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ZSHBUILTINS(1)									   ZSHBUILTINS(1)

NAME
       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
       - simple command
	      See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       . file [ arg ... ]
	      Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment.

	      If  file	does  not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell looks in the
	      components of $path to find the directory containing file.  Files  in  the  current
	      directory  are  not  read  unless  `.' appears somewhere in $path.  If a file named
	      `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled form (created with the
	      zcompile builtin) of file, then commands are read from that file instead of file.

	      If  any  arguments  arg  are  given, they become the positional parameters; the old
	      positional parameters are restored when the file is done executing.   If	file  was
	      not  found the return status is 127; if file was found but contained a syntax error
	      the return status is 126; else the return status is the exit  status  of	the  last
	      command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
	      This  command  does nothing, although normal argument expansions is performed which
	      may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
	      For each name with a corresponding value, define	an  alias  with  that  value.	A
	      trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias expansion.  If
	      the -g flag is present, define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even  if
	      they do not occur in command position.

	      If the -s flags is present, define a suffix alias: if the command word on a command
	      line is in the form `text.name', where text is any non-empty string, it is replaced
	      by  the text `value text.name'.  Note that name is treated as a literal string, not
	      a pattern.  A trailing space in value is not special in this case.  For example,

		     alias -s ps=gv

	      will cause the command `*.ps' to be expanded to `gv *.ps'.  As alias  expansion  is
	      carried  out  earlier  than  globbing,  the  `*.ps'  will then be expanded.  Suffix
	      aliases constitute a different name space from other aliases (so in the above exam-
	      ple  it  is  still possible to create an alias for the command ps) and the two sets
	      are never listed together.

	      For each name with no value, print the value of name, if any.  With  no  arguments,
	      print  all  currently defined aliases other than suffix aliases.	If the -m flag is
	      given the arguments are taken as patterns (they should be quoted to  preserve  them
	      from  being  interpreted as glob patterns), and the aliases matching these patterns
	      are printed.  When printing aliases and one of the -g, -r or -s flags  is  present,
	      restrict the printing to global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular
	      alias is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+'  instead  of
	      `-',  or	ending	the  option  list  with  a single `+', prevents the values of the
	      aliases from being printed.

	      If the -L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable  for  putting
	      in a startup script.  The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given
	      for which no alias has been defined.

	      For more on aliases, include common problems, see  the  section  ALIASING  in  zsh-
	      misc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}UXkmtz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
	      Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X and -w.

	      The  flag -X may be used only inside a shell function, and may not be followed by a
	      name.  It causes the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then immedi-
	      ately loaded and executed, with the current array of positional parameters as argu-
	      ments.  This replaces the previous definition of the function.  If no function def-
	      inition is found, an error is printed and the function remains undefined and marked
	      for autoloading.

	      The flag +X attempts to load each name as an autoloaded function, but does not exe-
	      cute  it.   The  exit  status  is zero (success) if the function was not previously
	      defined and a definition for it was found.  This does not replace any existing def-
	      inition  of the function.  The exit status is nonzero (failure) if the function was
	      already defined or when no definition was found.	In the latter case  the  function
	      remains undefined and marked for autoloading.  If ksh-style autoloading is enabled,
	      the function created will contain the contents of the file plus a call to the func-
	      tion  itself  appended  to  it, thus giving normal ksh autoloading behaviour on the
	      first call to the function.  If the -m flag is also given each name is treated as a
	      pattern  and  all  functions already marked for autoload that match the pattern are
	      loaded.

	      With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled with the  zcompile
	      builtin, and all functions defined in them are marked for autoloading.

	      The  flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the zsh or ksh style,
	      as if the option KSH_AUTOLOAD were unset or  were  set,  respectively.   The  flags
	      override the setting of the option at the time the function is loaded.

	      Note  that  the  autoload  command makes no attempt to ensure the shell options set
	      during the loading or execution of the file have any particular value.   For  this,
	      the emulate command can be used:

		     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

	      arranges	that  when  func is loaded the shell is in native zsh emulation, and this
	      emulation is also applied when func is run.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
	      Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified.

       bindkey
	      See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
	      Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.	If  n  is  speci-
	      fied, then break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
	      Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
	      Change  the  current directory.  In the first form, change the current directory to
	      arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not specified.  If arg is  `-',  change  to
	      the previous directory.

	      Otherwise,  if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the directory given by
	      arg.

	      If arg does not begin with a slash, the behaviour depends on  whether  the  current
	      directory  `.'  occurs  in the list of directories contained in the shell parameter
	      cdpath.  If it does not, first attempt to change to the  directory  arg  under  the
	      current  directory,  and	if that fails but cdpath is set and contains at least one
	      element attempt to change to the directory arg under each component  of  cdpath  in
	      turn  until  successful.	If `.' occurs in cdpath, then cdpath is searched strictly
	      in order so that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

	      The order of testing cdpath is modified if the option POSIX_CD is set, as described
	      in the documentation for the option.

	      If  no directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a parameter named arg
	      exists whose value begins with a slash, treat its value as the directory.  In  that
	      case, the parameter is added to the named directory hash table.

	      The  second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name of
	      the current directory, and tries to change to this new directory.

	      The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory  stack,  and  changes  to
	      that  directory.	An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack entry by counting
	      from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.	An  argu-
	      ment of the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the
	      meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

	      If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
	      the  array  chpwd_functions are not called.  This is useful for calls to cd that do
	      not change the environment seen by an interactive user.

	      If the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current  directory  if  the
	      given  pathname  contains  symlinks.   If the -P option is given or the CHASE_LINKS
	      option is set, symbolic links are resolved to their true values.	If the -L  option
	      is given symbolic links are retained in the directory (and not resolved) regardless
	      of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
	      The simple command argument is taken as an external command instead of  a  function
	      or builtin and is executed. If the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also
	      be executed but certain special properties of them  are  suppressed.  The  -p  flag
	      causes  a  default  path to be searched instead of that in $path. With the -v flag,
	      command is similar to whence and with -V, it is equivalent to whence -v.

	      See also the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       comparguments
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
	      See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
	      See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
	      Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for,  while,  until,  select  or  repeat
	      loop.   If  n  is specified, break out of n-1 loops and resume at the nth enclosing
	      loop.

       declare
	      Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
	      With no arguments, print the contents of	the  directory	stack.	 Directories  are
	      added  to  this  stack with the pushd command, and removed with the cd or popd com-
	      mands.  If arguments are specified, load them onto the directory	stack,	replacing
	      anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

	      -c     clear the directory stack.

	      -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~ expressions.

	      -p     print directory entries one per line.

	      -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.

       disable [ -afmrs ] name ...
	      Temporarily  disable  the  named	hash  table  elements.	The default is to disable
	      builtin commands.  This allows you to use an external command with the same name as
	      a  builtin  command.   The  -a  option  causes  disable to act on regular or global
	      aliases.	The -s option causes disable to act on suffix  aliases.   The  -f  option
	      causes  disable to act on shell functions.  The -r options causes disable to act on
	      reserved words.  Without arguments all disabled hash table elements from the corre-
	      sponding	hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken as pat-
	      terns (which should be quoted to prevent them from undergoing filename  expansion),
	      and  all	hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these pat-
	      terns are disabled.  Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
	      Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their
	      status,  and  will  not  complain if you try to exit an interactive shell with them
	      running or stopped.  If no job is specified, disown the current job.

	      If the jobs are currently stopped and the AUTO_CONTINUE option is not set, a  warn-
	      ing  is  printed	containing  information about how to make them running after they
	      have been disowned.  If one of the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automat-
	      ically be made running, independent of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
	      Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one.	If the -n
	      flag is not present, print a newline at the end.	 echo  recognizes  the	following
	      escape sequences:

	      \a     bell character
	      \b     backspace
	      \c     suppress final newline
	      \e     escape
	      \f     form feed
	      \n     linefeed (newline)
	      \r     carriage return
	      \t     horizontal tab
	      \v     vertical tab
	      \\     backslash
	      \0NNN  character code in octal
	      \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
	      \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
	      \UNNNNNNNN
		     unicode character code in hexadecimal

	      The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences.
	      In the latter case, -e flag can be used to enable them.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
	      Without any argument print current emulation mode.

	      With single argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as  much  as
	      possible.   csh  will  never  be fully emulated.	If the argument is not one of the
	      shells listed above, zsh will be used as a default; more precisely, the tests  per-
	      formed  on  the  argument  are the same as those used to determine the emulation at
	      startup based on the shell name, see the section COMPATIBILITY in zsh(1) .

	      If the emulate command occurs inside a function that has been marked for	execution
	      tracing  with  functions	-t then the xtrace option will be turned on regardless of
	      emulation mode or other options.	Note that code executed inside	the  function  by
	      the  .,  source, or eval commands is not considered to be running directly from the
	      function, hence does not provoke this behaviour.

