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BOOTING(8)									       BOOTING(8)

       booting - bootstrapping procedures


       This manual page collects the incantations required to bootstrap Plan 9 machines.  Some of
       the information here is specific to the installation at Bell Labs; some is generic.

       If a CPU server is up, BOOTP and TFTP will run from there; if not, the necessary files and
       services must be available on a separate machine, such as a Unix system, to use these pro-
       tocols for bootstrapping.

       Be sure to read boot(8) to understand what happens after the kernel is loaded.

       To bootstrap a terminal or a CPU server, a file server must be running.	On all the termi-
       nals, typing two control-T's followed by a lower-case r reboots the machine; other methods
       of rebooting are mentioned for some machines.

       The boot ROM prints


       Typing a newline bootstraps the default system.	The components of the server  string  are
       defaulted  from	the right, for example, to bootstrap /sys/src/9/gnot/9gnot type just that
       file name; to bootstrap from a different file server, say kremvax, type


       The bootstrap devices available are incon, 9600, 19200 and scsi; with scsi the server name
       (here  nj/astro/Nfs)  becomes a unit number, usually 0, and the file name is a boot parti-
       tion to use.  For example,


       says to boot from SCSI disk 0 the kernel in disk partition /dev/hd0boot.

       If running with a local cache file system, one normally bootstraps using  the  SCSI  disk.
       However,  if  the  local kernel has been destroyed or is hopelessly out of date, bootstrap
       using the serial line.  To do this, use the boot string


       to bootstrap from the serial line at 9600 baud or


       for a 19200 baud connection.

       First make sure the ndb(8) entry (or the corresponding Unix BOOTP  configuration  informa-
       tion) looks something like this:

	      ip= ether=00000f00acf7 sys=jobs

       When  powered on and left alone, a Nextstation will download /68020/9nextstation using the
       BOOTP and TFTP protocols.  (Actually, first it loads  /lib/tftpd/boot  and  uses  that  to
       download  the  operating  system.   That  file is not shipped as part of the distribution.
       Copy it from /usr/template/client/tftpboot/boot on the vendor-supplied file  system.)   It
       then  prompts  for  the	user name and password and asks for the Ethernet protocol to use;
       request the default.

       While the system is downloading, it displays an Ethernet symbol; at this time, holding the
       left  Command key down and typing the ~ key aborts the download and transfers control to a
       ROM-resident monitor.  The monitor will use the Ethernet to boot an alternate kernel given
       the command, e.g.,

	      ben /sys/src/9/next/9nextstation


	      ben kgbvax:/sys/src/9/next/9nextstation

       to force the download to come from system kgbvax.

       If  running  with a local cache file system, bootstrap from the disk.  While the system is
       downloading, it displays a symbol of a spinning disk.  The processor first  loads  a  pro-
       gram,  Disclabel  (see  home(8)) from the kernel partition /dev/hd1label and then the real
       kernel from /dev/hd1boot.

       See Next's documentation for other details, in particular how to initialize a new  machine
       to boot from Ethernet instead of disk.

       To  turn  the power off, hold down the left Command and Alternate keys and press the power
       key.  To reboot, hold down the left Command and Alternate and press the key in  the  upper
       right corner of the keypad.

   Sun Sparcstation 2, 10, or 20
       The  Sparcstations all behave similarly.  First make sure the ndb(8) entry (or correspond-
       ing information on a Unix BOOTP server) is correct.  If you are running	a  Plan  9  tftpd
       (see bootp(8)), it will download the file specified by the bootf parameter for the machine
       in /lib/ndb; /sparc/9ss runs on the Sparcstation 2, /sparc/9ss10 on the Sparcstation 10.

       If you are not using  Plan  9  tftpd,  you  will  have  to  copy  or  link  /sparc/9ss  or
       /sparc/9ss10  to  the  appropriate file on the downloading system; the file name requested
       will be of the form IPaddr.SUNmm where IPaddr is the 8-digit hexadecimal IP address of the
       machine requesting the kernel and mm is an architecture identifier.

       To bootstrap, type

	      boot net

       to  the power-on monitor to load the kernel.  There is no way to specify an alternate file
       to download.  Once running, the operating  system  asks	the  same  questions  as  on  the

   MIPS Magnum
       The  Magnum ROM monitor can boot from the Ethernet or from a local disk.  To boot from the
       Ethernet, type


       or use the ROM command setenv to set the variable bootfile to that same	string	and  type
       boot.   To load a different file, tell bootp which file to load, and to force the download
       to come from a particular system, bootp()system:file.  Any arguments after bootp()file are
       passed  to  /boot.  If you are running a Plan 9 BOOTP server (see bootp(8)), the file name
       can be omitted and the file specified by the bootf parameter for the machine  in  /lib/ndb
       will be downloaded by default.

