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ED(1)											    ED(1)

NAME
       ed - text editor

SYNOPSIS
       ed [ - ] [ name ]

DESCRIPTION
       Ed is the standard text editor.

       If a name argument is given, ed simulates an e command (see below) on the named file; that
       is to say, the file is read into ed's buffer so that it can be  edited.	 The  optional	-
       suppresses  the	printing of explanatory output and should be used when the standard input
       is an editor script.

       Ed operates on a copy of any file it is editing; changes made in the copy have  no  effect
       on the file until a w (write) command is given.	The copy of the text being edited resides
       in a temporary file called the buffer.

       Commands to ed have a simple and regular structure: zero or more addresses followed  by	a
       single character command, possibly followed by parameters to the command.  These addresses
       specify one or more lines in the buffer.  Missing addresses are supplied by default.

       In general, only one command may appear on a line.  Certain commands allow the addition of
       text  to the buffer.  While ed is accepting text, it is said to be in input mode.  In this
       mode, no commands are recognized; all input is merely collected.  Input mode  is  left  by
       typing a period `.' alone at the beginning of a line.

       Ed supports a limited form of regular expression notation.  A regular expression specifies
       a set of strings of characters.	A member of this set of strings is said to be matched  by
       the  regular  expression.  In the following specification for regular expressions the word
       `character' means any character but newline.

       1.     Any character except a special character matches itself.	 Special  characters  are
	      the regular expression delimiter plus \[.  and sometimes ^*$.

       2.     A .  matches any character.

       3.     A \ followed by any character except a digit or () matches that character.

       4.     A nonempty string s bracketed [s] (or [^s]) matches any character in (or not in) s.
	      In s, \ has no special meaning, and ] may only appear as the first letter.  A  sub-
	      string  a-b,  with a and b in ascending ASCII order, stands for the inclusive range
	      of ASCII characters.

       5.     A regular expression of form 1-4 followed by * matches a	sequence  of  0  or  more
	      matches of the regular expression.

       6.     A regular expression, x, of form 1-8, bracketed \(x\) matches what x matches.

       7.     A  \  followed by a digit n matches a copy of the string that the bracketed regular
	      expression beginning with the nth \( matched.

       8.     A regular expression of form 1-8, x, followed by a regular expression of form  1-7,
	      y  matches  a match for x followed by a match for y, with the x match being as long
	      as possible while still permitting a y match.

       9.     A regular expression of form 1-8 preceded by ^ (or followed by $),  is  constrained
	      to matches that begin at the left (or end at the right) end of a line.

       10.    A  regular  expression of form 1-9 picks out the longest among the leftmost matches
	      in a line.

       11.    An empty regular expression stands for  a  copy  of  the	last  regular  expression
	      encountered.

       Regular	expressions  are  used	in  addresses  to specify lines and in one command (see s
       below) to specify a portion of a line which is to be replaced.  If it is  desired  to  use
       one  of the regular expression metacharacters as an ordinary character, that character may
       be preceded by `\'.  This also applies to the character bounding  the  regular  expression
       (often `/') and to `\' itself.

       To understand addressing in ed it is necessary to know that at any time there is a current
       line.  Generally speaking, the current line is the last line affected by a  command;  how-
       ever,  the exact effect on the current line is discussed under the description of the com-
       mand.  Addresses are constructed as follows.

       1.     The character `.' addresses the current line.

       2.     The character `$' addresses the last line of the buffer.

       3.     A decimal number n addresses the n-th line of the buffer.

       4.     `'x' addresses the line marked with the name x, which must be a lower-case  letter.
	      Lines are marked with the k command described below.

       5.     A  regular expression enclosed in slashes `/' addresses the line found by searching
	      forward from the current line and stopping at the first line  containing	a  string
	      that  matches  the regular expression.  If necessary the search wraps around to the
	      beginning of the buffer.

       6.     A regular expression enclosed in queries `?' addresses the line found by	searching
	      backward	from  the current line and stopping at the first line containing a string
	      that matches the regular expression.  If necessary the search wraps around  to  the
	      end of the buffer.

       7.     An  address  followed  by a plus sign `+' or a minus sign `-' followed by a decimal
	      number specifies that address plus (resp. minus) the  indicated  number  of  lines.
	      The plus sign may be omitted.

       8.     If  an  address  begins  with  `+' or `-' the addition or subtraction is taken with
	      respect to the current line; e.g. `-5' is understood to mean `.-5'.

       9.     If an address ends with `+' or `-', then 1 is added (resp. subtracted).  As a  con-
	      sequence	of  this  rule	and rule 8, the address `-' refers to the line before the
	      current line.  Moreover, trailing `+' and `-' characters have cumulative effect, so
	      `--' refers to the current line less 2.

       10.    To maintain compatibility with earlier versions of the editor, the character `^' in
	      addresses is equivalent to `-'.

