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PS(1)					  User Commands 				    PS(1)

NAME
       ps - report a snapshot of the current processes.

SYNOPSIS
       ps [options]

DESCRIPTION
       ps displays information about a selection of the active processes.  If you want a
       repetitive update of the selection and the displayed information, use top(1) instead.

       This version of ps accepts several kinds of options:

       1   UNIX options, which may be grouped and must be preceded by a dash.
       2   BSD options, which may be grouped and must not be used with a dash.
       3   GNU long options, which are preceded by two dashes.

       Options of different types may be freely mixed, but conflicts can appear.  There are some
       synonymous options, which are functionally identical, due to the many standards and ps
       implementations that this ps is compatible with.

       Note that "ps -aux" is distinct from "ps aux".  The POSIX and UNIX standards require that
       "ps -aux" print all processes owned by a user named "x", as well as printing all processes
       that would be selected by the -a option.  If the user named "x" does not exist, this ps
       may interpret the command as "ps aux" instead and print a warning.  This behavior is
       intended to aid in transitioning old scripts and habits.  It is fragile, subject to
       change, and thus should not be relied upon.

       By default, ps selects all processes with the same effective user ID (euid=EUID) as the
       current user and associated with the same terminal as the invoker.  It displays the
       process ID (pid=PID), the terminal associated with the process (tname=TTY), the cumulated
       CPU time in [DD-]hh:mm:ss format (time=TIME), and the executable name (ucmd=CMD).  Output
       is unsorted by default.

       The use of BSD-style options will add process state (stat=STAT) to the default display and
       show the command args (args=COMMAND) instead of the executable name.  You can override
       this with the PS_FORMAT environment variable. The use of BSD-style options will also
       change the process selection to include processes on other terminals (TTYs) that are owned
       by you; alternately, this may be described as setting the selection to be the set of all
       processes filtered to exclude processes owned by other users or not on a terminal.  These
       effects are not considered when options are described as being "identical" below, so -M
       will be considered identical to Z and so on.

       Except as described below, process selection options are additive.  The default selection
       is discarded, and then the selected processes are added to the set of processes to be
       displayed.  A process will thus be shown if it meets any of the given selection criteria.

EXAMPLES
       To see every process on the system using standard syntax:
	  ps -e
	  ps -ef
	  ps -eF
	  ps -ely

       To see every process on the system using BSD syntax:
	  ps ax
	  ps axu

       To print a process tree:
	  ps -ejH
	  ps axjf

       To get info about threads:
	  ps -eLf
	  ps axms

       To get security info:
	  ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
	  ps axZ
	  ps -eM

       To see every process running as root (real & effective ID) in user format:
	  ps -U root -u root u

       To see every process with a user-defined format:
	  ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
	  ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
	  ps -Ao pid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan

       Print only the process IDs of syslogd:
	  ps -C syslogd -o pid=

       Print only the name of PID 42:
	  ps -p 42 -o comm=

SIMPLE PROCESS SELECTION
       a      Lift the BSD-style "only yourself" restriction, which is imposed upon the set of
	      all processes when some BSD-style (without "-") options are used or when the ps
	      personality setting is BSD-like.	The set of processes selected in this manner is
	      in addition to the set of processes selected by other means.  An alternate
	      description is that this option causes ps to list all processes with a terminal
	      (tty), or to list all processes when used together with the x option.

       -A     Select all processes.  Identical to -e.

       -a     Select all processes except both session leaders (see getsid(2)) and processes not
	      associated with a terminal.

       -d     Select all processes except session leaders.

       --deselect
	      Select all processes except those that fulfill the specified conditions (negates
	      the selection).  Identical to -N.

       -e     Select all processes.  Identical to -A.

       g      Really all, even session leaders.  This flag is obsolete and may be discontinued in
	      a future release.  It is normally implied by the a flag, and is only useful when
	      operating in the sunos4 personality.

       -N     Select all processes except those that fulfill the specified conditions (negates
	      the selection).  Identical to --deselect.

       T      Select all processes associated with this terminal.  Identical to the t option
	      without any argument.

       r      Restrict the selection to only running processes.

       x      Lift the BSD-style "must have a tty" restriction, which is imposed upon the set of
	      all processes when some BSD-style (without "-") options are used or when the ps
	      personality setting is BSD-like.	The set of processes selected in this manner is
	      in addition to the set of processes selected by other means.  An alternate
	      description is that this option causes ps to list all processes owned by you (same
	      EUID as ps), or to list all processes when used together with the a option.

PROCESS SELECTION BY LIST
       These options accept a single argument in the form of a blank-separated or comma-separated
       list.  They can be used multiple times.	For example: ps -p "1 2" -p 3,4

       -123   Identical to --pid 123.

