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ImageMagick(1)									   ImageMagick(1)

       NAME

	      ImageMagick - commandline utilities to create, edit, or convert images

SYNOPSIS
       animate [ options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ]

       composite [ options ... ] image composite [ mask ] composited

       conjure [ options ] script.msl [ [ options ] script.msl ]

       convert [ [ options ... ] [ input_file ...  ] ... [ output_file ] ]

       display [ options ... ] file ...  [ [options ... ]file ... ]

       identify file [ file ... ]

       import [ options ... ] file

       mogrify [ options ... ] file ...

       montage [ options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ] output_file

DESCRIPTION
       ImageMagick  provides  a suite of commandline utilities for creating, converting, editing,
       and displaying images:

       Display is a machine architecture independent image processing and display program. It can
       display an image on any workstation display running an X server.

       Import  reads  an  image from any visible window on an X server and outputs it as an image
       file. You can capture a single window, the entire screen, or any  rectangular  portion  of
       the screen.

       Montage	creates a composite by combining several separate images. The images are tiled on
       the composite image with the name of the image optionally appearing just below  the  indi-
       vidual tile.

       Convert	converts  an input file using one image format to an output file with a differing
       image format.

       Mogrify transforms an image or a sequence of images. These transforms include image  scal-
       ing,  image rotation, color reduction, and others. The transmogrified image overwrites the
       original image.

       Identify describes the format and characteristics of one or more image files. It will also
       report if an image is incomplete or corrupt.

       Composite composites images to create new images.

       Conjure interprets and executes scripts in the Magick Scripting Language (MSL).

       The ImageMagick utilities recognize the following image formats:

       Name   Mode Description
	o  8BIM      *rw- Photoshop resource format
	o  AFM	     *r-- TrueType font
	o  APP1      *rw- Photoshop resource format
	o  ART	     *r-- PF1: 1st Publisher
	o  AVI	     *r-- Audio/Visual Interleaved
	o  AVS	     *rw+ AVS X image
	o  BIE	     *rw- Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
			  interchange format
	o  BMP	     *rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image
	o  CAPTION   *r+  Caption (requires separate size info)
	o  CMYK      *rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and black
			  samples (8 or 16 bits, depending on
			  the image depth)
	o  CMYKA     *rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, black, and
			  matte samples (8 or 16 bits, depending
			  on the image depth)
	o  CUT	     *r-- DR Halo
	o  DCM	     *r-- Digital Imaging and Communications in
			   Medicine image
	o  DCX	     *rw+ ZSoft IBM PC multi-page Paintbrush
	o  DIB	     *rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image
	o  DPS	     *r-- Display Postscript
	o  DPX	     *r-- Digital Moving Picture Exchange
	o  EPDF      *rw- Encapsulated Portable Document Format
	o  EPI	     *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
			  Interchange format
	o  EPS	     *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
	o  EPS2      *-w- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript
	o  EPS3      *-w- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
	o  EPSF      *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
	o  EPSI      *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
			  Interchange format
	o  EPT	     *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript with TIFF
			  preview
	o  FAX	     *rw+ Group 3 FAX
	o  FILE      *r-- Uniform Resource Locator
	o  FITS      *rw- Flexible Image Transport System
	o  FPX	     *rw- FlashPix Format
	o  FTP	     *r-- Uniform Resource Locator
	o  G3	     *rw- Group 3 FAX
	o  GIF	     *rw+ CompuServe graphics interchange format
	o  GIF87     *rw- CompuServe graphics interchange format
			  (version 87a)
	o  GRADIENT  *r-- Gradual passing from one shade to
			  another
	o  GRANITE   *r-- Granite texture
	o  GRAY      *rw+ Raw gray samples (8 or 16 bits,
			  depending on the image depth)
	o  H	     *rw- Internal format
	o  HDF	     -rw+ Hierarchical Data Format
	o  HISTOGRAM *-w- Histogram of the image
	o  HTM	     *-w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
			  client-side image map
	o  HTML      *-w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
			  client-side image map
	o  HTTP      *r-- Uniform Resource Locator
	o  ICB	     *rw+ Truevision Targa image
	o  ICM	     *rw- ICC Color Profile
	o  ICO	     *r-- Microsoft icon
	o  ICON      *r-- Microsoft icon
	o  IMPLICIT  *---
	o  IPTC      *rw- IPTC Newsphoto
	o  JBG	     *rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
			  interchange format
	o  JBIG      *rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
			  interchange format
	o  JP2	     *rw- JPEG-2000 JP2 File Format Syntax
	o  JPC	     *rw- JPEG-2000 Code Stream Syntax
	o  JPEG      *rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
			  JFIF format
	o  JPG	     *rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
			  JFIF format
	o  LABEL     *r-- Text image format
	o  LOGO      *rw- ImageMagick Logo
	o  M2V	     *rw+ MPEG-2 Video Stream
	o  MAP	     *rw- Colormap intensities (8 or 16 bits,
			  depending on the image depth) and
			  indices (8 or 16 bits, depending
			  on whether colors exceeds 256).
	o  MAT	     *-w+ MATLAB image format
	o  MATTE     *-w+ MATTE format
	o  MIFF      *rw+ Magick image format
	o  MNG	     *rw+ Multiple-image Network Graphics
	o  MONO      *rw- Bi-level bitmap in least-significant-
			  -byte-first order
	o  MPC	     -rw- Magick Persistent Cache image format
	o  MPEG      *rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
	o  MPG	     *rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
	o  MPR	     *r-- Magick Persistent Registry
	o  MSL	     *r-- Magick Scripting Language
	o  MTV	     *rw+ MTV Raytracing image format
	o  MVG	     *rw- Magick Vector Graphics
	o  NETSCAPE  *r-- Netscape 216 color cube
	o  NULL      *r-- Constant image of uniform color
	o  OTB	     *rw- On-the-air bitmap
	o  P7	     *rw+ Xv thumbnail format
	o  PAL	     *rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
	o  PALM      *rw- Palm Pixmap format
	o  PBM	     *rw+ Portable bitmap format (black and white)
	o  PCD	     *rw- Photo CD
	o  PCDS      *rw- Photo CD
	o  PCL	     *-w- Page Control Language
	o  PCT	     *rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
	o  PCX	     *rw- ZSoft IBM PC Paintbrush
	o  PDB	     *r-- Pilot Image Format
	o  PDF	     *rw+ Portable Document Format
	o  PFA	     *r-- TrueType font
	o  PFB	     *r-- TrueType font
	o  PFM	     *r-- TrueType font
	o  PGM	     *rw+ Portable graymap format (gray scale)
	o  PICON     *rw- Personal Icon
	o  PICT      *rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
	o  PIX	     *r-- Alias/Wavefront RLE image format
	o  PLASMA    *r-- Plasma fractal image
	o  PM	     *rw- X Windows system pixmap (color)
	o  PNG	     *rw- Portable Network Graphics
	o  PNM	     *rw+ Portable anymap
	o  PPM	     *rw+ Portable pixmap format (color)
	o  PREVIEW   *-w- Show a preview an image enhancement,
			  effect, or f/x
	o  PS	     *rw+ Adobe PostScript
	o  PS2	     *-w+ Adobe Level II PostScript
	o  PS3	     *-w+ Adobe Level III PostScript
	o  PSD	     *rw- Adobe Photoshop bitmap
	o  PTIF      *rw- Pyramid encoded TIFF
	o  PWP	     *r-- Seattle Film Works
	o  RAS	     *rw+ SUN Rasterfile
	o  RGB	     *rw+ Raw red, green, and blue samples (8 or
			  16 bits, depending on the image depth)
	o  RGBA      *rw+ Raw red, green, blue, and matte samples
			  (8 or 16 bits, depending on the image
			  depth)
	o  RLA	     *r-- Alias/Wavefront image
	o  RLE	     *r-- Utah Run length encoded image
	o  ROSE      *rw- 70x46 Truecolor test image
	o  SCT	     *r-- Scitex HandShake
	o  SFW	     *r-- Seattle Film Works
	o  SGI	     *rw+ Irix RGB image
	o  SHTML     *-w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
			  client-side image map
	o  STEGANO   *r-- Steganographic image
	o  SUN	     *rw+ SUN Rasterfile
	o  SVG	     *rw+ Scalable Vector Gaphics
	o  TEXT      *rw+ Raw text
	o  TGA	     *rw+ Truevision Targa image
	o  TIF	     *rw+ Tagged Image File Format
	o  TIFF      *rw+ Tagged Image File Format
	o  TILE      *r-- Tile image with a texture
	o  TIM	     *r-- PSX TIM
	o  TTF	     *r-- TrueType font
	o  TXT	     *rw+ Raw text
	o  UIL	     *-w- X-Motif UIL table
	o  UYVY      *rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
	o  VDA	     *rw+ Truevision Targa image
	o  VICAR     *rw- VICAR rasterfile format
	o  VID	     *rw+ Visual Image Directory
	o  VIFF      *rw+ Khoros Visualization image
	o  VST	     *rw+ Truevision Targa image
	o  WBMP      *rw- Wireless Bitmap (level 0) image
	o  WMF	     *r-- Windows Metafile
	o  WPG	     *r-- Word Perfect Graphics
	o  X	     *rw- X Image
	o  XBM	     *rw- X Windows system bitmap (black
			  and white)
	o  XC	     *r-- Constant image uniform color
	o  XCF	     *r-- GIMP image
	o  XML	     *r-- Scalable Vector Gaphics
	o  XPM	     *rw- X Windows system pixmap (color)
	o  XV	     *rw+ Khoros Visualization image
	o  XWD	     *rw- X Windows system window dump (color)
	o  YUV	     *rw- CCIR 601 4:1:1

	   Modes:
		     *	  Native blob support
		     r	  Read
		     w	  Write
		     +	  Multi-image

       Support	for some of these formats require additional programs or libraries.  README tells
       where to find this software.

