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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for globfree (netbsd section 3)

GLOB(3) 			   BSD Library Functions Manual 			  GLOB(3)

NAME
     glob, globfree, glob_pattern_p -- generate pathnames matching a pattern

LIBRARY
     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <glob.h>

     int
     glob(const char * restrict pattern, int flags, int (*errfunc)(const char *, int),
	 glob_t * restrict pglob);

     void
     globfree(glob_t *pglob);

     int
     glob_pattern_p(const char *pattern, int quote);

DESCRIPTION
     The glob() function is a pathname generator that implements the rules for file name pattern
     matching used by the shell.

     The include file glob.h defines the structure type glob_t, which contains at least the fol-
     lowing fields:

     typedef struct {
	     size_t gl_pathc;	     /* count of total paths so far */
	     size_t gl_matchc;	     /* count of paths matching pattern */
	     size_t gl_offs;	     /* reserved at beginning of gl_pathv */
	     int gl_flags;	     /* returned flags */
	     char **gl_pathv;	     /* list of paths matching pattern */
     } glob_t;

     The argument pattern is a pointer to a pathname pattern to be expanded.  The glob() argument
     matches all accessible pathnames against the pattern and creates a list of the pathnames
     that match.  In order to have access to a pathname, glob() requires search permission on
     every component of a path except the last and read permission on each directory of any file-
     name component of pattern that contains any of the special characters '*', '?' or '['.

     The glob() argument stores the number of matched pathnames into the gl_pathc field, and a
     pointer to a list of pointers to pathnames into the gl_pathv field.  The first pointer after
     the last pathname is NULL.  If the pattern does not match any pathnames, the returned number
     of matched paths is set to zero.

     It is the caller's responsibility to create the structure pointed to by pglob.  The glob()
     function allocates other space as needed, including the memory pointed to by gl_pathv.

     The argument flags is used to modify the behavior of glob().  The value of flags is the bit-
     wise inclusive OR of any of the following values defined in glob.h:

     GLOB_APPEND      Append pathnames generated to the ones from a previous call (or calls) to
		      glob().  The value of gl_pathc will be the total matches found by this call
		      and the previous call(s).  The pathnames are appended to, not merged with
		      the pathnames returned by the previous call(s).  Between calls, the caller
		      must not change the setting of the GLOB_DOOFFS flag, nor change the value
		      of gl_offs when GLOB_DOOFFS is set, nor (obviously) call globfree() for
		      pglob.

     GLOB_DOOFFS      Make use of the gl_offs field.  If this flag is set, gl_offs is used to
		      specify how many NULL pointers to prepend to the beginning of the gl_pathv
		      field.  In other words, gl_pathv will point to gl_offs NULL pointers, fol-
		      lowed by gl_pathc pathname pointers, followed by a NULL pointer.

     GLOB_ERR	      Causes glob() to return when it encounters a directory that it cannot open
		      or read.	Ordinarily, glob() continues to find matches.

     GLOB_MARK	      Each pathname that is a directory that matches pattern has a slash
		      appended.

     GLOB_NOCHECK     If pattern does not match any pathname, then glob() returns a list consist-
		      ing of only pattern, with the number of total pathnames set to 1, and the
		      number of matched pathnames set to 0.

     GLOB_NOSORT      By default, the pathnames are sorted in ascending ASCII order; this flag
		      prevents that sorting (speeding up glob()).

     The following values may also be included in flags, however, they are non-standard exten-
     sions to IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'').

     GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC  The following additional fields in the pglob structure have been initial-
		      ized with alternate functions for glob to use to open, read, and close
		      directories and to get stat information on names found in those directo-
		      ries.

			      void *(*gl_opendir)(const char * name);
			      struct dirent *(*gl_readdir)(void *);
			      void (*gl_closedir)(void *);
			      int (*gl_lstat)(const char *name, struct stat *st);
			      int (*gl_stat)(const char *name, struct stat *st);

		      This extension is provided to allow programs such as restore(8) to provide
		      globbing from directories stored on tape.

     GLOB_BRACE       Pre-process the pattern string to expand '{pat,pat,...}' strings like
		      csh(1).  The pattern '{}' is left unexpanded for historical reasons (csh(1)
		      does the same thing to ease typing of find(1) patterns).

     GLOB_MAGCHAR     Set by the glob() function if the pattern included globbing characters.
		      See the description of the usage of the gl_matchc structure member for more
		      details.

     GLOB_NOMAGIC     Is the same as GLOB_NOCHECK but it only appends the pattern if it does not
		      contain any of the special characters ``*'', ``?'' or ``[''.  GLOB_NOMAGIC
		      is provided to simplify implementing the historic csh(1) globbing behavior
		      and should probably not be used anywhere else.

     GLOB_NOESCAPE    Disable the use of the backslash ('\') character for quoting.

     GLOB_TILDE       Expand patterns that start with '~' to user name home directories.

