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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for groff_ms (netbsd section 7)

GROFF_MS(7)									      GROFF_MS(7)

NAME
       groff_ms - groff ms macros

SYNOPSIS
       groff -ms [ options... ] [ files... ]
       groff -m ms [ options... ] [ files... ]

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of the ms macros, part of the groff typesetting
       system.	The ms macros are mostly compatible with the documented behavior of the  4.3  BSD
       Unix ms macros (see Differences from troff ms below for details).  The ms macros are suit-
       able for reports, letters, books, and technical documentation.

USAGE
       The ms macro package expects files to have a certain amount of  structure.   The  simplest
       documents  can  begin  with  a  paragraph macro and consist of text separated by paragraph
       macros or even blank lines.  Longer documents have a structure as follows:

       Document type
	      If you use the RP (report) macro at the beginning of the document, groff prints the
	      cover  page information on its own page; otherwise it prints the information on the
	      first page with your document text immediately following.  Other	document  formats
	      found  in  AT&T  troff  are  specific to AT&T or Berkeley, and are not supported in
	      groff ms.

       Format and layout
	      By setting number registers, you can change your document's type (font  and  size),
	      margins,	spacing, headers and footers, and footnotes.  See Document control regis-
	      ters below for more details.

       Cover page
	      A cover page consists of a title, and optionally the author's name and institution,
	      an abstract, and the date.  See Cover page macros below for more details.

       Body   Following  the  cover  page is your document.  It consists of paragraphs, headings,
	      and lists.

       Table of contents
	      Longer documents usually include a table of contents, which you can add by  placing
	      the TC macro at the end of your document.

   Document control registers
       The  following table lists the document control number registers.  For the sake of consis-
       tency, set registers related to margins at the beginning of your document, or  just  after
       the RP macro.

       Margin settings

	      Reg.	     Definition 	  Effective    Default
	      ---------------------------------------------------------
	       PO     Page offset (left margin)   next page    1i
	       LL     Line length		  next para.   6i
	       LT     Header/footer length	  next para.   6i
	       HM     Top (header) margin	  next page    1i
	       FM     Bottom (footer) margin	  next page    1i
	      ---------------------------------------------------------

       Text settings

		Reg.		  Definition		  Effective	Default
	      ------------------------------------------------------------------
	       PS	 Point size			 next para.	10p
	       VS	 Line spacing (leading) 	 next para.	12p
	       PSINCR	 Point size increment for sec-	 next heading	1p
			 tion headings of increasing
			 importance
	       GROWPS	 Heading level beyond which	 next heading	0
			 PSINCR is ignored
	      ------------------------------------------------------------------

       Paragraph settings

		 Reg.		    Definition		    Effective	  Default
	      --------------------------------------------------------------------
	       PI	   Initial indent		   next para.	  5n
	       PD	   Space between paragraphs	   next para.	  0.3v
	       QI	   Quoted paragraph indent	   next para.	  5n
	       PORPHANS    Number of initial lines to be   next para.	  1
			   kept together
	       HORPHANS    Number of initial lines to be   next heading   1
			   kept with heading
	      --------------------------------------------------------------------

       Footnote settings

	      Reg.	Definition	  Effective	 Default
	      -----------------------------------------------------
	       FL     Footnote length	next footnote	\n[LL]*5/6
	       FI     Footnote indent	next footnote	2n
	       FF     Footnote format	next footnote	0
	       FPS    Point size	next footnote	\n[PS]-2
	       FVS    Vert. spacing	next footnote	\n[FPS]+2
	       FPD    Para. spacing	next footnote	\n[PD]/2
	      -----------------------------------------------------

       Other settings

	       Reg.		 Definition		Effective   Default
	      --------------------------------------------------------------
	       MINGW	Minimum width between columns	next page   2n
	      --------------------------------------------------------------

   Cover page macros
       Use the following macros to create a cover page for your document in the order shown.

