👤
Home Man
Search
Today's Posts
Register

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages
Man Page or Keyword Search:
Select Section of Man Page:
Select Man Page Repository:

NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for find (netbsd section 1)

FIND(1) 			   BSD General Commands Manual				  FIND(1)

NAME
     find -- walk a file hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
     find [-H | -L | -P] [-dEhsXx] file [file ...] [expression]
     find [-H | -L | -P] [-dEhsXx] -f file [file ...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
     find recursively descends the directory tree for each file listed, evaluating an expression
     (composed of the ``primaries'' and ``operands'' listed below) in terms of each file in the
     tree.

     The options are as follows:

     -H      The -H option causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)), returned for
	     each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file refer-
	     enced by the link, not the link itself.  If the referenced file does not exist, the
	     file information and type will be for the link itself.  File information of all sym-
	     bolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself.

     -L      The -L option causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for
	     each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link, not the link
	     itself.  If the referenced file does not exist, the file information and type will
	     be for the link itself.

     -P      The -P option causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for
	     each symbolic link to be those of the link itself.

     -d      The -d option causes find to perform a depth-first traversal, i.e., directories are
	     visited in post-order and all entries in a directory will be acted on before the
	     directory itself.	By default, find visits directories in pre-order, i.e., before
	     their contents.  Note, the default is not a breadth-first traversal.

     -E      The -E option causes regexp arguments to primaries to be interpreted as extended
	     regular expressions (see re_format(7)).

     -f      The -f option specifies a file hierarchy for find to traverse.  File hierarchies may
	     also be specified as the operands immediately following the options.

     -h      The -h option causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)), returned for
	     each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link, not the link
	     itself.  If the referenced file does not exist, the file information and type will
	     be for the link itself.

     -s      The -s option causes the entries of each directory to be sorted in lexicographical
	     order.  Note that the sorting is done only inside of each directory; files in dif-
	     ferent directories are not sorted.  Therefore, 'a/b' appears before 'a.b', which is
	     different from ``find ... | sort'' order.

     -X      The -X option is a modification to permit find to be safely used in conjunction with
	     xargs(1).	If a file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by xargs, a
	     diagnostic message is displayed on standard error, and the file is skipped.  The
	     delimiting characters include single (``''') and double (``"'') quotes, backslash
	     (``\''), space, tab and newline characters.  Alternatively, the -print0 or -printx
	     primaries can be used to format the output in a way that xargs can accept.

     -x      The -x option restricts the search to the file system containing the directory spec-
	     ified.  Does not list mount points to other file systems.

PRIMARIES
     All primaries which take a numeric argument of n allow the number to be preceded by a plus
     sign (``+'') or a minus sign (``-'').  A preceding plus sign means ``more than n'', a pre-
     ceding minus sign means ``less than n'', and neither means ``exactly n''.
     -amin n
	     True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was
	     started, rounded up to the next full minute, is n minutes.

     -anewer file
	     True if the current file has a more recent last access time than file.

     -atime n
	     True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was
	     started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour period, is n 24-hour periods.

     -cmin n
	     True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information
	     and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full minute, is n minutes.

     -cnewer file
	     True if the current file has a more recent last change time than file.

     -ctime n
	     True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information
	     and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour period, is n
	     24-hour periods.

     -delete
	     Delete found files, symbolic links and directories.  Always returns True.	This exe-
	     cutes from the current working directory as find recurses down the tree.  To avoid
	     deleting unexpected files, it will ignore any filenames that fts(3) returns that
	     contain a ``/'' (fts(3) should not return such pathnames).  Depth-first traversal
	     processing is implied by this option.  This can also be invoked as -rm.

     -empty  True if the current file or directory is empty.

     -exec utility [argument ...] ;
     -exec utility [argument ...] {} +
	     Execute the specified utility with the specified arguments.

	     The list of arguments for utility is terminated by a lone semicolon ``;'' or plus
	     ``+'' character as a separate parameter.  The command specified by utility will be
	     executed with its current working directory being the directory from which find was
	     executed.

