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GROFF_MAN(7)									     GROFF_MAN(7)

NAME
       groff_man - groff `man' macros to support generation of man pages

SYNOPSIS
       groff -man [ options... ] [ files... ]
       groff -m man [ options... ] [ files... ]

DESCRIPTION
       The  man  macros  used to generate man pages with groff were written by James Clark.  This
       document provides a brief summary of the use of each macro in that package.

OPTIONS
       The man macros understand the following command line options (which define various  regis-
       ters).

       -rcR=1 This  option  (the  default  if in nroff mode) will create a single, very long page
	      instead of multiple pages.  Say -rcR=0 to disable it.

       -rC1   If more than one manual page is given on the command line, number the pages contin-
	      uously, rather than starting each at 1.

       -rD1   Double-sided printing.  Footers for even and odd pages are formatted differently.

       -rFT=dist
	      Set  distance of the footer relative to the bottom of the page if negative or rela-
	      tive to the top if positive.  The default is -0.5i.

       -rHY=flags
	      Set hyphenation flags.  Possible values are 1 to	hyphenate  without  restrictions,
	      2 to not hyphenate the last word on a page, 4 to not hyphenate the last two charac-
	      ters of a word, and 8 to not hyphenate the first two characters of a  word.   These
	      values are additive; the default is 14.

       -rIN=width
	      Set  body  text indentation to width.  The default is 7n for nroff, 7.2n for troff.
	      For nroff, this value should always be an integer multiple of unit `n' to get  con-
	      sistent indentation.

       -rLL=line-length
	      Set  line  length.   If this option is not given, the line length is set to respect
	      any value set by a prior `.ll' request, (which must be in  effect  when  the  `.TH'
	      macro  is  invoked),  if	this differs from the built-in default for the formatter;
	      otherwise it defaults to 78n in nroff mode and 6.5i in troff mode.

	      Note that the use of a `.ll' request to initialize the line length is supported for
	      backward compatibility with some versions of the man program; direct initialization
	      of the `LL' register should always be preferred to the use of such a  request.   In
	      particular,  note  that  a  `.ll 65n'  request  will  not preserve the normal nroff
	      default line length, (the man default initialization to 78n will prevail), whereas,
	      the  `-rLL=65n'  option, or an equivalent `.nr LL 65n' request preceding the use of
	      the `TH' macro, will set a line length of 65n.

       -rLT=title-length
	      Set title length.  If this option is not given, the title length	defaults  to  the
	      line length.

       -rPnnn Enumeration of pages will start with nnn rather than with 1.

       -rSxx  Base  document  font  size  is  xx  points  (xx  can  be 10, 11, or 12) rather than
	      10 points.

       -rSN=width
	      Set sub-subheading indentation to width.	The default is 3n.

       -rXnnn After page nnn, number pages as nnna, nnnb, nnnc, etc.   For  example,  the  option
	      `-rX2' will produce the following page numbers: 1, 2, 2a, 2b, 2c, etc.

USAGE
       This  section describes the available macros for manual pages.  For further customization,
       put additional macros and requests into the file man.local which will  be  loaded  immedi-
       ately after the man package.

       .TH title section [extra1] [extra2] [extra3]
	      Set the title of the n page to title and the section to section, which must take on
	      a value between 1 and 8.	The value section may also have a string  appended,  e.g.
	      `.pm',  to indicate a specific subsection of the man pages.  Both title and section
	      are positioned at the left and right in the header line (with section in	parenthe-
	      ses  immediately appended to title.  extra1 will be positioned in the middle of the
	      footer line.  extra2 will be positioned at the left in the footer line (or  at  the
	      left  on	even  pages  and  at  the  right on odd pages if double-sided printing is
	      active).	extra3 is centered in the header line.

	      For HTML output, headers and footers are completely supressed.

	      Additionally, this macro starts a new page; the new line number is 1 again  (except
	      if the `-rC1' option is given on the command line) -- this feature is intended only
	      for formatting multiple man pages; a single man page should contain exactly one  TH
	      macro at the beginning of the file.