	      If the -R switch is given, all settable options are reset to  their  default  value
	      corresponding  to the specified emulation mode, except for certain options describ-
	      ing the interactive environment; otherwise, only	those  options	likely	to  cause
	      portability  problems  in  scripts  and functions are altered.  If the -L switch is
	      given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well,  causing  the
	      effects  of the emulate command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to the
	      immediately surrounding shell function, if any; normally these options  are  turned
	      off in all emulation modes except ksh. The -L switch is mutually exclusive with the
	      use of -c in flags.

	      The flags may be any of the invocation-time flags described in the section  INVOCA-
	      TION  in zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS' and `-o VI' may not be used.  Flags such as
	      `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED' may be prohibited in some circumstances.

	      If -c arg appears in flags, arg is evaluated while the requested emulation is  tem-
	      porarily	in  effect.  In this case the emulation mode and all options are restored
	      to their previous values before emulate returns.	The -R	switch	may  precede  the
	      name of the shell to emulate; note this has a meaning distinct from including -R in
	      flags.

	      Use of -c enables `sticky' emulation mode for functions defined within  the  evalu-
	      ated  expression:  the emulation mode is associated thereafter with the function so
	      that whenever the function is executed the emulation (respecting the -R switch,  if
	      present)	and  all options are set before entry to the function, and restored after
	      exit.  If the function is called when the sticky emulation is  already  in  effect,
	      either  within an `emulate shell -c' expression or within another function with the
	      same sticky emulation, entry and exit from the function do not cause options to  be
	      altered (except due to standard processing such as the LOCAL_OPTIONS option).  This
	      also applies to functions marked for autoload  within  the  sticky  emulation;  the
	      appropriate  set	of options will be applied at the point the function is loaded as
	      well as when it is run.

	      For example:

		     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
		     fno() { fni; }'
		     fno

	      The two functions fni and fno are defined with sticky sh emulation.   fno  is  then
	      executed,  causing  options associated with emulations to be set to their values in
	      sh.  fni then calls fno; because fno is also marked for  sticky  sh  emulation,  no
	      option  changes  take place on entry to or exit from it.	Hence the option cshnull-
	      glob, turned off by sh emulation, will be turned on within fni  and  remain  on  on
	      return  to  fno.	 On  exit  from  fno,  the emulation mode and all options will be
	      restored to the state they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

	      The documentation above is typically sufficient for the intended purpose of execut-
	      ing  code designed for other shells in a suitable environment.  More detailed rules
	      follow.
	      1.     The sticky emulation environment provided by `emulate shell -c' is identical
		     to  that  provided  by  entry to a function marked for sticky emulation as a
		     consequence of being defined in such an environment.   Hence,  for  example,
		     the  sticky  emulation is inherited by subfunctions defined within functions
		     with sticky emulation.
	      2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from functions that are
		     not  marked  for sticky emulation, other than those that would normally take
		     place, even if those functions are called within sticky emulation.
	      3.     No special handling is provided for functions marked for  autoload  nor  for
		     functions present in wordcode created by the zcompile command.
	      4.     The presence or absence of the -R switch to emulate corresponds to different
		     sticky emulation modes, so for example `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R  sh  -c'
		     and `emulate csh -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
	      5.     Difference in shell options supplied in addition to the basic emulation also
		     mean the sticky emulations are different, so for example  `emulate  zsh  -c'
		     and `emulate zsh -o cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky emulations.

       enable [ -afmrs ] name ...
	      Enable  the  named  hash	table elements, presumably disabled earlier with disable.
	      The default is to enable builtin commands.  The -a option causes enable to  act  on
	      regular  or  global aliases.  The -s option causes enable to act on suffix aliases.
	      The -f option causes enable to act on shell functions.  The -r option causes enable
	      to  act  on reserved words.  Without arguments all enabled hash table elements from
	      the corresponding hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken
	      as  patterns  (should be quoted) and all hash table elements from the corresponding
	      hash table matching these patterns are enabled.  Enabled objects	can  be  disabled
	      with the disable builtin command.

       eval [ arg ... ]
	      Read  the  arguments  as input to the shell and execute the resulting command(s) in
	      the current shell process.  The return status is the same as if  the  commands  had
	      been  executed  directly by the shell; if there are no args or they contain no com-
	      mands (i.e. are an empty string or whitespace) the return status is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] simple command
	      Replace the current shell with an external command rather than  forking.	 With  -c
	      clear  the environment; with -l prepend - to the argv[0] string of the command exe-
	      cuted (to simulate a login shell); with -a argv0 set the argv[0] string of the com-
	      mand executed.  See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       exit [ n ]
	      Exit  the  shell with the exit status specified by n; if none is specified, use the
	      exit status from the last command executed.  An EOF condition will also  cause  the
	      shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
	      The  specified  names  are marked for automatic export to the environment of subse-
	      quently executed commands.  Equivalent to typeset -gx.  If  a  parameter	specified
	      does not already exist, it is created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
	      Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
	     [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
	      Select a range of commands from first to last from the history list.  The arguments
	      first and last may be specified as a number or as a string.  A negative  number  is
	      used as an offset to the current history event number.  A string specifies the most
	      recent event beginning with the given string.  All substitutions old=new,  if  any,
	      are then performed on the commands.

	      If  the -l flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on standard output.  If
	      the -m flag is also given the first argument is  taken  as  a  pattern  (should  be
	      quoted) and only the history events matching this pattern will be shown.	Otherwise
	      the editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these history events.   If
	      ename  is  not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used; if that is not set
	      the value of the parameter EDITOR is used; if that is not set  a	builtin  default,
	      usually `vi' is used.  If ename is `-', no editor is invoked.  When editing is com-
	      plete, the edited command is executed.

	      If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent event), or to  -16
	      if  the -l flag is given.  If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or to
	      -1 if the -l flag is given.

	      The flag -r reverses the order of the commands and the flag -n  suppresses  command
	      numbers when listing.

	      Also when listing,
	      -d     prints timestamps for each command
	      -f     prints full time-date stamps in the US `MM/DD/YY hh:mm' format
	      -E     prints full time-date stamps in the European `dd.mm.yyyy hh:mm' format
	      -i     prints full time-date stamps in ISO8601 `yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm' format
	      -t fmt prints  time  and date stamps in the given format; fmt is formatted with the
		     strftime function with the  zsh  extensions  described  for  the  %D{string}
		     prompt  format  in  the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).
		     The resulting formatted string must be no more than 256 characters  or  will
		     not be printed.
	      -D     prints elapsed times; may be combined with one of the options above.

	      `fc  -p' pushes the current history list onto a stack and switches to a new history
	      list.  If the -a option is also specified, this history list will be  automatically
	      popped  when  the current function scope is exited, which is a much better solution
	      than creating a trap function to call `fc -P' manually.  If no arguments are speci-
	      fied, the history list is left empty, $HISTFILE is unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST
	      are set to their default values.	If one argument is given,  $HISTFILE  is  set  to
	      that  filename,  $HISTSIZE  & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the history file is
	      read in (if it exists) to initialize the new list.  If a second argument is  speci-
	      fied,  $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are instead set to the single specified numeric value.
	      Finally, if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set  to  a  separate  value
	      from  $HISTSIZE.	 You are free to change these environment values for the new his-
	      tory list however you desire in order to manipulate the new history list.

	      `fc -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by `fc -p'.  The  current
	      list  is saved to its $HISTFILE before it is destroyed (assuming that $HISTFILE and
	      $SAVEHIST are set appropriately, of course).  The values of  $HISTFILE,  $HISTSIZE,
	      and  $SAVEHIST  are  restored to the values they had when `fc -p' was called.  Note
	      that this restoration can conflict with making these  variables  "local",  so  your
	      best  bet  is to avoid local declarations for these variables in functions that use
	      `fc -p'.	The one other guaranteed-safe combination is declaring these variables to
	      be  local  at the top of your function and using the automatic option (-a) with `fc
	      -p'.  Finally, note that it is legal to manually pop a push  marked  for	automatic
	      popping if you need to do so before the function exits.

	      `fc  -R'	reads  the history from the given file, `fc -W' writes the history out to
	      the given file, and `fc -A' appends the history out to the given file.  If no file-
	      name is specified, the $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is added to -R, only
	      those events that are not already contained within the internal  history	list  are
	      added.  If the -I option is added to -A or -W, only those events that are new since
	      last incremental append/write to the history file  are  appended/written.   In  any
	      case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
	      Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job is specified, resume
	      the current job.

       float [ {+|-}EFHghlprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
	      Equivalent to typeset -E, except that options irrelevant to floating point  numbers
	      are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UXkmtTuz ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn
	      Equivalent  to  typeset  -f,  with  the  exception of the -M option.  Use of the -M
	      option may not be combined with any of the options handled by typeset -f.

	      functions -M mathfn defines mathfn as the name of a  mathematical  function  recog-
	      nised in all forms of arithmetical expressions; see the section `Arithmetic Evalua-
	      tion' in zshmisc(1).  By default mathfn may  take  any  number  of  comma-separated
	      arguments.  If min is given, it must have exactly min args; if min and max are both
	      given, it must have at least min and at most max args.  max may be -1  to  indicate
	      that there is no upper limit.