       .RP [no]
	      Specifies the report format for your document.  The report format creates  a  sepa-
	      rate  cover  page.   With  no  RP macro, groff prints a subset of the cover page on
	      page 1 of your document.

	      If you use the optional no argument, groff prints a title page but does not  repeat
	      any  of the title page information (title, author, abstract, etc.) on page 1 of the
	      document.

       .P1    (P-one) Prints the header on page 1.  The default is to suppress the header.

       .DA [xxx]
	      (optional) Print the current date, or the arguments to the macro	if  any,  on  the
	      title page (if specified) and in the footers.  This is the default for nroff.

       .ND [xxx]
	      (optional)  Print  the  current  date, or the arguments to the macro if any, on the
	      title page (if specified) but not in the footers.  This is the default for troff.

       .TL    Specifies the document title.  Groff collects text following the TL macro into  the
	      title, until reaching the author name or abstract.

       .AU    Specifies the author's name.  You can specify multiple authors by using an AU macro
	      for each author.

       .AI    Specifies the author's institution.  You can specify multiple institutions.

       .AB [no]
	      Begins the abstract.  The default is to print the word ABSTRACT,	centered  and  in
	      italics, above the text of the abstract.	The option no suppresses this heading.

       .AE    End the abstract.

   Paragraphs
       Use the PP macro to create indented paragraphs, and the LP macro to create paragraphs with
       no initial indent.

       The QP macro indents all text at both left and right margins.  The effect is identical  to
       the HTML <BLOCKQUOTE> element.  The next paragraph or heading returns margins to normal.

       The  XP	macro  produces an exdented paragraph.	The first line of the paragraph begins at
       the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented (the opposite of PP).

       For each of the above paragraph types, and also for any list entry introduced  by  the  IP
       macro  (described  later), the document control register PORPHANS, sets the minimum number
       of lines which must be printed, after the start of the  paragraph,  and	before	any  page
       break occurs.  If there is insufficient space remaining on the current page to accommodate
       this number of lines, then a page break is forced before the first line of  the	paragraph
       is printed.

       Similarly,  when  a  section heading (see subsection Headings below) preceeds any of these
       paragraph types, the HORPHANS document control register specifies the  minimum  number  of
       lines  of  the  paragraph which must be kept on the same page as the heading.  If insuffi-
       cient space remains on the current page to accommodate the  heading  and  this  number  of
       lines of paragraph text, then a page break is forced before the heading is printed.

   Headings
       Use  headings  to  create  a hierarchical structure for your document.  By default, the ms
       macros print headings in bold using the same font family and point size as the body  text.
       For output devices which support scalable fonts, this behaviour may be modified, by defin-
       ing the document control registers, GROWPS and PSINCR.

       The following heading macros are available:

       .NH xx Numbered heading.  The argument xx is either a numeric  argument	to  indicate  the
	      level  of  the heading, or S xx xx "..."	to set the section number explicitly.  If
	      you specify heading levels out of sequence, such as  invoking  .NH 3  after  .NH 1,
	      groff prints a warning on standard error.

	      If  the  GROWPS  register  is set to a value greater than the level of the heading,
	      then the point size of the heading will be increased by PSINCR units over the  text
	      size  specified  by  the	PS register, for each level by which the heading level is
	      less than the value of GROWPS.  For example, the sequence:

		     .nr PS 10
		     .nr GROWPS 3
		     .nr PSINCR 1.5p
		     .
		     .NH 1
		     Top Level Heading
		     .
		     .NH 2
		     Second Level Heading
		     .
		     .NH 3
		     Third Level Heading

	      will cause "1. Top Level Heading" to be printed in  13pt	bold  text,  followed  by
	      "1.1. Second Level Heading"  in  11.5pt  bold text, while "1.1.1. Third Level Head-
	      ing", and all more deeply nested heading levels, will remain in the 10pt bold  text
	      which is specified by the PS register.

