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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for cdrw (opensolaris section 1)

cdrw(1) 				  User Commands 				  cdrw(1)

NAME
       cdrw - CD read and write

SYNOPSIS
       cdrw -i [-vSCO] [-d device] [-p speed] [image-file]

       cdrw -a [-vSCO] [-d device] [-p speed] [-T audio-type] audio-file1
	    [audio-file2]...

       cdrw -x [-v] [-d device] [-T audio-type] track-number out-file

       cdrw -c [-vSC] [-d device] [-p speed] [-m tmp-dir]
	    [-s src-device]

       cdrw -b [-v] [-d device] all | session | fast

       cdrw -L [-v] [-d device]

       cdrw -M [-v] [-d device]

       cdrw -l [-v]

       cdrw -h

DESCRIPTION
       The cdrw command provides the ability to create data and audio CDs. This command also pro-
       vides the ability to extract audio tracks from an audio CD and to create data DVDs. The CD
       or DVD device must be MMC-compliant to create a CD or DVD with the cdrw command.

       cdrw  searches for a CD or DVD writer connected to the system, unless you specify a device
       with the -d option. If cdrw finds a single such device, it uses that device as the default
       CD or DVD writer for the command.

       When more than one CD or DVD writer is connected to the system, use the -d option to indi-
       cate which device is desired. The device name can be specified in  one  of  the	following
       ways:  /dev/rdsk/cNtNdNsN,  cNtNdNsN,  cNtNdN,  or  a name used by volume manager, such as
       cdrom or cdrom1. Using the -l option provides a list of CD or DVD writers.

       For instructions on adding a USB-mass-storage-class-compliant CD-RW or  DVD-RW  device  to
       your system, see scsa2usb(7D).

   Creating Data CDs
       When  creating data CDs, cdrw uses the Track-At-Once mode of writing. Use the -i option to
       specify a file that contains the data to write on CD media.  If	you  don't  specify  this
       option, cdrw reads data from standard input.

       In either case, the data is typically prepared by using the mkisofs command to convert the
       file and file information into the High Sierra format used on CDs. See the  examples  that
       include use of this command.

   Creating Data DVDs
       cdrw  can  create single-session data DVDs on DVD+RW or DVD-RW devices using images gener-
       ated from mkisofs. These disks can be mounted as HSFS file systems. When making data DVDs,
       cdrw  uses Disk-At-Once (DAO) mode of writing, which closes the media when writing is com-
       pleted and prevents any further sessions from being added. The image should be prepared in
       advance	when  writing  an image to the DVD media since DAO mode requires that the size of
       the image be known in advance.

   Creating Audio CDs
       Use the -a option to create an audio CD. Single or multiple audio files can  be	specified
       with  this option. All of the audio files should be in a supported audio format. Currently
       approved formats are:

       sun    Sun .au files with data in Red Book CDDA form

       wav    RIFF (.wav) files with data in Red Book CDDA form

       cda    .cda files having raw CD audio data (that is, 16 bit PCM stereo at 44.1 KHz  sample
	      rate in little-endian byte order)

       aur    .aur files having raw CD data in big-endian byte order

       If no audio format is specified, cdrw tries to identify the audio file format based on the
       file extension. The case of the characters in the extension is ignored.	If  a  format  is
       specified  using  the -T option, it is assumed to be the audio file type for all the files
       specified. Also, using the -c option closes the session after writing  the  audio  tracks.
       Therefore, the tracks to be written should be specified in a single command line.

   Extracting Audio
       cdrw  can  also be used for extracting audio data from an audio CD with the -x option. The
       CD should have tracks in Red Book CDDA form. By default, the output format is based on the
       file  extension.  A  user  can  specify	a sun, wav, cda, or aur output format with the -T
       option.

   Copying CDs
       cdrw can be used to copy single session data CD-ROMs and Red Book audio CDs. When  copying
       a  CD,  cdrw  looks  for  a specified source device. If no source device is specified when
       using the -c option, the current CD writer is assumed to be the source. cdrw extracts  the
       track  or tracks into a temporary file and looks for a blank writable CD-R/RW media in the
       current CD writer. If no media is found, insert a blank writable CD media in  the  current
       CD  writer.  If	the  default temporary directory does not have enough space, an alternate
       directory can be specified by using the -m option.

   Erasing CD-RW or DVD-RW Media
       Users have to erase the CD-RW media before it can be rewritten. With the  -b  option,  the
       following flavors of erasing are currently supported:

       session	  Erases the last session.

       fast	  Minimally erases the media.

       all	  Erases the entire media.

