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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for dirs (opensolaris section 1)

cd(1)					  User Commands 				    cd(1)

NAME
       cd, chdir, pushd, popd, dirs - change working directory

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/cd [directory]

   sh
       cd [argument]

       chdir [argument]

   csh
       cd [dir]

       chdir [dir]

       pushd [+n | dir]

       popd [+n]

       dirs [-l]

   ksh, ksh93
       cd [-L] [-P] [arg]

       cd old new

DESCRIPTION
   /usr/bin/cd
       The  /usr/bin/cd  utility  changes  the current directory in the context of the cd utility
       only. This is in contrast to the version built into the shell. /usr/bin/cd has  no  effect
       on  the invoking process but can be used to determine whether or not a given directory can
       be set as the current directory.

   sh
       The Bourne shell built-in cd changes the current directory to argument. The shell  parame-
       ter  HOME  is the default argument. The shell parameter CDPATH defines the search path for
       the directory containing argument. Alternative directory names are separated  by  a  colon
       (:).  The default path is <null> (specifying the current directory). The current directory
       is specified by a null path name, which can appear immediately after  the  equal  sign  or
       between	the colon delimiters anywhere else in the path list. If argument begins with `/',
       `.', or `..', the search path is not used.  Otherwise,  each  directory	in  the  path  is
       searched for argument. cd must have execute (search) permission in argument. Because a new
       process is created to execute each command, cd would be ineffective if it were written  as
       a  normal  command;  therefore,	it  is	recognized  by and is internal to the shell. (See
       pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).

       chdir is just another way to call cd.

   csh
       If dir is not specified, the C shell built-in cd uses the value of shell parameter HOME as
       the  new  working  directory.  If dir specifies a complete path starting with `/', `.', or
       `..', dir becomes the new working directory. If neither case applies, cd tries to find the
       designated  directory relative to one of the paths specified by the CDPATH shell variable.
       CDPATH has the same syntax as, and similar semantics to, the PATH shell variable. cd  must
       have  execute (search) permission in dir. Because a new process is created to execute each
       command, cd would be ineffective if it were written as a normal command; therefore, it  is
       recognized by and is internal to the C-shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).

       chdir  changes  the  shell's  working directory to directory dir. If no argument is given,
       change to the home directory of the user. If dir is a relative pathname not found  in  the
       current directory, check for it in those directories listed in the cdpath variable. If dir
       is the name of a shell variable whose value starts with a /, change to the directory named
       by that value.

       pushd pushes a directory onto the directory stack. With no arguments, exchange the top two
       elements.

       +n     Rotate the n'th entry to the top of the stack and cd to it.

       dir    Push the current working directory onto the stack and change to dir.

       popd pops the directory stack and cd to the new top directory. The elements of the  direc-
       tory stack are numbered from 0 starting at the top.

       +n    Discard the n'th entry in the stack.

       dirs prints the directory stack, most recent to the left; the first directory shown is the
       current directory. With the -l argument, produce an unabbreviated printout; use of  the	~
       notation is suppressed.

   ksh, ksh93
       The  Korn  shell  built-in  cd command can be in either of two forms. In the first form it
       changes the current directory to arg. If arg is - the directory is changed to the previous
       directory. The shell variable HOME is the default arg. The environment variable PWD is set
       to the current directory. If the PWD is changed, the  OLDPWD  environment  variable  shall
       also  be  changed  to the value of the old working directory, that is, the current working
       directory immediately prior to the call to  change  directory  (cd).  The  shell  variable
       CDPATH  defines	the  search  path for the directory containing arg. Alternative directory
       names are separated by a colon (:). The default	path  is  null	(specifying  the  current
       directory). The current directory is specified by a null path name, which can appear imme-
       diately after the equal sign or between the colon delimiters anywhere  else  in	the  path
       list. If arg begins with a `/', `.', or `..', then the search path is not used. Otherwise,
       each directory in the path is searched for arg. If unsuccessful,  cd  attempts  to  change
       directories to the pathname formed by the concatenation of the value of PWD, a slash char-
       acter, and arg.

       -L    Handles the operation dot-dot (..)  logically.  Symbolic  link  components  are  not
	     resolved before dot-dot components are processed.

       -P    Handles the operand dot-dot physically. Symbolic link components are resolved before
	     dot-dot components are processed.

       If both -L and -P options are specified, the last option to be invoked  is  used  and  the
       other  is ignored. If neither -L nor -P is specified, the operand is handled dot-dot logi-
       cally.

       The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the current  direc-
       tory name, PWD and tries to change to this new directory.

       The  cd	command  cannot  be executed by rksh. Because a new process is created to execute
       each command, cd would be ineffective if it were written as a normal  command;  therefore,
       it is recognized by and is internal to the Korn shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       directory    An	absolute or relative pathname of the directory that becomes the new work-
		    ing directory. The interpretation of a relative pathname by cd depends on the
		    CDPATH environment variable.

OUTPUT
       If a non-empty directory name from CDPATH is used, an absolute pathname of the new working
       directory is written to the standard output as follows:

       "%s\n", <new directory>

       Otherwise, there is no output.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables	that  affect  the
       execution of cd: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

       CDPATH	 A  colon-separated list of pathnames that refer to directories. If the directory
		 operand does not begin with a slash ( / ) character, and the first component  is
		 not  dot  or dot-dot, cd searches for directory relative to each directory named
		 in the CDPATH variable, in the order listed. The new working directory  sets  to
		 the  first  matching  directory  found.  An empty string in place of a directory
		 pathname represents the current directory. If CDPATH is not set, it  is  treated
		 as if it were an empty string.

       HOME	 The name of the home directory, used when no directory operand is specified.

       OLDPWD	 A pathname of the previous working directory, used by cd-.

       PWD	 A  pathname  of the current working directory, set by cd after it has changed to
		 that directory.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned by cd:

       0     The directory was successfully changed.

       >0    An error occurred.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   csh, ksh, sh
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Committed 		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Standard		     |See standards(5). 	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

   ksh93
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Uncommitted		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       csh(1), ksh(1), ksh93(1), pwd(1), sh(1), chdir(2), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)

SunOS 5.11				    8 Apr 2008					    cd(1)


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