	      Note  that  the  value  stored in PSINCR is interpreted in groff basic units; the p
	      scaling factor should be employed, when assigning a value specified in points.

	      After invoking .NH, the assigned heading number is available in the strings  SN-DOT
	      (exactly	as  it	appears  in the formatted heading), and SN-NO-DOT (with its final
	      period omitted).	The string SN is also defined, as an alias for	SN-DOT;  if  pre-
	      ferred,  the  user may redefine it as an alias for SN-NO-DOT, by including the ini-
	      tialisation:

		     .ds SN-NO-DOT
		     .als SN SN-NO-DOT

	      before the first use of .NH, or simply:

		     .als SN SN-NO-DOT

	      after the first use of .NH.

       .SH [xx]
	      Unnumbered subheading.  The use of the optional xx argument  is  a  GNU  extension,
	      which  adjusts  the point size of the unnumbered subheading to match that of a num-
	      bered heading, introduced using .NH xx with the same value  of  xx.   For  example,
	      given  the  same	settings for PS, GROWPS and PSINCR, as used in the preceeding .NH
	      example, the sequence:

		     .SH 2
		     An Unnumbered Subheading

	      will print "An Unnumbered Subheading" in 11.5pt bold text.

   Highlighting
       The ms macros provide a variety of methods to highlight or emphasize text:

       .B [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in bold type.  If you  specify  a  second  argument,  groff
	      prints it in the previous font after the bold text, with no intervening space (this
	      allows you to set punctuation after the highlighted text without	highlighting  the
	      punctuation).   Similarly,  it  prints  the third argument (if any) in the previous
	      font before the first argument.  For example,

		     .B foo ) (

	      prints (foo).

	      If you give this macro no arguments, groff prints all text following in bold  until
	      the next highlighting, paragraph, or heading macro.

       .R [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in roman (or regular) type.  It operates similarly to the B
	      macro otherwise.

       .I [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in italic type.  It operates similarly to the B macro  oth-
	      erwise.

       .CW [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its  first argument in a constant width face.  It operates similarly to the B
	      macro otherwise.

       .BI [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in bold italic type.  It operates similarly to the B  macro
	      otherwise.

       .BX [txt]
	      Prints  its  argument  and draws a box around it.  If you want to box a string that
	      contains spaces, use a digit-width space (\0).

       .UL [txt [post]]
	      Prints its first argument with an underline.  If you  specify  a	second	argument,
	      groff prints it in the previous font after the underlined text, with no intervening
	      space.

       .LG    Prints all text following in larger type (2 points larger than  the  current  point
	      size) until the next font size, highlighting, paragraph, or heading macro.  You can
	      specify this macro multiple times to enlarge the point size as needed.

       .SM    Prints all text following in smaller type (2 points smaller than the current  point
	      size) until the next type size, highlighting, paragraph, or heading macro.  You can
	      specify this macro multiple times to reduce the point size as needed.

       .NL    Prints all text following in the normal point size (that is, the value  of  the  PS
	      register).

       \*{text\*}
	      Print the enclosed text as a superscript.

   Indents
       You  may  need  to indent sections of text.  A typical use for indents is to create nested
       lists and sublists.

       Use the RS and RE macros to start and end a section of indented text,  respectively.   The
       PI register controls the amount of indent.

       You  can  nest indented sections as deeply as needed by using multiple, nested pairs of RS
       and RE.

   Lists
       The IP macro handles duties for all lists.  Its syntax is as follows:

       .IP [marker [width]]

	      The marker is usually a bullet character \(bu for unordered  lists,  a  number  (or
	      auto-incrementing  number  register)  for  numbered  lists, or a word or phrase for
	      indented (glossary-style) lists.

	      The width specifies the indent for the body of each list item.  Once specified, the
	      indent remains the same for all list items in the document until specified again.

   Tab stops
       Use  the  ta  request  to  set tab stops as needed.  Use the TA macro to reset tabs to the
       default (every 5n).  You can redefine the TA macro to create a different  set  of  default
       tab stops.

