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EX(1)							      General Commands Manual							     EX(1)

NAME
ex, edit - text editor SYNOPSIS
ex [ - ] [ -v ] [ -t tag ] [ -r ] [ +command ] [ -l ] name ... edit [ ex options ] DESCRIPTION
Ex is the root of a family of editors: edit, ex and vi. Ex is a superset of ed, with the most notable extension being a display editing facility. Display based editing is the focus of vi. If you have not used ed, or are a casual user, you will find that the editor edit is convenient for you. It avoids some of the complexi- ties of ex used mostly by systems programmers and persons very familiar with ed. If you have a CRT terminal, you may wish to use a display based editor; in this case see vi(1), which is a command which focuses on the display editing portion of ex. DOCUMENTATION
The document Edit: A tutorial (USD:14) provides a comprehensive introduction to edit assuming no previous knowledge of computers or the UNIX system. The Ex Reference Manual - Version 3.7 (USD:16) is a comprehensive and complete manual for the command mode features of ex, but you cannot learn to use the editor by reading it. For an introduction to more advanced forms of editing using the command mode of ex see the editing documents written by Brian Kernighan for the editor ed; the material in the introductory and advanced documents works also with ex. An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi (USD:15) introduces the display editor vi and provides reference material on vi. In addition, the Vi Quick Reference card summarizes the commands of vi in a useful, functional way, and is useful with the Introduction. FILES
/usr/share/misc/exstrings error messages /usr/libexec/exrecover recover command /usr/sbin/expreserve preserve command /etc/termcap describes capabilities of terminals ~/.exrc editor startup file /tmp/Exnnnnn editor temporary /tmp/Rxnnnnn named buffer temporary /usr/preserve preservation directory SEE ALSO
awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), sed(1), grep(1), vi(1), termcap(5), environ(7) AUTHOR
Originally written by William Joy Mark Horton has maintained the editor since version 2.7, adding macros, support for many unusual terminals, and other features such as word abbreviation mode. BUGS
The undo command causes all marks to be lost on lines changed and then restored if the marked lines were changed. Undo never clears the buffer modified condition. The z command prints a number of logical rather than physical lines. More than a screen full of output may result if long lines are present. File input/output errors don't print a name if the command line `-' option is used. There is no easy way to do a single scan ignoring case. The editor does not warn if text is placed in named buffers and not used before exiting the editor. Null characters are discarded in input files, and cannot appear in resultant files. 4th Berkeley Distribution October 21, 1996 EX(1)

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ex(1)								   User Commands							     ex(1)

NAME
ex - text editor SYNOPSIS
/usr/bin/ex [ -| -s] [-l] [-L] [-R] [ -r [file]] [-t tag] [-v] [-V] [-x] [-wn] [-C] [+command | -c command] file... /usr/xpg4/bin/ex [ -| -s] [-l] [-L] [-R] [ -r [file]] [-t tag] [-v] [-V] [-x] [-wn] [-C] [+command | -c command] file... /usr/xpg6/bin/ex [ -| -s] [-l] [-L] [-R] [ -r [file]] [-t tag] [-v] [-V] [-x] [-wn] [-C] [+command | -c command] file... DESCRIPTION
The ex utility is the root of a family of editors: ex and vi. ex is a superset of ed(1), with the most notable extension being a display editing facility. Display based editing is the focus of vi. If you have a CRT terminal, you can wish to use a display based editor; in this case see vi(1), which is a command which focuses on the display-editing portion of ex. If you have used ed you find that, in addition to having all of the ed commands available, ex has a number of additional features useful on CRT terminals. Intelligent terminals and high speed terminals are very pleasant to use with vi. Generally, the ex editor uses far more of the capabilities of terminals than ed does, and uses the terminal capability data base (see terminfo(4)) and the type of the terminal you are using from the environment variable TERM to determine how to drive your terminal efficiently. The editor makes use of features such as insert and delete character and line in its visual command (which can be abbreviated vi) and which is the central mode of editing when using the vi command. The ex utility contains a number of features for easily viewing the text of the file. The z command gives easy access to windows of text. Typing ^D (CTRL-D) causes the editor to scroll a half-window of text and is more useful for quickly stepping through a file than just typ- ing return. Of course, the screen-oriented visual mode gives constant access to editing context. The ex utility gives you help when you make mistakes. The undo (u) command allows you to reverse any single change which goes astray. ex gives you a lot of feedback, normally printing changed lines, and indicates when more than a few lines are affected by a command so that it is easy to detect when a command has affected more lines than it should have. The editor also normally prevents overwriting