concatenate lines using shell scripting


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# 1  
concatenate lines using shell scripting

i have a mega file in this format:

a,
b,
c,
d,
=
a2,
b2,
c2,
d2,
=
a3,
b3
=

i want to combine lines until = meet. the result should be :
a,b,c,d,
a2,b2,c3,d2
a3,b3

need your help. thanks
# 2  
You can of course do this via shell scripting, but using sed would be a faster and by far clearer way to do it.

Why do you want to do it with a shell script?

bakunin
# 3  
sorry, i didn't mean that. sed or awk are all good.

---------- Post updated at 01:11 PM ---------- Previous update was at 12:58 PM ----------

would you please show me how to do it in sed or awk? thx
# 4  
Code:
awk '/=/{$0="\n"}1' ORS="" file

# 5  
perhaps.....bur certainly better....

Code:
awk '{if($0 !~ /=/) ORS=""}{if($0 ~/=/) ORS="\n"} {print}' | sed -e 's/=//g' -e 's/,$//g' file

# 6  
in sed it is easy: we have two types of lines, the ones reading "=" and the others. When we encounter a "="-line, we want to print out what we have so far, minus the newlines. If we encounter one of the other lines we want to store its contents until we encounter a "="-line.

sed has a so-called "hold space", think of it as a variable, where you can store things until you need them. We append everything to this hold space until we encounter a "="-line, then we recall the hold space, filter out all embedded newlines and print it, then start over.

In the following script i have put in comment for your understanding, remove them, because sed doesn't allow inline commenting in scripts. Furthermore, you can put the whole script on one line, replacing linefeeds with semicolons:

Code:
sed -n '/^=/ {                   # if a line starts with "="
          s/.*//                 # delete this lines content
          x                      # exchange the pattern space (empty) and the hold space
          s/\n//g                # delete newlines
          p                      # then print what you have
     }
     /^=/ ! {                    # if a line doesn't start with "="
          H                      # append it to the hold space
     }' /your/file > newfile

for short:

Code:
sed -n '/^=/{s/.*//;x;s/\n//gp};/^=/!{H}' /your/file > newfile

I hope this helps.

bakunin
# 7  
Quote:
Originally Posted by protocomm
perhaps.....bur certainly better....
Did you check the OP requirements Smilie , certainly not.
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