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MS(7)											    MS(7)

       ms - text formatting macros

       nroff  -ms  [ options ]	file  ...
       troff  -ms  [ options ]	file  ...

       This package of nroff and troff macro definitions provides a formatting facility for vari-
       ous styles of articles, theses, and books.  When producing 2-column output on  a  terminal
       or lineprinter, or when reverse line motions are needed, filter the output through col(1).
       All external -ms macros are defined below.  Many nroff and troff requests  are  unsafe  in
       conjunction  with  this	package.  However, the first four requests below may be used with
       impunity after initialization, and the last two may be used even before initialization:
	    .bp    begin new page
	    .br    break output line
	    .sp n  insert n spacing lines
	    .ce n  center next n lines
	    .ls n  line spacing: n=1 single, n=2 double space
	    .na    no alignment of right margin
       Font and point size changes with \f and \s are also allowed; for  example,  ``\fIword\fR''
       will  italicize	word.	Output of the tbl, eqn, and refer(1) preprocessors for equations,
       tables, and references is acceptable as input.


       eqn(1), refer(1), tbl(1), troff(1)

Macro	Initial   Break?   Explanation
Name	Value	  Reset?
.AB x	-	  y	 begin abstract; if x=no don't label abstract
.AE	-	  y	 end abstract
.AI	-	  y	 author's institution
.AM	-	  n	 better accent mark definitions
.AU	-	  y	 author's name
.B x	-	  n	 embolden x; if no x, switch to boldface
.B1	-	  y	 begin text to be enclosed in a box
.B2	-	  y	 end boxed text and print it
.BT	date	  n	 bottom title, printed at foot of page
.BX x	-	  n	 print word x in a box
.CM	if t	  n	 cut mark between pages
.CT	-	  y,y	 chapter title: page number moved to CF (TM only)
.DA x	if n	  n	 force date x at bottom of page; today if no x
.DE	-	  y	 end display (unfilled text) of any kind
.DS x y I	  y	 begin display with keep; x=I,L,C,B; y=indent
.ID y	8n,.5i	  y	 indented display with no keep; y=indent
.LD	-	  y	 left display with no keep
.CD	-	  y	 centered display with no keep
.BD	-	  y	 block display; center entire block
.EF x	-	  n	 even page footer x (3 part as for .tl)
.EH x	-	  n	 even page header x (3 part as for .tl)
.EN	-	  y	 end displayed equation produced by eqn
.EQ x y -	  y	 break out equation; x=L,I,C; y=equation number
.FE	-	  n	 end footnote to be placed at bottom of page
.FP	-	  n	 numbered footnote paragraph; may be redefined
.FS x	-	  n	 start footnote; x is optional footnote label
.HD	undef	  n	 optional page header below header margin
.I x	-	  n	 italicize x; if no x, switch to italics
.IP x y -	  y,y	 indented paragraph, with hanging tag x; y=indent
.IX x y -	  y	 index words x y and so on (up to 5 levels)
.KE	-	  n	 end keep of any kind
.KF	-	  n	 begin floating keep; text fills remainder of page
.KS	-	  y	 begin keep; unit kept together on a single page
.LG	-	  n	 larger; increase point size by 2
.LP	-	  y,y	 left (block) paragraph.
.MC x	-	  y,y	 multiple columns; x=column width
.ND x	if t	  n	 no date in page footer; x is date on cover
.NH x y -	  y,y	 numbered header; x=level, x=0 resets, x=S sets to y
.NL	10p	  n	 set point size back to normal
.OF x	-	  n	 odd page footer x (3 part as for .tl)
.OH x	-	  n	 odd page header x (3 part as for .tl)
.P1	if TM	  n	 print header on 1st page
.PP	-	  y,y	 paragraph with first line indented
.PT	- % -	  n	 page title, printed at head of page
.PX x	-	  y	 print index (table of contents); x=no suppresses title
.QP	-	  y,y	 quote paragraph (indented and shorter)
.R	on	  n	 return to Roman font
.RE	5n	  y,y	 retreat: end level of relative indentation
.RP x	-	  n	 released paper format; x=no stops title on 1st page
.RS	5n	  y,y	 right shift: start level of relative indentation
.SH	-	  y,y	 section header, in boldface
.SM	-	  n	 smaller; decrease point size by 2
.TA	8n,5n	  n	 set tabs to 8n 16n ... (nroff) 5n 10n ... (troff)
.TC x	-	  y	 print table of contents at end; x=no suppresses title
.TE	-	  y	 end of table processed by tbl
.TH	-	  y	 end multi-page header of table
.TL	-	  y	 title in boldface and two points larger
.TM	off	  n	 UC Berkeley thesis mode
.TS x	-	  y,y	 begin table; if x=H table has multi-page header
.UL x	-	  n	 underline x, even in troff
.UX x	-	  n	 UNIX; trademark message first time; x appended
.XA x y -	  y	 another index entry; x=page or no for none; y=indent
.XE	-	  y	 end index entry (or series of .IX entries)
.XP	-	  y,y	 paragraph with first line exdented, others indented
.XS x y -	  y	 begin index entry; x=page or no for none; y=indent
.1C	on	  y,y	 one column format, on a new page
.2C	-	  y,y	 begin two column format
.]-	-	  n	 beginning of refer reference
.[0	-	  n	 end of unclassifiable type of reference
.[N	-	  n	 N= 1:journal-article, 2:book, 3:book-article, 4:report

       Formatting distances can be controlled in -ms by means of built-in number registers.   For
       example, this sets the line length to 6.5 inches:
	    .nr  LL  6.5i
       Here is a table of number registers and their default values:
	    Name Register Controls  Takes Effect Default
	    PS	 point size	    paragraph	 10
	    VS	 vertical spacing   paragraph	 12
	    LL	 line length	    paragraph	 6i
	    LT	 title length	    next page	 same as LL
	    FL	 footnote length    next .FS	 5.5i
	    PD	 paragraph distance paragraph	 1v (if n), .3v (if t)
	    DD	 display distance   displays	 1v (if n), .5v (if t)
	    PI	 paragraph indent   paragraph	 5n
	    QI	 quote indent	    next .QP	 5n
	    FI	 footnote indent    next .FS	 2n
	    PO	 page offset	    next page	 0 (if n), ~1i (if t)
	    HM	 header margin	    next page	 1i
	    FM	 footer margin	    next page	 1i
	    FF	 footnote format    next .FS	 0 (1, 2, 3 available)
       When resetting these values, make sure to specify the appropriate units.  Setting the line
       length to 7, for example, will result in output with one character per line.   Setting  FF
       to  1  suppresses  footnote superscripting; setting it to 2 also suppresses indentation of
       the first line; and setting it to 3 produces an .IP-like footnote paragraph.

       Here is a list of string registers available in -ms; they may  be  used	anywhere  in  the
	    Name  String's Function
	    \*Q   quote (" in nroff, `` in troff )
	    \*U   unquote (" in nroff, '' in troff )
	    \*-   dash (-- in nroff, -- in troff )
	    \*(MO month (month of the year)
	    \*(DY day (current date)
	    \**   automatically numbered footnote
	    \*'   acute accent (before letter)
	    \*`   grave accent (before letter)
	    \*^   circumflex (before letter)
	    \*,   cedilla (before letter)
	    \*:   umlaut (before letter)
	    \*~   tilde (before letter)
       When  using  the extended accent mark definitions available with .AM, these strings should
       come after, rather than before, the letter to be accented.

       Floating keeps and regular keeps are diverted to the same space, so they cannot	be  mixed
       together with predictable results.

4th Berkeley Distribution		 October 23, 1996				    MS(7)
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