     GLOB_LIMIT       Limit the amount of memory used to store matched strings to 64K, the number
		      of stat(2) calls to 128, and the number of readdir(3) calls to 16K.  This
		      option should be set for programs that can be coerced to a denial of ser-
		      vice attack via patterns that expand to a very large number of matches,
		      such as a long string of */../*/..

     GLOB_PERIOD      Allow metacharacters to match a leading period in a filename.

     GLOB_NO_DOTDIRS  Hide '.' and '..' from metacharacter matches, regardless of whether
		      GLOB_PERIOD is set and whether the pattern component begins with a literal
		      period.  GLOB_STAR Indicates that two adjacent * characters will do a
		      recursive match in all subdirs, without following symbolic links and three
		      adjacent * characters will also follow symbolic links.

     If, during the search, a directory is encountered that cannot be opened or read and errfunc
     is non-NULL, glob() calls (*errfunc)(path, errno).  This may be unintuitive: a pattern like
     '*/Makefile' will try to stat(2) 'foo/Makefile' even if 'foo' is not a directory, resulting
     in a call to errfunc.  The error routine can suppress this action by testing for ENOENT and
     ENOTDIR; however, the GLOB_ERR flag will still cause an immediate return when this happens.

     If errfunc returns non-zero, glob() stops the scan and returns GLOB_ABORTED after setting
     gl_pathc and gl_pathv to reflect any paths already matched.  This also happens if an error
     is encountered and GLOB_ERR is set in flags, regardless of the return value of errfunc, if
     called.  If GLOB_ERR is not set and either errfunc is NULL or errfunc returns zero, the
     error is ignored.

     The globfree() function frees any space associated with pglob from a previous call(s) to
     glob().

     The glob_pattern_p() returns 1 if the pattern has any special characters that glob() will
     interpret and 0 otherwise.  If the quote argument is non-zero, then backslash quoted charac-
     ters are ignored.

     The historical GLOB_QUOTE flag is no longer supported.  Per IEEE Std 1003.2-1992
     (``POSIX.2''), backslash escaping of special characters is the default behaviour; it may be
     disabled by specifying the GLOB_NOESCAPE flag.

RETURN VALUES
     On successful completion, glob() returns zero.  In addition the fields of pglob contain the
     values described below:

     gl_pathc	   contains the total number of matched pathnames so far.  This includes other
		   matches from previous invocations of glob() if GLOB_APPEND was specified.

     gl_matchc	   contains the number of matched pathnames in the current invocation of glob().

     gl_flags	   contains a copy of the flags parameter with the bit GLOB_MAGCHAR set if
		   pattern contained any of the special characters ``*'', ``?'' or ``['', cleared
		   if not.

     gl_pathv	   contains a pointer to a NULL-terminated list of matched pathnames.  However,
		   if gl_pathc is zero, the contents of gl_pathv are undefined.

     If glob() terminates due to an error, it sets errno and returns one of the following non-
     zero constants, which are defined in the include file <glob.h>:

     GLOB_ABORTED     The scan was stopped because an error was encountered and either GLOB_ERR
		      was set or (*errfunc)() returned non-zero.

     GLOB_NOMATCH     The pattern does not match any existing pathname, and GLOB_NOCHECK was not
		      set in flags.

     GLOB_NOSPACE     An attempt to allocate memory failed, or if errno was 0 GLOB_LIMIT was
		      specified in the flags and ARG_MAX patterns were matched.

     The historical GLOB_ABEND return constant is no longer supported.	Portable applications
     should use the GLOB_ABORTED constant instead.

     The arguments pglob->gl_pathc and pglob->gl_pathv are still set as specified above.

ENVIRONMENT
     HOME  If defined, used as the home directory of the current user in tilde expansions.

EXAMPLES
     A rough equivalent of 'ls -l *.c *.h' can be obtained with the following code:

	   glob_t g;

	   g.gl_offs = 2;
	   glob("*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS, NULL, &g);
	   glob("*.h", GLOB_DOOFFS | GLOB_APPEND, NULL, &g);
	   g.gl_pathv[0] = "ls";
	   g.gl_pathv[1] = "-l";
	   execvp("ls", g.gl_pathv);

SEE ALSO
     sh(1), fnmatch(3), regexp(3), glob(7)

STANDARDS
     The glob() function is expected to be IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') compatible with the
     exception that the flags GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC, GLOB_BRACE, GLOB_MAGCHAR, GLOB_NOMAGIC,
     GLOB_TILDE, and GLOB_LIMIT and the fields gl_matchc and gl_flags should not be used by
     applications striving for strict POSIX conformance.

HISTORY
     The glob() and globfree() functions first appeared in 4.4BSD.  The glob_pattern_p() function
     is modelled after the one found in glibc.

BUGS
     Patterns longer than MAXPATHLEN may cause unchecked errors.

     The glob() function may fail and set errno for any of the errors specified for the library
     routines stat(2), closedir(3), opendir(3), readdir(3), malloc(3), and free(3).

BSD					November 30, 2010				      BSD


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