	     If the list of arguments is terminated by a semicolon (``;''), then the utility is
	     invoked once per pathname.  If the string ``{}'' appears anywhere in the utility
	     name or the arguments then it is replaced by the pathname of the current file (but
	     it need not appear, in which case the pathname will not be passed to the utility).
	     The semicolon-terminated form of the -exec primary returns true if and only if the
	     utility exits with a zero exit status.  Note that the semicolon will have to be
	     escaped on the shell command line in order to be passed as a parameter.

	     If the list of arguments is terminated by a plus sign (``+''), then the pathnames
	     for which the primary is evaluated are aggregated into sets, and utility will be
	     invoked once per set, similar to xargs(1).  In this case the parameter ``{}'' must
	     appear as the last item in the argument list, just before the ``+'' parameter.  Each
	     set is limited to no more than 5,000 pathnames, and is also limited such that the
	     total number of bytes in the argument list does not exceed ARG_MAX.  The plus-termi-
	     nated form of the -exec primary always returns true.  If the plus-terminated form of
	     the -exec primary results in any invocation of the utility exiting with non-zero
	     exit status, then find will eventually exit with non-zero status as well, but this
	     does not cause find to exit early.

     -execdir utility [argument ...] ;
	     The -execdir primary is similar to the semicolon-terminated (``;'') variant of the
	     -exec primary, with the exception that utility will be executed from the directory
	     that holds the current file.  Only the base filename is substituted for the string
	     ``{}''.  Set aggregation (``+'' termination) is not supported.

     -exit [status]
	     This primary causes find to stop traversing the file system and exit immediately,
	     with the specified numeric exit status.  If the status value is not specified, then
	     find will exit with status zero.  Note that any preceding primaries will be evalu-
	     ated and acted upon before exiting.

     -false  This primary always evaluates to false.  This can be used following a primary that
	     caused the expression to be true to make the expression to be false.  This can be
	     useful after using a -fprint primary so it can continue to the next expression
	     (using an -or operator, for example).

     -flags [-]flags
	     If flags are preceded by a dash (``-''), this primary evaluates to true if at least
	     all of the bits in flags are set in the file's flags bits.  If flags are not pre-
	     ceded by a dash, this primary evaluates to true if the bits in flags exactly match
	     the file's flags bits.  If flags is ``none'', files with no flags bits set are
	     matched.  (See chflags(1) for more information about file flags.)

     -follow
	     Follow symbolic links.

     -fprint filename
	     This primary always evaluates to true.  This creates filename or overwrites the file
	     if it already exists.  The file is created at startup.  It writes the pathname of
	     the current file to this file, followed by a newline character.  The file will be
	     empty if no files are matched.

     -fstype type
	     True if the file is contained in a file system of type type.  The sysctl(8) command
	     can be used to find out the types of file systems that are available on the system:

		   sysctl vfs.generic.fstypes

	     In addition, there are two pseudo-types, ``local'' and ``rdonly''.  The former
	     matches any file system physically mounted on the system where the find is being
	     executed, and the latter matches any file system which is mounted read-only.

     -group gname
	     True if the file belongs to the group gname.  If gname is numeric and there is no
	     such group name, then gname is treated as a group id.

     -iname pattern
	     True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern.  Case
	     insensitive.

     -inum n
	     True if the file has inode number n.

     -iregex regexp
	     True if the path name of the current file matches the case-insensitive basic regular
	     expression (see re_format(7)) regexp.  This is a match on the whole path, not a
	     search for the regular expression within the path.

     -links n
	     True if the file has n links.

     -rm     This is an alias for -delete.

     -ls     This primary always evaluates to true.  The following information for the current
	     file is written to standard output: its inode number, size in 512-byte blocks, file
	     permissions, number of hard links, owner, group, size in bytes, last modification
	     time, and pathname.  If the file is a block or character special file, the major and
	     minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in bytes.  If the file is a sym-
	     bolic link, the pathname of the linked-to file will be displayed preceded by ``->''.
	     The format is identical to that produced by ``ls -dgils''.

     -maxdepth n
	     True if the current search depth is less than or equal to what is specified in n.

     -mindepth n
	     True if the current search depth is at least what is specified in n.

     -mmin n
	     True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was
	     started, rounded up to the next full minute, is n minutes.

     -mtime n
	     True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was
	     started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour period, is n 24-hour periods.

