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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for passwd (opensolaris section 1)

passwd(1)				  User Commands 				passwd(1)

NAME
       passwd - change login password and password attributes

SYNOPSIS
       passwd [-r files | -r ldap | -r nis | -r nisplus] [name]

       passwd [-r files] [-egh] [name]

       passwd [-r files] -s [-a]

       passwd [-r files] -s [name]

       passwd [-r files] [-d | -l | -u | -N] [-f] [-n min]
	    [-w warn] [-x max] name

       passwd -r ldap [-egh] [name]

       passwd [-r ldap ] -s [-a]

       passwd [-r ldap ] -s [name]

       passwd -r ldap [-d | -l | -u | -N] [-f] [-n min] [-w warn] [-x max] name

       passwd -r nis [-egh] [name]

       passwd -r nisplus [-egh] [-D domainname] [name]

       passwd -r nisplus -s [-a]

       passwd -r nisplus [-D domainname] -s [name]

       passwd -r nisplus [-l | -u | -N] [-f] [-n min] [-w warn]
	    [-x max] [-D domainname] name

DESCRIPTION
       The  passwd  command changes the password or lists password attributes associated with the
       user's login name. Additionally, privileged users can use  passwd  to  install  or  change
       passwords and attributes associated with any login name.

       When used to change a password, passwd prompts everyone for their old password, if any. It
       then prompts for the new password twice. When the old password is entered,  passwd  checks
       to  see	if  it	has  aged  sufficiently. If aging is insufficient, passwd terminates; see
       pwconv(1M), nistbladm(1), and shadow(4) for additional information.

       The pwconv command creates and updates  /etc/shadow  with  information  from  /etc/passwd.
       pwconv  relies on a special value of x in the password field of /etc/passwd. This value of
       xindicates that the password for the user is already in /etc/shadow and should not be mod-
       ified.

       If aging is sufficient, a check is made to ensure that the new password meets construction
       requirements. When the new password is entered a second time, the two copies  of  the  new
       password are compared. If the two copies are not identical, the cycle of prompting for the
       new password is repeated for, at most, two more times.

       Passwords must be constructed to meet the following requirements:

	   o	  Each password must have PASSLENGTH characters, where PASSLENGTH is  defined  in
		  /etc/default/passwd  and  is	set  to  6. Setting PASSLENGTH to more than eight
		  characters requires configuring policy.conf(4) with an algorithm that  supports
		  greater than eight characters.

	   o	  Each	password  must	meet  the  configured complexity constraints specified in
		  /etc/default/passwd.

	   o	  Each password must not be a member of the configured dictionary as specified in
		  /etc/default/passwd.

	   o	  For accounts in name services which support password history checking, if prior
		  password history is defined, new passwords must not be contained in  the  prior
		  password history.

       If all requirements are met, by default, the passwd command consults /etc/nsswitch.conf to
       determine in which repositories to perform password update. It  searches  the  passwd  and
       passwd_compat  entries.	The  sources  (repositories)  associated  with	these entries are
       updated. However, the password update configurations supported are limited to the  follow-
       ing  cases. Failure to comply with the configurations prevents users from logging onto the
       system. The password update configurations are:

	   o	  passwd: files

	   o	  passwd: files ldap

	   o	  passwd: files nis

	   o	  passwd: files nisplus

	   o	  passwd: compat (==> files nis)

	   o	  passwd: compat (==> files ldap)

		  passwd_compat: ldap

	   o	  passwd: compat (==> files nisplus)

		  passwd_compat: nisplus

       You can add the ad keyword to any of the passwd configurations in the above list. However,
       you cannot use the passwd command to change the password of an Active Directory (AD) user.
       If the ad keyword is found in the passwd entry during a password update operation,  it  is
       ignored. To update the password of an AD user, use the kpasswd(1) command.

       Network	administrators,  who  own  the	NIS+  password	table,	can  change  any password
       attributes. The administrator cofigured for updating LDAP  shadow  information,	can  also
       change any password attributes. See ldapclient(1M).

       When  a	user  has  a password stored in one of the name services as well as a local files
       entry, the passwd command updates both. It is possible to have different passwords in  the
       name  service  and  local files entry. Use passwd -r to change a specific password reposi-
       tory.