       Note, a format delineated with + means that if more than one image  is  specified,  it  is
       composited into a single multi-image file. Use +adjoin if you want a single image produced
       for each frame.

       Your installation might not support all of the formats in the list.  To get an  up-to-date
       listing of the formats supported by your particular configuration, run "convert -list for-
       mat".

       Raw images are expected to have one byte per  pixel  unless  ImageMagick  is  compiled  in
       16-bit  mode. Here, the raw data is expected to be stored two bytes per pixel in most-sig-
       nificant-byte-first order.  You can tell if ImageMagick was compiled  in  16-bit  mode  by
       typing "convert" without any options, and looking for "Q:16" in the first line of output.

OPTIONS
       Options	are  processed	in command line order. Any option you specify on the command line
       remains in effect for the set of images that follows, until the set is terminated  by  the
       appearance  of  any  option or -noop.  Some options only affect the decoding of images and
       others only the encoding.  The latter can appear after the final group of input images.

       This is a combined list of the commandline options used by the ImageMagick utilities (ani-
       mate, composite, convert, display, identify, import, mogrify and montage).

       In  this  document,  angle  brackets  ("<>")  enclose variables, and curly brackets ("{}")
       enclose optional parameters. For example, "-fuzz <distance>{%}"	means  you  can  use  the
       option "-fuzz 10" or "-fuzz 2%".

       -adjoin
	      join images into a single multi-image file

	      By  default,  all images of an image sequence are stored in the same file. However,
	      some formats (e.g. JPEG) do not support more than one image and are saved to  sepa-
	      rate files. Use +adjoin to force this behavior.

       -affine <matrix>
	      drawing transform matrix

	      This  option  provides a transform matrix {sx,rx,ry,sy,tx,ty} for use by subsequent
	      -draw or -transform options.

       -antialias
	      remove pixel aliasing

       -append
	      append a set of images

	      This option creates a single image where the images in the original set are stacked
	      top-to-bottom.   If  they  are  not  of  the  same width, any narrow images will be
	      expanded to fit using the background color.  Use +append to stack  images  left-to-
	      right.   The  set  of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.  If the
	      -append option appears after all of the input images, all images are appended.

       -average
	      average a set of images

	      The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.	If  the  -average
	      option appears after all of the input images, all images are averaged.

       -backdrop <color>
	      display the image centered on a backdrop.

	      This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and is useful for hiding other X
	      window activity while viewing the image. The color of the backdrop is specified  as
	      the  background  color.	The  color is specified using the format described in the
	      "Color Names" section of X(1).  Refer to "X Resources", below, for details.

       -background <color>
	      the background color

	      The color is specified using the format described in the "Color Names"  section  of
	      X(1).

       -blur <radius>x<sigma>
	      blur the image with a gaussian operator

	      Blur with the given radius and standard deviation (sigma).

       -border <width>x<height>
	      surround the image with a border of color

	      See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.

       -bordercolor <color>
	      the border color

	      The  color  is specified using the format described in the "Color Names" section of
	      X(1).

       -borderwidth <geometry>
	      the border width

       -box <color>
	      set the color of the annotation bounding box

	      The color is specified using the format described in the "Color Names"  section  of
	      X(1).

	      See -draw for further details.

       -cache <threshold>
	      megabytes of memory available to the pixel cache

	      Image  pixels are stored in memory until 80 megabytes of memory have been consumed.
	      Subsequent pixel operations are cached on disk. Operations to memory  are  signifi-
	      cantly faster but if your computer does not have a sufficient amount of free memory
	      you may want to adjust this threshold value.

       -channel <type>
	      the type of channel

	      Choose from: Red, Green, Blue, Opacity, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, or Black.

	      Use this option to extract a particular channel from the image.  Matte,  for  exam-
	      ple, is useful for extracting the opacity values from an image.

       -charcoal <factor>
	      simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
	      remove pixels from the interior of an image

	      Width  and  height  give	the number of columns and rows to remove, and x and y are
	      offsets that give the location of the leftmost column and topmost row to remove.

	      The x offset normally specifies the leftmost column to  remove.	If  the  -gravity
	      option is present with NorthEast, East, or SouthEast gravity, it gives the distance
	      leftward from the right edge of the image to the rightmost column to remove.  Simi-
	      larly, the y offset normally specifies the topmost row to remove, but if the -grav-
	      ity option is present with SouthWest, South, or SouthEast gravity, it specifies the
	      distance upward from the bottom edge of the image to the bottom row to remove.

	      The  -chop  option  removes entire rows and columns, and moves the remaining corner
	      blocks leftward and upward to close the gaps.

       -clip  apply the clipping path, if one is present

	      If a clipping path is present, it will be applied to subsequent operations.

	      For example, if you type the following command:

		   convert -clip -negate cockatoo.tif negated.tif

	      only the pixels within the clipping path are negated.

	      The -clip feature requires the XML library.  If the XML library is not present, the
	      option is ignored.

       -coalesce
	      merge a sequence of images

	      Each  image  N  in the sequence after Image 0 is replaced with the image created by
	      flattening images 0 through N.

	      The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.	If the	-coalesce
	      option appears after all of the input images, all images are coalesced.

       -colorize <value>
	      colorize the image with the pen color

	      Specify  the  amount  of	colorization as a percentage. You can apply separate col-
	      orization values to the red, green, and blue channels of the image with a coloriza-
	      tion value list delineated with slashes (e.g. 0/0/50).

       -colormap <type>
	      define the colormap type

	      Choose between shared or private.

	      This  option  only  applies  when  the  default  X  server visual is PseudoColor or
	      GRAYScale. Refer to -visual for more details. By	default,  a  shared  colormap  is
	      allocated.  The  image shares colors with other X clients.  Some image colors could
	      be approximated, therefore your image may look very different than intended. Choose
	      Private  and  the  image	colors appear exactly as they are defined. However, other
	      clients may go technicolor when the image colormap is installed.

       -colors <value>
	      preferred number of colors in the image

	      The actual number of colors in the image may be less than your request,  but  never
	      more.  Note,  this is a color reduction option. Images with less unique colors than
	      specified with this option will have any duplicate or unused colors removed.  Refer
	      to quantize for more details.

	      Note, options -dither, -colorspace, and -treedepth affect the color reduction algo-
	      rithm.

       -colorspace <value>
	      the type of colorspace

	      Choices are: GRAY, OHTA, RGB, Transparent, XYZ, YCbCr, YIQ, YPbPr, YUV, or CMYK.

	      Color reduction, by default, takes place in the RGB color space. Empirical evidence
	      suggests that distances in color spaces such as YUV or YIQ correspond to perceptual
	      color differences more closely than do distances in RGB space.  These color  spaces
	      may  give  better results when color reducing an image.  Refer to quantize for more
	      details.

	      The Transparent color space behaves uniquely in that it preserves the matte channel
	      of the image if it exists.

	      The -colors or -monochrome option is required for this option to take effect.

       -comment <string>
	      annotate an image with a comment

	      Use  this  option  to  assign  a specific comment to the image. You can include the
	      image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding  special
	      format characters:

		   %b	file size
		   %c	comment
		   %d	directory
		   %e	filename extention
		   %f	filename
		   %h	height
		   %i	input filename
		   %k	number of unique colors
		   %l	label
		   %m	magick
		   %n	number of scenes
		   %o	output filename
		   %p	page number
		   %q	quantum depth
		   %s	scene number
		   %t	top of filename
		   %u	unique temporary filename
		   %w	width
		   %x	x resolution
		   %y	y resolution
		   %#	signature
		   \n	newline
		   \r	carriage return

	      For example,

		   -comment "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      produces	an  image comment of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled bird.miff
	      and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

	      If the first character of string is @, the image comment is read from a file titled
	      by the remaining characters in the string.

