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The Smurf attack is a DDOS attack in which large numbers of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets with the intended victim's spoofed source IP are broadcast to a computer network using an IP broadcast address.
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checknr(1) [bsd man page]

CHECKNR(1)						      General Commands Manual							CHECKNR(1)

NAME
checknr - check nroff/troff files SYNOPSIS
checknr [ -s ] [ -f ] [ -a.x1.y1.x2.y2. ... .xn.yn ] [ -c.x1.x2.x3 ... .xn ] [ file ... ] DESCRIPTION
Checknr checks a list of nroff(1) or troff(1) input files for certain kinds of errors involving mismatched opening and closing delimiters and unknown commands. If no files are specified, checknr checks the standard input. Delimeters checked are: (1) Font changes using fx ... fP. (2) Size changes using sx ... s0. (3) Macros that come in open ... close forms, for example, the .TS and .TE macros which must always come in pairs. Checknr knows about the ms(7) and me(7) macro packages. Additional pairs of macros can be added to the list using the -a option. This must be followed by groups of six characters, each group defining a pair of macros. The six characters are a period, the first macro name, another period, and the second macro name. For example, to define a pair .BS and .ES, use -a.BS.ES The -c option defines commands which would otherwise be complained about as undefined. The -f option requests checknr to ignore f font changes. The -s option requests checknr to ignore s size changes. Checknr is intended to be used on documents that are prepared with checknr in mind, much the same as lint. It expects a certain document writing style for f and s commands, in that each fx must be terminated with fP and each sx must be terminated with s0. While it will work to directly go into the next font or explicitly specify the original font or point size, and many existing documents actually do this, such a practice will produce complaints from checknr. Since it is probably better to use the fP and s0 forms anyway, you should think of this as a contribution to your document preparation style. SEE ALSO
nroff(1), troff(1), checkeq(1), ms(7), me(7) DIAGNOSTICS
Complaints about unmatched delimiters. Complaints about unrecognized commands. Various complaints about the syntax of commands. BUGS
There is no way to define a 1 character macro name using -a. Does not correctly recognize certain reasonable constructs, such as conditionals. 4th Berkeley Distribution May 7, 1986 CHECKNR(1)

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checknr(1)						      General Commands Manual							checknr(1)

NAME
checknr - check nroff/troff files SYNOPSIS
... ...c [file ...] DESCRIPTION
searches a list of or input files for certain kinds of errors involving mismatched opening and closing delimiters and unknown commands. If no files are specified, searches the standard input. looks for the following: o Font changes using o Size changes using o Macros that come in open ... close forms, such as the and macros, which must appear in matched pairs. knows about the and macro packages. Options recognizes the following options: Define additional macro pairs in the list. is followed by groups of six characters, each group defining a pair of macros. Each six characters consist of a period, the first macro name, another period, and the second macro name. For example, to define the pairs and and and use: No spaces are allowed between the option and its arguments. Define commands that would otherwise interpret as undefined. Ignore font changes. Ignore size changes. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
International Code Set Support Single-byte character code sets are supported. DIAGNOSTICS
complains about unmatched delimiters, unrecognized commands, and bad command syntax. EXAMPLES
Check file for errors that involve mismatched opening and closing delimiters and unknown commands, but disregard errors caused by font changes: WARNINGS
is designed for use on documents prepared with the intent of using much the same as is used. It expects a certain document writing style for and commands, in which each is terminated with and each is terminated with Although text files format properly when the next font or point size is coded directly instead of using or such techniques produce complaints from checknr. If files are to be examined by checknr, the and delimiting conventions should be used. cannot be used to define single-character macro names. does not recognize certain reasonable constructs such as conditionals. AUTHOR
was developed by the University of California, Berkeley. SEE ALSO
checkeq(1), lint(1), nroff(1). checknr(1)

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