       Commands may require zero, one, or two addresses.  Commands  which  require  no	addresses
       regard the presence of an address as an error.  Commands which accept one or two addresses
       assume default addresses when insufficient are given.  If more addresses  are  given  than
       such a command requires, the last one or two (depending on what is accepted) are used.

       Addresses  are separated from each other typically by a comma `,'.  They may also be sepa-
       rated by a semicolon `;'.  In this case the current  line  `.'  is  set	to  the  previous
       address before the next address is interpreted.	This feature can be used to determine the
       starting line for forward and backward searches (`/', `?').  The  second  address  of  any
       two-address  sequence  must  correspond	to a line following the line corresponding to the
       first address.  The special form `%' is an abbreviation for the address pair `1,$'.

       In the following list of ed commands, the default addresses are shown in parentheses.  The
       parentheses are not part of the address, but are used to show that the given addresses are
       the default.

       As mentioned, it is generally illegal for more than one command to appear on a line.  How-
       ever,  most  commands  may be suffixed by `p' or by `l', in which case the current line is
       either printed or listed respectively in the way discussed below.  Commands  may  also  be
       suffixed by `n', meaning the output of the command is to be line numbered.  These suffixes
       may be combined in any order.

       (.)a
       <text>
       .
	    The append command reads the given text and appends it after the addressed line.  `.'
	    is	left  on the last line input, if there were any, otherwise at the addressed line.
	    Address `0' is legal for this command; text is placed at the beginning of the buffer.

       (., .)c
       <text>
       .
	    The change command deletes	the  addressed	lines,	then  accepts  input  text  which
	    replaces  these lines.  `.' is left at the last line input; if there were none, it is
	    left at the line preceding the deleted lines.

       (., .)d
	    The delete command deletes the addressed lines from the buffer.  The line  originally
	    after the last line deleted becomes the current line; if the lines deleted were orig-
	    inally at the end, the new last line becomes the current line.

       e filename
	    The edit command causes the entire contents of the buffer to be deleted, and then the
	    named  file to be read in.	`.' is set to the last line of the buffer.  The number of
	    characters read is typed.  `filename' is remembered for possible  use  as  a  default
	    file  name	in a subsequent r or w command.  If `filename' is missing, the remembered
	    name is used.

       E filename
	    This command is the same as e, except that no diagnostic results when no w	has  been
	    given since the last buffer alteration.

       f filename
	    The  filename  command  prints  the currently remembered file name.  If `filename' is
	    given, the currently remembered file name is changed to `filename'.

       (1,$)g/regular expression/command list
	    In the global command, the first step is to mark every line which matches  the  given
	    regular  expression.   Then  for  every such line, the given command list is executed
	    with `.' initially set to that line.  A single command or the first of multiple  com-
	    mands  appears  on	the same line with the global command.	All lines of a multi-line
	    list except the last line must be ended with `\'.  A, i, and c commands  and  associ-
	    ated  input  are permitted; the `.' terminating input mode may be omitted if it would
	    be on the last line of the command list.  The commands g and v are not  permitted  in
	    the command list.

       (.)i

       <text>
       .
	    This  command  inserts  the given text before the addressed line.  `.' is left at the
	    last line input, or, if there were none, at the line before the addressed line.  This
	    command differs from the a command only in the placement of the text.

       (., .+1)j
	    This command joins the addressed lines into a single line; intermediate newlines sim-
	    ply disappear.  `.' is left at the resulting line.

       ( . )kx
	    The mark command marks the addressed line with name x, which  must	be  a  lower-case
	    letter.  The address form `'x' then addresses this line.

       (., .)l
	    The  list command prints the addressed lines in an unambiguous way: non-graphic char-
	    acters are printed in two-digit octal, and long lines are folded.  The l command  may
	    be placed on the same line after any non-i/o command.

       (., .)ma
	    The  move command repositions the addressed lines after the line addressed by a.  The
	    last of the moved lines becomes the current line.

       (., .)p
	    The print command prints the addressed lines.  `.'	is left at the last line printed.
	    The p command may be placed on the same line after any non-i/o command.

       (., .)P
	    This command is a synonym for p.

       q    The quit command causes ed to exit.  No automatic write of a file is done.

       Q    This  command  is the same as q, except that no diagnostic results when no w has been
	    given since the last buffer alteration.

       ($)r filename
	    The read command reads in the given file after the addressed line.	If no  file  name
	    is given, the remembered file name, if any, is used (see e and f commands).  The file
	    name is remembered if there was no remembered file	name  already.	 Address  `0'  is
	    legal  for	r  and causes the file to be read at the beginning of the buffer.  If the
	    read is successful, the number of characters read is typed.  `.' is left at the  last
	    line read in from the file.

       ( ., .)s/regular expression/replacement/       or,
       ( ., .)s/regular expression/replacement/g
	    The  substitute  command searches each addressed line for an occurrence of the speci-
	    fied regular expression.  On each line in which a match is found, all matched strings
	    are  replaced  by  the replacement specified, if the global replacement indicator `g'
	    appears after the command.	If the global indicator does not appear, only  the  first
	    occurrence of the matched string is replaced.  It is an error for the substitution to
	    fail on all addressed lines.  Any punctuation character may be used instead of `/' to
	    delimit  the  regular  expression  and the replacement.  `.' is left at the last line
	    substituted.