       -compose <operator>
	      the type of image composition

	      [This  option  is  not  used  by	convert  but  this section is included because it
	      describes the composite operators that are used by the -draw option of convert.]

	      By default, each of the composite image pixels are replaced  by  the  corresponding
	      image tile pixel. You can choose an alternate composite operation:

		   Over
		   In
		   Out
		   Atop
		   Xor
		   Plus
		   Minus
		   Add
		   Subtract
		   Difference
		   Multiply
		   Bumpmap
		   Copy
		   CopyRed
		   CopyGreen
		   CopyBlue
		   CopyOpacity

	      How each operator behaves is described below.

	       Over

		    The  result  will  be the union of the two image shapes, with opaque areas of
		    composite image obscuring image in the region of overlap.

	       In

		    The result is simply composite image cut by the shape of image.  None of  the
		    image data of image will be in the result.

	       Out

		    The resulting image is composite image with the shape of image cut out.

	       Atop

		    The  result  is the same shape as image image, with composite image obscuring
		    image where the image shapes overlap.  Note this differs  from  over  because
		    the  portion  of composite image outside image's shape does not appear in the
		    result.

	       Xor

		    The result is the image data from both composite image and image that is out-
		    side the overlap region.  The overlap region will be blank.

	       Plus

		    The  result  is just the sum of the image data.  Output values are cropped to
		    255 (no overflow).	This operation is independent of the matte channels.

	       Minus

		    The result of composite image - image, with underflow cropped to  zero.   The
		    matte channel is ignored (set to 255, full coverage).

	       Add

		    The  result  of  composite	image + image, with overflow wrapping around (mod
		    256).

	       Subtract

		    The result of composite image - image, with underflow  wrapping  around  (mod
		    256).   The  add  and  subtract  operators	can be used to perform reversible
		    transformations.

	       Difference

		    The result of abs(composite image - image).  This is useful for comparing two
		    very similar images.

	       Multiply

		    The  result  of  composite image * image.  This is useful for the creation of
		    drop-shadows.

	       Bumpmap

		    The result image shaded by composite image.

	       Copy

		    The resulting image is image replaced with composite image.  Here  the  matte
		    information is ignored.

	       CopyRed

		    The  resulting image is the red layer in image replaced with the red layer in
		    composite image.  The other layers are copied untouched.

	       CopyGreen

		    The resulting image is the green layer in image replaced with the green layer
		    in composite image.  The other layers are copied untouched.

	       CopyBlue

		    The  resulting  image is the blue layer in image replaced with the blue layer
		    in composite image.  The other layers are copied untouched.

	       CopyOpacity

		    The resulting image is the matte layer in image replaced with the matte layer
		    in composite image.  The other layers are copied untouched.

	       The  image  compositor  requires  a  matte, or alpha channel in the image for some
	       operations.  This extra channel usually defines a mask which represents a sort  of
	       a cookie-cutter for the image.  This is the case when matte is 255 (full coverage)
	       for pixels inside the shape, zero outside, and between zero and 255 on the  bound-
	       ary.   For  certain operations, if image does not have a matte channel, it is ini-
	       tialized with 0 for any pixel matching in color to pixel location (0,0), otherwise
	       255 (to work properly borderwidth must be 0).

       -compress <type>
	      the type of image compression

	      Choices are: None, BZip, Fax, Group4, JPEG, Lossless, LZW, RLE or Zip.

	      Specify +compress to store the binary image in an uncompressed format.  The default
	      is the compression type of the specified image file.

	      If LZW compression is specified but LZW compression has not been enabled, the image
	      data  will  be  written  in  an  uncompressed  LZW  format  that can be read by LZW
	      decoders.  This may result in larger-than-expected GIF files.

	      "Lossless" refers to lossless JPEG, which is only available if the JPEG library has
	      been patched to support it.

	      Use the -quality option to set the compression level to be used by JPEG, PNG, MIFF,
	      and MPEG encoders.  Use the -sampling_factor option to set the sampling  factor  to
	      be used by JPEG, MPEG, and YUV encoders for downsampling the chroma channels.

       -contrast
	      enhance or reduce the image contrast

	      This  option enhances the intensity differences between the lighter and darker ele-
	      ments of the image. Use -contrast to enhance the image or +contrast to  reduce  the
	      image contrast.

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
	      preferred size and location of the cropped image

	      See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.

	      The  width and height give the size of the image that remains after cropping, and x
	      and y are offsets that give the location of the top  left  corner  of  the  cropped
	      image with respect to the original image.  To specify the amount to be removed, use
	      -shave instead.

	      To specify a percentage width or height to be removed instead, append %. For  exam-
	      ple  to crop the image by ten percent (five percent on each side of the image), use
	      -crop 10%.

	      If the x and y offsets are present, a single image is generated, consisting of  the
	      pixels  from  the  cropping  region.  The offsets specify the location of the upper
	      left corner of the cropping region measured downward and rightward with respect  to
	      the  upper left corner of the image.  If the -gravity option is present with North-
	      East, East, or SouthEast gravity, it gives the distance  leftward  from  the  right
	      edge  of	the  image  to	the right edge of the cropping region.	Similarly, if the
	      -gravity option is present with SouthWest, South, or SouthEast  gravity,	the  dis-
	      tance is measured upward between the bottom edges.

	      If  the x and y offsets are omitted, a set of tiles of the specified geometry, cov-
	      ering the entire input image, is generated.  The rightmost  tiles  and  the  bottom
	      tiles  are  smaller  if the specified geometry extends beyond the dimensions of the
	      input image.

       -cycle <amount>
	      displace image colormap by amount

	      Amount defines the number of positions each colormap entry is shifted.

       -debug enable debug printout

       -deconstruct
	      break down an image sequence into constituent parts

	      The sequence of images is terminated by the  appearance  of  any	option.   If  the
	      -deconstruct  option  appears  after all of the input images, all images are decon-
	      structed.

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
	      display the next image after pausing

	      This option is useful for regulating the animation  of  image  sequences	Delay/100
	      seconds  must  expire before the display of the next image. The default is no delay
	      between each showing of the image sequence. The maximum delay is 65535.

	      You can specify a delay range (e.g. -delay 10-500) which sets the minimum and maxi-
	      mum delay.

       -density <width>x<height>
	      vertical and horizontal resolution in pixels of the image

	      This option specifies an image density when decoding a PostScript or Portable Docu-
	      ment page. The default is 72 dots per inch in the horizontal  and  vertical  direc-
	      tion. This option is used in concert with -page.

       -depth <value>
	      depth of the image

	      This  is	the  number of bits in a color sample within a pixel. The only acceptable
	      values are 8 or 16.  Use this option to specify the depth of raw images whose depth
	      is unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK, or to change the depth of any image after it
	      has been read.

       -descend
	      obtain image by descending window hierarchy

       -despeckle
	      reduce the speckles within an image

       -displace <horizontal scale>x<vertical scale>
	      shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map

	      With this option, composite image is used as a displacement map.	Black, within the
	      displacement  map, is a maximum positive displacement.  White is a maximum negative
	      displacement and middle gray is neutral.	The displacement is scaled  to	determine
	      the  pixel  shift.  By default, the displacement applies in both the horizontal and
	      vertical directions.  However, if you specify mask, composite image is the horizon-
	      tal X displacement and mask the vertical Y displacement.

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
	      specifies the X server to contact

	      This  option  is	used with convert for obtaining image or font from this X server.
	      See X(1).

       -dispose <method>
	      GIF disposal method

	      Here are the valid methods:

		   0	 No disposal specified.
		   1	 Do not dispose between frames.
		   2	 Overwrite frame with background color
			 from header.
		   3	 Overwrite with previous frame.

       -dissolve <percent>
	      dissolve an image into another by the given percent

	      The opacity of the composite image is multiplied by the given percent, then  it  is
	      composited over the main image.

       -dither
	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

	      The  basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution for spatial reso-
	      lution by averaging the intensities of several neighboring  pixels.   Images  which
	      suffer  from  severe  contouring	when  reducing	colors	can be improved with this
	      option.

	      The -colors or -monochrome option is required for this option to take effect.

	      Use +dither to turn off dithering and to render Postscript without text or  graphic
	      aliasing.