       In the files case, super-users (for instance, real and  effective  uid  equal  to  0,  see
       id(1M) and su(1M)) can change any password. Hence, passwd does not prompt privileged users
       for the old password. Privileged users are not forced to comply with  password  aging  and
       password construction requirements. A privileged user can create a null password by enter-
       ing a carriage return in response to the prompt for a new  password.  (This  differs  from
       passwd  -d because the password prompt is still displayed.) If NIS is in effect, superuser
       on the root master can change any password without being prompted for the old NIS  passwd,
       and is not forced to comply with password construction requirements.

       If  LDAP  is in effect, superuser on any Native LDAP client system can change any password
       without being prompted for the old LDAP passwd, and is not forced to comply with  password
       construction requirements.

       Normally,  passwd entered with no arguments changes the password of the current user. When
       a user logs in and then invokes su(1M) to become superuser or another user, passwd changes
       the original user's password, not the password of the superuser or the new user.

       Any  user can use the -s option to show password attributes for his or her own login name,
       provided they are using the -r nisplus argument. Otherwise, the -s argument is  restricted
       to the superuser.

       The format of the display is:

	 name status mm/dd/yy min max warn

       or, if password aging information is not present,

	 name status

       where

       name	   The login ID of the user.

       status	   The password status of name.

		   The status field can take the following values:

		   LK	 This account is locked account. See Security.

		   NL	 This account is a no login account. See Security.

		   NP	 This  account	has no password and is therefore open without authentica-
			 tion.

		   PS	 This account has a password.

       mm/dd/yy    The date password was last changed for name.  All  password	aging  dates  are
		   determined using Greenwich Mean Time (Universal Time) and therefore can differ
		   by as much as a day in other time zones.

       min	   The minimum number of days required between password changes  for  name.  MIN-
		   WEEKS is found in /etc/default/passwd and is set to NULL.

       max	   The	maximum  number of days the password is valid for name. MAXWEEKS is found
		   in /etc/default/passwd and is set to NULL.

       warn	   The number of days relative to max before the password expires  and	the  name
		   are warned.

   Security
       passwd  uses  pam(3PAM)	for  password change. It calls PAM with a service name passwd and
       uses service module type auth for authentication and password for password change.

       Locking an account (-l option) does not allow its use for password based login or  delayed
       execution  (such  as  at(1), batch(1), or cron(1M)). The -N option can be used to disallow
       password based login, while continuing to allow delayed execution.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -a		Shows password attributes for all entries. Use only with the  -s  option.
			name  must  not  be provided. For the nisplus repository, this shows only
			the entries in the NIS+ password table	in  the  local	domain	that  the
			invoker  is authorized to read. For the files and ldap repositories, this
			is restricted to the superuser.

       -D domainname	Consults the passwd.org_dir table in domainname. If this  option  is  not
			specified,  the  default domainname returned by nis_local_directory(3NSL)
			are used. This domain name is  the  same  as  that  returned  by  domain-
			name(1M).

       -e		Changes  the  login  shell. For the files repository, this only works for
			the superuser. Normal users can change the ldap, nis, or nisplus  reposi-
			tories.  The  choice  of shell is limited by the requirements of getuser-
			shell(3C). If the user currently has a	shell  that  is  not  allowed  by
			getusershell, only root can change it.

       -g		Changes  the  gecos  (finger) information. For the files repository, this
			only works for the superuser. Normal users can change the ldap,  nis,  or
			nisplus repositories.

       -h		Changes the home directory.

       -r		Specifies  the repository to which an operation is applied. The supported
			repositories are files, ldap, nis, or nisplus.

       -s name		Shows password attributes for the login name. For the nisplus repository,
			this  works  for  everyone.  However for the files and ldap repositories,
			this only works for the superuser. It does not work at all  for  the  nis
			repository which does not support password aging.

			The  output  of this option, and only this option is Stable and parsable.
			The format is username followed by white space followed  by  one  of  the
			following codes.

			New  codes  might be added in the future so code that parses this must be
			flexible in the face of unknown codes. While all existing codes  are  two
			characters in length that might not always be the case.

			The following are the current status codes:

			LK    Account is locked for UNIX authenitcation. passwd -l was run or the
			      authentication failed RETRIES times.

			NL    The account is a no login account. passwd -N has been run.

			NP    Account has no password. passwd -d was run.

			PS    The account probably has a valid password.

			UN    The data in the password field is unknown. It is not a recognizable
			      hashed  password	or  any  of  the above entries. See crypt(3C) for
			      valid password hashes.

   Privileged User Options
       Only a privileged user can use the following options:

       -d	  Deletes password for name and unlocks  the  account.	The  login  name  is  not
		  prompted  for  password.  It is only applicable to the files and ldap reposito-
		  ries.