   Displays and keeps
       Use  displays  to  show	text-based examples or figures (such as code listings).  Displays
       turn off filling, so lines of code can be displayed as-is without inserting br requests in
       between	each  line.   Displays	can  be kept on a single page, or allowed to break across
       pages.  The following table shows the display types available.

		   Display macro		  Type of display
		With keep      No keep
	      --------------------------------------------------------------
	      .DS L	       .LD	 Left-justified.
	      .DS I [indent]   .ID	 Indented (default indent in the DI
					 register).
	      .DS B	       .BD	 Block-centered (left-justified,
					 longest line centered).
	      .DS C	       .CD	 Centered.
	      .DS R	       .RD	 Right-justified.
	      --------------------------------------------------------------

       Use the DE macro to end any display type.  The macros Ds and De were formerly provided  as
       aliases	for  DS and DE, respectively, but they have been removed, and should no longer be
       used.  X11 documents which actually use Ds and De always load a specific macro  file  from
       the X11 distribution (macros.t) which provides proper definitions for the two macros.

       To  keep  text together on a page, such as a paragraph that refers to a table (or list, or
       other item) immediately following, use the KS and KE macros.  The KS macro begins a  block
       of text to be kept on a single page, and the KE macro ends the block.

       You can specify a floating keep using the KF and KE macros.  If the keep cannot fit on the
       current page, groff holds the contents of the keep and allows text following the keep  (in
       the  source  file)  to  fill  in the remainder of the current page.  When the page breaks,
       whether by an explicit bp request or by reaching the end of the	page,  groff  prints  the
       floating  keep  at the top of the new page.  This is useful for printing large graphics or
       tables that do not need to appear exactly where specified.

       The macros B1 and B2 can be used to enclose a text within a box; .B1 begins the	box,  and
       .B2 ends it.  Text in the box is automatically placed in a diversion (keep).

   Tables, figures, equations, and references
       The  -ms  macros support the standard groff preprocessors: tbl, pic, eqn, and refer.  Mark
       text meant for preprocessors by enclosing it in pairs of tags as follows:

       .TS [H] and .TE
	      Denotes a table, to be processed by the tbl preprocessor.  The optional H  argument
	      instructs groff to create a running header with the information up to the TH macro.
	      Groff prints the header at the beginning of the  table;  if  the	table  runs  onto
	      another page, groff prints the header on the next page as well.

       .PS and .PE
	      Denotes  a  graphic, to be processed by the pic preprocessor.  You can create a pic
	      file by hand, using the AT&T pic manual available on the Web as a reference, or  by
	      using a graphics program such as xfig.

       .EQ [align] and .EN
	      Denotes  an  equation, to be processed by the eqn preprocessor.  The optional align
	      argument can be C, L, or I to center (the default),  left-justify,  or  indent  the
	      equation.

       .[ and .]
	      Denotes  a  reference, to be processed by the refer preprocessor.  The GNU refer(1)
	      manual page provides a comprehensive reference to the preprocessor and  the  format
	      of the bibliographic database.

   Footnotes
       The  ms macros provide a flexible footnote system.  You can specify a numbered footnote by
       using the \** escape, followed by the text of the footnote enclosed by FS and FE macros.

       You can specify symbolic footnotes by placing the mark character (such  as  \(dg  for  the
       dagger  character)  in  the  body  text,  followed by the text of the footnote enclosed by
       FS \(dg and FE macros.

       You can control how groff prints footnote numbers by changing the value of the FF register
       as follows:

	      0      Prints the footnote number as a superscript; indents the footnote (default).

	      1      Prints the number followed by a period (like 1.) and indents the footnote.

	      2      Like 1, without an indent.

	      3      Like 1, but prints the footnote number as a hanging paragraph.

       You can use footnotes safely within keeps and displays, but avoid using numbered footnotes
       within floating keeps.  You can set a second \** between a \** and its corresponding  .FS;
       as  long  as each .FS occurs after the corresponding \** and the occurrences of .FS are in
       the same order as the corresponding occurrences of \**.