       -draw <string>
	      annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

	      Use  this  option  to  annotate  an image with one or more graphic primitives.  The
	      primitives include shapes, text, transformations, and pixel operations.  The  shape
	      primitives are

		   point	   x,y
		   line 	   x0,y0 x1,y1
		   rectangle	   x0,y0 x1,y1
		   roundRectangle  x0,y0 x1,y1 wc,hc
		   arc		   x0,y0 x1,y1 a0,a1
		   ellipse	   x0,y0 rx,ry a0,a1
		   circle	   x0,y0 x1,y1
		   polyline	   x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
		   polygon	   x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
		   bezier	   x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
		   path 	   path specification
		   image	   operator x0,y0 w,h filename

	      The text primitive is

		   text 	   x0,y0 string

	      The transformation primitives are

		   rotate	   degrees
		   translate	   dx,dy
		   scale	   sx,sy
		   skewX	   degrees
		   skewY	   degrees

	      The pixel operation primitives are

		   color	   x0,y0 method
		   matte	   x0,y0 method

	      The  shape  primitives  are  drawn  in the color specified in the preceding -stroke
	      option. Except for the line and point primitives, they are filled  with  the  color
	      specified in the preceding -fill option.	For unfilled shapes, use -fill none.

	      Point requires a single coordinate.

	      Line requires a start and end coordinate.

	      Rectangle expects an upper left and lower right coordinate.

	      RoundRectangle  has  the	upper  left and lower right coordinates and the width and
	      height of the corners.

	      Circle has a center coordinate and a coordinate for the outer edge.

	      Use Arc to circumscribe an arc within a rectangle.  Arcs require a  start  and  end
	      point as well as the degree of rotation (e.g. 130,30 200,100 45,90).

	      Use  Ellipse  to draw a partial ellipse centered at the given point with the x-axis
	      and y-axis radius and start and end of arc in degrees (e.g. 100,100 100,150 0,360).

	      Finally, polyline and polygon require three  or  more  coordinates  to  define  its
	      boundaries.  Coordinates are integers separated by an optional comma.  For example,
	      to define a circle centered at 100,100 that extends to 150,150 use:

		   -draw 'circle 100,100 150,150'

	      Paths (See Paths) represent an outline of an object which is defined  in	terms  of
	      moveto  (set  a  new current point), lineto (draw a straight line), curveto (draw a
	      curve using a cubic bezier), arc (elliptical or circular arc) and closepath  (close
	      the  current  shape  by drawing a line to the last moveto) elements. Compound paths
	      (i.e., a path with subpaths, each consisting of a single moveto followed by one  or
	      more  line or curve operations) are possible to allow effects such as "donut holes"
	      in objects.

	      Use image to composite an image with another image. Follow the image  keyword  with
	      the composite operator, image location, image size, and filename:

		   -draw 'image Over 100,100 225,225 image.jpg'

	      You  can use 0,0 for the image size, which means to use the actual dimensions found
	      in the image header. Otherwise, it will be scaled to  the  given	dimensions.   See
	      -compose for a description of the composite operators.

	      Use text to annotate an image with text. Follow the text coordinates with a string.
	      If the string has embedded spaces, enclose it in double quotes. Optionally you  can
	      include the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embed-
	      ding special format character.  See -comment for details.

	      For example,

		   -draw 'text 100,100 "%m:%f %wx%h"'

	      annotates the image with MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled  bird.miff  and
	      whose width is 512 and height is 480.

	      If  the  first character of string is @, the text is read from a file titled by the
	      remaining characters in the string.

	      Rotate rotates subsequent shape primitives and text primitives about the origen  of
	      the  main  image.  If  the -region option precedes the -draw option, the origen for
	      transformations is the upper left corner of the region.

	      Translate translates them.

	      Scale scales them.

	      SkewX and SkewY skew them with respect to the origen  of	the  main  image  or  the
	      region.

	      The transformations modify the current affine matrix, which is initialized from the
	      initial affine matrix defined by the -affine option.  Transformations  are  cumula-
	      tive  within  the  -draw	option.   The initial affine matrix is not affected; that
	      matrix is only changed by the appearance of another  -affine  option.   If  another
	      -draw  option  appears, the current affine matrix is reinitialized from the initial
	      affine matrix.

	      Use color to change the color of a pixel to the fill color (see -fill). Follow  the
	      pixel coordinate with a method:

		   point
		   replace
		   floodfill
		   filltoborder
		   reset

	      Consider	the  target  pixel as that specified by your coordinate. The point method
	      recolors the target pixel. The replace method recolors any pixel that  matches  the
	      color  of the target pixel.  Floodfill recolors any pixel that matches the color of
	      the target pixel and is a neighbor,  whereas  filltoborder  recolors  any  neighbor
	      pixel that is not the border color. Finally, reset recolors all pixels.

	      Use  matte  to  the  change  the pixel matte value to transparent. Follow the pixel
	      coordinate with a method (see the color primitive for a  description  of	methods).
	      The  point  method  changes the matte value of the target pixel. The replace method
	      changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of  the  target  pixel.
	      Floodfill changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target
	      pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder changes the matte value of any neigh-
	      bor  pixel  that is not the border color (-bordercolor).	Finally reset changes the
	      matte value of all pixels.

	      You can set the primitive color, font, and font  bounding  box  color  with  -fill,
	      -font,  and  -box  respectively.	Options are processed in command line order so be
	      sure to use these options before the -draw option.

       -edge <radius>
	      detect edges within an image

       -emboss
	      emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
	      specify the font encoding

	      Choose from AdobeCustom,	AdobeExpert,  AdobeStandard,  AppleRoman,  BIG5,  GB2312,
	      Latin 2, None, SJIScode, Symbol, Unicode, Wansung.

       -endian <type>
	      specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

	      Use +endian to revert to unspecified endianness.

       -enhance
	      apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -equalize
	      perform histogram equalization to the image

       -fill <color>
	      color to use when filling a graphic primitive

	      The  color  is specified using the format described in the "Color Names" section of
	      X(1).

	      See -draw for further details.

       -filter <type>
	      use this type of filter when resizing an image

	      Use this option to affect the resizing  operation  of  an  image	(see  -geometry).
	      Choose from these filters:

		   Point
		   Box
		   Triangle
		   Hermite
		   Hanning
		   Hamming
		   Blackman
		   Gaussian
		   Quadratic
		   Cubic
		   Catrom
		   Mitchell
		   Lanczos
		   Bessel
		   Sinc

	      The default filter is Lanczos

       -flatten
	      flatten a sequence of images

	      The  sequence  of  images  is  replaced by a single image created by composing each
	      image after the first over the first image.

	      The sequence of images is terminated by the  appearance  of  any	option.   If  the
	      -flatten option appears after all of the input images, all images are flattened.

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

	      reflect the scanlines in the vertical direction.

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

	      reflect the scanlines in the horizontal direction.

       -font <name>
	      use this font when annotating the image with text

	      You  can	tag  a	font  to specify whether it is a Postscript, Truetype, or OPTION1
	      font.  For example, Arial.ttf is a Truetype font, ps:helvetica is  Postscript,  and
	      x:fixed is OPTION1.

       -foreground <color>
	      define the foreground color

	      The  color  is specified using the format described in the "Color Names" section of
	      X(1).

       -format <type>
	      the image format type

	      This option will convert any image to the image format you specify.  See	ImageMag-
	      ick(1) for a list of image format types supported by ImageMagick.

	      By  default  the	file  is  written to its original name.  However, if the filename
	      extension matches a supported format, the extension is replaced with the image for-
	      mat  type  specified  with -format.  For example, if you specify tiff as the format
	      type and the input image filename is image.gif, the output image	filename  becomes
	      image.tiff.

       -format <string>
	      output formatted image characteristics

	      Use  this option to print information about the image in a format of your choosing.
	      You can include the image filename, type, width, height, or other image  attributes
	      by embedding special format characters:

		   %b	file size
		   %c	comment
		   %d	directory
		   %e	filename extention
		   %f	filename
		   %h	height
		   %i	input filename
		   %k	number of unique colors
		   %l	label
		   %m	magick
		   %n	number of scenes
		   %o	output filename
		   %p	page number
		   %q	quantum depth
		   %s	scene number
		   %t	top of filename
		   %u	unique temporary filename
		   %w	width
		   %x	x resolution
		   %y	y resolution
		   %#	signature
		   \n	newline
		   \r	carriage return

	      For example,

		   -format "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      displays	MIFF:bird.miff	512x480  for an image titled bird.miff and whose width is
	      512 and height is 480.

	      If the first character of string is @, the format is read from a file titled by the
	      remaining characters in the string.

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
	      surround the image with an ornamental border

	      See  -geometry  for details about the geometry specification.  The -frame option is
	      not affected by the -gravity option.

	      The color of the border is specified with the -mattecolor command line option.

