groff_tmac - macro files in the roff typesetting system
The roff(7) type-setting system provides a set of macro packages suitable for special
kinds of documents. Each macro package stores its macros and definitions in a file called
the package's tmac file. The name is deduced from `TroffMACros'.
The tmac files are normal roff source documents, except that they usually contain only
definitions and setup commands, but no text. All tmac files are kept in a single or a
small number of directories, the tmac directories.
GROFF MACRO PACKAGES
groff provides all classical macro packages, some more full packages, and some secondary
packages for special purposes. Note that it is not possible to use multiple primary macro
packages at the same time; saying e.g.
sh# groff -m man -m ms foo
sh# groff -m man foo -m ms bar
man This is the classical macro package for UNIX manual pages (man pages); it is quite
handy and easy to use; see groff_man(7).
mdoc An alternative macro package for man pages mainly used in BSD systems; it provides
many new features, but it is not the standard for man pages; see groff_mdoc(7).
The packages in this section provide a complete set of macros for writing documents of any
kind, up to whole books. They are similar in functionality; it is a matter of taste which
one to use.
me The classical me macro package; see groff_me(7).
mm The semi-classical mm macro package; see groff_mm(7).
mom The new mom macro package, only available in groff. As this is not based on other
packages, it can be freely designed. So it is expected to become quite a nice,
modern macro package. See groff_mom(7).
ms The classical ms macro package; see groff_ms(7).
The macro packages in this section are not intended for stand-alone usage, but can be used
to add special functionality to any other macro package or to plain groff.
This macro file is already loaded at start-up by troff so it isn't necessary to
call it explicitly. It provides an interface to set the paper size on the command
line with the option -dpaper=size. Possible values for size are the same as the
predefined papersize values in the DESC file (only lowercase; see groff_font(5) for
more) except a7-d7. An appended l (ell) character denotes landscape orientation.
Examples: a4, c3l, letterl.
Most output drivers need additional command line switches -p and -l to override the
default paper length and orientation as set in the driver specific DESC file. For
example, use the following for PS output on A4 paper in landscape orientation:
sh# groff -Tps -dpaper=a4l -P-pa4 -P-l -ms foo.ms > foo.ps
pic This file provides proper definitions for the macros PS and PE, needed for the
pic(1) preprocessor. They will center each picture. Use it only if your macro
package doesn't provide proper definitions for those two macros (actually, most of
them already have).
pspic A single macro is provided in this file, PSPIC, to include a PostScript graphic in
a document. It makes only sense for output devices which support inclusion of PS
images: -Tps, -Tdvi, and -Thtml; the file is then loaded automatically. Syntax:
.PSPIC [-L|-R|-I n] file [width [height]]
file is the name of the file containing the illustration; width and height give the
desired width and height of the graphic. The width and height arguments may have
scaling indicators attached; the default scaling indicator is i. This macro will
scale the graphic uniformly in the x and y directions so that it is no more than
width wide and height high. By default, the graphic will be horizontally centered.
The -L and -R options cause the graphic to be left-aligned and right-aligned, re-
spectively. The -I option causes the graphic to be indented by n (default scaling
indicator is m).
trace Use this for tracing macro calls. It is only useful for debugging. See
Overrides the definition of standard troff characters and some groff characters for
tty devices. The optical appearance is intentionally inferior compared to that of
normal tty formatting to allow processing with critical equipment.
www Additions of elements known from the html format, as being used in the internet
(World Wide Web) pages; this includes URL links and mail addresses; see
In classical roff systems, there was a funny naming scheme for macro packages, due to a
simplistic design in option parsing. Macro packages were always included by option -m;
when this option was directly followed by its argument without an intervening space, this
looked like a long option preceded by a single minus -- a sensation in the computer stone
age. To make this optically working for macro package names, all classical macro packages
choose a name that started with the letter `m', which was omitted in the naming of the
For example, the macro package for the man pages was called man, while its macro file
tmac.an. So it could be activated by the argument an to option -m, or -man for short.
