more, page - file perusal filter for crt viewing
more [ -cdflsu ] [ -n ] [ +linenumber ] [ +/pattern ] [ name ... ]
page more options
More is a filter which allows examination of a continuous text one screenful at a time on
a soft-copy terminal. It normally pauses after each screenful, printing --More-- at the
bottom of the screen. If the user then types a carriage return, one more line is dis-
played. If the user hits a space, another screenful is displayed. Other possibilities
are enumerated later.
The command line options are:
-n An integer which is the size (in lines) of the window which more will use instead
of the default.
-c More will draw each page by beginning at the top of the screen and erasing each
line just before it draws on it. This avoids scrolling the screen, making it eas-
ier to read while more is writing. This option will be ignored if the terminal
does not have the ability to clear to the end of a line.
-d More will prompt the user with the message "Press space to continue, 'q' to quit."
at the end of each screenful, and will respond to subsequent illegal user input by
printing "Press 'h' for instructions." instead of ringing the bell. This is useful
if more is being used as a filter in some setting, such as a class, where many
users may be unsophisticated.
-f This causes more to count logical, rather than screen lines. That is, long lines
are not folded. This option is recommended if nroff output is being piped through
ul, since the latter may generate escape sequences. These escape sequences contain
characters which would ordinarily occupy screen positions, but which do not print
when they are sent to the terminal as part of an escape sequence. Thus more may
think that lines are longer than they actually are, and fold lines erroneously.
-l Do not treat ^L (form feed) specially. If this option is not given, more will
pause after any line that contains a ^L, as if the end of a screenful had been
reached. Also, if a file begins with a form feed, the screen will be cleared
before the file is printed.
-s Squeeze multiple blank lines from the output, producing only one blank line. Espe-
cially helpful when viewing nroff output, this option maximizes the useful informa-
tion present on the screen.
-u Normally, more will handle underlining such as produced by nroff in a manner appro-
priate to the particular terminal: if the terminal can perform underlining or has
a stand-out mode, more will output appropriate escape sequences to enable underlin-
ing or stand-out mode for underlined information in the source file. The -u option
suppresses this processing.
Start up at linenumber.
Start up two lines before the line containing the regular expression pattern.
If the program is invoked as page, then the screen is cleared before each screenful is
printed (but only if a full screenful is being printed), and k - 1 rather than k - 2 lines
are printed in each screenful, where k is the number of lines the terminal can display.
More looks in the file /etc/termcap to determine terminal characteristics, and to deter-
mine the default window size. On a terminal capable of displaying 24 lines, the default
window size is 22 lines.
More looks in the environment variable MORE to pre-set any flags desired. For example, if
you prefer to view files using the -c mode of operation, the csh command setenv MORE -c or
the sh command sequence MORE='-c' ; export MORE would cause all invocations of more ,
including invocations by programs such as man and msgs , to use this mode. Normally, the
user will place the command sequence which sets up the MORE environment variable in the
.cshrc or .profile file.
If more is reading from a file, rather than a pipe, then a percentage is displayed along
with the --More-- prompt. This gives the fraction of the file (in characters, not lines)
that has been read so far.
Other sequences which may be typed when more pauses, and their effects, are as follows (i
is an optional integer argument, defaulting to 1) :
display i more lines, (or another screenful if no argument is given)
^D display 11 more lines (a ``scroll''). If i is given, then the scroll size is set
d same as ^D (control-D)
iz same as typing a space except that i, if present, becomes the new window size.
is skip i lines and print a screenful of lines
if skip i screenfuls and print a screenful of lines
ib skip back i screenfuls and print a screenful of lines
i^B same as b
q or Q Exit from more.
= Display the current line number.
v Start up the editor vi at the current line.
h Help command; give a description of all the more commands.
i/expr search for the i-th occurrence of the regular expression expr. If there are less
than i occurrences of expr, and the input is a file (rather than a pipe), then the
position in the file remains unchanged. Otherwise, a screenful is displayed,
starting two lines before the place where the expression was found. The user's
erase and kill characters may be used to edit the regular expression. Erasing back
past the first column cancels the search command.
in search for the i-th occurrence of the last regular expression entered.
' (single quote) Go to the point from which the last search started. If no search
has been performed in the current file, this command goes back to the beginning of
invoke a shell with command. The characters `%' and `!' in "command" are replaced
with the current file name and the previous shell command respectively. If there
is no current file name, `%' is not expanded. The sequences "\%" and "\!" are
replaced by "%" and "!" respectively.
i:n skip to the i-th next file given in the command line (skips to last file if n
doesn't make sense)
i:p skip to the i-th previous file given in the command line. If this command is given
in the middle of printing out a file, then more goes back to the beginning of the
file. If i doesn't make sense, more skips back to the first file. If more is not
reading from a file, the bell is rung and nothing else happens.
:f display the current file name and line number.
:q or :Q
exit from more (same as q or Q).
. (dot) repeat the previous command.
The commands take effect immediately, i.e., it is not necessary to type a carriage return.
Up to the time when the command character itself is given, the user may hit the line kill
character to cancel the numerical argument being formed. In addition, the user may hit
the erase character to redisplay the --More--(xx%) message.
At any time when output is being sent to the terminal, the user can hit the quit key (nor-
mally control-\). More will stop sending output, and will display the usual --More--
prompt. The user may then enter one of the above commands in the normal manner. Unfortu-
nately, some output is lost when this is done, due to the fact that any characters waiting
in the terminal's output queue are flushed when the quit signal occurs.
The terminal is set to noecho mode by this program so that the output can be continuous.
What you type will thus not show on your terminal, except for the / and ! commands.
If the standard output is not a teletype, then more acts just like cat, except that a
header is printed before each file (if there is more than one).
A sample usage of more in previewing nroff output would be
nroff -ms +2 doc.n | more -s
/etc/termcap Terminal data base
/usr/share/misc/more.help Help file
csh(1), man(1), msgs(1), script(1), sh(1), environ(7)
Skipping backwards is too slow on large files.
4th Berkeley Distribution October 22, 1996 MORE(1)