     -ok utility [argument ...] ;
	     The -ok primary is similar to the semicolon-terminated (``;'') variant of the -exec
	     primary, with the exception that find requests user affirmation for the execution of
	     the utility by printing a message to the terminal and reading a response.	If the
	     response is other than ``y'', the command is not executed and the -ok primary evalu-
	     ates to false.  Set aggregation (``+'' termination) is not supported.

     -name pattern
	     True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern.  Special
	     shell pattern matching characters (``['', ``]'', ``*'', ``?'') may be used as part
	     of pattern.  These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a
	     backslash (``\'').

     -newer file
	     True if the current file has a more recent last modification time than file.

     -nouser
	     True if the file belongs to an unknown user.

     -nogroup
	     True if the file belongs to an unknown group.

     -path pattern
	     True if the pathname being examined matches pattern.  Special shell pattern matching
	     characters (``['', ``]'', ``*'', and ``?'') may be used as part of pattern.  These
	     characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash (``\'').
	     Slashes (``/'') are treated as normal characters and do not have to be matched
	     explicitly.

     -perm [-]mode
	     The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal number.  If the mode is
	     symbolic, a starting value of zero is assumed and the mode sets or clears permis-
	     sions without regard to the process' file mode creation mask.  If the mode is octal,
	     only bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO) of the
	     file's mode bits participate in the comparison.  If the mode is preceded by a dash
	     (``-''), this primary evaluates to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are
	     set in the file's mode bits.  If the mode is not preceded by a dash, this primary
	     evaluates to true if the bits in the mode exactly match the file's mode bits.  Note,
	     the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a dash (``-'').

     -print  This primary always evaluates to true.  It prints the pathname of the current file
	     to standard output, followed by a newline character.  If none of -exec, -exit,
	     -fprint, -ls, -ok, -print0, nor -printx is specified, the given expression shall be
	     effectively replaced by (given expression) -print.

     -print0
	     This primary always evaluates to true.  It prints the pathname of the current file
	     to standard output, followed by a NUL character.

     -printx
	     This primary always evaluates to true.  It prints the pathname of the current file
	     to standard output, with each space, tab, newline, backslash, dollar sign, and sin-
	     gle, double, or back quotation mark prefixed by a backslash, so the output of find
	     can safely be used as input to xargs.

     -prune  This primary always evaluates to true.  It causes find to not descend into the cur-
	     rent file.  Note, the -prune primary has no effect if the -d option was specified.

     -regex regexp
	     True if the path name of the current file matches the case-sensitive basic regular
	     expression (see re_format(7)) regexp.  This is a match on the whole path, not a
	     search for the regular expression within the path.

     -size n[c]
	     True if the file's size, rounded up, in 512-byte blocks is n.  If n is followed by a
	     ``c'', then the primary is true if the file's size is n bytes.

     -type t
	     True if the file is of the specified type.  Possible file types are as follows:

		   b	 block special
		   c	 character special
		   d	 directory
		   f	 regular file
		   l	 symbolic link
		   p	 FIFO
		   s	 socket
		   W	 whiteout
		   w	 whiteout

     -user uname
	     True if the file belongs to the user uname.  If uname is numeric and there is no
	     such user name, then uname is treated as a user id (and considered a numeric argu-
	     ment).

     -xdev   This primary always evaluates to true.  It causes find not to descend past directo-
	     ries that have a different device ID (st_dev, see stat(2) S5.6.2 [POSIX.1]).

OPERATORS
     The primaries may be combined using the following operators.  The operators are listed in
     order of decreasing precedence.

     ( expression )
		   This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression evaluates to true.

     ! expression  This is the unary NOT operator.  It evaluates to true if the expression is
		   false.

     expression -and expression

     expression expression
		   The -and operator is the logical AND operator.  As it is implied by the juxta-
		   position of two expressions it does not have to be specified.  The expression
		   evaluates to true if both expressions are true.  The second expression is not
		   evaluated if the first expression is false.

     expression -or expression
		   The -or operator is the logical OR operator.  The expression evaluates to true
		   if either the first or the second expression is true.  The second expression
		   is not evaluated if the first expression is true.

     All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find.  Primaries which themselves
     take arguments expect each argument to be a separate argument to find.

EXIT STATUS
     The find utility normally exits 0 on success, and exits with 1 under certain internal error
     conditions.  If any invocations of ``-exec ... +'' primaries return non-zero exit-status,
     then find will do so as well.