	      By  default  the	function  is implemented by a shell function of the same name; if
	      shellfn is specified it gives the name of the corresponding  shell  function  while
	      mathfn remains the name used in arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function
	      in $0 is mathfn (not shellfn as would usually be the  case),  provided  the  option
	      FUNCTION_ARGZERO	is  in	effect.   The positional parameters in the shell function
	      correspond to the arguments of the mathematical function call.  The result  of  the
	      last  arithmetical  expression evaluated inside the shell function (even if it is a
	      form that normally only returns a status) gives  the  result  of	the  mathematical
	      function.

	      functions  -M  with  no arguments lists all such user-defined functions in the same
	      form as a definition.  With the additional option -m and a list of  arguments,  all
	      functions whose mathfn matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

	      function	+M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the additional option
	      -m the arguments are treated as patterns and all functions whose mathfn matches the
	      pattern  are  removed.   Note that the shell function implementing the behaviour is
	      not removed (regardless of whether its name coincides with mathfn).

	      For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

		     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
		     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
		     print $(( cube(3) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
	      Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the  shell  parameter  name.
	      Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
	      Checks  the  args  for  legal options.  If the args are omitted, use the positional
	      parameters.  A valid option argument begins with a `+' or a `-'.	An  argument  not
	      beginning with a `+' or a `-', or the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a
	      single `-' is not considered a valid option argument.  optstring contains the  let-
	      ters  that  getopts  recognizes.	 If  a	letter	is followed by a `:', that option
	      requires an argument.  The options can be separated from the argument by blanks.

	      Each time it is invoked, getopts places the option letter it  finds  in  the  shell
	      parameter  name, prepended with a `+' when arg begins with a `+'.  The index of the
	      next arg is stored in OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

	      The first option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning  to  OPTIND.
	      OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell
	      function.  OPTARG is not reset and retains its value from the most recent  call  to
	      getopts.	 If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it remains unset, and
	      the index or option argument is not stored.  The option itself is still  stored  in
	      name in this case.

	      A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option
	      in OPTARG, and to set name to `?' for an unknown option and to `:' when a  required
	      argument	is missing.  Otherwise, getopts sets name to `?' and prints an error mes-
	      sage when an option is invalid.  The exit status is nonzero when there are no  more
	      options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
	      hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command hash table, and the
	      named directory hash table.  Normally one would modify these  tables  by	modifying
	      one's PATH (for the command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters
	      (for the named directory hash table).  The choice of  hash  table  to  work  on  is
	      determined by the -d option; without the option the command hash table is used, and
	      with the option the named directory hash table is used.

	      Given no arguments, and neither the -r or -f options, the selected hash table  will
	      be listed in full.

	      The  -r  option  causes  the  selected hash table to be emptied.	It will be subse-
	      quently rebuilt in the normal fashion.  The -f option causes the selected hash  ta-
	      ble  to  be  fully rebuilt immediately.  For the command hash table this hashes all
	      the absolute directories in the PATH, and for the named directory hash  table  this
	      adds  all users' home directories.  These two options cannot be used with any argu-
	      ments.

	      The -m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be quoted)
	      and  the	elements  of the hash table matching those patterns are printed.  This is
	      the only way to display a limited selection of hash table elements.

	      For each name with a corresponding value, put `name' in the  selected  hash  table,
	      associating  it  with  the pathname `value'.  In the command hash table, this means
	      that whenever `name' is used as a command argument, the shell will try  to  execute
	      the  file  given	by  `value'.   In the named directory hash table, this means that
	      `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

	      For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the  hash  table,
	      checking	what  the  appropriate value is in the normal manner for that hash table.
	      If an appropriate value can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

	      The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by  explicit
	      specification.  If has no effect if used with -f.

	      If  the  -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the form of a
	      call to hash.

       history
	      Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghilprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
	      Equivalent to typeset -i, except that options irrelevant to integers are	not  per-
	      mitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
	      Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is omitted.  The -l flag
	      lists process IDs, and the -p flag lists process groups.	If the -r flag is  speci-
	      fied only running jobs will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs
	      are shown.  If the -d flag is given, the directory from which the job  was  started
	      (which may not be the current directory of the job) will also be shown.

	      The  -Z  option  replaces the shell's argument and environment space with the given
	      string, truncated if necessary to fit.  This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1))
	      listings.  This feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
	      Sends  either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs or processes.  Sig-
	      nals are given by number or by names, with or without the  `SIG'	prefix.   If  the
	      signal  being sent is not `KILL' or `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT' sig-
	      nal if it is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a job not  in  the
	      job  list.   In  the second form, kill -l, if sig is not specified the signal names
	      are listed.  Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal  num-
	      ber  is  listed.	For each sig that is a signal number or a number representing the
	      exit status of a process which was terminated or stopped by a signal  the  name  of
	      the signal is printed.

	      On  some	systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few signals.  Typical
	      examples are SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and SIGIO, assuming they  correspond  to
	      the same signal number.  kill -l will only list the preferred form, however kill -l
	      alt will show if the alternative form corresponds to a signal number.  For example,
	      under  Linux  kill  -l  IO and kill -l POLL both output 29, hence kill -IO and kill
	      -POLL have the same effect.

	      Many systems will allow process IDs to be negative to kill a process group or  zero
	      to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
	      Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the section `Arithmetic Evalua-
	      tion' in zshmisc(1) for a description of arithmetic expressions.	The  exit  status
	      is  0  if the value of the last expression is nonzero, 1 if it is zero, and 2 if an
	      error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
	      Set or display resource limits.  Unless the -s flag is  given,  the  limit  applies
	      only  the  children  of  the  shell.   If  -s is given without other arguments, the
	      resource limits of the current shell is set to the previously set  resource  limits
	      of the children.

	      If  limit  is  not specified, print the current limit placed on resource, otherwise
	      set the limit to the specified value.  If the -h flag is	given,	use  hard  limits
	      instead of soft limits.  If no resource is given, print all limits.

	      When  looping  over  multiple  resources,  the  shell  will abort immediately if it
	      detects a badly formed argument.	However, if it fails to  set  a  limit	for  some
	      other reason it will continue trying to set the remaining limits.

	      resource can be one of:

	      addressspace
		     Maximum amount of address space used.
	      aiomemorylocked
		     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations.
	      aiooperations
		     Maximum number of AIO operations.
	      cachedthreads
		     Maximum number of cached threads.
	      coredumpsize
		     Maximum size of a core dump.
	      cputime
		     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
	      datasize
		     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
	      descriptors
		     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
	      filesize
		     Largest single file allowed.
	      maxproc
		     Maximum number of processes.
	      maxpthreads
		     Maximum number of threads per process.
	      memorylocked
		     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
	      memoryuse
		     Maximum resident set size.
	      msgqueue
		     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
	      resident
		     Maximum resident set size.
	      sigpending
		     Maximum number of pending signals.
	      sockbufsize
		     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
	      stacksize
		     Maximum stack size for each process.
	      vmemorysize
		     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

	      Which  of  these resource limits are available depends on the system.  resource can
	      be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.  It can also be an integer, which  corre-
	      sponds to the integer defined for the resource by the operating system.

	      If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of the resources con-
	      figured into the shell, the shell will try to read or write the limit  anyway,  and
	      will  report  an	error  if this fails.  As the shell does not store such resources
	      internally, an attempt to set the limit will fail unless the -s option is present.

	      limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

	      nh     hours
	      nk     kilobytes (default)
	      nm     megabytes or minutes
	      [mm:]ss
		     minutes and seconds

	      The limit command is not made available by default when the shell starts in a  mode
	      emulating  another  shell.   It can be made available with the command `zmodload -F
	      zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AEFHUahlprtux ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ] ...
	      Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are  not  permitted.	 In  this
	      case  the  -x  option does not force the use of -g, i.e. exported variables will be
	      local to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting  of  the
	      watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
	      Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
	      See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       popd [ [-q] {+|-}n ]
	      Remove  an  entry  from the directory stack, and perform a cd to the new top direc-
	      tory.  With no argument, the current top entry is removed.  An argument of the form
	      `+n'  identifies	a  stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the
	      dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of  the  form  -n	counts	from  the
	      right.   If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this con-
	      text are swapped.

	      If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
	      the  array  $chpwd_functions  are  not  called,  and the new directory stack is not
	      printed.	This is useful for calls to popd that do not change the environment  seen
	      by an interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
	 [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
	      With  the  `-f'  option  the arguments are printed as described by printf.  With no
	      flags or with the flag `-', the arguments are printed on	the  standard  output  as
	      described  by  echo,  with  the  following  differences: the escape sequence `\M-x'
	      metafies the character x (sets the highest bit), `\C-x' produces a control  charac-
	      ter  (`\C-@'  and `\C-?' give the characters NUL and delete), and `\E' is a synonym
	      for `\e'.  Finally, if not in an escape sequence, `\' escapes the following charac-
	      ter and is not printed.

