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FS(8)											    FS(8)

       fs, exsort - file server maintenance

       help [ command ...  ]
       arp subcommand
       cfs filesystem
       check [options]
       clri [file...]
       cpu [proc]
       create path uid gid perm [lad]
       cwcmd subcommand
       cycl subcommand
       date [[+-] seconds]
       duallow [uid]
       flag flag [ channel ]
       newuser name [options]
       profile [01]
       remove [files...]
       route subcommand
       stats [[-] flags...]
       time command
       trace [number]
       users [file]
       who [user...]
       wormcp [ funit tunit [nblock]]
       wormeject [ tunit ]
       wormingest [ tunit ]
       wormoffline [ tunit ]
       wormonline [ tunit ]

       disk/exsort [-w] [file]

       Except  for  exsort,  these  commands  are  available only on the console of an fs(4) file

       The console requires the machine's password to  be  supplied  before  accepting	commands.
       Typing a control-D will cause the server to request the password again.

       Help  prints a `usage string' for the named commands, by default all commands.  Also, many
       commands print menus of their options if given incorrect or incomplete parameters.

       Arp has two subcommands: print prints the contents of the ARP cache and flush flushes it.

       Cfs changes the current file system, that is, the file  tree  to  which	commands  (check,
       clri, create, newuser, profile, remove, and users) apply.  The initial filesystem is main.

       Check  verifies the consistency of the current file system.  With no options it checks and
       reports the status.  It suspends service while running.	Options are:

       rdall  Read every block in the file system (can take a long time).  Normally,  check  will
	      stop short of the actual contents of a file and just verify the block addresses.

       tag    Fix bad tags; each block has a tag that acts as a backwards pointer for consistency

       ream   Fix bad tags and also clear the contents of blocks that have bad tags.

       pfile  Print every file name.

       pdir   Print every directory name.

       free   Rebuild the list of free blocks with all blocks  that  are  not  referenced.   This
	      option is only useful on non-cache/WORM file systems.

       bad    Each  block  address  that is out of range or duplicate is cleared.  Note that only
	      the second and subsequent use of a block is cleared.  Often the problems in a  file
	      system  are  caused  by one bad file that has a lot of garbage block addresses.  In
	      such a case, it is wiser to use check to find the bad file (by number of diagnostic
	      messages) and then use clri to clear the addresses in that file.	After that, check
	      can be used to reclaim the free list.

       touch  Cause every directory and indirect block	not  on  the  current  WORM  disk  to  be
	      advanced	to  the current WORM on the next dump.	This is a discredited idea to try
	      to keep operating on the knee of the cache working set.  Buy more cache disk.

       Clri clears the internal directory entry and abandons storage associated with  files.   It
       ignores	the  usual rules for sanity, such as checking against removing a non-empty direc-
       tory.  A subsequent check free will place the abandoned storage in the free list.

       Cpu prints the CPU utilization and state of the processes in the file server.  If the name
       of  a  process  type  argument  is given, then CPU utilization for only those processes is

       Create creates a file on the current file system.  Uid and gid are names or  numbers  from
       /adm/users.   Perm  is  the  low  9 bits of the permission mode of the file, in octal.  An
       optional final l, a, or d creates a locked file, append-only file, or directory.

       Cwcmd controls the cached WORM file systems.  The subcommands are:

       mvstate state1 state2 [platter]
	      States are none, dirty, dump, dump1, error, read, and write.  A mvstate dump1  dump
	      will  cause  I/O errors in the last dump to be retried.  A mvstate dump1 write will
	      cause I/O errors in the last dump to be retried in reallocated slots  in	the  next
	      dump.   A  mvstate read none will flush the cache associated with the WORM.  A mvs-
	      tate dump write aborts the background process dumping to WORM; as a consequence  it
	      leaves  holes  in  the  dump file system.  Other uses are possible but arcane.  The
	      optional platter limits affected blocks to those on that platter.

       prchain [start] [back]
	      Print the chain of superblocks for the directory containing the roots of the dumped
	      file  systems,  starting at block number start (default 0) going forward (backwards
	      if back is supplied).

       savecache [percent]
	      Copy the block numbers, in native endian longwords, of blocks in the read state  to
	      the  file  /adm/cache  for  use by disk/exsort.  If an argument is given, then that
	      percent (most recently used) of each cache bucket is copied.

       loadcache [dskno]
	      Read /adm/cache and for every block there on WORM disk dskno, read the  block  from
	      WORM to the cache.  If dskno is not supplied, all blocks in /adm/cache are read.

       startdump [01]
	      Suspend (0) or restart (1) the background dump process.

	      Verify that the superblock on the WORM is readable, ignoring the cached copy.

       acct   Prints  how many times each user has caused the system to allocate new space on the
	      WORM; the units are megabytes.

	      Clears the accounting records for acct.

       Cycl controls the Cyclone fiber link to the  main  CPU  server.	 The  one  subcommand  is
       reboot, which reinitializes the Cyclone board and connection.

       Date  prints the current date.  It may be adjusted using +-seconds.  With no sign, it sets
       the date to the absolute number of seconds since 00:00 Jan 1, 1970 GMT;	with  a  sign  it
       trims the current time.