For similar reasons, macro packages that did not start with an `m' had a leading `m' added
in the documentation and in talking; for example, the package corresponding to tmac.doc
was called mdoc in the documentation, although a more suitable name would be doc. For,
when omitting the space between the option and its argument, the command line option for
activating this package reads -mdoc.
To cope with all situations, actual versions of groff(1) are smart about both naming
schemes by providing two macro files for the inflicted macro packages; one with a leading
`m', the other one without it. So in groff, the man macro package may be specified as on
of the following four methods:
sh# groff -m man
sh# groff -man
sh# groff -mman
sh# groff -m an
Recent packages that do not start with `m' do not use an additional `m' in the documenta-
tion. For example, the www macro package may be specified only as one of the two methods:
sh# groff -m www
sh# groff -mwww
Obviously, variants like -mmwww would not make much sense.
A second strange feature of classical troff was to name macro files according to
tmac.name. In modern operating systems, the type of a file is specified as postfix, the
file name extension. Again, groff copes with this situation by searching both any-
thing.tmac and tmac.anything if only anything is specified.
The easiest way to find out which macro packages are available on a system is to check the
man page groff(1), or the contents of the tmac directories.
In groff, most macro packages are described in man pages called groff_name(7), with a
leading `m' for the classical packages.
There are several ways to use a macro package in a document. The classical way is to
specify the troff/groff option -m name at run-time; this makes the contents of the macro
package name available. In groff, the file name.tmac is searched within the tmac path; if
not found, tmac.name will be searched for instead.
Alternatively, it is also possible to include a macro file by adding the request .so file-
name into the document; the argument must be the full file name of an existing file, pos-
sibly with the directory where it is kept. In groff, this was improved by the similar re-
quest .mso package, which added searching in the tmac path, just like option -m does.
Note that in order to resolve the .so and .mso requests, the roff preprocessor soelim(1)
must be called if the files to be included need preprocessing. This can be done either
directly by a pipeline on the command line or by using the troff/groff option -s. man
calls soelim automatically.
For example, suppose a macro file is stored as /usr/share/tmac/macros.tmac and is used in
some document called docu.roff.
At run-time, the formatter call for this is
sh# groff -m macrofile document.roff
To include the macro file directly in the document either
is used or
In both cases, the formatter is called with
sh# groff -s docu.roff
If you want to write your own groff macro file, call it whatever.tmac and put it in some
directory of the tmac path, see section FILES. Then documents can include it with the
.mso request or the option -m.
A roff(7) document is a text file that is enriched by predefined formatting constructs,
such as requests, escape sequences, strings, numeric registers, and macros from a macro
package. These elements are described in roff(7).
To give a document a personal style, it is most useful to extend the existing elements by
defining some macros for repeating tasks; the best place for this is near the beginning of
the document or in a separate file.
Macros without arguments are just like strings. But the full power of macros reveals when
arguments are passed with a macro call. Within the macro definition, the arguments are
available as the escape sequences $1, ..., $9, $[...], $*, and $@, the name under which
the macro was called is in $0, and the number of arguments is in register 0; see groff(7).
The phase when groff reads a macro is called copy-in mode in roff-talk. This is compara-
ble to the C preprocessing phase during the development of a program written in the C lan-
In this phase, groff interprets all backslashes; that means that all escape sequences in
the macro body are interpreted and replaced by their value. For constant expression, this
is wanted, but strings and registers that might change between calls of the macro must be
protected from being evaluated. This is most easily done by doubling the backslash that
introduces the escape sequence. This doubling is most important for the positional param-
eters. For example, to print information on the arguments that were passed to the macro
to the terminal, define a macro named `.print_args', say.
.ds midpart was called with
. tm \f[I]\\$0\f \\*[midpart] \\n[.$] arguments:
. tm \\$*
When calling this macro by
.print_args arg1 arg2
the following text is printed to the terminal:
print_args was called with the following 2 arguments:
Let's analyze each backslash in the macro definition. As the positional parameters and
the number of arguments will change with each call of the macro their leading backslash
must be doubled, which results in \\$* and \\[.$]. The same applies to the macro name be-
cause it could be called with an alias name, so \\$0.