       -frame include the X window frame in the imported image

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
	      colors within this distance are considered equal

	      A number of algorithms search for a target color. By  default  the  color  must  be
	      exact.  Use  this  option to match colors that are close to the target color in RGB
	      space. For example, if you want to automatically trim the edges of  an  image  with
	      -trim  but  the  image  was scanned and the target background color may differ by a
	      small amount. This option can account for these differences.

	      The distance can be in absolute intensity units or, by appending "%", as a percent-
	      age of the maximum possible intensity (255 or 65535).

       -gamma <value>
	      level of gamma correction

	      The same color image displayed on two different workstations may look different due
	      to differences in the display monitor. Use gamma	correction  to	adjust	for  this
	      color difference. Reasonable values extend from 0.8 to 2.3.

	      You  can	apply  separate  gamma values to the red, green, and blue channels of the
	      image with a gamma value list delineated with slashes (e.g., 1.7/2.3/1.2).

	      Use +gamma value to set the image gamma level without actually adjusting the  image
	      pixels.  This  option  is useful if the image is of a known gamma but not set as an
	      image attribute (e.g. PNG images).

       -gaussian <radius>x<sigma>
	      blur the image with a gaussian operator

	      Use the given radius and standard deviation (sigma).

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
	      preferred size and location of the Image window.

	      By default, the window size is the image size and the location  is  chosen  by  you
	      when it is mapped.

	      By default, the width and height are maximum values. That is, the image is expanded
	      or contracted to fit the width and height value while maintaining the aspect  ratio
	      of  the  image. Append an exclamation point to the geometry to force the image size
	      to exactly the size you specify. For example, if you  specify  640x480!  the  image
	      width is set to 640 pixels and height to 480.

	      If  only the width is specified, the width assumes the value and the height is cho-
	      sen to maintain the aspect ratio of the image.  Similarly, if only  the  height  is
	      specified (e.g., -geometry x256), the width is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio.

	      To specify a percentage width or height instead, append %. The image size is multi-
	      plied by the width and height percentages to obtain the final image dimensions.  To
	      increase	the  size  of  an  image,  use	a  value greater than 100 (e.g. 125%). To
	      decrease an image's size, use a percentage less than 100.

	      Use @ to specify the maximum area in pixels of an image.

	      Use > to change the dimensions of the image only if its width or height exceeds the
	      geometry specification. < resizes the image only if both of its dimensions are less
	      than the geometry specification. For example, if you  specify  '640x480>'  and  the
	      image  size  is  256x256,  the image size does not change. However, if the image is
	      512x512 or 1024x1024, it is resized to 480x480.  Enclose the geometry specification
	      in  quotation marks to prevent the < or > from being interpreted by your shell as a
	      file redirection.

	      When used with animate and display, offsets are handled in the same  manner  as  in
	      X(1) and the -gravity option is not used.  If the x is negative, the offset is mea-
	      sured leftward from the right edge of the screen to the right  edge  of  the  image
	      being  displayed.  Similarly, negative y is measured between the bottom edges.  The
	      offsets are not affected by "%"; they are always measured in pixels.

	      When used as a composite option, -geometry gives the dimensions of  the  image  and
	      its  location  with  respect  to	the  composite	image.	If the -gravity option is
	      present with NorthEast, East, or SouthEast gravity, the x represents  the  distance
	      from  the  right edge of the image to the right edge of the composite image.  Simi-
	      larly, if the -gravity option is present with SouthWest, South, or SouthEast  grav-
	      ity,  y  is  measured between the bottom edges. Accordingly, a positive offset will
	      never point in the direction outside of the image.  The offsets are not affected by
	      "%";  they are always measured in pixels.  To specify the dimensions of the compos-
	      ite image, use the -resize option.

	      When used as a convert, import or mogrify  option,  -geometry  is  synonymous  with
	      -resize  and  specifies the size of the output image.  The offsets, if present, are
	      ignored.

	      When used as a montage option, -geometry specifies the image size and  border  size
	      for  each  tile;	default is 256x256+0+0.  Negative offsets (border dimensions) are
	      meaningless.  The -gravity option affects the placement of  the  image  within  the
	      tile;  the  default gravity for this purpose is Center.  If the "%" sign appears in
	      the geometry specification, the tile size is the specified percentage of the origi-
	      nal  dimensions  of  the first tile.  To specify the dimensions of the montage, use
	      the -resize option.

       -gravity <type>
	      direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

	      Choices are: NorthWest, North, NorthEast, West,  Center,	East,  SouthWest,  South,
	      SouthEast.

	      The  direction  you  choose  specifies  where to position the text or other graphic
	      primitive when annotating the image. For example Center gravity forces the text  to
	      be  centered  within  the  image.  By default, the image gravity is NorthWest.  See
	      -draw for more details about graphic primitives.

	      The -gravity option is also used in concert with the  -geometry  option  and  other
	      options that take <geometry> as a parameter, such as the -crop option.  See -geome-
	      try for details of how the -gravity option interacts with the <x> and  <y>  parame-
	      ters of a geometry specification.

	      When  used  as  an option to composite, -gravity gives the direction that the image
	      gravitates within the composite.

	      When used as an option to montage, -gravity gives the direction that an image grav-
	      itates within a tile.  The default gravity is Center for this purpose.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -iconGeometry <geometry>
	      specify the icon geometry

	      Offsets,	if  present in the geometry specification, are handled in the same manner
	      as the -geometry option, using X11 style to handle negative offsets.

       -iconic
	      iconic animation

       -immutable
	      make image immutable

       -implode <factor>
	      implode image pixels about the center

       -intent <type>
	      use this type of rendering intent when managing the image color

	      Use this option to affect the the color management operation of an image (see -pro-
	      file).  Choose from these intents: Absolute, Perceptual, Relative, Saturation

	      The default intent is undefined.

       -interlace <type>
	      the type of interlacing scheme

	      Choices are: None, Line, Plane, or Partition. The default is None.

	      This option is used to specify the type of interlacing scheme for raw image formats
	      such as RGB or YUV.

	      None means do not interlace (RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB...),

	      Line uses scanline interlacing (RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...), and

	      Plane uses plane interlacing (RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...).

	      Partition is like plane except the different planes are saved to	individual  files
	      (e.g. image.R, image.G, and image.B).

	      Use Line or Plane to create an interlaced PNG or	GIF or progressive JPEG image.

       -label <name>
	      assign a label to an image

	      Use this option to assign a specific label to the image. Optionally you can include
	      the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding spe-
	      cial format character. See -comment for details.

	      For example,

		   -label "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      produces an image label of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled bird.miff and
	      whose width is 512 and height is 480.

	      If the first character of string is @, the image label is read from a  file  titled
	      by the remaining characters in the string.

	      When  converting to PostScript, use this option to specify a header string to print
	      above the image. Specify the label font with -font.

       -level <value>
	      adjust the level of image contrast

	      Give three point values  delineated  with  commas:  black,  mid,	and  white  (e.g.
	      10,1.0,65000).   The  white  and black points range from 0 to MaxRGB and mid ranges
	      from 0 to 10.

       -linewidth
	      the line width for subsequent draw operations

       -list <type>
	      the type of list

	      Choices are: Delegate, Format, Magic, Module, or Type.

	      This option lists entries from the ImageMagick configuration files.

       -loop <iterations>
	      add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

	      A value other than zero forces the animation to  repeat  itself  up  to  iterations
	      times.

       -magnify <factor>
	      magnify the image

       -map <filename>
	      choose a particular set of colors from this image

	      [convert or mogrify]

	      By  default,  color  reduction chooses an optimal set of colors that best represent
	      the original image. Alternatively, you can choose a particular set of  colors  from
	      an image file with this option.

	      Use  +map to reduce all images in the image sequence that follows to a single opti-
	      mal set of colors that best represent all the images.  The sequence  of  images  is
	      terminated  by  the appearance of any option.  If the +map option appears after all
	      of the input images, all images are mapped.

       -map <type>
	       display image using this type.

	      [animate or display]

	      Choose from these Standard Colormap types:

		   best
		   default
		   gray
		   red
		   green
		   blue

	      The X server must support the Standard Colormap  you  choose,  otherwise	an  error
	      occurs.  Use  list  as  the type and display searches the list of colormap types in
	      top-to-bottom order until one is located. See xstdcmap(1) for one way  of  creating
	      Standard Colormaps.

       -mask <filename>
	      Specify a clipping mask

	      The  image  read	from  the file is used as a clipping mask.  It must have the same
	      dimensions as the image being masked.

	      If the mask image contains an opacity channel, the opacity of each pixel is used to
	      define the mask.	Otherwise, the intensity (gray level) of each pixel is used.

	      Use +mask to remove the clipping mask.

