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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for restore (netbsd section 8)

RESTORE(8)			   BSD System Manager's Manual			       RESTORE(8)

     restore, rrestore -- restore files or file systems from backups made with dump

     restore -i [-cdhmuvyN] [-b bsize] [-D algorithm] [-f file] [-M mfile] [-s fileno]
     restore -R [-cduvyN] [-b bsize] [-D algorithm] [-f file] [-M mfile] [-s fileno]
     restore -r [-cduvyN] [-b bsize] [-D algorithm] [-f file] [-M mfile] [-s fileno]
     restore -t [-cdhuvy] [-b bsize] [-f file] [-s fileno] [file ...]
     restore -x [-cdhmuvyN] [-b bsize] [-D algorithm] [-f file] [-M mfile] [-s fileno] [file ...]

     (The 4.3BSD option syntax is implemented for backward compatibility, but is not documented

     The restore command performs the inverse function of dump(8).  A full backup of a file sys-
     tem may be restored and subsequent incremental backups layered on top of it.  Single files
     and directory subtrees may be restored from full or partial backups.  restore works across a
     network; to do this see the -f flag described below.  Other arguments to the command are
     file or directory names specifying the files that are to be restored.  Unless the -h flag is
     specified (see below), the appearance of a directory name refers to the files and (recur-
     sively) subdirectories of that directory.

     If any file arguments are given with the -x flag, or specified in the command shell with the
     -i flag, the permissions of the root directory will not be applied to the current directory,
     unless one of those file arguments explicitly represents the root inode (e.g.: a literal
     '.').  This is a change from the traditional behaviour, which used to be to always prompt
     the user.

     Exactly one of the following flags is required:

     -i      This mode allows interactive restoration of files from a dump.  After reading in the
	     directory information from the dump, restore provides a shell like interface that
	     allows the user to move around the directory tree selecting files to be extracted.
	     The available commands are given below; for those commands that require an argument,
	     the default is the current directory.

	     add [arg]	 The current directory or specified argument is added to the list of
			 files to be extracted.  If a directory is specified, then it and all its
			 descendants are added to the extraction list (unless the -h flag is
			 specified on the command line).  Files that are on the extraction list
			 are prepended with a ``*'' when they are listed by ls.

	     cd arg	 Change the current working directory to the specified argument.

	     delete [arg]
			 The current directory or specified argument is deleted from the list of
			 files to be extracted.  If a directory is specified, then it and all its
			 descendants are deleted from the extraction list (unless the -h flag is
			 specified on the command line).  The most expedient way to extract most
			 of the files from a directory is to add the directory to the extraction
			 list and then delete those files that are not needed.

	     extract	 All the files that are on the extraction list are extracted from the
			 dump.	restore will ask which volume the user wishes to mount.  The
			 fastest way to extract a few files is to start with the last volume, and
			 work towards the first volume.

	     help, ?	 List a summary of the available commands.

	     ls [arg]	 List the current or specified directory.  Entries that are directories
			 are appended with a ``/''.  Entries that have been marked for extraction
			 are prepended with a ``*''.  If the verbose flag is set the inode number
			 of each entry is also listed.

	     pwd	 Print the full pathname of the current working directory.

	     quit, xit	 Restore immediately exits, even if the extraction list is not empty.

	     setmodes	 All the directories that have been added to the extraction list have
			 their owner, modes, and times set; nothing is extracted from the dump.
			 This is useful for cleaning up after a restore has been prematurely

	     verbose	 The sense of the -v flag is toggled.  When set, the verbose flag causes
			 the ls command to list the inode numbers of all entries.  It also causes
			 restore to print out information about each file as it is extracted.

	     what	 List dump header information.

	     Debug	 Enable debugging.

     -R      restore requests a particular tape of a multi volume set on which to restart a full
	     restore (see the -r flag below).  This is useful if the restore has been inter-

     -r      Restore (rebuild a file system).  The target file system should be made pristine
	     with newfs(8), mounted and the user cd(1)'d into the pristine file system before
	     starting the restoration of the initial level 0 backup.  If the level 0 restores
	     successfully, the -r flag may be used to restore any necessary incremental backups
	     on top of the level 0.  The -r flag precludes an interactive file extraction and can
	     be detrimental to one's health if not used carefully (not to mention the disk).  An

		   newfs /dev/rsd0g
		   mount /dev/sd0g /mnt
		   cd /mnt

		   restore rf /dev/rst0

	     Note that restore leaves a file restoresymtable in the root directory to pass infor-
	     mation between incremental restore passes.  This file should be removed when the
	     last incremental has been restored.

	     restore, in conjunction with newfs(8) and dump(8), may be used to modify file system
	     parameters such as size or block size.

     -t      The names of the specified files are listed if they occur on the backup.  If no file
	     argument is given, then the root directory is listed, which results in the entire
	     content of the backup being listed, unless the -h flag has been specified.  Note
	     that the -t flag replaces the function of the old dumpdir program.