   Headers and footers
       There are two ways to define headers and footers:

       o  Use the strings LH, CH, and RH to set the left, center, and right headers; use LF,  CF,
	  and  RF to set the left, center, and right footers.  This works best for documents that
	  do not distinguish between odd and even pages.

       o  Use the OH and EH macros to define headers for the odd and even pages; and  OF  and  EF
	  macros to define footers for the odd and even pages.	This is more flexible than defin-
	  ing the individual strings.  The syntax for these macros is as follows:

		 .OH 'left'center'right'

	  You can replace the quote (') marks with any character not appearing in the  header  or
	  footer text.

   Margins
       You control margins using a set of number registers.  The following table lists the regis-
       ter names and defaults:

	      Reg.	     Definition 	  Effective    Default
	      ---------------------------------------------------------
	       PO     Page offset (left margin)   next page    1i
	       LL     Line length		  next para.   6i
	       LT     Header/footer length	  next para.   6i
	       HM     Top (header) margin	  next page    1i
	       FM     Bottom (footer) margin	  next page    1i
	      ---------------------------------------------------------

       Note that there is no right margin setting.  The  combination  of  page	offset	and  line
       length provide the information necessary to derive the right margin.

   Multiple columns
       The  ms	macros	can  set text in as many columns as will reasonably fit on the page.  The
       following macros are available.	All of them force a page break if a multi-column mode  is
       already	set.  However, if the current mode is single-column, starting a multi-column mode
       does not force a page break.

       .1C    Single-column mode.

       .2C    Two-column mode.

       .MC [width [gutter]]
	      Multi-column mode.  If you specify no arguments, it is equivalent to the 2C  macro.
	      Otherwise,  width  is the width of each column and gutter is the space between col-
	      umns.  The MINGW number register is the default gutter width.

   Creating a table of contents
       Wrap text that you want to appear in the table of contents in XS and XE macros.	 Use  the
       TC  macro  to  print  the table of contents at the end of the document, resetting the page
       number to i (Roman numeral 1).

       You can manually create a table of contents by specifying a page number as the first argu-
       ment to XS.  Add subsequent entries using the XA macro.	For example:

	      .XS 1
	      Introduction
	      .XA 2
	      A Brief History of the Universe
	      .XA 729
	      Details of Galactic Formation
	      ...
	      .XE

       Use  the  PX  macro  to print a manually-generated table of contents without resetting the
       page number.

       If you give the argument no to either PX or TC, groff suppresses printing the title speci-
       fied by the \*[TOC] string.

   Fractional point sizes
       Traditionally,  the ms macros only support integer values for the document's font size and
       vertical spacing.  To overcome this restriction, values larger than or equal to	1000  are
       taken as fractional values, multiplied by 1000.	For example, `.nr PS 10250' sets the font
       size to 10.25 points.

       The following four registers accept fractional point sizes: PS, VS, FPS, and FVS.

       Due to backwards compatibility, the value of VS must be smaller than 40000 (this  is  40.0
       points).

DIFFERENCES FROM troff ms
       The  groff ms macros are a complete re-implementation, using no original AT&T code.  Since
       they take advantage of the extended features in groff,  they  cannot  be  used  with  AT&T
       troff.  Other differences include:

       o  The  internals of groff ms differ from the internals of Unix ms.  Documents that depend
	  upon implementation details of Unix ms may not format properly with groff ms.

       o  The error-handling policy of groff ms is to  detect  and  report  errors,  rather  than
	  silently to ignore them.

       o  Bell Labs localisms are not implemented.

       o  Berkeley localisms, in particular the TM and CT macros, are not implemented.

       o  Groff ms does not work in compatibility mode (e.g., with the -C option).

       o  There is no support for typewriter-like devices.