       123    Identical to --pid 123.

       -C cmdlist
	      Select by command name.  This selects the processes whose executable name is given
	      in cmdlist.

       -G grplist
	      Select by real group ID (RGID) or name.  This selects the processes whose real
	      group name or ID is in the grplist list.	The real group ID identifies the group of
	      the user who created the process, see getgid(2).

       -g grplist
	      Select by session OR by effective group name.  Selection by session is specified by
	      many standards, but selection by effective group is the logical behavior that
	      several other operating systems use.  This ps will select by session when the list
	      is completely numeric (as sessionsare).  Group ID numbers will work only when some
	      group names are also specified.  See the -s and --group options.

       --Group grplist
	      Select by real group ID (RGID) or name.  Identical to -G.

       --group grplist
	      Select by effective group ID (EGID) or name.  This selects the processes whose
	      effective group name or ID is in grplist.  The effective group ID describes the
	      group whose file access permissions are used by the process (see getegid(2)).  The
	      -g option is often an alternative to --group.

       p pidlist
	      Select by process ID.  Identical to -p and --pid.

       -p pidlist
	      Select by PID.  This selects the processes whose process ID numbers appear in
	      pidlist.	Identical to p and --pid.

       --pid pidlist
	      Select by process ID.  Identical to -p and p.

       --ppid pidlist
	      Select by parent process ID.  This selects the processes with a parent process ID
	      in pidlist.  That is, it selects processes that are children of those listed in
	      pidlist.

       -s sesslist
	      Select by session ID.  This selects the processes with a session ID specified in
	      sesslist.

       --sid sesslist
	      Select by session ID.  Identical to -s.

       t ttylist
	      Select by tty.  Nearly identical to -t and --tty, but can also be used with an
	      empty ttylist to indicate the terminal associated with ps.  Using the T option is
	      considered cleaner than using t with an empty ttylist.

       -t ttylist
	      Select by tty.  This selects the processes associated with the terminals given in
	      ttylist.	Terminals (ttys, or screens for text output) can be specified in several
	      forms: /dev/ttyS1, ttyS1, S1.  A plain "-" may be used to select processes not
	      attached to any terminal.

       --tty ttylist
	      Select by terminal.  Identical to -t and t.

       U userlist
	      Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.  This selects the processes whose
	      effective user name or ID is in userlist.  The effective user ID describes the user
	      whose file access permissions are used by the process (see geteuid(2)).  Identical
	      to -u and --user.

       -U userlist
	      Select by real user ID (RUID) or name.  It selects the processes whose real user
	      name or ID is in the userlist list.  The real user ID identifies the user who
	      created the process, see getuid(2).

       -u userlist
	      Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.  This selects the processes whose
	      effective user name or ID is in userlist.

	      The effective user ID describes the user whose file access permissions are used by
	      the process (see geteuid(2)).  Identical to U and --user.

       --User userlist
	      Select by real user ID (RUID) or name.  Identical to -U.

       --user userlist
	      Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.  Identical to -u and U.

OUTPUT FORMAT CONTROL
       These options are used to choose the information displayed by ps.  The output may differ
       by personality.

       -c     Show different scheduler information for the -l option.

       --context
	      Display security context format (for SELinux).

       -f     Do full-format listing. This option can be combined with many other UNIX-style
	      options to add additional columns.  It also causes the command arguments to be
	      printed.	When used with -L, the NLWP (number of threads) and LWP (thread ID)
	      columns will be added.  See the c option, the format keyword args, and the format
	      keyword comm.

       -F     Extra full format.  See the -f option, which -F implies.

       --format format
	      user-defined format.  Identical to -o and o.

       j      BSD job control format.

       -j     Jobs format.

       l      Display BSD long format.

       -l     Long format.  The -y option is often useful with this.

       -M     Add a column of security data.  Identical to Z (for SELinux).

       O format
	      is preloaded o (overloaded).  The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output
	      format with some common fields predefined) or can be used to specify sort order.
	      Heuristics are used to determine the behavior of this option.  To ensure that the
	      desired behavior is obtained (sorting or formatting), specify the option in some
	      other way (e.g.  with -O or --sort).  When used as a formatting option, it is
	      identical to -O, with the BSD personality.

       -O format
	      Like -o, but preloaded with some default columns.  Identical to -o pid,format,
	      state,tname,time,command or -o pid,format,tname,time,cmd, see -o below.

       o format
	      Specify user-defined format.  Identical to -o and --format.

