  exits immediately if it finds any of the files .zshenv,
	      .zprofile, .zshrc, or .zlogin in the  appropriate  directory.   The  option  -f  is
	      required	in order to force the function to continue.  Note this may happen even if
	      .zshrc itself does not exist.

	      As currently configured, the function will exit immediately if the  user	has  root
	      privileges; this behaviour cannot be overridden.

	      Once activated, the function's behaviour is supposed to be self-explanatory.  Menus
	      are present allowing the user to alter the value of options and  parameters.   Sug-
	      gestions for improvements are always welcome.

	      When  the  script  exits, the user is given the opportunity to save the new file or
	      not; changes are not irreversible until this point.  However, the script is careful
	      to  restrict  changes to the file only to a group marked by the lines `# Lines con-
	      figured	by   zsh-newuser-install'   and   `#   End   of   lines   configured   by
	      zsh-newuser-install'.   In  addition,  the old version of .zshrc is saved to a file
	      with the suffix .zni appended.

	      If the function edits an existing .zshrc, it is up to the user to ensure	that  the
	      changes  made will take effect.  For example, if control usually returns early from
	      the existing .zshrc the lines will not be executed; or a later initialization  file
	      may  override  options  or  parameters,  and  so	on.  The function itself does not
	      attempt to detect any such conflicts.

       There are a large number of helpful functions in the Functions/Misc directory of  the  zsh
       distribution.   Most  are very simple and do not require documentation here, but a few are
       worthy of special mention.

       colors This function initializes several associative arrays to map  color  names  to  (and
	      from)  the  ANSI standard eight-color terminal codes.  These are used by the prompt
	      theme system (see above).  You seldom should need to run colors more than once.

	      The eight base colors are: black, red, green,  yellow,  blue,  magenta,  cyan,  and
	      white.   Each  of these has codes for foreground and background.	In addition there
	      are eight intensity attributes: bold, faint, standout, underline,  blink,  reverse,
	      and  conceal.   Finally, there are six codes used to negate attributes: none (reset
	      all attributes to the defaults), normal  (neither  bold  nor  faint),  no-standout,
	      no-underline, no-blink, and no-reverse.

	      Some terminals do not support all combinations of colors and intensities.

	      The associative arrays are:

	      colour Map  all  the  color  names to their integer codes, and integer codes to the
		     color names.  The eight base names map to the foreground color codes, as  do
		     names  prefixed  with  `fg-',  such as `fg-red'.  Names prefixed with `bg-',
		     such as `bg-blue', refer to the background codes.	The reverse mapping  from
		     code  to  color  yields  base name for foreground codes and the bg- form for

		     Although it is a misnomer to call them `colors', these arrays also  map  the
		     other fourteen attributes from names to codes and codes to names.

		     Map  the  eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape sequences that set
		     the corresponding foreground text properties.  The fg sequences  change  the
		     color without changing the eight intensity attributes.

		     Map  the  eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape sequences that set
		     the corresponding background properties.  The bg sequences change the  color
		     without changing the eight intensity attributes.

	      In  addition,  the scalar parameters reset_color and bold_color are set to the ANSI
	      terminal escapes that turn off all attributes and turn on bold  intensity,  respec-

       fned name
	      Same  as zed -f.	This function does not appear in the zsh distribution, but can be
	      created by linking zed to the name fned in some directory in your fpath.

       is-at-least needed [ present ]
	      Perform a greater-than-or-equal-to comparison of two strings having the format of a
	      zsh  version  number; that is, a string of numbers and text with segments separated
	      by dots or dashes.  If the present string is not provided,  $ZSH_VERSION	is  used.
	      Segments	are paired left-to-right in the two strings with leading non-number parts
	      ignored.	If one string has fewer segments than the other, the missing segments are
	      considered zero.