	      -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only useful with the -c
		     and -C options.

	      -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see zsh-
		     zle(1).

	      -c     Print  the  arguments  in	columns.   Unless -a is also given, arguments are
		     printed with the row incrementing first.

	      -C cols
		     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a is also given, arguments are
		     printed with the row incrementing first.

	      -D     Treat  the  arguments  as directory names, replacing prefixes with ~ expres-
		     sions, as appropriate.

	      -i     If given together with -o or -O, sorting is performed case-independently.

	      -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces.

	      -m     Take the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it  from
		     the  argument list together with subsequent arguments that do not match this
		     pattern.

	      -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

	      -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

	      -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

	      -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

	      -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

	      -P     Perform prompt expansion (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

	      -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

	      -R     Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process escape sequences unless
		     the  -e  flag  is given.  The -n flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only
		     the -e and -n flags are recognized after -R; all other arguments and options
		     are printed.

	      -s     Place  the  results  in  the history list instead of on the standard output.
		     Each argument to the print command is treated as a single word in	the  his-
		     tory, regardless of its content.

	      -S     Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output.  In
		     this case only a single argument is allowed; it will be split into words  as
		     if  it were a full shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading the
		     line from a history file with the HIST_LEX_WORDS option active.

	      -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

	      -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces.

	      If any of `-m', `-o' or `-O' are used in combination with `-f'  and  there  are  no
	      arguments (after the removal process in the case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf format [ arg ... ]
	      Print the arguments according to the format specification. Formatting rules are the
	      same as used in C. The same escape sequences as for echo are recognised in the for-
	      mat.  All  C conversion specifications ending in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn are handled.
	      In addition to this, `%b' can be used instead of `%s' to cause escape sequences  in
	      the  argument to be recognised and `%q' can be used to quote the argument in such a
	      way that allows it to be reused as shell input. With the numeric format specifiers,
	      if  the  corresponding argument starts with a quote character, the numeric value of
	      the following character is used as the number to print otherwise	the  argument  is
	      evaluated  as  an arithmetic expression. See the section `Arithmetic Evaluation' in
	      zshmisc(1) for a description of arithmetic expressions. With `%n', the  correspond-
	      ing argument is taken as an identifier which is created as an integer parameter.

	      Normally,  conversion specifications are applied to each argument in order but they
	      can explicitly specify the nth argument is to be used by replacing `%' by `%n$' and
	      `*'  by  `*n$'.	It is recommended that you do not mix references of this explicit
	      style with the normal style and the handling of such mixed styles may be subject to
	      future change.

	      If  arguments remain unused after formatting, the format string is reused until all
	      arguments have been consumed. With the print builtin, this  can  be  suppressed  by
	      using  the  -r  option. If more arguments are required by the format than have been
	      specified, the behaviour is as if zero or an empty string had been specified as the
	      argument.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
	      Change the current directory, and push the old current directory onto the directory
	      stack.  In the first form, change the current directory to  arg.	 If  arg  is  not
	      specified,  change  to the second directory on the stack (that is, exchange the top
	      two entries), or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if there  is
	      only  one  entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is interpreted as it would be by cd.
	      The meaning of old and new in the second form is also the same as for cd.

	      The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the directory list.  An argu-
	      ment  of	the  form  `+n' identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the
	      list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of the  form  `-n'
	      counts  from  the right.	If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of `+' and
	      `-' in this context are swapped.

	      If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
	      the  array  $chpwd_functions  are  not  called,  and the new directory stack is not
	      printed.	This is useful for calls to pushd that do not change the environment seen
	      by an interactive user.

	      If the option -q is not specified and the shell option PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the
	      directory stack will be printed after a pushd is performed.

	      The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for the cd builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
	      Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
	      Print the absolute pathname of the current working directory.  If the -r or the  -P
	      flag  is	specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option is set and the -L flag is not given,
	      the printed path will not contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
	[ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
	      Read one line and break it into fields using the characters in $IFS as  separators,
	      except  as  noted below.	The first field is assigned to the first name, the second
	      field to the second name, etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If
	      name is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

	      -r     Raw  mode: a `\' at the end of a line does not signify line continuation and
		     backslashes in the line don't quote the  following  character  and  are  not
		     removed.

	      -s     Don't echo back characters if reading from the terminal.  Currently does not
		     work with the -q option.

	      -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to `y' if this  char-
		     acter  was  `y'  or `Y' and to `n' otherwise.  With this flag set the return
		     status is zero only if the character was `y' or `Y'.   This  option  may  be
		     used  with a timeout; if the read times out, or encounters end of file, sta-
		     tus 2 is returned.  Input is read from the terminal unless one of -u  or  -p
		     is present.  This option may also be used within zle widgets.

	      -k [ num ]
		     Read  only  one  (or  num)  characters.  All are assigned to the first name,
		     without word splitting.  This flag is ignored when -q is present.	Input  is
		     read  from  the terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option may
		     also be used within zle widgets.

		     Note that despite the mnemonic `key' this option does read full  characters,
		     which may consist of multiple bytes if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

	      -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name,
		     without word splitting.  Text is pushed onto the stack with  `print  -z'  or
		     with  push-line  from the line editor (see zshzle(1)).  This flag is ignored
		     when the -k or -q flags are present.

	      -e
	      -E     The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard output.  If the  -e  flag
		     is used, no input is assigned to the parameters.

	      -A     The  first  name is taken as the name of an array and all words are assigned
		     to it.

	      -c
	      -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion
		     (specified with the -K flag to compctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words
		     of the current command are read. If the -l flag is given, the whole line  is
		     assigned  as  a  scalar.	If  both  flags are present, -l is used and -c is
		     ignored.

	      -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on is read.  With -l,
		     the  index of the character the cursor is on is read.  Note that the command
		     name is word number 1, not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
		     the line, its character index is the length of the line plus one.

	      -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

	      -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

	      -d delim
		     Input is terminated by the first character of delim instead of by newline.

	      -t [ num ]
		     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If num is present, it
		     must begin with a digit and will be evaluated to give a number  of  seconds,
		     which  may  be  a	floating point number; in this case the read times out if
		     input is not available within this time.  If num is not present, it is taken
		     to  be  zero, so that read returns immediately if no input is available.  If
		     no input is available, return status 1 and do not set any variables.

		     This option is not available when reading from the editor	buffer	with  -z,
		     when  called  from within completion with -c or -l, with -q which clears the
		     input queue before reading, or within zle where other mechanisms  should  be
		     used to test for input.

		     Note  that  read  does  not attempt to alter the input processing mode.  The
		     default mode is canonical input, in which an entire line is read at a  time,
		     so  usually  `read  -t' will not read anything until an entire line has been
		     typed.  However, when reading from the terminal with -k input  is	processed
		     one key at a time; in this case, only availability of the first character is
		     tested, so that e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second character.
		     Use two instances of `read -t -k' if this is not what is wanted.

	      If  the  first  argument	contains  a  `?', the remainder of this word is used as a
	      prompt on standard error when the shell is interactive.

	      The value (exit status) of read is 1 when an end-of-file is encountered, or when -c
	      or  -l  is  present  and	the  command is not called from a compctl function, or as
	      described for -q.  Otherwise the value is 0.

	      The behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z flags is  undefined.
	      Presently -q cancels all the others, -p cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z
	      cancels both -p and -u.

	      The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
	      Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
	      Causes a shell function or `.' script to return to the  invoking	script	with  the
	      return  status  specified  by n.	If n is omitted, the return status is that of the
	      last command executed.

	      If return was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the effect  is	different
	      for zero and non-zero return status.  With zero status (or after an implicit return
	      at the end of the trap), the shell will return to whatever it was  previously  pro-
	      cessing;	with  a non-zero status, the shell will behave as interrupted except that
	      the return status of the trap is retained.  Note that the numeric value of the sig-
	      nal which caused the trap is passed as the first argument, so the statement `return
	      $((128+$1))' will return the same status as if the signal had not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ] [ arg ... ]
	      Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional parameters, or declare  and
	      set  an  array.  If the -s option is given, it causes the specified arguments to be
	      sorted before assigning them to the positional parameters (or to the array name  if
	      -A  is  used).  With +s sort arguments in descending order.  For the meaning of the
	      other flags, see zshoptions(1).  Flags may  be  specified  by  name  using  the  -o
	      option.  If  no  option  name  is  supplied  with -o, the current option states are
	      printed:	see the description of setopt below for more information on  the  format.
	      With +o they are printed in a form that can be used as input to the shell.

	      If  the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing the given args; if
	      no name is specified, all arrays are printed together with their values.

	      If +A is used and name is an array, the given arguments will  replace  the  initial
	      elements	of  that  array;  if no name is specified, all arrays are printed without
	      their values.