	      It is not necessary to use -clip to activate the mask; -clip is implied by -mask.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

	      If the image does not have a matte channel, create an opaque one.

	      Use  +matte to ignore the matte channel and to avoid writing a matte channel in the
	      output file.

       -mattecolor <color>
	      specify the color to be used with the -frame option

	      The color is specified using the format described in the "Color Names"  section  of
	      X(1).

       -median <radius>
	      apply a median filter to the image

       -mode <value>
	      mode of operation

       -modulate <value>
	      vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

	      Specify  the  percent change in brightness, the color saturation, and the hue sepa-
	      rated by commas. For example, to increase the color brightness by 20% and  decrease
	      the color saturation by 10% and leave the hue unchanged, use: -modulate 120,90.

       -monochrome
	      transform the image to black and white

       -morph <frames>
	      morphs an image sequence

	      Both  the image pixels and size are linearly interpolated to give the appearance of
	      a meta-morphosis from one image to the next.

	      The sequence of images is terminated by the  appearance  of  any	option.   If  the
	      -morph option appears after all of the input images, all images are morphed.

       -mosaic
	      create a mosaic from an image sequence

	      The -page option is used to locate the images within the mosaic.

	      The  sequence  of  images  is  terminated  by the appearance of any option.  If the
	      -mosaic option appears after all of the input images, all images	are  included  in
	      the mosaic.

       -name  name an image

       -negate
	      replace every pixel with its complementary color

	      The red, green, and blue intensities of an image are negated.  White becomes black,
	      yellow becomes blue, etc.  Use +negate to only negate the grayscale pixels  of  the
	      image.

       -noise <radius|type>
	      add or reduce noise in an image

	      The  principal  function	of noise peak elimination filter is to smooth the objects
	      within an image without losing edge  information	and  without  creating	undesired
	      structures.  The	central idea of the algorithm is to replace a pixel with its next
	      neighbor in value within a pixel window, if this pixel has been found to be  noise.
	      A  pixel	is  defined  as  noise	if and only if this pixel is a maximum or minimum
	      within the pixel window.

	      Use radius to specify the width of the neighborhood.

	      Use +noise followed by a noise type to add noise to an  image.  Choose  from  these
	      noise types:

		   Uniform
		   Gaussian
		   Multiplicative
		   Impulse
		   Laplacian
		   Poisson

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

	      The  -noop  option can be used to terminate a group of images and reset all options
	      to their default values, when no other option is desired.

       -normalize
	      transform image to span the full range of color values

	      This is a contrast enhancement technique.

       -opaque <color>
	      change this color to the pen color within the image

	      The color is specified using the format described in the "Color Names"  section  of
	      X(1).

	      See -fill for more details.

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
	      size and location of an image canvas

	      Use  this  option to specify the dimensions of the PostScript page in dots per inch
	      or a TEXT page in pixels. The choices for a Postscript page are:

		   11x17	 792  1224
		   Ledger	1224   792
		   Legal	 612  1008
		   Letter	 612   792
		   LetterSmall	 612   792
		   ArchE	2592  3456
		   ArchD	1728  2592
		   ArchC	1296  1728
		   ArchB	 864  1296
		   ArchA	 648   864
		   A0		2380  3368
		   A1		1684  2380
		   A2		1190  1684
		   A3		 842  1190
		   A4		 595   842
		   A4Small	 595   842
		   A5		 421   595
		   A6		 297   421
		   A7		 210   297
		   A8		 148   210
		   A9		 105   148
		   A10		  74   105
		   B0		2836  4008
		   B1		2004  2836
		   B2		1418  2004
		   B3		1002  1418
		   B4		 709  1002
		   B5		 501   709
		   C0		2600  3677
		   C1		1837  2600
		   C2		1298  1837
		   C3		 918  1298
		   C4		 649   918
		   C5		 459   649
		   C6		 323   459
		   Flsa 	 612   936
		   Flse 	 612   936
		   HalfLetter	 396   612

	      For convenience you can specify the page size by media  (e.g.  A4,  Ledger,  etc.).
	      Otherwise, -page behaves much like -geometry (e.g.  -page letter+43+43>).

	      To position a GIF image, use -page{+-}<x>{+-}<y> (e.g. -page +100+200).

	      For  a  Postscript page, the image is sized as in -geometry and positioned relative
	      to the lower left hand corner of the page by {+-}<xoffset>{+-}<y offset>. Use -page
	      612x792>,  for  example,	to  center  the  image within the page. If the image size
	      exceeds the Postscript page, it is reduced to fit the page.   The  default  gravity
	      for  the	-page  option  is  NorthWest,  i.e., positive x and y offset are measured
	      rightward and downward from the top left corner of the page,  unless  the  -gravity
	      option is present with a value other than NorthWest.

	      The default page dimensions for a TEXT image is 612x792.

	      This option is used in concert with -density.

       -paint <radius>
	      simulate an oil painting

	      Each  pixel is replaced by the most frequent color in a circular neighborhood whose
	      width is specified with radius.

       -pause <seconds>
	      pause between animation loops [animate]

	      Pause for the specified number of seconds before repeating the animation.

       -pause <seconds>
	      pause between snapshots [import]

	      Pause for the specified number of seconds before taking the next snapshot.

       -pen <color>
	      specify the pen color for drawing operations

	      The color is specified using the format described in the "Color Names"  section  of
	      X(1).

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize <value>
	      pointsize of the Postscript, OPTION1, or TrueType font

       -preview <type>
	      image preview type

	      Use this option to affect the preview operation of an image (e.g.  convert -preview
	      Gamma Preview:gamma.png). Choose from these previews:

		   Rotate
		   Shear
		   Roll
		   Hue
		   Saturation
		   Brightness
		   Gamma
		   Spiff
		   Dull
		   Grayscale
		   Quantize
		   Despeckle
		   ReduceNoise
		   Add Noise
		   Sharpen
		   Blur
		   Threshold
		   EdgeDetect
		   Spread
		   Shade
		   Raise
		   Segment
		   Solarize
		   Swirl
		   Implode
		   Wave
		   OilPaint
		   CharcoalDrawing
		   JPEG

	      The default preview is JPEG.

       -process <command>
	      process a sequence of images

	      The sequence of images is terminated by the  appearance  of  any	option.   If  the
	      -process option appears after all of the input images, all images are processed.

       -profile <filename>
	      add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

	      -profile	filename adds an ICM (ICC color management), IPTC (newswire information),
	      or a generic profile to the image.

	      Use +profile icm, +profile iptc, or +profile profile_name to remove the  respective
	      profile.	 Use  identify	-verbose to find out what profiles are in the image file.
	      Use +profile "*" to remove all profiles.

	      To extract a profile, the -profile option is not used.  Instead, simply  write  the
	      file to an image format such as APP1, 8BIM, ICM, or IPTC.

	      For  example,  to  extract the Exif data (which is stored in JPEG files in the APP1
	      profile), use

		  convert cockatoo.jpg exifdata.app1

       -quality <value>
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

	      For the JPEG and MPEG image formats, quality is 0 (lowest image quality and highest
	      compression)  to	100  (best  quality but least effective compression). The default
	      quality is 75.  Use the -sampling_factor option to specify the factors  for  chroma
	      downsampling.

	      For  the	MIFF  image  format, quality/10 is the zlib compression level, which is 0
	      (worst but fastest compression) to 9 (best but slowest).	It has no effect  on  the
	      image appearance, since the compression is always lossless.

	      For  the	MNG  and  PNG  image formats, the quality value sets the zlib compression
	      level (quality / 10) and filter-type (quality % 10). Compression levels range  from
	      0  (fastest  compression)  to  100 (best but slowest). For compression level 0, the
	      Huffman-only strategy is used, which is fastest but not necessarily the worst  com-
	      pression.

	      If filter-type is 4 or less, the specified filter-type is used for all scanlines:

		   0: none
		   1: sub
		   2: up
		   3: average
		   4: Paeth

	      If filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering is used when quality is greater than 50 and
	      the image does not have a color map, otherwise no filtering is used.

	      If filter-type is 6,  adaptive  filtering  with  minimum-sum-of-absolute-values  is
	      used.

	      Only  if	the output is MNG, if filter-type is 7, the LOCO color transformation and
	      adaptive filtering with minimum-sum-of-absolute-values are used.

	      The default is quality is 75, which means nearly the best compression with adaptive
	      filtering.   The	quality  setting  has  no effect on the appearance of PNG and MNG
	      images, since the compression is always lossless.

	      For further information, see the PNG specification.

       -raise <width>x<height>
	      lighten or darken image edges

	      This will create a 3-D effect.  See -geometry for details details about the  geome-
	      try specification.  Offsets are not used.