       If  the	session  erasing type is used, cdrw erases the last session. If there is only one
       session recorded on the CD-RW (for example, a data or audio CD-RW created by  this  tool),
       then  session  erasing  only  erases  the portion that is recorded, leaving behind a blank
       disk. This is faster than erasing the entire media. For DVD media, using  the  -b  session
       erases the whole media.

       The fast erasing type minimally erases the entire media by removing the PMA and TOC of the
       first session. It does not erase the user data and subsequent tracks on the media, but the
       media is treated as if it were a blank disk. If a complete erase is of the media is neces-
       sary, use the all option.

       The all erasing type should be used if it is a multisession disk, the last session is  not
       closed, or disk status is unknown, and you want to erase the disk. With this type of eras-
       ing, cdrw erases the entire disk.

       DVD+RW media does not support erasing. To re-use DVD+RW media, simply write  a  new  image
       onto the media. cdrw formats and overwrites the existing media automatically.

   Checking device-list or media-status
       You  can  list a system's CD or DVD writers by using the -l option. Also, for a particular
       media, you can get the blanking status and table of contents by using the -M  option.  The
       -M  option  also  prints  information  about the last session's start address and the next
       writable address. This information, along with the -O option, can be used to create multi-
       session	CDs.  Refer  to  the mkisofs(8) man page, (/usr/share/man/man8/mkisofs.8), in the
       SUNWfsman package for more information.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -a    Creates an audio disk. At least one audio-file name must be specified. A CD can  not
	     have more than 99 audio tracks, so no more than 99 audio files can be specified.

       -b    Blanks  CD-RW  or	DVD-RW	media.	The type of erasing must be specified by the all,
	     fast, or session argument. DVD+RW media  does  not  support  blanking,  but  can  be
	     rewritten without the need for blanking.

       -c    Copies  a	CD.  If  no other argument is specified, the default CD writing device is
	     assumed to be the source device as well. In this case, the copy operation reads  the
	     source  media into a temporary directory and prompts you to place a blank media into
	     the drive for the copy operation to proceed.

       -C    This option is obsolete.

	     This option used to causecdrw to query the drive to determine media capacity.   This
	     is now the default behavior.

       -d    Specifies the CD or DVD writing device.

       -h    Help. Prints usage message.

       -i    Specifies the image file for creating data CDs or DVDs. The file size should be less
	     than what can be written on the media. Also, consider having the file locally avail-
	     able  instead  of	having	the  file  on  an NFS-mounted file system. The CD writing
	     process expects data to be available continuously without interruptions.

       -l    Lists all the CD or DVD writers available on the system.

       -L    Closes the disk. If the media was left in an open state after the last write  opera-
	     tion,  it	is closed to prevent any further writing. This operation can only be done
	     on re-writable CD-RW media.

       -m    Uses an alternate temporary directory instead of the default temporary directory for
	     storing track data while copying a CD or DVD. An alternate temporary directory might
	     be required because the amount of data on a CD can be huge. For example, the  amount
	     of  data can be as much as 800 Mbytes for an 80 minute audio CD and 4.7 Gbytes for a
	     DVD. The default temporary directory might not have that much space available.

       -M    Reports media status. cdrw reports if the media is blank or not, its table  of  con-
	     tents,  the  last session's start address, and the next writable address if the disk
	     is open. DVD+RW does not support erasing and always has some content on the media.

       -O    Keeps the disk open. cdrw closes the session, but it keeps the  disk  open  so  that
	     another session can be added later on to create a multisession disk.

       -p    Sets the CD writing speed. For example, -p 4 sets the speed to 4X. If this option is
	     not specified, cdrw uses the default speed of the CD writer. If this option is spec-
	     ified,  cdrw tries to set the drive write speed to this value, but there is no guar-
	     antee of the actual speed that is used by the drive.

       -s    Specifies the source device for copying a CD or DVD.

       -S    Simulation mode. In this mode, cdrw operates with the drive  laser  turned  off,  so
	     nothing is written to the media. Use this option to verify if the system can provide
	     data at a rate good enough for CD writing.

	     CD-R, CD-RW (not MRW formatted), DVD-R, and DVD-RW  media	support  simulation  mode
	     (-S).  DVD-RAM,  DVD+R, DVD+RW, any MRW-formatted media, and some others do not sup-
	     port simulation mode (-S).