	      This  is useful in startup files to set options and other state that are not avail-
	      able in all versions of zsh.

		     is-at-least 3.1.6-15 && setopt NO_GLOBAL_RCS
		     is-at-least 3.1.0 && setopt HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
		     is-at-least 2.6-17 || print "You can't use is-at-least here."

       nslookup [ arg ... ]
	      This wrapper function for the nslookup command requires the  zsh/zpty  module  (see
	      zshmodules(1)).	It behaves exactly like the standard nslookup except that it pro-
	      vides customizable prompts  (including  a  right-side  prompt)  and  completion  of
	      nslookup	commands, host names, etc. (if you use the function-based completion sys-
	      tem).  Completion styles may be set with the context prefix `:completion:nslookup'.

	      See also the pager, prompt and rprompt styles below.

       regexp-replace var regexp replace
	      Use regular expressions to perform a global search and replace operation on a vari-
	      able.   If  the option RE_MATCH_PCRE is not set, POSIX extended regular expressions
	      are used, else Perl-compatible regular expressions (this requires the shell  to  be
	      linked against the pcre library).

	      var  is the name of the variable containing the string to be matched.  The variable
	      will be modified directly by the function.   The	variables  MATCH,  MBEGIN,  MEND,
	      match,  mbegin,  mend should be avoided as these are used by the regular expression

	      regexp is the regular expression to match against the string.

	      replace is the replacement text.	This can contain parameter,  command  and  arith-
	      metic  expressions  which  will  be replaced:  in particular, a reference to $MATCH
	      will be replaced by the text matched by the pattern.

	      The return status is 0 if at least one match was performed, else 1.

       run-help cmd
	      This function is designed to be invoked by the run-help ZLE widget, in place of the
	      default alias.  See `Accessing On-Line Help' above for setup instructions.

	      In  the discussion which follows, if cmd is a file system path, it is first reduced
	      to its rightmost component (the file name).

	      Help is first sought by looking for a file named cmd in the directory named by  the
	      HELPDIR  parameter.   If no file is found, an assistant function, alias, or command
	      named run-help-cmd is sought.  If found, the assistant is executed with the rest of
	      the  current command line (everything after the command name cmd) as its arguments.
	      When neither file nor assistant is found, the external command `man cmd' is run.

	      An example assistant for the "ssh" command:

		     run-help-ssh() {
			 emulate -LR zsh
			 local -a args
			 # Delete the "-l username" option
			 zparseopts -D -E -a args l:
			 # Delete other options, leaving: host command
			 if [[ ${#args} -lt 2 ]]; then
			     man ssh
			     run-help $args[2]

	      Several of these assistants are provided in the  Functions/Misc  directory.   These
	      must  be	autoloaded, or placed as executable scripts in your search path, in order
	      to be found and used by run-help.

		     Assistant functions for the git, svk, and svn commands.

       tetris Zsh was once accused of not being as complete as Emacs, because it lacked a  Tetris
	      game.  This function was written to refute this vicious slander.

	      This function must be used as a ZLE widget:

		     autoload -U tetris
		     zle -N tetris
		     bindkey keys tetris

	      To  start a game, execute the widget by typing the keys.	Whatever command line you
	      were editing disappears temporarily, and your keymap is also  temporarily  replaced
	      by  the  Tetris  control keys.  The previous editor state is restored when you quit
	      the game (by pressing `q') or when you lose.

	      If you quit in the middle of a game, the next invocation of the tetris widget  will
	      continue where you left off.  If you lost, it will start a new game.

       zargs [ option ... -- ] [ input ... ] [ -- command [ arg ... ] ]
	      This  function  has  a  similar  purpose to GNU xargs.  Instead of reading lines of
	      arguments from the standard input, it takes them from the command  line.	 This  is
	      useful because zsh, especially with recursive glob operators, often can construct a
	      command line for a shell function that is longer than can be accepted by an  exter-
	      nal command.

	      The  option list represents options of the zargs command itself, which are the same
	      as those of xargs.  The input list is the collection of strings (often file  names)
	      that become the arguments of the command, analogous to the standard input of xargs.
	      Finally, the arg list consists of those arguments (usually options) that are passed
	      to  the  command	each  time  it runs.  The arg list precedes the elements from the
	      input list in each run.  If no command is provided, then no arg list  may  be  pro-
	      vided, and in that event the default command is `print' with arguments `-r --'.