On the other hand, midpart is a constant string, it will not change, so no doubling for
\*[midpart]. The \f escape sequences are predefined groff elements for setting the font
within the text. Of course, this behavior will not change, so no doubling with \f[I] and
Writing groff macros is easy when the escaping mechanism is temporarily disabled. In
groff, this is done by enclosing the macro definition(s) into a pair of .eo and .ec re-
quests. Then the body in the macro definition is just like a normal part of the document
-- text enhanced by calls of requests, macros, strings, registers, etc. For example, the
code above can be written in a simpler way by
.ds midpart was called with
. tm \f[I]\$0\f \*[midpart] \n[.$] arguments:
. tm \$*
Unfortunately, draft mode cannot be used universally. Although it is good enough for
defining normal macros, draft mode will fail with advanced applications, such as indirect-
ly defined strings, registers, etc. An optimal way is to define and test all macros in
draft mode and then do the backslash doubling as a final step; do not forget to remove the
Tips for Macro Definitions
o Start every line with a dot, for example, by using the groff request .nop for text
lines, or write your own macro that handles also text lines with a leading dot.
. if (\\n[.$] == 0) \
. nop \)\\$*[rs]
o Write a comment macro that works both for copy-in and draft mode; for as escaping is off
in draft mode, trouble might occur when normal comments are used. For example, the fol-
lowing macro just ignores its arguments, so it acts like a comment line:
.c This is like a comment line.
o In long macro definitions, make ample use of comment lines or empty lines for a better
o To increase readability, use groff's indentation facility for requests and macro calls
(arbitrary whitespace after the leading dot).
Diversions can be used to realize quite advanced programming constructs. They are compa-
rable to pointers to large data structures in the C programming language, but their usage
is quite different.
In their simplest form, diversions are multi-line strings, but they get their power when
diversions are used dynamically within macros. The information stored in a diversion can
be retrieved by calling the diversion just like a macro.
Most of the problems arising with diversions can be avoided if you are conscious about the
fact that diversions always deal with complete lines. If diversions are used when the
line buffer has not been flashed, strange results are produced; not knowing this, many
people get desperate about diversions. To ensure that a diversion works, line breaks
should be added at the right places. To be on the secure side, enclose everything that
has to do with diversions into a pair of line breaks; for example, by amply using .br re-
quests. This rule should be applied to diversion definition, both inside and outside, and
to all calls of diversions. This is a bit of overkill, but it works nicely.
[If you really need diversions which should ignore the current partial line, use environ-
ments to save the current partial line and/or use the .box request.]
The most powerful feature using diversions is to start a diversion within a macro defini-
tion and end it within another macro. Then everything between each call of this macro
pair is stored within the diversion and can be manipulated from within the macros.
All macro names must be named name.tmac to fully use the tmac mechanism. tmac.name as
with classical packages is possible as well, but deprecated.
The macro files are kept in the tmac directories; a colon separated list of these consti-
tutes the tmac path.
The search sequence for macro files is (in that order):
o the directories specified with troff/groff's -M command line option
o the directories given in the $GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable
o the current directory (only if in unsafe mode, which is enabled by the -U command line
o the home directory
o a platform-specific directory, being /usr/share/tmac in this installation
o a site-specific (platform-independent) directory, being /usr/share/tmac in this instal-
o the main tmac directory, being /usr/share/tmac in this installation
A colon separated list of additional tmac directories in which to search for macro
files. See the previous section for a detailed description.
Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation License)
version 1.1 or later. You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is
also available on-line at the GNU copyleft site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.
This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution. It was written by Bernd Warken
<email@example.com>; it is maintained by Werner Lemberg <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
A complete reference for all parts of the groff system is found in the groff info(1) file.
an overview of the groff system.
the groff tmac macro packages.
the groff language.
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard is available at the FHS web site <http://
Groff Version 1.19.2 February 6, 2006 GROFF_TMAC(5)