	      The behaviour of arguments after -A name or +A name depends on whether  the  option
	      KSH_ARRAYS  is  set.  If it is not set, all arguments following name are treated as
	      values for the array, regardless of their form.	If  the  option  is  set,  normal
	      option  processing  continues  at that point; only regular arguments are treated as
	      values for the array.  This means that

		     set -A array -x -- foo

	      sets array to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the array to  foo  and
	      turns on the option `-x' if it is set.

	      If  the  -A  flag  is  not present, but there are arguments beyond the options, the
	      positional parameters are set.  If the option list (if any) is terminated by  `--',
	      and there are no further arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

	      If  no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values of all parameters
	      are printed on the standard output.  If the only argument is `+', the names of  all
	      parameters are printed.

	      For  historical  reasons,  `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set - args' as `set
	      +xv -- args' when in any other emulation mode than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
	      Set the options for the shell.  All options specified either with flags or by  name
	      are set.

	      If  no  arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently set are printed.
	      The form is chosen so as to minimize the differences from the default  options  for
	      the  current  emulation  (the  default  emulation being native zsh, shown as <Z> in
	      zshoptions(1)).  Options that are on by default for the emulation  are  shown  with
	      the  prefix no only if they are off, while other options are shown without the pre-
	      fix no and only if they are on.  In addition to options changed  from  the  default
	      state  by  the user, any options activated automatically by the shell (for example,
	      SHIN_STDIN or INTERACTIVE) will be shown in the list.  The format is further  modi-
	      fied  by	the  option  KSH_OPTION_PRINT, however the rationale for choosing options
	      with or without the no prefix remains the same in this case.

	      If the -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted
	      to protect them from filename expansion), and all options with names matching these
	      patterns are set.

	      Note that a bad option name does not cause execution of subsequent shell code to be
	      aborted; this is behaviour is different from that of `set -o'.  This is because set
	      is regarded as a special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt is not.

       shift [ n ] [ name ... ]
	      The positional parameters ${n+1} ... are renamed to $1 ..., where n  is  an  arith-
	      metic  expression  that defaults to 1.  If any names are given then the arrays with
	      these names are shifted instead of the positional parameters.

       source file [ arg ... ]
	      Same as `.', except that the current directory is always	searched  and  is  always
	      searched first, before directories in $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
	      Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it receives a SIGCONT.
	      Unless the -f option is given, this will refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
	      Like the system version of test.	Added for compatibility; use conditional  expres-
	      sions  instead  (see  the section `Conditional Expressions').  The main differences
	      between the conditional expression syntax and the test and [ builtins  are:   these
	      commands	are not handled syntactically, so for example an empty variable expansion
	      may cause an argument to be omitted; syntax errors cause status 2  to  be  returned
	      instead  of a shell error; and arithmetic operators expect integer arguments rather
	      than arithmetic expressions.

	      The command attempts to implement POSIX and its extensions where these  are  speci-
	      fied.   Unfortunately  there are intrinsic ambiguities in the syntax; in particular
	      there is no distinction between test operators and strings that resemble them.  The
	      standard attempts to resolve these for small numbers of arguments (up to four); for
	      five or more arguments compatibility cannot be relied on.  Users are urged wherever
	      possible to use the `[[' test syntax which does not have these ambiguities.

       times  Print  the  accumulated  user  and system times for the shell and for processes run
	      from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
	      arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect it from immediate evaluation
	      by  the  shell)  to be read and executed when the shell receives any of the signals
	      specified by one or more sig args.  Each sig can be given as a number,  or  as  the
	      name  of	a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1, HUP, and
	      SIGHUP are all the same signal).

	      If arg is `-', then the specified signals are reset to their defaults,  or,  if  no
	      sig args are present, all traps are reset.

	      If arg is an empty string, then the specified signals are ignored by the shell (and
	      by the commands it invokes).

	      If arg is omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.  the  first  argument
	      is a valid signal number or name), the effect is the same as if arg had been speci-
	      fied as `-'.

	      The trap command with no arguments prints a list of commands associated  with  each
	      signal.

	      If  sig  is  ZERR  then arg will be executed after each command with a nonzero exit
	      status.  ERR is an alias for ZERR on systems that have no SIGERR	signal	(this  is
	      the usual case).

	      If  sig  is  DEBUG  then	arg  will  be  executed before each command if the option
	      DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set (as it is by default), else after each  command.	 Here,	a
	      `command' is what is described as a `sublist' in the shell grammar, see the section
	      SIMPLE COMMANDS & PIPELINES in zshmisc(1).   If  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD  is  set  various
	      additional  features are available.  First, it is possible to skip the next command
	      by setting the option ERR_EXIT; see the  description  of	the  ERR_EXIT  option  in
	      zshoptions(1).  Also, the shell parameter ZSH_DEBUG_CMD is set to the string corre-
	      sponding to the command to be executed following the trap.  Note that  this  string
	      is  reconstructed from the internal format and may not be formatted the same way as
	      the original text.  The parameter is unset after the trap is executed.

	      If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is executed inside the body of  a  func-
	      tion,  then the command arg is executed after the function completes.  The value of
	      $? at the start of execution is the exit status of the shell or the  return  status
	      of  the  function  exiting.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is not exe-
	      cuted inside the body of a function, then the command  arg  is  executed	when  the
	      shell terminates; the trap runs before any zshexit hook functions.

	      ZERR,  DEBUG,  and  EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.  ZERR and DEBUG
	      traps are kept within subshells, while other traps are reset.

	      Note that traps defined with the trap builtin are  slightly  different  from  those
	      defined  as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the latter have their own function environment
	      (line numbers, local variables, etc.) while the former use the environment  of  the
	      command in which they were called.  For example,

		     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

	      will print the line number of a command executed after it has run, while

		     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

	      will always print the number zero.

	      Alternative  signal  names  are  allowed as described under kill above.  Defining a
	      trap under either name causes any trap under an alternative  name  to  be  removed.
	      However, it is recommended that for consistency users stick exclusively to one name
	      or another.

       true [ arg ... ]
	      Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl -fu
	      The -f option freezes the tty, and -u unfreezes it.  When the  tty  is  frozen,  no
	      changes made to the tty settings by external programs will be honored by the shell,
	      except for changes in the size of the screen; the shell will simply reset the  set-
	      tings  to  their	previous  values  as  soon as each command exits or is suspended.
	      Thus, stty and similar programs have no effect when the  tty  is	frozen.   Without
	      options it reports whether the terminal is frozen or not.

       type [ -wfpams ] name ...
	      Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AEFHUafghklprtuxmz ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Urux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] SCALAR[=value] array [ sep ]
	      Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

	      A  parameter  is	created  for  each name that does not already refer to one.  When
	      inside a function, a new parameter is created  for  every  name  (even  those  that
	      already exist), and is unset again when the function completes.  See `Local Parame-
	      ters' in zshparam(1).  The same rules apply  to  special	shell  parameters,  which
	      retain their special attributes when made local.

	      For  each  name=value  assignment,  the  parameter name is set to value.	Note that
	      arrays currently cannot be assigned in typeset expressions, only scalars and  inte-
	      gers.   Unless  the  option  KSH_TYPESET	is  set,  normal expansion rules apply to
	      assignment arguments, so value may be split into separate words; if the  option  is
	      set, assignments which can be recognised when expansion is performed are treated as
	      single words.  For example the command typeset vbl=$(echo one two)  is  treated  as
	      having  one  argument if KSH_TYPESET is set, but otherwise is treated as having the
	      two arguments vbl=one and two.

	      If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each remaining name that  refers
	      to  a parameter that is set, the name and value of the parameter are printed in the
	      form of an assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created  parameters,  or  when
	      any  attribute flags listed below are given along with the name.	Using `+' instead
	      of minus to introduce an attribute turns it off.

	      If the -p option is given, parameters and values are printed in the form of a type-
	      set  command  and  an  assignment  (which will be printed separately for arrays and
	      associative arrays), regardless of other flags and options.  Note that the -h  flag
	      on parameters is respected; no value will be shown for these parameters.

	      If  the -T option is given, two or three arguments must be present (an exception is
	      that zero arguments are allowed to show the list	of  parameters	created  in  this
	      fashion).   The  first two are the name of a scalar and an array parameter (in that
	      order) that will be tied together in the manner of $PATH and $path.   The  optional
	      third  argument is a single-character separator which will be used to join the ele-
	      ments of the array to form the scalar; if absent, a colon is used, as  with  $PATH.
	      Only  the first character of the separator is significant; any remaining characters
	      are ignored.  Only the scalar parameter may be assigned an initial value.  Both the
	      scalar  and the array may otherwise be manipulated as normal.  If one is unset, the
	      other will automatically be unset too.  There is no way of  untying  the	variables
	      without  unsetting them, or converting the type of one of them with another typeset
	      command; +T does not work, assigning an array to SCALAR is an error, and	assigning
	      a  scalar  to  array sets it to be a single-element array.  Note that both `typeset
	      -xT ...' and `export -T ...' work, but only the scalar will be marked  for  export.
	      Setting  the value using the scalar version causes a split on all separators (which
	      cannot be quoted).  It is possible to use the same two tied variables with  a  dif-
	      ferent  separator character in which case the variables remain joined as before but
	      the separator is changed.  This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
	      below.