	    An ampersand `&' appearing in the replacement is replaced by the string matching  the
	    regular  expression.  The special meaning of `&' in this context may be suppressed by
	    preceding it by `\'.  The characters `\n' where n is a digit,  are	replaced  by  the
	    text  matched by the n-th regular subexpression enclosed between `\(' and `\)'.  When
	    nested, parenthesized subexpressions are present, n is determined by counting  occur-
	    rences of `\(' starting from the left.

	    Lines  may	be  split by substituting new-line characters into them.  The new-line in
	    the replacement string must be escaped by preceding it by `\'.

	    One or two trailing delimiters may be omitted, implying the `p' suffix.  The  special
	    form  `s' followed by no delimiters repeats the most recent substitute command on the
	    addressed lines.  The `s' may be followed by the letters r (use the most recent regu-
	    lar expression for the left hand side, instead of the most recent left hand side of a
	    substitute command), p (complement the setting of the p suffix from the previous sub-
	    stitution), or g (complement the setting of the g suffix).	These letters may be com-
	    bined in any order.

       (., .)ta
	    This command acts just like the m command, except that a copy of the addressed  lines
	    is	placed	after  address	a  (which may be 0).  `.' is left on the last line of the
	    copy.

       (., .)u
	    The undo command restores the buffer to it's state before the most recent buffer mod-
	    ifying command.  The current line is also restored.  Buffer modifying commands are a,
	    c, d, g, i, k, m, r, s, t, and v.  For purposes of undo, g and v are considered to be
	    a single buffer modifying command.	Undo is its own inverse.

	    When  ed  runs out of memory (at about 8000 lines on any 16 bit mini-computer such as
	    the PDP-11) This full undo is not possible, and u can only undo  the  effect  of  the
	    most  recent  substitute  on  the current line.  This restricted undo also applies to
	    editor scripts when ed is invoked with the - option.

       (1, $)v/regular expression/command list
	    This command is the same as the global command g except that the command list is exe-
	    cuted  g  with  `.'  initially  set  to  every line except those matching the regular
	    expression.

       (1, $)w filename
	    The write command writes the addressed lines onto the given file.  If the  file  does
	    not  exist,  it  is  created.  The file name is remembered if there was no remembered
	    file name already.	If no file name is given, the remembered file name,  if  any,  is
	    used  (see	e  and f commands).  `.' is unchanged.	If the command is successful, the
	    number of characters written is printed.

       (1, $)W filename
	    This command is the same as w, except that the addressed lines are	appended  to  the
	    file.

       (1, $)wq filename
	    This command is the same as w except that afterwards a q command is done, exiting the
	    editor after the file is written.

       (.+1)z	 or,
       (.+1)zn
	    This command scrolls through the buffer starting at the addressed line.  22 (or n, if
	    given) lines are printed.  The last line printed becomes the current line.	The value
	    n is sticky, in that it becomes the default for future z commands.

       ($)= The line number of the addressed line is typed.  `.' is unchanged by this command.

       !<shell command>
	    The remainder of the line after the `!' is sent to sh(1) to be interpreted as a  com-
	    mand.  `.'	is unchanged.

       (.+1,.+1)<newline>
	    An	address  alone	on  a line causes the addressed line to be printed.  A blank line
	    alone is equivalent to `.+1p'; it is  useful  for  stepping  through  text.   If  two
	    addresses  are  present  with no intervening semicolon, ed prints the range of lines.
	    If they are separated by a semicolon, the second line is printed.

       If an interrupt signal (ASCII DEL) is sent, ed prints `?interrupted' and  returns  to  its
       command level.

       Some size limitations: 512 characters per line, 256 characters per global command list, 64
       characters per file name, and, on mini computers, 128K characters in the  temporary  file.
       The limit on the number of lines depends on the amount of core: each line takes 2 words.

       When  reading  a  file, ed discards ASCII NUL characters and all characters after the last
       newline.  It refuses to read files containing non-ASCII characters.

FILES
       /tmp/e*
       edhup: work is saved here if terminal hangs up

SEE ALSO
       B. W. Kernighan, A Tutorial Introduction to the ED Text Editor
       B. W. Kernighan, Advanced editing on UNIX
       ex(1), sed(1), crypt(1)

DIAGNOSTICS
       `?name' for inaccessible file; `?self-explanatory message' for other errors.

       To protect against throwing away valuable work, a q or e command is considered  to  be  in
       error,  unless  a  w  has  occurred since the last buffer change.  A second q or e will be
       obeyed regardless.

BUGS
       The l command mishandles DEL.
       The undo command causes marks to be lost on affected lines.

7th Edition				 August 12, 1986				    ED(1)
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