       .SH [text for a heading]
	      Set  up an unnumbered section heading sticking out to the left.  Prints out all the
	      text following SH up to the end of the line (or the text in the next input line  if
	      there  is no argument to SH) in bold face (or the font specified by the string HF),
	      one size larger than the base document size.  Additionally, the left margin and the
	      indentation for the following text is reset to the default values.

       .SS [text for a heading]
	      Set  up a secondary, unnumbered section heading.	Prints out all the text following
	      SS up to the end of the line (or the text in the next input line	if  there  is  no
	      argument	to SS) in bold face (or the font specified by the string HF), at the same
	      size as the base document size.  Additionally, the left margin and the  indentation
	      for the following text is reset to the default values.

       .TP [nnn]
	      Set  up  an  indented  paragraph with label.  The indentation is set to nnn if that
	      argument is supplied (the default unit is `n' if omitted), otherwise it is  set  to
	      the  previous  indentation  value  specified  with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default
	      value if none of them have been used yet).

	      The first input line of text following this macro is interpreted as a string to  be
	      printed  flush-left,  as	it  is appropriate for a label.  It is not interpreted as
	      part of a paragraph, so there is no attempt to fill the first line with  text  from
	      the following input lines.  Nevertheless, if the label is not as wide as the inden-
	      tation the paragraph starts at the same line (but indented), continuing on the fol-
	      lowing  lines.   If the label is wider than the indentation the descriptive part of
	      the paragraph begins on the line following the label, entirely indented.	Note that
	      neither  font  shape  nor  font size of the label is set to a default value; on the
	      other hand, the rest of the text will have default font settings.

	      The TP macro is the macro used for the explanations you are just reading.

       .LP
       .PP
       .P     These macros are mutual aliases.	Any of them causes a line break  at  the  current
	      position,  followed by a vertical space downwards by the amount specified by the PD
	      macro.  The font size and shape are reset to the default value (10pt resp.  Roman).
	      Finally, the current left margin and the indentation are restored.

       .IP [designator] [nnn]
	      Set up an indented paragraph, using designator as a tag to mark its beginning.  The
	      indentation is set to nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is `n'  if
	      omitted),  otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with TP,
	      IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of them have been used yet).  Font  size
	      and face of the paragraph (but not the designator) are reset to its default values.

	      To start an indented paragraph with a particular indentation but without a designa-
	      tor, use `""' (two doublequotes) as the second argument.

	      For example, the following paragraphs were all set up with bullets as the  designa-
	      tor, using `.IP \(bu 4'.	The whole block has been enclosed with `.RS' and `.RE' to
	      set the left margin temporarily to the current indentation value.

	      o   IP is one of the three macros used in the man package to format lists.

	      o   HP is another.  This macro produces a paragraph with a  left	hanging  indenta-
		  tion.

	      o   TP is another.  This macro produces an unindented label followed by an indented
		  paragraph.

       .HP [nnn]
	      Set up a paragraph with hanging left indentation.  The indentation is set to nnn if
	      that argument is supplied (the default unit is `n' if omitted), otherwise it is set
	      to the previous indentation value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to  the  default
	      value  if  none  of  them have been used yet).  Font size and face are reset to its
	      default values.  The following paragraph illustrates the effect of this macro  with
	      hanging indentation set to 4 (enclosed by .RS and .RE to set the left margin tempo-
	      rarily to the current indentation):

	      This is a paragraph following an invocation of the HP macro.  As you  can  see,  it
		  produces a paragraph where all lines but the first are indented.

       .RS [nnn]
	      This  macro  moves  the  left  margin  to  the  right by the value nnn if specified
	      (default unit is `n'); otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value speci-
	      fied  with  TP,  IP,  or HP (or to the default value if none of them have been used
	      yet).  The indentation value is then set to the default.

	      Calls to the RS macro can be nested.

       .RE [nnn]
	      This macro moves the left margin back to level nnn,  restoring  the  previous  left
	      margin.	If no argument is given, it moves one level back.  The first level (i.e.,
	      no call to RS yet) has number 1, and each call to RS increases the level by 1.