	      The  -g  (global)  flag is treated specially: it means that any resulting parameter
	      will not be restricted to local scope.  Note that this does  not	necessarily  mean
	      that the parameter will be global, as the flag will apply to any existing parameter
	      (even if unset) from an enclosing function.  This flag does not affect the  parame-
	      ter  after  creation,  hence it has no effect when listing existing parameters, nor
	      does the flag +g have any effect except in combination with -m (see below).

	      If no name is present, the names and values of all parameters are printed.  In this
	      case  the  attribute  flags restrict the display to only those parameters that have
	      the specified attributes, and using `+' rather than `-' to introduce the flag  sup-
	      presses  printing  of  the  values  of  parameters when there is no parameter name.
	      Also, if the last option is the word `+', then names are	printed  but  values  are
	      not.

	      If  the  -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as patterns (which should be
	      quoted).	With no attribute flags, all parameters (or functions with the	-f  flag)
	      with  matching  names  are  printed (the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not used in
	      this case).  Note that -m is ignored if no patterns are given.  If the +g  flag  is
	      combined	with  -m,  a  new local parameter is created for every matching parameter
	      that is not already local.  Otherwise -m applies all other flags or assignments  to
	      the  existing  parameters.  Except when assignments are made with name=value, using
	      +m forces the matching parameters to be printed, even inside a function.

	      If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present or the +m form was
	      used,  each  parameter name printed is preceded by a list of the attributes of that
	      parameter (array, association, exported, integer, readonly).  If +m  is  used  with
	      attribute  flags, and all those flags are introduced with +, the matching parameter
	      names are printed but their values are not.

	      Attribute flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z, -l, u) are only applied
	      to  the  expanded value at the point of a parameter expansion expression using `$'.
	      They are not applied when a parameter is retrieved internally by the shell for  any
	      purpose.

	      The following attribute flags may be specified:

	      -A     The  names  refer to associative array parameters; see `Array Parameters' in
		     zshparam(1).

	      -L     Left justify and remove leading blanks from value.   If  n  is  nonzero,  it
		     defines  the  width  of the field.  If n is zero, the width is determined by
		     the width of the value of the first assignment.   In  the	case  of  numeric
		     parameters,  the  length  of the complete value assigned to the parameter is
		     used to determine the width, not the value that would be output.

		     The width is the count of characters, which may be multibyte  characters  if
		     the  MULTIBYTE option is in effect.  Note that the screen width of the char-
		     acter is not taken into account; if  this	is  required,  use  padding  with
		     parameter expansion flags ${(ml...)...} as described in `Parameter Expansion
		     Flags' in zshexpn(1).

		     When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the  right  with  blanks  or
		     truncated	if necessary to fit the field.	Note truncation can lead to unex-
		     pected results with numeric parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if the -Z
		     flag is also set.

	      -R     Similar  to  -L, except that right justification is used; when the parameter
		     is expanded, the field is left filled with blanks or truncated from the end.
		     May not be combined with the -Z flag.

	      -U     For  arrays (but not for associative arrays), keep only the first occurrence
		     of each duplicated value.	This may also be set for colon-separated  special
		     parameters  like  PATH  or  FIGNORE, etc.	This flag has a different meaning
		     when used with -f; see below.

	      -Z     Specially handled if set along with the -L flag.  Otherwise, similar to  -R,
		     except  that  leading  zeros  are	used for padding instead of blanks if the
		     first non-blank character is a digit.  Numeric parameters are specially han-
		     dled:  they  are always eligible for padding with zeroes, and the zeroes are
		     inserted at an appropriate place in the output.

	      -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array parameter may be created this
		     way,  but it may not be assigned to in the typeset statement.  When display-
		     ing, both normal and associative arrays are shown.

	      -f     The names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No assignments can  be
		     made,  and  the  only  other valid flags are -t, -T, -k, -u, -U and -z.  The
		     flag -t turns on execution tracing for this function; the flag -T	does  the
		     same,  but  turns	off  tracing on any function called from the present one,
		     unless that function also has the -t or -T flag.  The -u and -U flags  cause
		     the function to be marked for autoloading; -U also causes alias expansion to
		     be suppressed when the function is loaded.   The  fpath  parameter  will  be
		     searched  to  find the function definition when the function is first refer-
		     enced; see the section `Functions'. The -k and -z flags make the function be
		     loaded  using ksh-style or zsh-style autoloading respectively. If neither is
		     given, the setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option determines how the function is
		     loaded.

	      -h     Hide: only useful for special parameters (those marked `<S>' in the table in
		     zshparam(1)), and for local parameters with  the  same  name  as  a  special
		     parameter,  though  harmless  for	others.   A  special  parameter with this
		     attribute will not retain its special effect when made  local.   Thus  after
		     `typeset -h PATH', a function containing `typeset PATH' will create an ordi-
		     nary local parameter without the usual behaviour  of  PATH.   Alternatively,
		     the local parameter may itself be given this attribute; hence inside a func-
		     tion `typeset -h PATH' creates an ordinary local parameter and  the  special
		     PATH  parameter  is not altered in any way.  It is also possible to create a
		     local parameter using `typeset +h special', where the local copy of  special
		     will  retain  its	special properties regardless of having the -h attribute.
		     Global special parameters loaded from  shell  modules  (currently	those  in
		     zsh/mapfile  and  zsh/parameter) are automatically given the -h attribute to
		     avoid name clashes.

	      -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not display the value of the parame-
		     ter when listing parameters; the display for such parameters is always as if
		     the `+' flag had been given.  Use of the parameter is in other respects nor-
		     mal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is specified by name, or
		     by pattern with the -m option.  This is on by default for the parameters  in
		     the  zsh/parameter  and zsh/mapfile modules.  Note, however, that unlike the
		     -h flag this is also useful for non-special parameters.

	      -i     Use an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero it defines the out-
		     put  arithmetic  base,  otherwise	it is determined by the first assignment.
		     Bases from 2 to 36 inclusive are allowed.

	      -E     Use an internal double-precision floating point representation.   On  output
		     the  variable  will be converted to scientific notation.  If n is nonzero it
		     defines the number of significant figures to display; the default is ten.

	      -F     Use an internal double-precision floating point representation.   On  output
		     the  variable  will  be  converted to fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is
		     nonzero it defines the number of digits to display after the decimal  point;
		     the default is ten.

	      -l     Convert  the  result  to lower case whenever the parameter is expanded.  The
		     value is not converted when assigned.

	      -r     The given names are marked readonly.  Note that if name is a special parame-
		     ter, the readonly attribute can be turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

	      -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning to the shell.  This
		     flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see above.

	      -u     Convert the result to upper case whenever the parameter  is  expanded.   The
		     value  is	not  converted	when assigned.	This flag has a different meaning
		     when used with -f; see above.

	      -x     Mark for automatic export to the environment of subsequently  executed  com-
		     mands.   If  the  option  GLOBAL_EXPORT  is set, this implies the option -g,
		     unless +g is also explicitly given; in other words the parameter is not made
		     local  to	the  enclosing function.  This is for compatibility with previous
		     versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ [ -SHacdfilmnpqrstvx | -N resource [ limit ] ... ]
	      Set or display resource limits of the shell and the processes started by the shell.
	      The value of limit can be a number in the unit specified below or one of the values
	      `unlimited', which removes the limit on the resource, or	`hard',  which	uses  the
	      current value of the hard limit on the resource.

	      By default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is given use hard lim-
	      its instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is given together with the -H flag  set
	      both hard and soft limits.

	      If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

	      If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources are printed.  When
	      more than one resource value is printed, the limit name and unit is printed  before
	      each value.

	      When  looping  over  multiple  resources,  the  shell  will abort immediately if it
	      detects a badly formed argument.	However, if it fails to  set  a  limit	for  some
	      other reason it will continue trying to set the remaining limits.

	      Not  all	the  following resources are supported on all systems.	Running ulimit -a
	      will show which are supported.

	      -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
	      -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
	      -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
	      -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
	      -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
	      -i     The number of pending signals.
	      -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
	      -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
	      -n     open file descriptors.
	      -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
	      -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
	      -t     CPU seconds to be used.
	      -r     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
	      -u     The number of processes available to the user.
	      -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems this refers to the
		     limit called `address space'.
	      -x     The number of locks on files.

	      A  resource  may	also  be  specified  by  integer in the form `-N resource', where
	      resource corresponds to the integer defined for the resource by the operating  sys-
	      tem.   This may be used to set the limits for resources known to the shell which do
	      not correspond to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by number in the  out-
	      put of `ulimit -a'.