       -o format
	      User-defined format.  format is a single argument in the form of a blank-separated
	      or comma-separated list, which offers a way to specify individual output columns.
	      The recognized keywords are described in the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section
	      below.  Headers may be renamed (ps -o pid,ruser=RealUser -o comm=Command) as
	      desired.	If all column headers are empty (ps -o pid= -o comm=) then the header
	      line will not be output.	Column width will increase as needed for wide headers;
	      this may be used to widen up columns such as WCHAN (ps -o pid,wchan=WIDE-WCHAN-
	      COLUMN -o comm).	Explicit width control (ps opid,wchan:42,cmd) is offered too.
	      The behavior of ps -o pid=X,comm=Y varies with personality; output may be one
	      column named "X,comm=Y" or two columns named "X" and "Y".  Use multiple -o options
	      when in doubt.  Use the PS_FORMAT environment variable to specify a default as
	      desired; DefSysV and DefBSD are macros that may be used to choose the default UNIX
	      or BSD columns.

       s      Display signal format.

       u      Display user-oriented format.

       v      Display virtual memory format.

       X      Register format.

       -y     Do not show flags; show rss in place of addr.  This option can only be used with
	      -l.

       Z      Add a column of security data.  Identical to -M (for SELinux).

OUTPUT MODIFIERS
       c      Show the true command name.  This is derived from the name of the executable file,
	      rather than from the argv value.	Command arguments and any modifications to them
	      are thus not shown.  This option effectively turns the args format keyword into the
	      comm format keyword; it is useful with the -f format option and with the various
	      BSD-style format options, which all normally display the command arguments.  See
	      the -f option, the format keyword args, and the format keyword comm.

       --cols n
	      Set screen width.

       --columns n
	      Set screen width.

       --cumulative
	      Include some dead child process data (as a sum with the parent).

       e      Show the environment after the command.

       f      ASCII art process hierarchy (forest).

       --forest
	      ASCII art process tree.

       h      No header.  (or, one header per screen in the BSD personality).  The h option is
	      problematic.  Standard BSD ps uses this option to print a header on each page of
	      output, but older Linux ps uses this option to totally disable the header.  This
	      version of ps follows the Linux usage of not printing the header unless the BSD
	      personality has been selected, in which case it prints a header on each page of
	      output.  Regardless of the current personality, you can use the long options
	      --headers and --no-headers to enable printing headers each page or disable headers
	      entirely, respectively.

       -H     Show process hierarchy (forest).

       --headers
	      Repeat header lines, one per page of output.

       k spec Specify sorting order.  Sorting syntax is [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]].  Choose a
	      multi-letter key from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section.  The "+" is optional
	      since default direction is increasing numerical or lexicographic order.  Identical
	      to --sort.

		      Examples:
		      ps jaxkuid,-ppid,+pid
		      ps axk comm o comm,args
		      ps kstart_time -ef

       --lines n
	      Set screen height.

       -n namelist
	      Set namelist file.  Identical to N.  The namelist file is needed for a proper WCHAN
	      display, and must match the current Linux kernel exactly for correct output.
	      Without this option, the default search path for the namelist is:

		      $PS_SYSMAP
		      $PS_SYSTEM_MAP
		      /proc/*/wchan
		      /boot/System.map-$(uname -r)
		      /boot/System.map
		      /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/System.map
		      /usr/src/linux/System.map
		      /System.map

       n      Numeric output for WCHAN and USER (including all types of UID and GID).

       N namelist
	      Specify namelist file.  Identical to -n, see -n above.

       --no-headers
	      Print no header line at all.  --no-heading is an alias for this option.

       O order
	      Sorting order (overloaded).  The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output
	      format with some common fields predefined) or can be used to specify sort order.
	      Heuristics are used to determine the behavior of this option.  To ensure that the
	      desired behavior is obtained (sorting or formatting), specify the option in some
	      other way (e.g.  with -O or --sort).

	      For sorting, obsolete BSD O option syntax is O[+|-]k1[,[+|-]k2[,...]].  It orders
	      the processes listing according to the multilevel sort specified by the sequence of
	      one-letter short keys k1,k2, ...	described in the OBSOLETE SORT KEYS section
	      below.  The "+" is currently optional, merely re-iterating the default direction on
	      a key, but may help to distinguish an O sort from an O format.  The "-" reverses
	      direction only on the key it precedes.

       --rows n
	      Set screen height.

       S      Sum up some information, such as CPU usage, from dead child processes into their
	      parent.  This is useful for examining a system where a parent process repeatedly
	      forks off short-lived children to do work.

       --sort spec
	      Specify sorting order.  Sorting syntax is [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]].  Choose a
	      multi-letter key from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section.  The "+" is optional
	      since default direction is increasing numerical or lexicographic order.  Identical
	      to k.  For example: ps jax --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid

       w      Wide output.  Use this option twice for unlimited width.