	      For  example,  to get a long ls listing of all plain files in the current directory
	      or its subdirectories:

		     autoload -U zargs
		     zargs -- **/*(.) -- ls -l

	      Note that `--' is used both to mark the end of the option list and to mark the  end
	      of  the  input  list, so it must appear twice whenever the input list may be empty.
	      If there is guaranteed to be at least one input and the first input does not  begin
	      with a `-', then the first `--' may be omitted.

	      In  the event that the string `--' is or may be an input, the -e option may be used
	      to  change  the  end-of-inputs  marker.	Note  that  this  does	not  change   the
	      end-of-options marker.  For example, to use `..' as the marker:

		     zargs -e.. -- **/*(.) .. ls -l

	      This  is a good choice in that example because no plain file can be named `..', but
	      the best end-marker depends on the circumstances.

	      The options -i, -I, -l, -L, and -n differ  slightly  from  their	usage  in  xargs.
	      There  are  no input lines for zargs to count, so -l and -L count through the input
	      list, and -n counts the number of arguments passed to each  execution  of  command,
	      including  any  arg list.  Also, any time -i or -I is used, each input is processed
	      separately as if by `-L 1'.

	      For details of the other zargs options, see xargs(1) (but note  the  difference  in
	      function between zargs and xargs) or run zargs with the --help option.

       zed [ -f ] name
       zed -b This function uses the ZLE editor to edit a file or function.

	      Only one name argument is allowed.  If the -f option is given, the name is taken to
	      be that of a function; if the function is marked for autoloading, zed searches  for
	      it  in  the  fpath and loads it.	Note that functions edited this way are installed
	      into the current shell, but not written back to the autoload file.

	      Without -f, name is the path name of the file to edit, which need not exist; it  is
	      created on write, if necessary.

	      While  editing,  the function sets the main keymap to zed and the vi command keymap
	      to zed-vicmd.  These will be copied from the existing main  and  vicmd  keymaps  if
	      they  do	not exist the first time zed is run.  They can be used to provide special
	      key bindings used only in zed.

	      If it creates the keymap, zed rebinds the return key to insert  a  line  break  and
	      `^X^W'  to  accept the edit in the zed keymap, and binds `ZZ' to accept the edit in
	      the zed-vicmd keymap.

	      The bindings alone can be installed by running `zed  -b'.   This	is  suitable  for
	      putting into a startup file.  Note that, if rerun, this will overwrite the existing
	      zed and zed-vicmd keymaps.

	      Completion is available, and styles may be set with the  context	prefix	`:comple-

	      A  zle  widget  zed-set-file-name  is  available.   This can be called by name from
	      within zed using `\ex zed-set-file-name' (note,  however,  that  because	of  zed's
	      rebindings  you  will have to type ^j at the end instead of the return key), or can
	      be bound to a key in either of the zed or zed-vicmd keymaps after `zed -b' has been
	      run.   When  the	widget	is  called,  it prompts for a new name for the file being
	      edited.  When zed exits the file will be written under that name and  the  original
	      file will be left alone.	The widget has no effect with `zed -f'.

	      While zed-set-file-name is running, zed uses the keymap zed-normal-keymap, which is
	      linked from the main keymap in effect at the time  zed  initialised  its	bindings.
	      (This  is to make the return key operate normally.)  The result is that if the main
	      keymap has been changed, the widget won't notice.  This is not a concern	for  most

       zcp [ -finqQvwW ] srcpat dest
       zln [ -finqQsvwW ] srcpat dest
	      Same  as zmv -C and zmv -L, respectively.  These functions do not appear in the zsh
	      distribution, but can be created by linking zmv to the names zcp and  zln  in  some
	      directory in your fpath.

       zkbd   See `Keyboard Definition' above.