EXAMPLES
     The following examples are shown as given to the shell:

     find  /  \!  -name  "*.c"	-print
	    Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in ``.c''.

     find  /  -newer  ttt  -user  wnj  -print
	    Print out a list of all the files owned by user ``wnj'' that are newer than the file
	    ``ttt''.

     find  .  -type  f	-mmin  -30  -print  -or  -mindepth  1  -prune
	    Print out a list of all the files in the current directory that are newer than 30
	    minutes.

     find  .  -type  f	-atime	+10  -mindepth	2  -print
	    Print out a list of all the files in any sub-directories that have not been accessed
	    in the past ten days.

     find  .  -mtime  +90  -exec  rm  -i  {}  +  -or  -mindepth  1  -prune
	    Interactively remove all of the files in the current directory that have not been
	    modified in 90 days.

     find  .  -type  f	-mtime	+90  -ok  mv  {}  {}.old  \;
	    Interactively rename all of the files in the current directory and all sub-directo-
	    ries that have not been modified in 90 days.

     find  /  \!  \(  -newer  ttt  -user  wnj  \)  -print
	    Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than ``ttt'' and owned by
	    ``wnj''.

     find  /  \(  -newer  ttt  -or  -user  wnj	\)  -print
	    Print out a list of all the files that are either owned by ``wnj'' or that are newer
	    than ``ttt''.

     find  /  \(  -newer  ttt  -or  -user  wnj	\)  -exit  1
	    Return immediately with a value of 1 if any files are found that are either owned by
	    ``wnj'' or that are newer than ``ttt'', but do not print them.

     find  /  \(  -newer  ttt  -or  -user  wnj	\)  -ls  -exit	1
	    Same as above, but list the first file matching the criteria before exiting with a
	    value of 1.

SEE ALSO
     chflags(1), chmod(1), locate(1), xargs(1), stat(2), fts(3), getgrent(3), getpwent(3),
     strmode(3), symlink(7), sysctl(8)

STANDARDS
     The find utility syntax is a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE Std 1003.2
     (``POSIX.2'') standard.

     The options and the -amin, -anewer, -cmin, -cnewer, -delete, -empty, -execdir, -follow,
     -fstype, -iname, -inum, -iregex, -links, -ls, -maxdepth, -mindepth, -mmin, -path, -print0,
     -printx, -regex, and -rm primaries are extensions to IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'').

     Historically, the -d, -h, and -x options were implemented using the primaries ``-depth'',
     ``-follow'', and ``-xdev''.  These primaries always evaluated to true, and always took
     effect when the expression was parsed, before the file system traversal began.  As a result,
     some legal expressions could be confusing.  For example, in the expression ``-print -or
     -depth'', -print always evaluates to true, so the standard meaning of -or implies that
     -depth would never be evaluated, but that is not what happens; in fact, -depth takes effect
     immediately, without testing whether -print returns true or false.

     Historically, the operator ``-or'' was implemented as ``-o'', and the operator ``-and'' was
     implemented as ``-a''.

     Historic implementations of the ``-exec'' and ``-ok'' primaries did not replace the string
     ``{}'' in the utility name or the utility arguments if it did not appear as a separate argu-
     ment.  This version replaces it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears.

     Support for ``-exec ... +'' is consistent with IEEE PASC Interpretation 1003.2 #210, though
     the feature originated in SVR4.

     The -delete primary does not interact well with other options that cause the file system
     tree traversal options to be changed.

HISTORY
     A much simpler find command appeared in First Edition AT&T Unix.  The syntax had become sim-
     ilar to the present version by the time of the Fifth Edition.

BUGS
     The special characters used by find are also special characters to many shell programs.  In
     particular, the characters ``*'', ``['', ``]'', ``?'', ``('', ``)'', ``!'', ``\'', and ``;''
     may have to be escaped from the shell.

     As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names and the expression,
     it is difficult to specify files named ``-xdev'' or ``!''.  These problems are handled by
     the -f option and the getopt(3) ``--'' construct.

BSD					September 24, 2011				      BSD


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 01:57 AM.

Unix & Linux Forums Content Copyrightę1993-2018. All Rights Reserved.
×
UNIX.COM Login
Username:
Password:  
Show Password