       Duallow	sets  permissions  such  that the named user can read and search any directories.
       This is the permission necessary to do a du(1) command anywhere in the file system to dis-
       cover disk usage.

       Dump  starts  a dump to WORM immediately for all file systems that have a WORM associated.
       File service is suspended while the cache is scanned; service resumes  when  the  copy  to
       WORM starts.

       Files prints for every connection the number of allocated fids.

       Flag toggles flags, initially all off:

       arp    Report ARP activity.

       attach Report as connections are made to the file server.

       chat   (Very noisy.)  Print all 9P messages to and from the server.

       dkit   Report Datakit activity.

       route  Report received RIP packets.

       ro     Report I/O on the WORM device.

       If  given  a second numeric channel argument, as reported by who, the flag is altered only
       on that connection.

       Halt does a sync and halts the machine, returning to the boot ROM.

       Newuser requires a name argument.  With no options it adds user name,  with  group  leader
       name,  to  /adm/users and makes the directory /usr/name owned by user and group name.  The
       options are

       ?      Print the entry for name.

       :      Add a group: add the name to /adm/users but don't create the directory.  By conven-
	      tion, groups are numbered starting from 10000, users from 0.

	      Rename existing user name to newname.

	      Change  the  leader  of  name to leader.	If leader is missing, remove the existing

	      Add member to the member list of name.

	      Remove existing member from the member list of name.

       After a successful newuser command the file server overwrites /adm/users  to  reflect  the
       internal state of the user table.

       Noattach  disables  attach(5)  messages, in particular for system maintenance.  Previously
       attached connections are unaffected.  Another noattach will enable normal behavior.

       Passwd sets the machine's password and writes it in non-volatile RAM.

       Profile 0 clears the profiling buffer and enables profiling; profile 1 stops profiling and
       writes  the  data  to  /adm/kprofdata  for use by kprof (see prof(1)).  If a number is not
       specified, the profiling state toggles.

       Remove removes files.

       Route maintains an IP routing table.  The subcommands are:

       add dest gate [mask]
	      Add a static route from IP address dest using gateway gate with an optional  subnet

       delete dest
	      Delete an entry from the routing table.

       print  Display the contents of the routing table.

       ripon  Enables the table to be filled from RIP packets.

       ripoff Disables the table from being updated by RIP packets.

       The  stat commands are connected with a service or device identified by the last character
       of the name: c, Cyclone fiber link; d, SCSI targets;  e,  Eagle	Ethernet  controller;  j,
       Jaguar SCSI/VME disk controller; k, Datakit; l, LANCE Ethernet controller; w, cached WORM.
       The Statp command prints statistics about processes; an optional argument  identifies  the
       process to be displayed; stata prints overall statistics about the file system.	The stats
       command takes an optional argument identifying the characters of  stat  commands  to  run.
       The  option  is	remembered  and  becomes  the default for subsequent stats commands if it
       begins with a minus sign.

       Sync writes dirty blocks in memory to the magnetic disk cache.

       Time reports the time required to execute the command.

       Trace with no options prints the set of queue-locks held  by  each  process  in	the  file
       server.	 If  things are quiescent, there should be no output.  With an argument number it
       prints a stack traceback of that process.

       Users uses the contents of file (default  /adm/users)  to  initialize  the  file  server's
       internal  representation  of  the  users structure.  Incorrectly formatted entries in file
       will be ignored.  If file is explicitly default, the system builds  a  minimal  functional
       users table internally; this can help recover from disasters.  If the file cannot be read,
       you must run

	      users default

       for the system to function.  The default table looks like this:


       Vcache displays statistics about the virtual buffer cache on machines with  mapped  caches
       such as the Sparcstation 2.

       Version reports when the file server was last compiled and last rebooted.

       Who  reports, one per line, the names of users connected to the file server and the status
       of their connections.  The first number printed on each line is the channel number of  the
       connection.  If users are given the output selects connections owned by those users.

       Wormcp  copies  from  WORM disk funit to WORM disk tunit nblock native blocks (default the
       whole disk).  If tunit is written, wormcp guarantees the written data is equal to the data
       on funit and stops if not.  Wormcp does a binary search to find the lowest unwritten block
       on tunit at which to start the copy.  With no arguments, wormcp stops a running copy.

       Wormeject moves the WORM disk in slot tunit to the output shelf.

       Wormingest moves the WORM disk from the input shelf to slot tunit.

       Wormoffline will take the designated WORM controller out of  service.   This  is  done  in
       software  by  ignoring that logical unit when changing platters.  Note that the controller
       will be restored on a reboot.

       Wormonline will restore the designated unit to service.

       When the file server boots, it prints the message

	      for config mode hit a key within 5 seconds

       If a character is typed within 5 seconds of the message appearing, the server  will  enter
       config  mode.  See fsconfig(8) for the commands available in config mode.  The system also
       enters config mode if, at boot time, the non-volatile RAM does not  appear  to  contain	a
       valid configuration.

       Exsort is a regular command to be run on a CPU server, not on the file server console.  It
       reads the named file (default /adm/cache) and sorts the cache disk block numbers contained
       therein.  It assumes the numbers are 4-byte integers and guesses the endianness by looking
       at the data.  It then prints statistics about the cache.  With option  -w  it  writes  the
       sorted data back to file.


       Ken Thompson, ``The Plan 9 File Server''.

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