existing files, unless you edited them, so that you do not accidentally overwrite a file other than the one you are editing. If the system (or editor) crashes, or you accidentally hang up the telephone, you can use the editor recover command (or -r file option) to retrieve your work. This gets you back to within a few lines of where you left off. The ex utility has several features for dealing with more than one file at a time. You can give it a list of files on the command line and use the next (n) command to deal with each in turn. The next command can also be given a list of file names, or a pattern as used by the shell to specify a new set of files to be dealt with. In general, file names in the editor can be formed with full shell metasyntax. The metacharacter `%' is also available in forming file names and is replaced by the name of the current file. The editor has a group of buffers whose names are the ASCII lower-case letters (a-z). You can place text in these named buffers where it is available to be inserted elsewhere in the file. The contents of these buffers remain available when you begin editing a new file using the edit (e) command. There is a command & in ex which repeats the last substitute command. In addition, there is a confirmed substitute command. You give a range of substitutions to be done and the editor interactively asks whether each substitution is desired. It is possible to ignore the case of letters in searches and substitutions. ex also allows regular expressions which match words to be con- structed. This is convenient, for example, in searching for the word ``edit'' if your document also contains the word ``editor.'' ex has a set of options which you can set to tailor it to your liking. One option which is very useful is the autoindent option that allows the editor to supply leading white space to align text automatically. You can then use ^D as a backtab and space or tab to move forward to align new code easily. Miscellaneous useful features include an intelligent join (j) command that supplies white space between joined lines automatically, com- mands < and > which shift groups of lines, and the ability to filter portions of the buffer through commands such as sort. OPTIONS
The following options are supported: - | -s Suppresses all interactive user feedback. This is useful when processing editor scripts. -l Sets up for editing LISP programs. -L Lists the name of all files saved as the result of an editor or system crash. -R Readonly mode. The readonly flag is set, preventing accidental overwriting of the file. -r file Edits file after an editor or system crash. (Recovers the version of file that was in the buffer when the crash occurred.) -t tag Edits the file containing the tag and positions the editor at its definition. It is an error to specify more than one -t option. -v Starts up in display editing state, using vi. You can achieve the same effect by typing the vi command itself. -V Verbose. When ex commands are read by means of standard input, the input is echoed to standard error. This can be useful when processing ex commands within shell scripts. -x Encryption option. Simulates the X command and prompts the user for a key. This key is used to encrypt and decrypt text using the algorithm of the crypt command. The X command makes an educated guess to determine whether text read in is encrypted or not. The temporary buffer file is encrypted also, using a transformed version of the key typed in for the -x option. -wn Sets the default window size to n. This is useful when using the editor over a slow speed line. -C Encryption option. Same as the -x option, except that -C simulates the C command. The C command is like the X com- mand, except that all text read in is assumed to have been encrypted. +command | -c command Begins editing by executing the specified editor command (usually a search or positioning command). /usr/xpg4/bin/ex, /usr/xpg6/bin/ex If both the -t tag and the -c command options are given, the -t tag is processed first. That is, the file containing the tag is selected by -t and then the command is executed. OPERANDS
The following operand is supported: file A path name of a file to be edited. USAGE
This section defines the ex states, commands, initializing options, and scanning pattern formations. ex States Command Normal and initial state. Input prompted for by ":". The line kill character cancels a partial command. Insert Entered by a, i, or c. Arbitrary text can be entered. Insert state normally is terminated by a line having only "." on it, or, abnormally, with an interrupt. Visual Entered by typing vi. Terminated by typing Q or ^ (Control-). ex Command Names and Abbreviations Command Abbrevi- Command Abbrevi- Command Abbrevi- Name ation Name ation Name ation abbrev ab map set se append a mark ma shell sh args ar move m source so change c next n substitute s copy co number nu unabbrev unab delete d preserve pre undo u edit e print p unmap unm file f put pu version ve global g quit q visual vi insert i read r write w join j recover rec xit x list l rewind rew yank ya Join Command Arguments Join [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags] If count is specified: /usr/bin/ex, /usr/xpg6/bin/ex If no address is specified, the join command behaves as