       zmv [ -finqQsvwW ] [ -C | -L | -M | -p program ] [ -o optstring ] srcpat dest
	      Move  (usually,  rename)	files  matching the pattern srcpat to corresponding files
	      having names of the form given by dest, where srcpat contains parentheses surround-
	      ing patterns which will be replaced in turn by $1, $2, ... in dest.  For example,

		     zmv '(*).lis' '$1.txt'

	      renames  `foo.lis'  to  `foo.txt', `my.old.stuff.lis' to `my.old.stuff.txt', and so

	      The pattern is always treated as an EXTENDED_GLOB pattern.  Any file whose name  is
	      not  changed  by	the  substitution  is  simply ignored.	Any error (a substitution
	      resulted in an empty string, two substitutions gave the same result,  the  destina-
	      tion  was an existing regular file and -f was not given) causes the entire function
	      to abort without doing anything.


	      -f     Force overwriting of destination files.  Not currently passed  down  to  the
		     mv/cp/ln command due to vagaries of implementations (but you can use -o-f to
		     do that).
	      -i     Interactive: show each line to be executed and ask the user whether to  exe-
		     cute it.  `Y' or `y' will execute it, anything else will skip it.	Note that
		     you just need to type one character.
	      -n     No execution: print what would happen, but don't do it.
	      -q     Turn bare glob qualifiers off: now  assumed  by  default,	so  this  has  no
	      -Q     Force  bare  glob qualifiers on.  Don't turn this on unless you are actually
		     using glob qualifiers in a pattern.
	      -s     Symbolic, passed down to ln; only works with -L.
	      -v     Verbose: print each command as it's being executed.
	      -w     Pick out wildcard parts of the pattern, as described above,  and  implicitly
		     add parentheses for referring to them.
	      -W     Just like -w, with the addition of turning wildcards in the replacement pat-
		     tern into sequential ${1} .. ${N} references.
	      -M     Force cp, ln or mv, respectively, regardless of the name of the function.
	      -p program
		     Call program instead of cp, ln or mv.  Whatever it does, it should at  least
		     understand  the  form `program -- oldname newname' where oldname and newname
		     are filenames generated by zmv.
	      -o optstring
		     The optstring is split into words and passed down verbatim to the cp, ln  or
		     mv command called to perform the work.  It should probably begin with a `-'.

	      Further examples:

		     zmv -v '(* *)' '${1// /_}'

	      For  any file in the current directory with at least one space in the name, replace
	      every space by an underscore and display the commands executed.

	      For more complete examples and other implementation details,  see  the  zmv  source
	      file,  usually  located  in one of the directories named in your fpath, or in Func-
	      tions/Misc/zmv in the zsh distribution.

	      See `Recompiling Functions' above.

       zstyle+ context style value [ + subcontext style value ... ]
	      This makes defining styles a bit simpler by using a single `+' as a  special  token
	      that allows you to append a context name to the previously used context name.  Like

		     zstyle+ ':foo:bar' style1 value1 \
			   + ':baz'	style2 value2 \
			   + ':frob'	style3 value3

	      This defines `style1' with `value1' for the context :foo:bar as usual, but it  also
	      defines  `style2'  with  `value2'  for  the  context :foo:bar:baz and `style3' with
	      `value3' for :foo:bar:frob.  Any subcontext may be the empty string to  re-use  the
	      first context unchanged.

	      The zed function sets this style in context `:completion:zed:*' to turn off comple-
	      tion when TAB is typed at the beginning of a line.  You may override this  by  set-
	      ting your own value for this context and style.

       pager  The  nslookup  function looks up this style in the context `:nslookup' to determine
	      the program used to display output that does not fit on a single screen.

	      The nslookup function looks up this style in the context	`:nslookup'  to  set  the
	      prompt  and  the right-side prompt, respectively.  The usual expansions for the PS1
	      and RPS1 parameters may be used (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

zsh 5.0.2				December 21, 2012			    ZSHCONTRIB(1)
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