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BSD 2.11 - man page for close (bsd section 2)

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CLOSE(2)										 CLOSE(2)

NAME
       close - delete a descriptor

SYNOPSIS
       close(d)
       int d;

DESCRIPTION
       The  close call deletes a descriptor from the per-process object reference table.  If this
       is the last reference to the underlying object, then it will be deactivated.  For example,
       on  the last close of a file the current seek pointer associated with the file is lost; on
       the last close of a socket(2) associated naming information and queued data are discarded;
       on  the	last  close  of a file holding an advisory lock the lock is released (see further
       flock(2)).

       A close of all of a process's descriptors is automatic on exit, but since there is a limit
       on the number of active descriptors per process, close is necessary for programs that deal
       with many descriptors.

       When a process forks (see fork(2)), all descriptors for the new	child  process	reference
       the  same  objects as they did in the parent before the fork.  If a new process is then to
       be run using execve(2), the process would normally inherit these descriptors.  Most of the
       descriptors  can  be  rearranged  with  dup2(2) or deleted with close before the execve is
       attempted, but if some of these descriptors will still be needed if the execve  fails,  it
       is  necessary  to  arrange for them to be closed if the execve succeeds.  For this reason,
       the call ``fcntl(d, F_SETFD, 1)'' is provided, which arranges that a  descriptor  will  be
       closed  after a successful execve; the call ``fcntl(d, F_SETFD, 0)'' restores the default,
       which is to not close the descriptor.

RETURN VALUE
       Upon successful completion, a value of 0  is  returned.	 Otherwise,  a	value  of  -1  is
       returned and the global integer variable errno is set to indicate the error.

ERRORS
       Close will fail if:

       [EBADF]	      D is not an active descriptor.

SEE ALSO
       accept(2), flock(2), open(2), pipe(2), socket(2), socketpair(2), execve(2), fcntl(2)

4th Berkeley Distribution		   May 22, 1986 				 CLOSE(2)
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