       -w     Wide output.  Use this option twice for unlimited width.

       --width n
	      Set screen width.

THREAD DISPLAY
       H      Show threads as if they were processes.

       -L     Show threads, possibly with LWP and NLWP columns.

       m      Show threads after processes.

       -m     Show threads after processes.

       -T     Show threads, possibly with SPID column.

OTHER INFORMATION
       --help section
	      Print a help message.  The section argument can be one of simple, list, output,
	      threads, misc or all.  The argument can be shortened to one of the underlined
	      letters as in: s|l|o|t|m|a.

       --info Print debugging info.

       L      List all format specifiers.

       V      Print the procps-ng version.

       -V     Print the procps-ng version.

       --version
	      Print the procps-ng version.

NOTES
       This ps works by reading the virtual files in /proc.  This ps does not need to be setuid
       kmem or have any privileges to run.  Do not give this ps any special permissions.

       This ps needs access to namelist data for proper WCHAN display.	For kernels prior to 2.6,
       the System.map file must be installed.

       CPU usage is currently expressed as the percentage of time spent running during the entire
       lifetime of a process.  This is not ideal, and it does not conform to the standards that
       ps otherwise conforms to.  CPU usage is unlikely to add up to exactly 100%.

       The SIZE and RSS fields don't count some parts of a process including the page tables,
       kernel stack, struct thread_info, and struct task_struct.  This is usually at least 20 KiB
       of memory that is always resident.  SIZE is the virtual size of the process (code+data+
       stack).

       Processes marked <defunct> are dead processes (so-called "zombies") that remain because
       their parent has not destroyed them properly.  These processes will be destroyed by
       init(8) if the parent process exits.

       If the length of the username is greater than the length of the display column, the
       numeric user ID is displayed instead.

       Commands options such as ps -aux are not recommended as it is a confusion of two different
       standards.  According to the POSIX and UNIX standards, the above command asks to display
       all processes with a TTY (generally the commands users are running) plus all processes
       owned by a user named "x".  If that user doesn't exist, then ps will assume you really
       meant "ps aux".

PROCESS FLAGS
       The sum of these values is displayed in the "F" column, which is provided by the flags
       output specifier:

	       1    forked but didn't exec
	       4    used super-user privileges

PROCESS STATE CODES
       Here are the different values that the s, stat and state output specifiers (header "STAT"
       or "S") will display to describe the state of a process:

	       D    uninterruptible sleep (usually IO)
	       R    running or runnable (on run queue)
	       S    interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete)
	       T    stopped, either by a job control signal or because it is being traced
	       W    paging (not valid since the 2.6.xx kernel)
	       X    dead (should never be seen)
	       Z    defunct ("zombie") process, terminated but not reaped by its parent

       For BSD formats and when the stat keyword is used, additional characters may be displayed:

	       <    high-priority (not nice to other users)
	       N    low-priority (nice to other users)
	       L    has pages locked into memory (for real-time and custom IO)
	       s    is a session leader
	       l    is multi-threaded (using CLONE_THREAD, like NPTL pthreads do)
	       +    is in the foreground process group

OBSOLETE SORT KEYS
       These keys are used by the BSD O option (when it is used for sorting).  The GNU --sort
       option doesn't use these keys, but the specifiers described below in the STANDARD FORMAT
       SPECIFIERS section.  Note that the values used in sorting are the internal values ps uses
       and not the "cooked" values used in some of the output format fields (e.g.  sorting on tty
       will sort into device number, not according to the terminal name displayed).  Pipe ps
       output into the sort(1) command if you want to sort the cooked values.

       KEY   LONG	  DESCRIPTION
       c     cmd	  simple name of executable
       C     pcpu	  cpu utilization
       f     flags	  flags as in long format F field
       g     pgrp	  process group ID
       G     tpgid	  controlling tty process group ID
       j     cutime	  cumulative user time
       J     cstime	  cumulative system time
       k     utime	  user time
       m     min_flt	  number of minor page faults
       M     maj_flt	  number of major page faults
       n     cmin_flt	  cumulative minor page faults
       N     cmaj_flt	  cumulative major page faults
       o     session	  session ID
       p     pid	  process ID
       P     ppid	  parent process ID
       r     rss	  resident set size
       R     resident	  resident pages
       s     size	  memory size in kilobytes
       S     share	  amount of shared pages
       t     tty	  the device number of the controlling tty
       T     start_time   time process was started
       U     uid	  user ID number
       u     user	  user name
       v     vsize	  total VM size in KiB
       y     priority	  kernel scheduling priority

AIX FORMAT DESCRIPTORS
       This ps supports AIX format descriptors, which work somewhat like the formatting codes of
       printf(1) and printf(3).  For example, the normal default output can be produced with
       this: ps -eo "%p %y %x %c".  The NORMAL codes are described in the next section.