if 2addr were the current line and the current line plus count (.,. + count). If one address is specified, the join command behaves as if 2addr were the specified address and the specified address plus count ( addr, addr + count). /usr/xpg4/bin/ex If no address is specified, the join command behaves as if 2addr were the current line and the current line plus count -1 (.,. + count -1). If one address is specified, the join command behaves as if 2addr were the specified address and the specified address plus count -1 ( addr, addr + count -1). /usr/bin/ex, /usr/xpg4/bin/ex, /usr/xpg6/bin/ex If two or more addresses are specified, the join command behaves as if an additional address, equal to the last address plus count -1 (addr1, ..., lastaddr, lastaddr + count -1), was specified. If this results in a second address greater than the last line of the edit buffer, it is corrected to be equal to the last line of the edit buffer. If no count is specified: /usr/bin/ex, /usr/xpg4/bin/ex, /usr/xpg6/bin/ex If no address is specified, the join command behaves as if 2addr were the current line and the next line (.,. +1). If one address is specified, the join command behaves as if 2addr were the specified address and the next line ( addr, addr +1). Additional ex Command Arguments /usr/bin/ex, /usr/xpg6/bin/ex For the following ex commands, if count is specified, it is equivalent to specifying an additional address to the command. The addi- tional address is equal to the last address specified to the command (either explicitly or by default) plus count-1. If this results in an address greater than the last line of the edit buffer, it is corrected to equal the last line of the edit buffer. /usr/xpg4/bin/ex For the following ex commands, if both a count and a range are specified for a command that uses them, the number of lines affected is taken from the count value rather than the range. The starting line for the command is taken to be the first line addressed by the range. Abbreviate ab[brev] word rhs Append [line]a[ppend][!] Arguments ar[gs] Change [range] c[hange][!] [count] Change Directory chd[ir][!] [directory]; cd[!] [directory] Copy [range] co[py] line [flags]; [range] t line [flags] Delete [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags] Edit e[dit][!] [+line][file]; ex[!] [+line] [file] File f[ile] [file] Global [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands]; [range] v /pattern/ [commands] Insert [line] i[nsert][!] List [range] l[ist] [count] [flags] Map map[!] [x rhs] Mark [line] ma[rk] x; [line] k x Move [range] m[ove] line Next n[ext][!] [file ...] Open [line] o[pen] /pattern/ [flags] Preserve pre[serve] Put [line] pu[t] [buffer] Quit q[uit][!] Read [line] r[ead][!] [file] Recover rec[over] file Rewind rew[ind][!] Set se[t] [option[=[value]]...] [nooption...] [option?...] [all] Shell sh[ell] Source so[urce] file Suspend su[spend][!]; st[op][!] Tag ta[g][!] tagstring Unabbreviate una[bbrev] word Undo u[ndo] Unmap unm[ap][!] x Visual [line] v[isual] [type] [count] [flags] Write [range] w[rite][!] [>>] [file]; [range] w[rite][!] [file]; [range] wq[!] [>>] [file] Write and Exit [range] x[it][!] [file] Yank [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count] Adjust Window [line] z [type] [count] [flags] Escape ! command [range]! command Scroll EOF Write Line Number [line] = [flags] Execute @ buffer; * buffer /usr/bin/ex, /usr/xpg4/bin/ex, /usr/xpg6/bin/ex For the following ex commands, if count is specified, it is equivalent to specifying an additional address to the command. The addi- tional address is equal to the last address specified to the command (either explicitly or by default) plus count-1. If this results in an address greater than the last line of the edit buffer, it is corrected to equal the last line of the edit buffer. Number [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags]; [range] | # [count] [flags] Print [range] p[rint] [count] [flags] Substitute [range] s[ubstitute] [/pat- tern/repl/[options] [count] [flags]] Shift Left [range] < [count] [flags] Shift Right [range] > [count] [flags] Resubstitute [range] & [options] [count] [flags]; [range] s[ubstitute] [options] [count] [flags]; [range] ~ [options] [count [flags] ex Commands C forced encryption X heuristic encryption & resubst CR print next > rshift < lshift ^D scroll z window ! shell escape ex Command Addresses n line n . current $ last + next - previous +n n forward % 1,$ /pat next with pat ?pat previous with pat x-n n before x x,y x through y 'x marked with x " previous context Initializing Options EXINIT place set's here in environment variable $HOME/.exrc editor initialization file ./.exrc editor initialization file set x enable option x set nox disable option x set x=val give value val to option x set show changed options set all show all options set x? show value of option x Useful Options and Abbreviations autoindent ai supply indent autowrite aw write before changing files directory pathname of directory for temporary work files exrc ex allow vi/ex to read the .exrc in the current directory. This option is set in the EXINIT shell variable or in the .exrc file in the $HOME- directory. ignorecase ic ignore case of letters in scanning list print ^I for tab, $ at end magic treat . [ * special in patterns modelines