	      Use -raise to create a raised effect, otherwise use +raise.

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
	      apply options to a portion of the image

	      The x and y offsets are treated in the same manner as in -crop.

       -remote
	      perform a remote operation

	      The only command recognized at this time is the name of an image file to load.

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
	      resize an image

	      This is an alias for the -geometry option and it behaves in the same manner. If the
	      -filter option precedes the -resize option, the specified filter is used.

	      There are some exceptions:

	      When used as a composite option, -resize conveys the preferred size of  the  output
	      image, while -geometry conveys the size and placement of the composite image within
	      the main image.

	      When used as a montage option, -resize conveys the preferred size of  the  montage,
	      while -geometry conveys information about the tiles.

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
	      roll an image vertically or horizontally

	      See  -geometry for details the geometry specification.  The x and y offsets are not
	      affected by the -gravity option.

	      A negative x  offset rolls the image left-to-right. A negative y offset  rolls  the
	      image top-to-bottom.

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
	      apply Paeth image rotation to the image

	      Use  >  to  rotate  the  image only if its width exceeds the height.  < rotates the
	      image only if its width is less than  the  height.  For  example,  if  you  specify
	      -rotate  "-90>"  and the image size is 480x640, the image is not rotated.  However,
	      if the image is 640x480, it is rotated by -90 degrees.  If you use > or <,  enclose
	      it  in  quotation marks to prevent it from being misinterpreted as a file redirect-
	      ion.

	      Empty triangles left over from rotating the image are filled with the color defined
	      as background (class backgroundColor). See X(1) for details.

       -sample <geometry>
	      scale image with pixel sampling

	      See  -geometry  for  details about the geometry specification.  -sample ignores the
	      -filter selection if the -filter option is present.  Offsets,  if  present  in  the
	      geometry string, are ignored, and the -gravity option has no effect.

       -sampling_factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
	      sampling factors used by JPEG or MPEG-2 encoder and YUV decoder/encoder.

	      This  option  specifies  the  sampling  factors  to be used by the JPEG encoder for
	      chroma downsampling.  If this option is omitted, the JPEG library will use its  own
	      default  values.	 When  reading or writing the YUV format and when writing the M2V
	      (MPEG-2) format, use -sampling_factor 2x1to specify the 4:2:2 downsampling method

       -scale <geometry>
	      scale the image.

	      See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.  -scale uses a simpler,
	      faster  algorithm,  and  it  ignores the -filter selection if the -filter option is
	      present.	Offsets, if present in the geometry string, are ignored, and the -gravity
	      option has no effect.

       -scene <value>
	      set scene number

	      This  option  sets  the  scene  number  of  an image or the first image in an image
	      sequence.

       -scenes <value-value>
	      range of image scene numbers to read

	      Each image in the range is read with the filename followed by a period (.) and  the
	      decimal  scene  number.	You can change this behavior by embedding a %d, %0Nd, %o,
	      %0No, %x, or %0Nx printf format specification in the file name. For example,

		  montage -scenes 5-7 image.miff

	      makes a montage of files image.miff.5, image.miff.6, and image.miff.7, and

		  animate -scenes 0-12 image%02d.miff

	      animates files image00.miff, image01.miff, through image12.miff.

       -screen
	      specify the screen to capture

	      This option indicates that the GetImage request used to obtain the image should  be
	      done  on	the  root  window, rather than directly on the specified window.  In this
	      way, you can obtain pieces of other windows that overlap the specified window,  and
	      more  importantly,  you can capture menus or other popups that are independent win-
	      dows but appear over the specified window.

       -seed <value>
	      pseudo-random number generator seed value

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
	      segment an image

	      Segment an image by analyzing the histograms of the color components and	identify-
	      ing units that are homogeneous with the fuzzy c-means technique.

	      Specify  cluster	threshold as the number of pixels in each cluster must exceed the
	      the cluster threshold to be considered valid. Smoothing threshold eliminates  noise
	      in  the  second  derivative  of  the histogram.  As the value is increased, you can
	      expect a smoother second derivative.  The default is 1.5. See "Image Segmentation",
	      below, for details.

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
	      shade the image using a distant light source

	      Specify  azimuth	and  elevation as the position of the light source. Use +shade to
	      return the shading results as a grayscale image.

       -shadow <radius>x<sigma>
	      shadow the montage

       -shared_memory
	      use shared memory

	      This option specifies whether the utility should	attempt  use  shared  memory  for
	      pixmaps.	 ImageMagick must be compiled with shared memory support, and the display
	      must support the MIT-SHM	extension.   Otherwise,  this  option  is  ignored.   The
	      default is True.

       -sharpen <radius>x<sigma>
	      sharpen the image

	      Use a gaussian operator of the given radius and standard deviation (sigma).

       -shave <width>x<height>
	      shave pixels from the image edges

	      Specify  the width of the region to be removed from both sides of the image and the
	      height of the regions to be removed from top and bottom.

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
	      shear the image along the X or Y axis

	      Use the specified positive or negative shear angle.

	      Shearing slides one edge of an image along the X or Y axis, creating  a  parallelo-
	      gram.  An  X  direction  shear slides an edge along the X axis, while a Y direction
	      shear slides an edge along the Y axis. The amount of the shear is controlled  by	a
	      shear  angle. For X direction shears, x degrees is measured relative to the Y axis,
	      and similarly, for Y direction shears y degrees is measured relative to the X axis.

	      Empty triangles left over from shearing the image are filled with the color defined
	      as background (class backgroundColor). See X(1) for details.

       -silent
	      operate silently

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
	      width and height of the image

	      Use  this option to specify the width and height of raw images whose dimensions are
	      unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK. In addition to width and height, use -size with
	      an  offset to skip any header information in the image or tell the number of colors
	      in a MAP image file, (e.g. -size 640x512+256).

	      For Photo CD images, choose from these sizes:

		   192x128
		   384x256
		   768x512
		   1536x1024
		   3072x2048

	      Finally, use this option to choose a particular resolution layer of a JBIG or  JPEG
	      image (e.g. -size 1024x768).

       -snaps <value>
	      number of screen snapshots

	      Use  this option to grab more than one image from the X server screen, to create an
	      animation sequence.

       -solarize <factor>
	      negate all pixels above the threshold level

	      Specify factor as the percent threshold of the intensity (0 - 99.9%).

	      This option produces a solarization effect seen when exposing a  photographic  film
	      to light during the development process.

       -spread <amount>
	      displace image pixels by a random amount

	      Amount defines the size of the neighborhood around each pixel to choose a candidate
	      pixel to swap.

       -stegano <offset>
	      hide watermark within an image

	      Use an offset to start the image hiding some number of pixels from the beginning of
	      the image.  Note this offset and the image size.	You will need this information to
	      recover the steganographic image (e.g. display -size 320x256+35 stegano:image.png).

       -stereo
	      composite two images to create a stereo anaglyph

	      The left side of the stereo pair is saved as the red channel of the  output  image.
	      The  right  side	is  saved  as  the  green  channel.  Red-green stereo glasses are
	      required to properly view the stereo image.

       -stroke <color>
	      color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

	      The color is specified using the format described in the "Color Names"  section  of
	      X(1).

	      See -draw for further details.

       -strokewidth <value>
	      set the stroke width

	      See -draw for further details.

       -swirl <degrees>
	      swirl image pixels about the center

	      Degrees defines the tightness of the swirl.

       -text_font <name>
	      font for writing fixed-width text

	      Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed (typewriter style) format-
	      ted text.  The default is 14 point Courier.

	      You can tag a font to specify whether it is  a  Postscript,  Truetype,  or  OPTION1
	      font.  For example, Courier.ttf is a Truetype font and x:fixed is OPTION1.

       -texture <filename>
	      name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>
	      threshold the image

	      Create  a bi-level image such that any pixel intensity that is equal or exceeds the
	      threshold is reassigned the maximum intensity otherwise the minimum intensity.

       -tile <filename>
	      tile image when filling a graphic primitive

       -tile <geometry>
	      layout of images [montage]

       -title <string>
	      assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

	      Use this option to assign a specific title to the image. This is	assigned  to  the
	      image  window  and  is typically displayed in the window title bar.  Optionally you
	      can include the image filename, type, width, height, or other  image  attribute  by
	      embedding special format characters:

		   %b	file size
		   %c	comment
		   %d	directory
		   %e	filename extention
		   %f	filename
		   %h	height
		   %i	input filename
		   %k	number of unique colors
		   %l	label
		   %m	magick
		   %n	number of scenes
		   %o	output filename
		   %p	page number
		   %q	quantum depth
		   %s	scene number
		   %t	top of filename
		   %u	unique temporary filename
		   %w	width
		   %x	x resolution
		   %y	y resolution
		   %#	signature
		   \n	newline
		   \r	carriage return

	      For example,

		   -title "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      produces an image title of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled bird.miff and
	      whose width is 512 and height is 480.