       CODE   NORMAL   HEADER
       %C     pcpu     %CPU
       %G     group    GROUP
       %P     ppid     PPID
       %U     user     USER
       %a     args     COMMAND
       %c     comm     COMMAND
       %g     rgroup   RGROUP
       %n     nice     NI
       %p     pid      PID
       %r     pgid     PGID
       %t     etime    ELAPSED
       %u     ruser    RUSER
       %x     time     TIME
       %y     tty      TTY
       %z     vsz      VSZ

STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS
       Here are the different keywords that may be used to control the output format (e.g. with
       option -o) or to sort the selected processes with the GNU-style --sort option.

       For example: ps -eo pid,user,args --sort user

       This version of ps tries to recognize most of the keywords used in other implementations
       of ps.

       The following user-defined format specifiers may contain spaces:
       args, cmd, comm, command, fname, ucmd, ucomm, lstart, bsdstart, start.

       Some keywords may not be available for sorting.

       CODE	   HEADER    DESCRIPTION

       %cpu	   %CPU      cpu utilization of the process in "##.#" format.  Currently, it is
			     the CPU time used divided by the time the process has been running
			     (cputime/realtime ratio), expressed as a percentage.  It will not
			     add up to 100% unless you are lucky.  (alias pcpu).

       %mem	   %MEM      ratio of the process's resident set size  to the physical memory on
			     the machine, expressed as a percentage.  (alias pmem).

       args	   COMMAND   command with all its arguments as a string. Modifications to the
			     arguments may be shown.  The output in this column may contain
			     spaces.  A process marked <defunct> is partly dead, waiting to be
			     fully destroyed by its parent.  Sometimes the process args will be
			     unavailable; when this happens, ps will instead print the executable
			     name in brackets.	(alias cmd, command).  See also the comm format
			     keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
			     When specified last, this column will extend to the edge of the
			     display.  If ps can not determine display width, as when output is
			     redirected (piped) into a file or another command, the output width
			     is undefined (it may be 80, unlimited, determined by the TERM
			     variable, and so on).  The COLUMNS environment variable or --cols
			     option may be used to exactly determine the width in this case.  The
			     w or -w option may be also be used to adjust width.

       blocked	   BLOCKED   mask of the blocked signals, see signal(7).  According to the width
			     of the field, a 32 or 64-bit mask in hexadecimal format is
			     displayed.  (alias sig_block, sigmask).

       bsdstart    START     time the command started.	If the process was started less than 24
			     hours ago, the output format is " HH:MM", else it is " Mmm:SS"
			     (where Mmm is the three letters of the month).  See also
			     lstart, start, start_time, and stime.

       bsdtime	   TIME      accumulated cpu time, user + system.  The display format is usually
			     "MMM:SS", but can be shifted to the right if the process used more
			     than 999 minutes of cpu time.

       c	   C	     processor utilization. Currently, this is the integer value of the
			     percent usage over the lifetime of the process.  (see %cpu).

       caught	   CAUGHT    mask of the caught signals, see signal(7).  According to the width
			     of the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in hexadecimal format is
			     displayed.  (alias sig_catch, sigcatch).

       cgroup	   CGROUP    display control groups to which the process belongs.

       class	   CLS	     scheduling class of the process.  (alias policy, cls).  Field's
			     possible values are:

				      -   not reported
				      TS  SCHED_OTHER
				      FF  SCHED_FIFO
				      RR  SCHED_RR
				      B   SCHED_BATCH
				      ISO SCHED_ISO
				      IDL SCHED_IDLE
				      ?   unknown value

       cls	   CLS	     scheduling class of the process.  (alias policy, cls).  Field's
			     possible values are:

				      -   not reported
				      TS  SCHED_OTHER
				      FF  SCHED_FIFO
				      RR  SCHED_RR
				      B   SCHED_BATCH
				      ISO SCHED_ISO
				      IDL SCHED_IDLE
				      ?   unknown value

       cmd	   CMD	     see args.	(alias args, command).

       comm	   COMMAND   command name (only the executable name).  Modifications to the
			     command name will not be shown.  A process marked <defunct> is
			     partly dead, waiting to be fully destroyed by its parent.	The
			     output in this column may contain spaces.	(alias ucmd, ucomm).  See
			     also the args format keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
			     When specified last, this column will extend to the edge of the
			     display.  If ps can not determine display width, as when output is
			     redirected (piped) into a file or another command, the output width
			     is undefined (it may be 80, unlimited, determined by the TERM
			     variable, and so on).  The COLUMNS environment variable or --cols
			     option may be used to exactly determine the width in this case.  The
			     w or -w option may be also be used to adjust width.

