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BSD 2.11 - man page for sed (bsd section 1)

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SED(1)											   SED(1)

NAME
       sed - stream editor

SYNOPSIS
       sed [ -n ] [ -e script ] [ -f sfile ] [ file ] ...

DESCRIPTION
       Sed copies the named files (standard input default) to the standard output, edited accord-
       ing to a script of commands.  The -f option causes the script to be taken from file sfile;
       these  options accumulate.  If there is just one -e option and no -f's, the flag -e may be
       omitted.  The -n option suppresses the default output.

       A script consists of editing commands, one per line, of the following form:

	      [address [, address] ] function [arguments]

       In normal operation sed cyclically copies a line of input into  a  pattern  space  (unless
       there  is  something  left  after  a  `D' command), applies in sequence all commands whose
       addresses select that pattern space, and at the end of the script copies the pattern space
       to the standard output (except under -n) and deletes the pattern space.

       An address is either a decimal number that counts input lines cumulatively across files, a
       `$' that addresses the last line of input, or a context address,  `/regular  expression/',
       in the style of ed(1) modified thus:

	      The escape sequence `\n' matches a newline embedded in the pattern space.

       A command line with no addresses selects every pattern space.

       A command line with one address selects each pattern space that matches the address.

       A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive range from the first pattern space
       that matches the first address through the next pattern space  that  matches  the  second.
       (If  the  second address is a number less than or equal to the line number first selected,
       only one line is selected.)  Thereafter the process is repeated,  looking  again  for  the
       first address.

       Editing commands can be applied only to non-selected pattern spaces by use of the negation
       function `!' (below).

       In the following list of functions the maximum number of permissible  addresses	for  each
       function is indicated in parentheses.

       An argument denoted text consists of one or more lines, all but the last of which end with
       `\' to hide the newline.  Backslashes in text are treated like backslashes in the replace-
       ment  string of an `s' command, and may be used to protect initial blanks and tabs against
       the stripping that is done on every script line.

       An argument denoted rfile or wfile must terminate the command line and must be preceded by
       exactly	one blank.  Each wfile is created before processing begins.  There can be at most
       10 distinct wfile arguments.

       (1)a\
       text
	      Append.  Place text on the output before reading the next input line.

       (2)b label
	      Branch to the `:' command bearing the label.  If label is empty, branch to the  end
	      of the script.

       (2)c\
       text
	      Change.	Delete	the  pattern  space.   With  0	or  1  address or at the end of a
	      2-address range, place text on the output.  Start the next cycle.

       (2)d   Delete the pattern space.  Start the next cycle.

       (2)D   Delete the initial segment of the pattern space through the first  newline.   Start
	      the next cycle.

       (2)g   Replace the contents of the pattern space by the contents of the hold space.

       (2)G   Append the contents of the hold space to the pattern space.

       (2)h   Replace the contents of the hold space by the contents of the pattern space.

       (2)H   Append the contents of the pattern space to the hold space.

       (1)i\
       text
	      Insert.  Place text on the standard output.

       (2)n   Copy  the pattern space to the standard output.  Replace the pattern space with the
	      next line of input.

       (2)N   Append the next line of input to the pattern space with an embedded newline.   (The
	      current line number changes.)

       (2)p   Print.  Copy the pattern space to the standard output.

       (2)P   Copy  the  initial  segment  of  the pattern space through the first newline to the
	      standard output.

       (1)q   Quit.  Branch to the end of the script.  Do not start a new cycle.

       (2)r rfile
	      Read the contents of rfile.  Place them on the output before reading the next input
	      line.

       (2)s/regular expression/replacement/flags
	      Substitute  the  replacement  string for instances of the regular expression in the
	      pattern space.  Any character may be used instead of `/'.  For a fuller description
	      see ed(1).  Flags is zero or more of

	      g      Global.   Substitute for all nonoverlapping instances of the regular expres-
		     sion rather than just the first one.

	      p      Print the pattern space if a replacement was made.

	      w wfile
		     Write.  Append the pattern space to wfile if a replacement was made.

       (2)t label
	      Test.  Branch to the `:' command bearing the label if any substitutions  have  been
	      made  since  the	most  recent  reading of an input line or execution of a `t'.  If
	      label is empty, branch to the end of the script.

       (2)w wfile
	      Write.  Append the pattern space to wfile.

       (2)x   Exchange the contents of the pattern and hold spaces.

       (2)y/string1/string2/
	      Transform.  Replace all occurrences of characters in string1 with the corresponding
	      character in string2.  The lengths of string1 and string2 must be equal.

       (2)! function
	      Don't.   Apply  the  function  (or  group,  if  function	is `{') only to lines not
	      selected by the address(es).

       (0): label
	      This command does nothing; it bears a label for `b' and `t' commands to branch to.

       (1)=   Place the current line number on the standard output as a line.

       (2){   Execute the following commands through a matching `}' only when the  pattern  space
	      is selected.

       (0)    An empty command is ignored.

SEE ALSO
       ed(1), grep(1), awk(1), lex(1)

7th Edition				  April 29, 1985				   SED(1)
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