       -transform
	      transform the image

	      This option applies the transformation matrix from a previous -affine option.

		  convert -affine 2,2,-2,2,0,0 -transform bird.ppm bird.jpg

       -transparent <color>
	      make this color transparent within the image

	      The color is specified using the format described in the "Color Names"  section  of
	      X(1).

       -treedepth <value>
	      tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

	      Normally,  this integer value is zero or one. A zero or one tells display to choose
	      an optimal tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

	      An optimal depth generally allows the best representation of the source image  with
	      the  fastest  computational  speed  and  the  least amount of memory.  However, the
	      default depth is inappropriate for some images. To assure the best  representation,
	      try values between 2 and 8 for this parameter.  Refer to quantize for more details.

	      The -colors or -monochrome option is required for this option to take effect.

       -trim  trim an image

	      This option removes any edges that are exactly the same color as the corner pixels.
	      Use -fuzz to make -trim remove edges that are nearly the same color as  the  corner
	      pixels.

       -type <type>
	      the image type

	      Choose  from: Bilevel, Grayscale, Palette, PaletteMatte, TrueColor, TrueColorMatte,
	      ColorSeparation, ColorSeparationMatte, or Optimize.

	      Normally, when a format supports different subformats such as grayscale  and  true-
	      color, the encoder will try to choose an efficient subformat.  The -type option can
	      be used to overrride this behavior.  For example, to  prevent  a	JPEG  from  being
	      written in grayscale format even though only gray pixels are present, use

		  convert bird.pgm -type TrueColor bird.jpg

	      Similarly,  using  -type	TrueColorMatte	will  force the encoder to write an alpha
	      channel even though the image is opaque,	if  the  output  format  supports  trans-
	      parency.

       -update <seconds>
	       detect when image file is modified and redisplay.

	      Suppose that while you are displaying an image the file that is currently displayed
	      is over-written.	display will automatically detect that the input  file	has  been
	      changed and update the displayed image accordingly.

       -units <type>
	      the type of image resolution

	      Choose from: Undefined, PixelsPerInch, or PixelsPerCentimeter.

       -unsharp <radius>x<sigma>
	      sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

	      Use the given radius and standard deviation (sigma).

       -use_pixmap
	      use the pixmap

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

	      This  information is printed: image scene number; image name; image size; the image
	      class (DirectClass or PseudoClass); the total number of unique colors; and the num-
	      ber of seconds to read and transform the image.  Refer to miff for a description of
	      the image class.

	      If -colors is also specified, the total unique colors in the image and color reduc-
	      tion error values are printed. Refer to quantize for a description of these values.

       -view <string>
	      FlashPix viewing parameters

       -visual <type>
	      animate images using this X visual type

	      Choose from these visual classes:

		   StaticGray
		   GrayScale
		   StaticColor
		   PseudoColor
		   TrueColor
		   DirectColor
		   default
		   visual id

	      The  X  server must support the visual you choose, otherwise an error occurs.  If a
	      visual is not specified, the visual class that can display  the  most  simultaneous
	      colors on the default screen is chosen.

       -watermark <brightness>x<saturation>
	      percent brightness and saturation of a watermark

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
	      alter an image along a sine wave

	      Specify amplitude and wavelength of the wave.

       -window <id>
	      make image the background of a window

	      id  can be a window id or name.  Specify root to select X's root window as the tar-
	      get window.

	      By default the image is tiled onto the background of the target window.	If  back-
	      drop  or	-geometry are specified, the image is surrounded by the background color.
	      Refer to X RESOURCES for details.

	      The image will not display on the root window if the image has more  unique  colors
	      than  the  target window colormap allows.  Use -colors to reduce the number of col-
	      ors.

       -window_group
	      specify the window group

       -write <filename>
	      write  an image sequence [convert, composite]

	      The image sequence following the -write filenameoption is  written  out,	and  then
	      processing  continues  with  the same image in its current state if there are addi-
	      tional options.  To restore the image to its original state after writing  it,  use
	      the +write filename option.

       -write <filename>
	      write the image to a file [display]

	      If  filename  already exists, you will be prompted as to whether it should be over-
	      written.

	      By default, the image is written in the format that it was read in as.  To  specify
	      a  particular  image format, prefix filename with the image type and a colon (e.g.,
	      ps:image) or specify the image type as the filename suffix  (e.g.,  image.ps).  See
	      convert(1)  for a list of valid image formats.  Specify file as - for standard out-
	      put. If file has the extension .Z or .gz, the file size is  compressed  using  com-
	      press  or gzip respectively. Precede the image file name with | to pipe to a system
	      command.

	      Use -compress to specify the type of image compression.

	      The equivalent X resource for this option is writeFilename  (class  WriteFilename).
	      See "X Resources", below, for details.

FILES AND FORMATS
       By  default, the image format is determined by its magic number, i.e., the first few bytes
       of the file. To specify a particular image format, precede the filename with an image for-
       mat name and a colon (i.e.ps:image) or specify the image type as the filename suffix.  The
       magic number takes precedence over the filename suffix and  the	prefix	takes  precedence
       over the magic number and the suffix in input files.  The prefix takes precedence over the
       filename suffix in output files.  To read the "built-in" formats (GRANITE, H,  LOGO,  NET-
       SCAPE,  PLASMA, and ROSE) use a prefix (including the colon) without a filename or suffix.
       To read the XC format, follow the colon with a color specification.  To read  the  CAPTION
       format, follow the colon with a text string or with a filename prefixed with the at symbol
       (@).

       When you specify X as your image type, the filename has special meaning. It specifies an X
       window by id, name, or root. If no filename is specified, the window is selected by click-
       ing the mouse in the desired window.

       Specify input_file as - for standard input, output_file	as  -  for  standard  output.  If
       input_file has the extension .Z or .gz, the file is uncompressed with uncompress or gunzip
       respectively. If output_file has the extension .Z or .gz, the  file  is	compressed  using
       with compress or gzip respectively.

       Finally,  when  running	on platforms that allow it, precede the image file name with | to
       pipe to or from a system command (this feature is not available on VMS, Win32  and  Macin-
       tosh platforms).

       Use  an	optional index enclosed in brackets after an input file name to specify a desired
       subimage of a multi-resolution image format like Photo CD (e.g. img0001.pcd[4]) or a range
       for  MPEG  images  (e.g. video.mpg[50-75]). A subimage specification can be disjoint (e.g.
       image.tiff[2,7,4]). For raw images, specify a subimage with a geometry (e.g. -size 640x512
       image.rgb[320x256+50+50]).   Single images are written with the filename you specify. How-
       ever, multi-part images (e.g., a multi-page PostScript document	with  +adjoin  specified)
       are  written  with  the	filename  followed by a period (.) and the scene number.  You can
       change this behavior by embedding a %d, %0Nd, %o, %0No, %x, or %0Nx printf format specifi-
       cation in the file name. For example,

	   image%02d.miff

       writes files image00.miff, image01.miff, etc.

       When  running  a commandline utility, you can prepend an at sign @ to a filename to read a
       list of image filenames from that file. This is convenient in the event you have too  many
       image filenames to fit on the command line.

ENVIRONMENT
       DISPLAY
	      To get the default host, display number, and screen.

SEE ALSO
       animate(1),   display(1),  animate(1),  display(1),  identify(1),  import(1),  montage(1),
       mogrify(1), composite(1)

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2002 ImageMagick Studio

       Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this soft-
       ware  and  associated  documentation files ("ImageMagick"), to deal in ImageMagick without
       restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
       distribute,  sublicense,  and/or sell copies of ImageMagick, and to permit persons to whom
       the ImageMagick is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

       The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all  copies  or
       substantial portions of ImageMagick.

       The  software  is  provided  "as  is",  without	warranty of any kind, express or implied,
       including but not limited to the warranties of merchantability, fitness for  a  particular
       purpose	and noninfringement.In no event shall ImageMagick Studio be liable for any claim,
       damages or other liability, whether in an action of contract, tort or  otherwise,  arising
       from,  out  of or in connection with ImageMagick or the use or other dealings in ImageMag-
       ick.

       Except as contained in this notice, the name of the ImageMagick Studio LLC  shall  not  be
       used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other dealings in ImageMagick
       without prior written authorization from the ImageMagick Studio.

AUTHORS
	John Cristy, ImageMagick Studio LLC,
       Glenn Randers-Pehrson, ImageMagick Studio LLC.

ImageMagick			    Date: 2002/02/15 01:00:00			   ImageMagick(1)
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