       -T    Audio format to use for extracting audio files or for reading audio files for  audio
	     CD creation. The audio-type can be sun, wav, cda, or aur.

       -v    Verbose mode.

       -x    Extracts audio data from an audio track.

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Creating a Data CD or DVD

	 example% cdrw -i /local/iso_image

       Example 2 Creating a CD or DVD from a Directory

       This example shows how to create a CD or DVD from the directory tree /home/foo.

	 example% mkisofs -r /home/foo 2>/dev/null | cdrw -i -p 1

       Example 3 Extracting an Audio Track Number

       This example shows how to extract audio track number 1 to /home/foo/song1.wav.

	 example% cdrw -x -T wav 1 /home/foo/song1.wav

       Example 4 Using wav Files

       This example shows how to create an audio CD from wav files on disk.

	 example% cdrw -a song1.wav song2.wav song3.wav song4.wav

       Example 5 Erasing CD-RW or DVD-RW Media

       This example shows how to erase rewritable media.

	 example% cdrw -b all

       Example 6 Creating a Data CD or DVD with Multiple Drives

       This  example shows how to create a data CD or DVD on a system with multiple CD, DVD-R, or
       DVD-RW drives.

	 example% cdrw -d c1t6d0s2 -i /home/foo/iso-image

       Example 7 Checking Data Delivery Rate

       This example shows how to verify that the system can provide data to  a	CD-RW  or  a  DVD
       drive at a rate sufficient for the write operation.

	 example% cdrw -S -i /home/foo/iso-image

       Example 8 Running at a Higher Priority

       This example shows how to run cdrw at a higher priority (for root user only).

	 example# priocntl -e -p 60 cdrw -i /home/foo/iso-image

       Example 9 Creating a Multi-session Disk

       This  examples  shows how to create the first session image by using mkisofs and recording
       it onto the disk without closing the disk.

	 example% cdrw -O -i /home/foo/iso-image

       Additional sessions can be added to an open disk by creating an image with  mkisofs  using
       the session start and next writable address reported by cdrw.

	 example% cdrw -M

	 Track No. |Type    |Start address
	 ----------+--------+-------------
	  1	   |Data    | 0
	 Leadout   |Data    | 166564

	 Last session start address: 162140
	 Next writable address: 173464

	 example% mkisofs -o /tmp/image2 -r -C 0,173464 -M \
	    /dev/rdsk/c0t2d0s2 /home/foo

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcdrw			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       audioconvert(1), priocntl(1), policy.conf(4), attributes(5), rbac(5), scsa2usb(7D), sd(7D)

       mkisofs(8), (/usr/share/man/man8/mkisofs.8), in the SUNWfsman package

       System Administration Guide: Devices and File Systems

NOTES
       The  CD writing process requires data to be supplied at a constant rate to the drive. Keep
       I/O activity to a minimum and shut down any related I/O applications while writing CDs.

       When making copies or extracting audio tracks, use an MMC compliant source  CD-ROM  drive.
       The CD writer can be used for this purpose.

       Before  writing	a  CD, ensure that the media is blank by using the -M option. You can use
       the -S simulation mode to test the system to make sure it can provide data at the required
       rate.  cdrw  turns  on  buffer underrun protection for drives that support it and recovers
       from most stalls. If the system is not able to provide data at a constant rate or frequent
       stalling  occurs,  you can lower the speed by using the -p option. You can also try to run
       cdrw at a higher priority by using the priocntl(1) command.

       If you know that the CD-R/RW drive can operate at  different  write  speeds,  use  the  -p
       option.	Some commercially available drives handle the drive speed setting command differ-
       ently, so use this option judiciously.

       The cdrw command uses rbac(5) to control user access to the devices. By default,  cdrw  is
       accessible  to  all  users  but can be restricted to individual users. Refer to the System
       Administration Guide: Devices and File Systems for more information.

       To burn CDs as a non-root user hal must be enabled and the user must be	on  the  console.
       hal,  that is the svc:/system/hal SMF service, is enabled by default, therefore, typically
       this requires no special action.

       The user must be logged onto the console. /dev/console is also correct. Previously,  users
       could  log in remotely, for example, by using telnet or ssh, and be able to burn CDs. This
       would work unless  the  administrator  had  changed  the  default  configuration  to  deny
       solaris.device.cdrw authorization. See policy.conf(4).

SunOS 5.11				   10 Jul 2008					  cdrw(1)


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