       command	   COMMAND   See args.	(alias args, command).

       cp	   CP	     per-mill (tenths of a percent) CPU usage.	(see %cpu).

       cputime	   TIME      cumulative CPU time, "[DD-]hh:mm:ss" format.  (alias time).

       egid	   EGID      effective group ID number of the process as a decimal integer.
			     (alias gid).

       egroup	   EGROUP    effective group ID of the process.  This will be the textual group
			     ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
			     representation otherwise.	(alias group).

       eip	   EIP	     instruction pointer.

       esp	   ESP	     stack pointer.

       etime	   ELAPSED   elapsed time since the process was started, in the form
			     [[DD-]hh:]mm:ss.

       etimes	   ELAPSED   elapsed time since the process was started, in seconds.

       euid	   EUID      effective user ID (alias uid).

       euser	   EUSER     effective user name.  This will be the textual user ID, if it can be
			     obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
			     otherwise.  The n option can be used to force the decimal
			     representation.  (alias uname, user).

       f	   F	     flags associated with the process, see the PROCESS FLAGS section.
			     (alias flag, flags).

       fgid	   FGID      filesystem access group ID.  (alias fsgid).

       fgroup	   FGROUP    filesystem access group ID.  This will be the textual group ID, if
			     it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
			     representation otherwise.	(alias fsgroup).

       flag	   F	     see f.  (alias f, flags).

       flags	   F	     see f.  (alias f, flag).

       fname	   COMMAND   first 8 bytes of the base name of the process's executable file.
			     The output in this column may contain spaces.

       fuid	   FUID      filesystem access user ID.  (alias fsuid).

       fuser	   FUSER     filesystem access user ID.  This will be the textual user ID, if it
			     can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
			     representation otherwise.

       gid	   GID	     see egid.	(alias egid).

       group	   GROUP     see egroup.  (alias egroup).

       ignored	   IGNORED   mask of the ignored signals, see signal(7).  According to the width
			     of the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in hexadecimal format is
			     displayed.  (alias sig_ignore, sigignore).

       ipcns	   IPCNS     Unique inode number describing the namespace the process belongs to.
			     See namespaces(7).

       label	   LABEL     security label, most commonly used for SELinux context data.  This
			     is for the Mandatory Access Control ("MAC") found on high-security
			     systems.

       lstart	   STARTED   time the command started.	See also bsdstart, start, start_time,
			     and stime.

       lsession    SESSION   displays login session identifier of a process.

       lwp	   LWP	     light weight process (thread) ID of the dispatchable entity (alias
			     spid, tid).  See tid for additional information.

       machine	   MACHINE   displays machine name for processes assigned to VM or container.

       maj_flt	   MAJFLT    The number of major page faults that have occurred with this
			     process.

       min_flt	   MINFLT    The number of minor page faults that have occurred with this
			     process.

       mntns	   MNTNS     Unique inode number describing the namespace the process belongs to.
			     See namespaces(7).

       netns	   NETNS     Unique inode number describing the namespace the process belongs to.
			     See namespaces(7).

       ni	   NI	     nice value. This ranges from 19 (nicest) to -20 (not nice to
			     others), see nice(1).  (alias nice).

       nice	   NI	     see ni.(alias ni).

       nlwp	   NLWP      number of lwps (threads) in the process.  (alias thcount).

       nwchan	   WCHAN     address of the kernel function where the process is sleeping (use
			     wchan if you want the kernel function name).  Running tasks will
			     display a dash ('-') in this column.

       ouid	   OWNER     displays the Unix user identifier of the owner of the session of a
			     process.

       pcpu	   %CPU      see %cpu.	(alias %cpu).

       pending	   PENDING   mask of the pending signals. See signal(7).  Signals pending on the
			     process are distinct from signals pending on individual threads.
			     Use the m option or the -m option to see both.  According to the
			     width of the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in hexadecimal format is
			     displayed.  (alias sig).

       pgid	   PGID      process group ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the process
			     group leader.  (alias pgrp).

       pgrp	   PGRP      see pgid.	(alias pgid).

       pid	   PID	     a number representing the process ID (alias tgid).

       pidns	   PIDNS     Unique inode number describing the namespace the process belongs to.
			     See namespaces(7).

       pmem	   %MEM      see %mem.	(alias %mem).

       policy	   POL	     scheduling class of the process.  (alias class, cls).  Possible
			     values are:

				      -   not reported
				      TS  SCHED_OTHER
				      FF  SCHED_FIFO
				      RR  SCHED_RR
				      B   SCHED_BATCH
				      ISO SCHED_ISO
				      IDL SCHED_IDLE
				      ?   unknown value

       ppid	   PPID      parent process ID.

       pri	   PRI	     priority of the process.  Higher number means lower priority.

       psr	   PSR	     processor that process is currently assigned to.

       rgid	   RGID      real group ID.

       rgroup	   RGROUP    real group name.  This will be the textual group ID, if it can be
			     obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
			     otherwise.

       rss	   RSS	     resident set size, the non-swapped physical memory that a task has
			     used (inkiloBytes).  (alias rssize, rsz).

       rssize	   RSS	     see rss.  (alias rss, rsz).

       rsz	   RSZ	     see rss.  (alias rss, rssize).

       rtprio	   RTPRIO    realtime priority.

       ruid	   RUID      real user ID.

       ruser	   RUSER     real user ID.  This will be the textual user ID, if it can be
			     obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
			     otherwise.

       s	   S	     minimal state display (one character).  See section PROCESS STATE
			     CODES for the different values.  See also stat if you want
			     additional information displayed.	(alias state).

       sched	   SCH	     scheduling policy of the process.	The policies SCHED_OTHER
			     (SCHED_NORMAL), SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR, SCHED_BATCH, SCHED_ISO, and
			     SCHED_IDLE are respectively displayed as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

       seat	   SEAT      displays login session identifier of a process.

       sess	   SESS      session ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the session leader.
			     (alias session, sid).

       sgi_p	   P	     processor that the process is currently executing on.  Displays "*"
			     if the process is not currently running or runnable.

       sgid	   SGID      saved group ID.  (alias svgid).

       sgroup	   SGROUP    saved group name.	This will be the textual group ID, if it can be
			     obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
			     otherwise.

       sid	   SID	     see sess.	(alias sess, session).

       sig	   PENDING   see pending.  (alias pending, sig_pend).

       sigcatch    CAUGHT    see caught.  (alias caught, sig_catch).

       sigignore   IGNORED   see ignored.  (alias ignored, sig_ignore).

       sigmask	   BLOCKED   see blocked.  (alias blocked, sig_block).

       size	   SIZE      approximate amount of swap space that would be required if the
			     process were to dirty all writable pages and then be swapped out.
			     This number is very rough!

       slice	   SLICE     displays slice unit which a process belongs to.

       spid	   SPID      see lwp.  (alias lwp, tid).

       stackp	   STACKP    address of the bottom (start) of stack for the process.

       start	   STARTED   time the command started.	If the process was started less than 24
			     hours ago, the output format is "HH:MM:SS", else it is "  Mmm dd"
			     (where Mmm is a three-letter month name).	See also
			     lstart, bsdstart, start_time, and stime.

       start_time  START     starting time or date of the process.  Only the year will be
			     displayed if the process was not started the same year ps was
			     invoked, or "MmmDD" if it was not started the same day, or "HH:MM"
			     otherwise.  See also bsdstart, start, lstart, and stime.

       stat	   STAT      multi-character process state.  See section PROCESS STATE CODES for
			     the different values meaning.  See also s and state if you just want
			     the first character displayed.

       state	   S	     see s. (alias s).

       suid	   SUID      saved user ID.  (alias svuid).

       supgid	   SUPGID    group ids of supplementary groups, if any.  See getgroups(2).

       supgrp	   SUPGRP    group names of supplementary groups, if any.  See getgroups(2).

       suser	   SUSER     saved user name.  This will be the textual user ID, if it can be
			     obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
			     otherwise.  (alias svuser).

       svgid	   SVGID     see sgid.	(alias sgid).

       svuid	   SVUID     see suid.	(alias suid).

       sz	   SZ	     size in physical pages of the core image of the process.  This
			     includes text, data, and stack space.  Device mappings are currently
			     excluded; this is subject to change.  See vsz and rss.

       tgid	   TGID      a number representing the thread group to which a task belongs
			     (alias pid).  It is the process ID of the thread group leader.

       thcount	   THCNT     see nlwp.	(alias nlwp).  number of kernel threads owned by the
			     process.

       tid	   TID	     the unique number representing a dispatacable entity (alias
			     lwp, spid).  This value may also appear as: a process ID (pid); a
			     process group ID (pgrp); a session ID for the session leader (sid);
			     a thread group ID for the thread group leader (tgid); and a tty
			     process group ID for the process group leader (tpgid).

       time	   TIME      cumulative CPU time, "[DD-]HH:MM:SS" format.  (alias cputime).

       tname	   TTY	     controlling tty (terminal).  (alias tt, tty).