first five lines and last five lines executed as vi/ex commands if they are of the form ex:command: or vi:command: number nu number lines paragraphs para macro names that start paragraphs redraw simulate smart terminal report informs you if the number of lines modified by the last command is greater than the value of the report variable scroll command mode lines sections sect macro names that start sections shiftwidth sw for < >, and input ^D showmatch sm to ) and } as typed showmode smd show insert mode in vi slowopen slow stop updates during insert term specifies to vi the type of termi- nal being used (the default is the value of the environment variable TERM) window visual mode lines wrapmargin wm automatic line splitting wrapscan ws search around end (or beginning) of buffer Scanning Pattern Formation ^ beginning of line $ end of line . any character < beginning of word > end of word [str] any character in str [^str] any character not in str [xy] any character between x and y * any number of preceding characters ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables that affect the execution of ex: HOME, LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH, PATH, SHELL, and TERM. COLUMNS Override the system-selected horizontal screen size. EXINIT Determine a list of ex commands that are executed on editor start-up, before reading the first file. The list can contain multiple commands by separating them using a vertical-line (|) character. LINES Override the system-selected vertical screen size, used as the number of lines in a screenful and the vertical screen size in visual mode. EXIT STATUS
The following exit values are returned: 0 Successful completion. >0 An error occurred. FILES
/var/tmp/Exnnnnn editor temporary /var/tmp/Rxnnnnn named buffer temporary /usr/lib/expreserve preserve command /usr/lib/exrecover recover command /usr/lib/exstrings error messages /usr/share/lib/terminfo/* describes capabilities of terminals /var/preserve/login preservation directory (where login is the user's login) $HOME/.exrc editor startup file ./.exrc editor startup file ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes: /usr/bin/ex +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Availability |SUNWcsu | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |CSI |Enabled | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ /usr/xpg4/bin/ex +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Availability |SUNWxcu4 | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |CSI |Enabled | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Interface Stability |Standard | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ /usr/xpg6/bin/ex +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Availability |SUNWxcu6 | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |CSI |Enabled | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Interface Stability |Standard | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ SEE ALSO
ed(1), edit(1), grep(1), sed(1), sort(1), vi(1), curses(3CURSES), term(4), terminfo(4), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5) Solaris Advanced User's Guide AUTHOR
The vi and ex utilities are based on software developed by The University of California, Berkeley California, Computer Science Division, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. NOTES
Several options, although they continue to be supported, have been replaced in the documentation by options that follow the Command Syntax Standard (see intro(1)). The - option has been replaced by -s, a -r option that is not followed with an option-argument has been replaced by -L, and +command has been replaced by -c command. The message file too large to recover with -r option, which is seen when a file is loaded, indicates that the file can be edited and saved successfully, but if the editing session is lost, recovery of the file with the -r option is not possible. The z command prints the number of logical rather than physical lines. More than a screen full of output can result if long lines are present. File input/output errors do not print a name if the command line -s option is used. The editing environment defaults to certain configuration options. When an editing session is initiated, ex attempts to read the EXINIT environment variable. If it exists, the editor uses the values defined in EXINIT, otherwise the values set in $HOME/.exrc are used. If $HOME/.exrc does not exist, the default values are used. To use a copy of .exrc located in the current directory other than $HOME, set the exrc option in EXINIT or $HOME/.exrc. Options set in EXINIT can be turned off in a local .exrc only if exrc is set in EXINIT or $HOME/.exrc. In order to be used, .exrc in $HOME or the current directory must fulfill these conditions: o It must exist. o It must be owned by the same userid as the real userid of the process, or the process has appropriate privileges. o It is not writable by anyone other than the owner. There is no easy way to do a single scan ignoring case. The editor does not warn if text is placed in named buffers and not used before exiting the editor. Null characters are discarded in input files and cannot appear in resultant files. SunOS 5.10 15 Jun 2004 ex(1)
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