	      The number may alternatively be out of the range of limits compiled into the shell.
	      The shell will try to read or write the limit anyway, and will report an	error  if
	      this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
	      The  umask  is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or a symbolic value
	      as described in chmod(1).  If mask is omitted, the current value is  printed.   The
	      -S  option  causes the mask to be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask
	      is printed as an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the permissions  you
	      specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied) to the users specified.

       unalias
	      Same as unhash -a.

       unfunction
	      Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
	      Remove  the  element named name from an internal hash table.  The default is remove
	      elements from the command hash table.  The -a option causes unhash to remove  regu-
	      lar  or  global aliases; note when removing a global aliases that the argument must
	      be quoted to prevent it from being expanded before being	passed	to  the  command.
	      The  -s option causes unhash to remove suffix aliases.  The -f option causes unhash
	      to remove shell functions.  The -d options causes unhash to remove  named  directo-
	      ries.   If  the  -m  flag  is  given the arguments are taken as patterns (should be
	      quoted) and all elements of the corresponding hash table with matching  names  will
	      be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
	      The  resource  limit for each resource is set to the hard limit.	If the -h flag is
	      given and the shell has appropriate privileges, the hard resource  limit	for  each
	      resource is removed.  The resources of the shell process are only changed if the -s
	      flag is given.

	      The unlimit command is not made available by default when the  shell  starts  in	a
	      mode  emulating another shell.  It can be made available with the command `zmodload
	      -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
	      Each named parameter is unset.  Local parameters remain local even if  unset;  they
	      appear  unset  within  scope,  but  the previous value will still reappear when the
	      scope ends.

	      Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset by using subscript
	      syntax on name, which should be quoted (or the entire command prefixed with noglob)
	      to protect the subscript from filename generation.

	      If the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns (should be  quoted)
	      and  all	parameters  with matching names are unset.  Note that this cannot be used
	      when unsetting associative array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part
	      of the pattern.

	      The  -v  flag  specifies that name refers to parameters. This is the default behav-
	      iour.

	      unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
	      Unset the options for the shell.	All options specified either  with  flags  or  by
	      name  are  unset.  If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently
	      unset are printed.  If the -m flag is given the arguments  are  taken  as  patterns
	      (which  should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob patterns),
	      and all options with names matching these patterns are unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
	      Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is not given then  all	currently
	      active  child processes are waited for.  Each job can be either a job specification
	      or the process ID of a job in the job table.  The exit status from this command  is
	      that of the job waited for.

       whence [ -vcwfpams ] name ...
	      For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a command name.

	      -v     Produce a more verbose report.

	      -c     Print the results in a csh-like format.  This takes precedence over -v.

	      -w     For  each name, print `name: word' where word is one of alias, builtin, com-
		     mand, function, hashed, reserved or none, according as name  corresponds  to
		     an  alias, a built-in command, an external command, a shell function, a com-
		     mand defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word, or is  not  recognised.
		     This takes precedence over -v and -c.

	      -f     Causes  the contents of a shell function to be displayed, which would other-
		     wise not happen unless the -c flag were used.

	      -p     Do a path search for name even if it is an alias, reserved word, shell func-
		     tion or builtin.

	      -a     Do  a  search for all occurrences of name throughout the command path.  Nor-
		     mally only the first occurrence is printed.

	      -m     The arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted), and the  information
		     is displayed for each command matching one of these patterns.

	      -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free pathname as well.

       where [ -wpms ] name ...
	      Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpams ] name ...
	      Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
	      This  builtin command can be used to compile functions or scripts, storing the com-
	      piled form in a file, and to examine files  containing  the  compiled  form.   This
	      allows faster autoloading of functions and execution of scripts by avoiding parsing
	      of the text when the files are read.

	      The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a compiled file.  If only
	      the  file  argument  is  given, the output file has the name `file.zwc' and will be
	      placed in the same directory as the file.  The shell will load  the  compiled  file
	      instead  of  the normal function file when the function is autoloaded; see the sec-
	      tion `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for  a  description  of  how  autoloaded
	      functions are searched.  The extension .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

	      If  there  is at least one name argument, all the named files are compiled into the
	      output file given as the first argument.	If file does not end in .zwc, this exten-
	      sion  is	automatically appended.  Files containing multiple compiled functions are
	      called `digest' files, and are intended to be used as elements of  the  FPATH/fpath
	      special array.

	      The second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled definitions for all
	      the named functions into file.  For -c,  the  names  must  be  functions	currently
	      defined  in  the shell, not those marked for autoloading.  Undefined functions that
	      are marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in which case the
	      fpath  is searched and the contents of the definition files for those functions, if
	      found, are compiled into file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both  defined
	      functions  and  functions marked for autoloading may be given.  In either case, the
	      functions in files written with the -c or -a option will be autoloaded  as  if  the
	      KSH_AUTOLOAD option were unset.

	      The  reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with different options
	      is that some definition files for autoloading define multiple functions,	including
	      the  function  with the same name as the file, and, at the end, call that function.
	      In such cases the output of `zcompile -c' does not include the additional functions
	      defined  in the file, and any other initialization code in the file is lost.  Using
	      `zcompile -a' captures all this extra information.

	      If the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used as patterns and  all
	      functions  whose	names  match one of these patterns will be written. If no name is
	      given, the definitions of all functions currently defined or marked  as  autoloaded
	      will be written.

	      The  third  form,  with the -t option, examines an existing compiled file.  Without
	      further arguments, the names of the original files compiled  into  it  are  listed.
	      The first line of output shows the version of the shell which compiled the file and
	      how the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by mapping it  into  mem-
	      ory).   With  arguments,	nothing is output and the return status is set to zero if
	      definitions for all names were found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the def-
	      inition for at least one name was not found.

	      Other options:

	      -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

	      -R     When  the	compiled  file	is read, its contents are copied into the shell's
		     memory, rather than memory-mapped (see -M).  This happens	automatically  on
		     systems that do not support memory mapping.

		     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions, it is often desir-
		     able to use this option; otherwise the whole file,  including  the  code  to
		     define functions which have already been defined, will remain mapped, conse-
		     quently wasting memory.

	      -M     The compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory when read. This is  done
		     in  such a way that multiple instances of the shell running on the same host
		     will share this mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is  given,  the  zcompile
		     builtin decides what to do based on the size of the compiled file.

	      -k
	      -z     These  options  are used when the compiled file contains functions which are
		     to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the function will be autoloaded as if  the
		     KSH_AUTOLOAD  option  is not set, even if it is set at the time the compiled
		     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will be  loaded  as  if
		     KSH_AUTOLOAD  is  set.  These options also take precedence over any -k or -z
		     options specified to the autoload builtin. If neither of  these  options  is
		     given,  the  function  will  be  loaded  as determined by the setting of the
		     KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time the compiled file is read.

		     These options may also appear as many times as necessary between the  listed
		     names  to	specify  the  loading style of all following functions, up to the
		     next -k or -z.

		     The created file always contains two versions of the  compiled  format,  one
		     for  big-endian  machines	and one for small-endian machines.  The upshot of
		     this is that the compiled file is machine independent and if it is  read  or
		     mapped, only one half of the file is actually used (and mapped).

       zformat
	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -lLme -P param ] module [+-]feature...
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
	      Performs	operations  relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading of modules while
	      the shell is running (`dynamical loading') is not available on all  operating  sys-
	      tems,  or on all installations on a particular operating system, although the zmod-
	      load command itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules built
	      into versions of the shell executable without dynamical loading.

	      Without  arguments  the  names  of all currently loaded binary modules are printed.
	      The -L option causes this list to be in the form of a series of zmodload	commands.
	      Forms with arguments are:

	      zmodload [ -i ] name ...
	      zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
		     In the simplest case, zmodload loads a binary module.  The module must be in
		     a file with a name consisting of the specified name followed by  a  standard
		     suffix,  usually  `.so'  (`.sl'  on  HPUX).   If  the module to be loaded is
		     already loaded the duplicate module is  ignored.	If  zmodload  detects  an
		     inconsistency,  such  as an invalid module name or circular dependency list,
		     the current code block is aborted.   Hence `zmodload module 2>/dev/null'  is
		     sufficient  to  test whether a module is available.  If it is available, the
		     module is loaded if necessary, while if it is not available, non-zero status
		     is  silently  returned.  The option -i is accepted for compatibility but has
		     no effect.

		     The named module is searched for in the same way a command is,  using  $mod-
		     ule_path  instead of $path.  However, the path search is performed even when
		     the module name contains a `/', which it usually does.  There is no  way  to
		     prevent the path search.

		     If  the  module  supports features (see below), zmodload tries to enable all
		     features when loading a module.  If the module was successfully  loaded  but
		     not all features could be enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

		     With  -u,	zmodload  unloads  modules.  The same name must be given that was
		     given when the module was loaded, but it is not necessary for the module  to
		     exist  in the file system.  The -i option suppresses the error if the module
		     is already unloaded (or was never loaded).