       To summarize, the following macros cause a line break with the insertion of vertical space
       (which  amount can be changed with the PD macro): SH, SS, TP, LP (PP, P), IP, and HP.  The
       macros RS and RE also cause a break but no insertion of vertical space.

MACROS TO SET FONTS
       The standard font is Roman; the default text size is 10 point.

       .SM [text]
	      Causes the text on the same line or the text on the next input line to appear in	a
	      font that is one point size smaller than the default font.

       .SB [text]
	      Causes  the  text  on the same line or the text on the next input line to appear in
	      boldface font, one point size smaller than the default font.

       .BI text
	      Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face  and  italic.   The
	      text must be on the same line as the macro call.	Thus

		     .BI this "word and" that

	      would  cause  `this' and `that' to appear in bold face, while `word and' appears in
	      italics.

       .IB text
	      Causes text to appear alternately in italic and bold face.  The text must be on the
	      same line as the macro call.

       .RI text
	      Causes  text  on the same line to appear alternately in roman and italic.  The text
	      must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .IR text
	      Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in italic and roman.	The  text
	      must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .BR text
	      Causes  text  on	the  same line to appear alternately in bold face and roman.  The
	      text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .RB text
	      Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman  and	bold  face.   The
	      text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .B [text]
	      Causes  text  to	appear in bold face.  If no text is present on the line where the
	      macro is called the text of the next input line appears in bold face.

       .I [text]
	      Causes text to appear in italic.	If no text is present on the line where the macro
	      is called the text of the next input line appears in italic.

MISCELLANEOUS
       The  default  indentation  is  7.2n  in troff mode and 7n in nroff mode except for grohtml
       which ignores indentation.

       .DT    Set tabs every 0.5 inches.  Since this macro is always called during a TH  request,
	      it makes sense to call it only if the tab positions have been changed.

       .PD [nnn]
	      Adjust  the  empty  space before a new paragraph or section.  The optional argument
	      gives the amount of space (default unit is `v'); without parameter,  the	value  is
	      reset  to  its  default value (1 line in nroff mode, 0.4v otherwise).  This affects
	      the macros SH, SS, TP, LP (resp. PP and P), IP, and HP.

       .AT [system [release]]
	      Alter the footer for use with AT&T man pages.  This command exists only for compat-
	      ibility; don't use it.  See the groff info manual for more.

       .UC [version]
	      Alter the footer for use with BSD man pages.  This command exists only for compati-
	      bility; don't use it.  See the groff info manual for more.

       .PT    Print the header string.	Redefine this macro to get control of the header.

       .BT    Print the footer string.	Redefine this macro to get control of the footer.

       The following strings are defined:

       \*S    Switch back to the default font size.

       \*R    The `registered' sign.

       \*(Tm  The `trademark' sign.

       \*(lq
       \*(rq  Left and right quote.  This is equal to `\(lq' and `\(rq', respectively.

       \*(HF  The typeface used to print headings and subheadings.  The default is `B'.

       If a preprocessor like tbl or eqn is needed, it has become usage to make the first line of
       the man page look like this:

	      .\" word

       Note  the single space character after the double quote.  word consists of letters for the
       needed preprocessors: `e' for eqn, `r' for refer, and `t' for tbl.  Modern implementations
       of the man program read this first line and automatically call the right preprocessor(s).

FILES
       man.tmac
       an.tmac
	      These are wrapper files to call andoc.tmac.

       andoc.tmac
	      This file checks whether the man macros or the mdoc package should be used.

       an-old.tmac
	      All man macros are contained in this file.

       man.local
	      Local changes and customizations should be put into this file.

SEE ALSO
       Since  the  man macros consist of groups of groff requests, one can, in principle, supple-
       ment the functionality of the man macros with individual groff requests	where  necessary.
       See the groff info pages for a complete reference of all requests.

       tbl(1), eqn(1), refer(1), man(1), man(7),

AUTHOR
       This manual page was originally written for the Debian GNU/Linux system by Susan G. Klein-
       mann <sgk@debian.org>, corrected and updated by Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>,  and  is  now
       part of the GNU troff distribution.

Groff Version 1.19.2			 February 6, 2006			     GROFF_MAN(7)
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