       To  boot  Plan  9  from	disk  it  is first necessary to install the boot program, kept in
       /sys/src/boot/magnum/partboot.  This should be written into the	first  partition  on  the
       disk,  which  must  be exactly 32K; the second partition should be at least a megabyte and
       will hold the kernel to boot.  Boot Plan 9 over the Ethernet  and  follow  these  instruc-
       tions.  Use prep(8) to establish a partition table that looks something like this:

	      plan9 partitions
	      partboot 0 64
	      boot 64 2112

       Run these commands to put the necessary files on the disk:

	      bind -a '#w' /dev
	      cp /sys/src/boot/magnum/partboot /dev/sd0partboot
	      cp /mips/9magnum /dev/sd0boot

       The  kernel,  here  /mips/9magnum, may be any Magnum kernel.  The rc(1) script magnum/home
       (see home(8)) automates this whole procedure for stand-alone home Magnums.

       Once the disk is established, type to the Magnum boot ROM


       to load the Plan 9 bootstrap program or use the ROM command setenv  to  set  the  variable
       bootfile  to  that  same string and type boot.  The bootstrap program will then prompt for
       the partition to boot from.  If nothing is typed within	15  seconds,  a  kernel  will  be
       booted  from  the  hard	disk  partition /dev/sd0boot.  Any arguments after dksd(0,0)b are
       passed to boot(8).

       By /mips/9magnumboot installing as the kernel on disk, it is possible to bootstrap another
       kernel using networks or devices unknown to the regular ROM.  In other words, use partboot
       to load a more sophisticated bootstrapping kernel, and boot again using that.   For  exam-
       ple, typing

	      dksd(0,0)b il /mips/9magnum

       to such a system will bootstrap over the Ethernet using IL.

       Once running, the operating system asks the same questions as on the Nextstation.

       To  boot  a PC, it is necessary to get b loaded into memory (see b.com(8)).  There are two
       ways to do this.  A Plan 9 boot floppy prepared by format (see prep(8)) will start b  when
       the PC is reset or powered on.  Without such a floppy, boot DOS normally and type b to the
       DOS prompt.

       From DOS, it is possible to give b an argument to specify the booting method.   Otherwise,
       b will prompt for the method.

       To  boot  the  file /386/9pc from Ethernet using BOOTP and tftpd, use the method e!0 or to
       DOS type

	      b e!0

       The DOS file plan9.ini (see plan9.ini(8)) must specify an Ethernet interface card for this
       to work.

       To boot from the Plan 9 IDE hard disk partition hd0boot, type

	      b h!0!boot

       To boot from a DOS filesystem the kernel 9pc, type

	      b hd!0!9pc

       To boot from a DOS filesystem on a floppy, type

	      b fd!0!9pc

       The  boot  program  b  will  also  read the file plan9.ini from the DOS file system on any
       floppy or hard disk and pass it to  the	kernel.   Plan9.ini  specifies	PC  configuration
       information.  See b.com(8) and plan9.ini(8) for details.

       Once the kernel is booted, it behaves like the others.  See boot(8) for details.

   CPU Servers
       The  Plan  9  CPU servers are multi-user, so they do not request a user name when booting.
       On the CPU servers, typing a control-P on the console reboots the machine.

   SGI Power Series CPU Server
       Enter the ROM monitor by typing an ESC at the system startup menu, then select  option  5.
       The  monitor will print a >> prompt.  Then type bootp()/mips/9powerboot to load the Plan 9
       bootstrap program.  The bootstrap program takes two optional arguments, which may be typed
       on the same command line: the method with which to attach to a file server (as in boot(8))
       and a kernel file to boot.  The default method is cyc  and  the	default  kernel  file  is

       The  bootstrap  program reads a configuration description from a file identified by the IP
       address of the machine, e.g.  /mips/conf/	9powerboot then loads the  kernel
       and passes it the configuration information.

   Sun Sparcstation CPU Server
       Proceed	as for the Sparcstation running as a terminal but load /sparc/9sscpu on Sparcsta-
       tion 2's and /sparc/9ss10cpu on Sparcstation 10's.

   Mips Magnum CPU Server
       Booting is the same as for the Magnum running as a  terminal  but  the  file  to  load  is

   File servers
       The  CPU  servers  and  terminals  run  essentially  the same program, but the Plan 9 file
       servers run a distinct system.  The file servers accept only  the  commands  described  in
       fs(8) on their consoles.

   SGI Power Series File Server
       Get to the >> prompt as described for the CPU servers.  Then boot the system over the Eth-
       ernet like a Magnum (sic), loading /mips/9powerfs.  The system will come up automatically.
       On  machines  with WORM jukeboxes, several minutes will be spent initializing the jukebox;
       the machine will chat happily while this is going  on.	The  first  time  the  system  is
       booted,	it  will  be  necessary to establish the NVRAM and configuration information; see

   Mips 6280 File Server
       In response to the ROM's >>> prompt, type


   Sparc Sparcstation File Server
       Proceed as for the Sparcstation running as a terminal, but load	/sparc/9ssfs.	There  is
       support for the Sparcstation 2 only.

   Mips Magnum File Server
       Proceed as for the Magnum running as a terminal, but load /mips/9magnumfs.

       b.com(8), boot(8), fs(8), init(8), plan9.ini(8)

       Sources	for  the various boot programs are under /sys/src/boot, except that /mips/9power-
       boot is a version of the SGI kernel made in /sys/src/9/power.

       The file server should be able to boot from its own disk.

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