		     Each module has a boot and a cleanup  function.   The  module  will  not  be
		     loaded  if its boot function fails.  Similarly a module can only be unloaded
		     if its cleanup function runs successfully.

	      zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [+-]feature...
		     zmodload -F allows more selective control over the features provided by mod-
		     ules.   With no options apart from -F, the module named module is loaded, if
		     it was not already loaded, and the list of features is set to  the  required
		     state.   If  no  features are specified, the module is loaded, if it was not
		     already loaded, but the state of features is unchanged.  Each feature may be
		     preceded  by  a  +  to  turn  the	feature on, or - to turn it off; the + is
		     assumed if neither character is present.  Any feature  not  explicitly  men-
		     tioned is left in its current state; if the module was not previously loaded
		     this means any such features will remain disabled.   The  return  status  is
		     zero if all features were set, 1 if the module failed to load, and 2 if some
		     features could not be set	(for  example,	a  parameter  couldn't	be  added
		     because there was a different parameter of the same name) but the module was
		     loaded.

		     The standard features are builtins, conditions, parameters  and  math  func-
		     tions;  these are indicated by the prefix `b:', `c:' (`C:' for an infix con-
		     dition), `p:' and `f:', respectively, followed by the name that  the  corre-
		     sponding  feature	would have in the shell.  For example, `b:strftime' indi-
		     cates a builtin named strftime  and  p:EPOCHSECONDS  indicates  a	parameter
		     named  EPOCHSECONDS.   The module may provide other (`abstract') features of
		     its own as indicated by its documentation; these have no prefix.

		     With -l or -L, features provided by the module are listed.  With -l alone, a
		     list  of features together with their states is shown, one feature per line.
		     With -L alone, a zmodload -F command that would cause  enabled  features  of
		     the  module  to be turned on is shown.  With -lL, a zmodload -F command that
		     would cause all the features to be set to their current state is shown.   If
		     one  of  these  combinations is given the option -P param then the parameter
		     param is set to an array of features, either features  together  with  their
		     state or (if -L alone is given) enabled features.

		     With  the	option	-L  the  module  name  may be omitted; then a list of all
		     enabled features for all modules providing features is printed in	the  form
		     of zmodload -F commands.  If -l is also given, the state of both enabled and
		     disabled features is output in that form.

		     A set of features may be provided together with -l or -L and a module  name;
		     in  that  case only the state of those features is considered.  Each feature
		     may be preceded by + or - but the character has no effect.   If  no  set  of
		     features is provided, all features are considered.

		     With  -e,	the  command first tests that the module is loaded; if it is not,
		     status 1 is returned.  If the module is loaded, the list of  features  given
		     as  an  argument  is  examined.   Any feature given with no prefix is simply
		     tested to see if the module provides it; any feature given with a	prefix	+
		     or  -  is tested to see if is provided and in the given state.  If the tests
		     on all features in the list succeed, status 0 is returned, else status 1.

		     With -m, each entry in the given list of features is taken as a  pattern  to
		     be  matched against the list of features provided by the module.  An initial
		     + or - must be given explicitly.  This may  not  be  combined  with  the  -a
		     option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

		     With  -a,	the given list of features is marked for autoload from the speci-
		     fied module, which may not yet be loaded.	An optional + may  appear  before
		     the  feature name.  If the feature is prefixed with -, any existing autoload
		     is removed.  The options -l and -L may be used to list autoloads.	Autoload-
		     ing  is  specific to individual features; when the module is loaded only the
		     requested feature is enabled.  Autoload requests are preserved if the module
		     is subsequently unloaded until an explicit `zmodload -Fa module -feature' is
		     issued.  It is not an error to request an autoload for a feature of a module
		     that is already loaded.

		     When  the	module	is  loaded  each autoload is checked against the features
		     actually provided by the module; if the feature is not provided the autoload
		     request  is  deleted.   A	warning message is output; if the module is being
		     loaded to provide a different feature,  and  that	autoload  is  successful,
		     there  is	no effect on the status of the current command.  If the module is
		     already loaded at the time when zmodload -Fa is run,  an  error  message  is
		     printed and status 1 returned.

		     zmodload  -Fa can be used with the -l, -L, -e and -P options for listing and
		     testing the existence of autoloadable features.  In this case -l is  ignored
		     if  -L  is specified.  zmodload -FaL with no module name lists autoloads for
		     all modules.

		     Note that only standard features as described above can be autoloaded; other
		     features require the module to be loaded before enabling.

	      zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
	      zmodload -d name dep ...
	      zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
		     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.	The modules named
		     in the second and subsequent arguments will  be  loaded  before  the  module
		     named in the first argument.

		     With -d and one argument, all dependencies for that module are listed.  With
		     -d and no arguments, all module dependencies are listed.  This listing is by
		     default  in  a Makefile-like format.  The -L option changes this format to a
		     list of zmodload -d commands.

		     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If only one  argument
		     is given, all dependencies for that module are removed.

	      zmodload -ab [ -L ]
	      zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
	      zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
		     The  -ab  option  defines	autoloaded  builtins.	It  defines the specified
		     builtins.	When any of those builtins is called, the module specified in the
		     first  argument  is  loaded  and all its features are enabled (for selective
		     control of features use `zmodload -F -a' as described above).  If	only  the
		     name is given, one builtin is defined, with the same name as the module.  -i
		     suppresses the error if the builtin is already defined  or  autoloaded,  but
		     not if another builtin of the same name is already defined.

		     With -ab and no arguments, all autoloaded builtins are listed, with the mod-
		     ule name (if different) shown in parentheses after the builtin name.  The -L
		     option changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

		     If  -b  is  used together with the -u option, it removes builtins previously
		     defined with -ab.	This is only possible if the builtin is not  yet  loaded.
		     -i  suppresses  the  error  if  the  builtin  is  already	removed (or never
		     existed).

		     Autoload requests are retained if the module is subsequently unloaded  until
		     an explicit `zmodload -ub builtin' is issued.

	      zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
	      zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
	      zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
		     The  -ac  option  is  used  to  define  autoloaded condition codes. The cond
		     strings give the names of the conditions defined by the module. The optional
		     -I  option is used to define infix condition names. Without this option pre-
		     fix condition names are defined.

		     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed (as  a  series  of
		     zmodload commands if the -L option is given).

		     The -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded conditions.

	      zmodload -ap [ -L ]
	      zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
	      zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
		     The  -p  option  is  like	the -b and -c options, but makes zmodload work on
		     autoloaded parameters instead.

	      zmodload -af [ -L ]
	      zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
	      zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
		     The -f option is like the -b, -p, and -c options, but makes zmodload work on
		     autoloaded math functions instead.

	      zmodload -a [ -L ]
	      zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
	      zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
		     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

	      zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
		     The  -e  option without arguments lists all loaded modules; if the -A option
		     is also given, module aliases  corresponding  to  loaded  modules	are  also
		     shown.   If arguments are provided, nothing is printed; the return status is
		     set to zero if all strings given as arguments are names  of  loaded  modules
		     and  to  one if at least on string is not the name of a loaded module.  This
		     can be used to test for the availability of things implemented  by  modules.
		     In  this case, any aliases are automatically resolved and the -A flag is not
		     used.

	      zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
		     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given, define modalias to
		     be  an  alias  for the module module.  If the module modalias is ever subse-
		     quently requested, either via a call to zmodload or  implicitly,  the  shell
		     will attempt to load module instead.  If module is not given, show the defi-
		     nition of modalias.  If no arguments are  given,  list  all  defined  module
		     aliases.	When  listing, if the -L flag was also given, list the definition
		     as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

		     The existence of aliases for modules is completely  independent  of  whether
		     the  name	resolved  is actually loaded as a module: while the alias exists,
		     loading and unloading the module under any alias has exactly the same effect
		     as  using	the resolved name, and does not affect the connection between the
		     alias and the resolved name which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by
		     redefining the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the first resolved name
		     is itself an alias) are valid so long as these are  not  circular.   As  the
		     aliases  take the same format as module names, they may include path separa-
		     tors:  in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the path  named
		     to  exist as the alias will be resolved first.  For example, `any/old/alias'
		     is always a valid alias.

		     Dependencies added to aliased modules are actually  added	to  the  resolved
		     module;  these  remain  if  the  alias is removed.  It is valid to create an
		     alias whose name is one of the standard shell modules and which resolves  to
		     a	different  module.  However, if a module has dependencies, it will not be
		     possible to use the module name as an alias as the module	will  already  be
		     marked as a loadable module in its own right.

		     Apart  from  the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload command anywhere
		     module names are required.  However, aliases will not be shown in	lists  of
		     loaded modules with a bare `zmodload'.

	      zmodload -R modalias ...
		     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as a module alias via
		     zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any was not defined, an error  is  caused
		     and the remainder of the line is ignored.

	      Note  that zsh makes no distinction between modules that were linked into the shell
	      and modules that are loaded dynamically. In both cases this builtin command has  to
	      be  used to make available the builtins and other things defined by modules (unless
	      the module is autoloaded on these definitions). This is true even for systems  that
	      don't support dynamic loading of modules.

       zparseopts
	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
	      See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).

zsh 5.0.2				December 21, 2012			   ZSHBUILTINS(1)
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