       tpgid	   TPGID     ID of the foreground process group on the tty (terminal) that the
			     process is connected to, or -1 if the process is not connected to a
			     tty.

       tt	   TT	     controlling tty (terminal).  (alias tname, tty).

       tty	   TT	     controlling tty (terminal).  (alias tname, tt).

       ucmd	   CMD	     see comm.	(alias comm, ucomm).

       ucomm	   COMMAND   see comm.	(alias comm, ucmd).

       uid	   UID	     see euid.	(alias euid).

       uname	   USER      see euser.  (alias euser, user).

       unit	   UNIT      displays systemd unit which a process belongs to.

       user	   USER      see euser.  (alias euser, uname).

       userns	   USERNS    Unique inode number describing the namespace the process belongs to.
			     See namespaces(7).

       utsns	   UTSNS     Unique inode number describing the namespace the process belongs to.
			     See namespaces(7).

       uunit	   UUNIT     displays systemd user unit which a process belongs to.

       vsize	   VSZ	     see vsz.  (alias vsz).

       vsz	   VSZ	     virtual memory size of the process in KiB (1024-byte units).  Device
			     mappings are currently excluded; this is subject to change.  (alias
			     vsize).

       wchan	   WCHAN     name of the kernel function in which the process is sleeping, a "-"
			     if the process is running, or a "*" if the process is multi-threaded
			     and ps is not displaying threads.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables could affect ps:

       COLUMNS
	  Override default display width.

       LINES
	  Override default display height.

       PS_PERSONALITY
	  Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...  (see section PERSONALITY below).

       CMD_ENV
	  Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...  (see section PERSONALITY below).

       I_WANT_A_BROKEN_PS
	  Force obsolete command line interpretation.

       LC_TIME
	  Date format.

       PS_COLORS
	  Not currently supported.

       PS_FORMAT
	  Default output format override. You may set this to a format string of the type used
	  for the -o option.  The DefSysV and DefBSD values are particularly useful.

       PS_SYSMAP
	  Default namelist (System.map) location.

       PS_SYSTEM_MAP
	  Default namelist (System.map) location.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	  Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       POSIX2
	  When set to "on", acts as POSIXLY_CORRECT.

       UNIX95
	  Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       _XPG
	  Cancel CMD_ENV=irix non-standard behavior.

       In general, it is a bad idea to set these variables.  The one exception is CMD_ENV or
       PS_PERSONALITY, which could be set to Linux for normal systems.	Without that setting, ps
       follows the useless and bad parts of the Unix98 standard.

PERSONALITY
       390	  like the OS/390 OpenEdition ps
       aix	  like AIX ps
       bsd	  like FreeBSD ps (totally non-standard)
       compaq	  like Digital Unix ps
       debian	  like the old Debian ps
       digital	  like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       gnu	  like the old Debian ps
       hp	  like HP-UX ps
       hpux	  like HP-UX ps
       irix	  like Irix ps
       linux	  ***** recommended *****
       old	  like the original Linux ps (totally non-standard)
       os390	  like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       posix	  standard
       s390	  like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       sco	  like SCO ps
       sgi	  like Irix ps
       solaris2   like Solaris 2+ (SunOS 5) ps
       sunos4	  like SunOS 4 (Solaris 1) ps (totally non-standard)
       svr4	  standard
       sysv	  standard
       tru64	  like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       unix	  standard
       unix95	  standard
       unix98	  standard

SEE ALSO
       pgrep(1), pstree(1), top(1), proc(5).

STANDARDS
       This ps conforms to:

       1   Version 2 of the Single Unix Specification
       2   The Open Group Technical Standard Base Specifications, Issue 6
       3   IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition
       4   X/Open System Interfaces Extension [UP XSI]
       5   ISO/IEC 9945:2003

AUTHOR
       ps was originally written by Branko Lankester <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl>.  Michael K. Johnson
       <johnsonm@redhat.com> re-wrote it significantly to use the proc filesystem, changing a few
       things in the process.  Michael Shields <mjshield@nyx.cs.du.edu> added the pid-list fea-
       ture.  Charles Blake <cblake@bbn.com> added multi-level sorting, the dirent-style library,
       the device name-to-number mmaped database, the approximate binary search directly on Sys-
       tem.map, and many code and documentation cleanups.  David Mossberger-Tang wrote the
       generic BFD support for psupdate.  Albert Cahalan <albert@users.sf.net> rewrote ps for
       full Unix98 and BSD support, along with some ugly hacks for obsolete and foreign syntax.

       Please send bug reports to <procps@freelists.org>.  No subscription is required or sug-
       gested.

procps-ng				  December 2011 				    PS(1)
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