		  If the login(1) option PASSREQ=YES is configured, the account is  not  able  to
		  login. PASSREQ=YES is the delivered default.

       -f	  Forces  the  user to change password at the next login by expiring the password
		  for name.

       -l	  Locks password entry for name. See the  -d  or  -u  option  for  unlocking  the
		  account.

       -N	  Makes  the  password	entry for name a value that cannot be used for login, but
		  does not lock the account. See the -d option for removing the value, or to  set
		  a password to allow logins.

       -n min	  Sets	minimum field for name. The min field contains the minimum number of days
		  between password changes for name. If min is greater than max, the user can not
		  change  the  password. Always use this option with the -x option, unless max is
		  set to -1 (aging turned off). In that case, min need not be set.

       -u	  Unlocks a locked password for entry name. See the -d option  for  removing  the
		  locked password, or to set a password to allow logins.

       -w warn	  Sets warn field for name. The warn field contains the number of days before the
		  password expires and the user is warned. This option is not valid  if  password
		  aging is disabled.

       -x max	  Sets maximum field for name. The max field contains the number of days that the
		  password is valid for name. The aging for name is turned off immediately if max
		  is set to -1.


OPERANDS
       The following operand is supported:

       name    User login name.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       If  any	of  the  LC_*  variables,  that  is,  LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, LC_COLLATE,
       LC_NUMERIC, and LC_MONETARY (see environ(5)), are not set in the environment,  the  opera-
       tional  behavior  of  passwd  for  each corresponding locale category is determined by the
       value of the LANG environment variable. If LC_ALL is set, its contents are used	to  over-
       ride  both the LANG and the other LC_* variables. If none of the above variables is set in
       the environment, the C (U.S. style) locale determines how passwd behaves.

       LC_CTYPE       Determines how passwd handles characters. When LC_CTYPE is set to  a  valid
		      value,  passwd  can  display and handle text and filenames containing valid
		      characters for that locale. passwd can display  and  handle  Extended  Unix
		      Code  (EUC)  characters  where  any  individual character can be 1, 2, or 3
		      bytes wide. passwd can also handle EUC characters of 1, 2, or  more  column
		      widths. In the C locale, only characters from ISO 8859-1 are valid.

       LC_MESSAGES    Determines  how  diagnostic  and	informative  messages are presented. This
		      includes the language and style of the messages, and the	correct  form  of
		      affirmative  and negative responses. In the C locale, the messages are pre-
		      sented in the default form found in the program itself (in most cases, U.S.
		      English).

EXIT STATUS
       The passwd command exits with one of the following values:

       0     Success.

       1     Permission denied.

       2     Invalid combination of options.

       3     Unexpected failure. Password file unchanged.

       4     Unexpected failure. Password file(s) missing.

       5     Password file(s) busy. Try again later.

       6     Invalid argument to option.

       7     Aging option is disabled.

       8     No memory.

       9     System error.

       10    Account expired.

FILES
       /etc/default/passwd    Default	values	 can   be   set   for	the  following	flags  in
			      /etc/default/passwd. For example: MAXWEEKS=26

			      DICTIONDBDIR    The directory where the generated dictionary  data-
					      bases reside. Defaults to /var/passwd.

					      If  neither  DICTIONLIST nor DICTIONDBDIR is speci-
					      fied, the system	does  not  perform  a  dictionary
					      check.

			      DICTIONLIST     DICTIONLIST  can	contain  list  of comma separated
					      dictionary files such as DICTIONLIST=file1,  file2,
					      file3. Each dictionary file contains multiple lines
					      and each line consists of  a  word  and  a  NEWLINE
					      character  (similar  to /usr/share/lib/dict/words.)
					      You must specify full  pathnames.  The  words  from
					      these files are merged into a database that is used
					      to determine whether a password is based on a  dic-
					      tionary word.

					      If  neither  DICTIONLIST nor DICTIONDBDIR is speci-
					      fied, the system	does  not  perform  a  dictionary
					      check.

					      To  prebuild  the  dictionary  database,	see mkpw-
					      dict(1M).

			      HISTORY	      Maximum number of prior password	history  to  keep
					      for  a user. Setting the HISTORY value to zero(0),
					      or removing the flag,  causes  the  prior  password
					      history  of  all	users to be discarded at the next
					      password change by any user. The default is not  to
					      define  the  HISTORY flag. The maximum value is 26.
					      Currently, this functionality is enforced only  for
					      user  accounts  defined  in  the files name service
					      (local passwd(4)/shadow(4)).