       o  Groff ms does not provide cut marks.

       o  Multiple line spacing is not supported (use a larger vertical spacing instead).

       o  Some Unix ms documentation says that the CW and GW number registers can be used to con-
	  trol the column width and gutter width, respectively.  These number registers  are  not
	  used in groff ms.

       o  Macros  that	cause a reset (paragraphs, headings, etc.) may change the indent.  Macros
	  that change the indent do not increment or decrement the  indent,  but  rather  set  it
	  absolutely.	This  can  cause  problems for documents that define additional macros of
	  their own.  The solution is to use not the in request but instead the RS and RE macros.

       o  The number register GS is set to 1 by the groff ms macros, but is not used by the  Unix
	  ms macros.  Documents that need to determine whether they are being formatted with Unix
	  ms or groff ms should use this number register.

       o  To make groff ms use the default page offset (which also specifies  the  left  margin),
	  the PO number register must stay undefined until the first ms macro is evaluated.  This
	  implies that PO should not be used early in the document, unless it  is  changed  also:
	  Remember that accessing an undefined register automatically defines it.

   Strings
       You  can  redefine  the	following strings to adapt the groff ms macros to languages other
       than English:

				       String	     Default Value
				    ---------------------------------
				     REFERENCES    References
				     ABSTRACT	   ABSTRACT
				     TOC	   Table of Contents
				     MONTH1	   January
				     MONTH2	   February
				     MONTH3	   March
				     MONTH4	   April
				     MONTH5	   May
				     MONTH6	   June
				     MONTH7	   July
				     MONTH8	   August
				     MONTH9	   September
				     MONTH10	   October
				     MONTH11	   November
				     MONTH12	   December
				    ---------------------------------

       The \*- string produces an em dash -- like this.

       Use \*Q and \*U to get a left and right typographer's quote, respectively, in  troff  (and
       plain quotes in nroff).

   Text Settings
       The  FAM  string sets the default font family.  If this string is undefined at initializa-
       tion, it is set to Times.

       The point size, vertical spacing, and inter-paragraph spacing for footnotes are controlled
       by  the	number	registers  FPS, FVS, and FPD; at initialization these are set to \n(PS-2,
       \n[FPS]+2, and \n(PD/2, respectively.  If any of these registers are defined  before  ini-
       tialization, the initialization macro does not change them.

       The hyphenation flags (as set by the hy request) are set from the HY register; the default
       is 14.

       Improved accent marks (as originally defined in Berkeley's ms version)  are  available  by
       specifying  the	AM macro at the beginning of your document.  You can place an accent over
       most characters by specifying the string defining the accent directly after the character.
       For example, n\*~ produces an n with a tilde over it.

NAMING CONVENTIONS
       The  following  conventions  are  used  for names of macros, strings and number registers.
       External names available to documents that use the groff ms macros contain only	uppercase
       letters and digits.

       Internally the macros are divided into modules; naming conventions are as follows:

       o  Names used only within one module are of the form module*name.

       o  Names used outside the module in which they are defined are of the form module@name.

       o  Names  associated with a particular environment are of the form environment:name; these
	  are used only within the par module.

       o  name does not have a module prefix.

       o  Constructed names used to implement arrays are of the form array!index.

       Thus the groff ms macros reserve the following names:

       o  Names containing the characters *, @, and :.

       o  Names containing only uppercase letters and digits.

FILES
       /usr/share/tmac/ms.tmac (a wrapper file for s.tmac)
       /usr/share/tmac/s.tmac

SEE ALSO
       groff(1), troff(1), tbl(1), pic(1), eqn(1), refer(1), Groff:  The  GNU  Implementation  of
       troff by Trent Fisher and Werner Lemberg.

AUTHOR
       Original   manual   page   by  James  Clark  et	al;  rewritten	by  Larry  Kollar  (lkol-
       lar@despammed.com).

Groff Version 1.19.2			 February 6, 2006			      GROFF_MS(7)


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