			      MAXREPEATS      Maximum number of allowable  consecutive	repeating
					      characters.  If  MAXREPEATS  is  not set or is zero(0), the default is no checks

			      MAXWEEKS	      Maximum time period that password is valid.

			      MINALPHA	      Minimum number  of  alpha  character  required.  If
					      MINALPHA is not set, the default is 2.

			      MINDIFF	      Minimum  differences  required between an old and a
					      new password. If MINDIFF is not set, the default is
					      3.

			      MINDIGIT	      Minimum  number  of digits required. If MINDIGIT is
					      not set or is set to zero(0), the  default  is  no
					      checks. You cannot be specify MINDIGIT if MINNONAL-
					      PHA is also specified.

			      MINLOWER	      Minimum number of lower case letters  required.  If
					      not set or zero(0), the default is no checks.

			      MINNONALPHA     Minimum  number of non-alpha (including numeric and
					      special) required. If MINNONALPHA is not	set,  the
					      default  is  1.  You  cannot specify MINNONALPHA if
					      MINDIGIT or MINSPECIAL is also specified.

			      MINWEEKS	      Minimum time period  before  the	password  can  be
					      changed.

			      MINSPECIAL      Minimum number of special (non-alpha and non-digit)
					      characters required. If MINSPECIAL is not set or is
					      zero(0),  the  default	is  no checks. You cannot
					      specify MINSPECIAL if you also specify MINNONALPHA.

			      MINUPPER	      Minimum number of upper case letters  required.  If
					      MINUPPER	is not set or is zero(0), the default is
					      no checks.

			      NAMECHECK       Enable/disable checking  or  the	login  name.  The
					      default is to do login name checking. A case insen-
					      sitive value of no disables this feature.

			      PASSLENGTH      Minimum length of password, in characters.

			      WARNWEEKS       Time period until warning  of  date  of  password's
					      ensuing expiration.

			      WHITESPACE      Determine  if  whitespace characters are allowed in
					      passwords. Valid values are YES and NO.  If  WHITE-
					      SPACE is not set or is set to YES, whitespace char-
					      acters are allowed.

       /etc/oshadow	      Temporary file used by passwd, passmgmt and pwconv  to  update  the
			      real shadow file.

       /etc/passwd	      Password file.

       /etc/shadow	      Shadow password file.

       /etc/shells	      Shell database.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |See below.		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

       The human readable output is Uncommitted. The options are Committed.

SEE ALSO
       at(1),  batch(1), finger(1), kpasswd(1), login(1), nistbladm(1), cron(1M), domainname(1M),
       eeprom(1M), id(1M), ldapclient(1M), mkpwdict(1M), passmgmt(1M), pwconv(1M), su(1M),  user-
       add(1M),   userdel(1M),	 usermod(1M),  crypt(3C),  getpwnam(3C),  getspnam(3C),  getuser-
       shell(3C),   nis_local_directory(3NSL),	  pam(3PAM),	loginlog(4),	nsswitch.conf(4),
       pam.conf(4),  passwd(4),  policy.conf(4), shadow(4), shells(4), attributes(5), environ(5),
       pam_authtok_check(5),	 pam_authtok_get(5),	 pam_authtok_store(5),	   pam_dhkeys(5),
       pam_ldap(5), pam_unix_account(5), pam_unix_auth(5), pam_unix_session(5)

NOTES
       The  pam_unix(5)  module  is  no  longer  supported.  Similar functionality is provided by
       pam_unix_account(5),    pam_unix_auth(5),    pam_unix_session(5),    pam_authtok_check(5),
       pam_authtok_get(5), pam_authtok_store(5), pam_dhkeys(5), and pam_passwd_auth(5).

       The  nispasswd  and  ypasswd  commands  are  wrappers  around passwd. Use of nispasswd and
       ypasswd is discouraged. Use passwd -r repository_name instead.

       NIS+ might not be supported in future releases of the Solaris operating system.	Tools  to
       aid the migration from NIS+ to LDAP are available in the current Solaris release. For more
       information, visit http://www.sun.com/directory/nisplus/transition.html.

       Changing a password in the files and ldap repositories clears the failed login count.

       Changing a password reactivates an account deactivated for inactivity for  the  length  of
       the inactivity period.

       Input  terminal	processing  might  interpret  some key sequences and not pass them to the
       passwd command.

       An account with no password, status code NP, might not be able to login. See the  login(1)
       PASSREQ option.

SunOS 5.11				   25 Feb 2009					passwd(1)


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