     -x      The named files are read from the given media.  If a named file matches a directory
	     whose contents are on the backup and the -h flag is not specified, the directory is
	     recursively extracted.  The owner, modification time, and mode are restored (if pos-
	     sible).  If no file argument is given, then the root directory is extracted, which
	     results in the entire content of the backup being extracted, unless the -h flag has
	     been specified.

     The following additional options may be specified:

     -b bsize
	     The number of kilobytes per dump record.  If the -b option is not specified, restore
	     tries to determine the block size dynamically.

     -c      Normally, restore will try to determine dynamically whether the dump was made from
	     an old (pre-4.4) or new format file system.  The -c flag disables this check, and
	     only allows reading a dump in the old format.

     -D algorithm
	     Computes the digest of each regular files using the algorithm and output to standard
	     output.  The algorithm is one of md5, rmd160, or sha1.  This option doesn't imply

     -d      Enable debugging.

     -f file
	     Read the backup from file; file may be a special device file like /dev/rst0 (a tape
	     drive), /dev/rsd1c (a disk drive), an ordinary file, or '-' (the standard input).
	     If the name of the file is of the form ``host:file'', or ``user@host:file'', restore
	     reads from the named file on the remote host using rmt(8).  If the name of the file
	     is '-', restore reads from standard input.  Thus, dump(8) and restore can be used in
	     a pipeline to dump and restore a file system with the command

		   dump 0f - /usr | (cd /mnt; restore xf -)

     -h      Extract the actual directory, rather than the files that it references.  This pre-
	     vents hierarchical restoration of complete subtrees from the dump.

     -M mfile
	     Do not set the file flags on restore.  Instead, append an mtree(8) specification to
	     mfile, which can be used to restore file flags with a command such as

		   sort mfile | mtree -e -i -u

     -m      Extract by inode numbers rather than by file name.  This is useful if only a few
	     files are being extracted, and one wants to avoid regenerating the complete pathname
	     to the file.

     -N      Do not perform actual writing to disk.

     -s fileno
	     Read from the specified fileno on a multi-file tape.  File numbering starts at 1.

     -u      The -u (unlink) flag removes files before extracting them.  This is useful when an
	     executable file is in use.  Ignored if -t or -N flag is given.

     -v      Normally restore does its work silently.  The -v (verbose) flag causes it to type
	     the name of each file it treats preceded by its file type.

     -y      Do not ask the user whether to abort the restore in the event of an error.  Always
	     try to skip over the bad block(s) and continue.

     If the following environment variable exists it will be used by restore:
     TMPDIR  The directory given in TMPDIR will be used instead of /tmp to store temporary files.
	     Refer to environ(7) for more information.

     /dev/nrst0 	default tape unit to use.  Taken from _PATH_DEFTAPE in
     /dev/rst*		raw SCSI tape interface
     /tmp/rstdir*	file containing directories on the tape.
     /tmp/rstmode*	owner, mode, and time stamps for directories.
     ./restoresymtable	information passed between incremental restores.

     Complains if it gets a read error.  If -y has been specified, or the user responds 'y',
     restore will attempt to continue the restore.

     If a backup was made using more than one tape volume, restore will notify the user when it
     is time to mount the next volume.	If the -x or -i flag has been specified, restore will
     also ask which volume the user wishes to mount.  The fastest way to extract a few files is
     to start with the last volume, and work towards the first volume.

     There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by restore.  Most checks are self-
     explanatory or can ``never happen''.  Common errors are given below.

     Converting to new file system format.
	     A dump tape created from the old file system has been loaded.  It is automatically
	     converted to the new file system format.

     <filename>: not found on tape
	     The specified file name was listed in the tape directory, but was not found on the
	     tape.  This is caused by tape read errors while looking for the file, and from using
	     a dump tape created on an active file system.

     expected next file <inumber>, got <inumber>
	     A file that was not listed in the directory showed up.  This can occur when using a
	     dump created on an active file system.

     Incremental dump too low
	     When doing incremental restore, a dump that was written before the previous incre-
	     mental dump, or that has too low an incremental level has been loaded.

     Incremental dump too high
	     When doing incremental restore, a dump that does not begin its coverage where the
	     previous incremental dump left off, or that has too high an incremental level has
	     been loaded.

     Tape read error while restoring <filename>
     Tape read error while skipping over inode <inumber>
     Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
	     A tape (or other media) read error has occurred.  If a file name is specified, then
	     its contents are probably partially wrong.  If an inode is being skipped or the tape
	     is trying to resynchronize, then no extracted files have been corrupted, though
	     files may not be found on the tape.

     resync restore, skipped <num> blocks
	     After a dump read error, restore may have to resynchronize itself.  This message
	     lists the number of blocks that were skipped over.

     rcmd(1), rcmd(3), environ(7), dump(8), mount(8), newfs(8), rmt(8)

     The restore command appeared in 4.2BSD.

     restore can get confused when doing incremental restores from dumps that were made on active
     file systems.

     A level zero dump must be done after a full restore.  Because restore runs in user code, it
     has no control over inode allocation; thus a full dump must be done to get a new set of
     directories reflecting the new inode numbering, even though the content of the files is

     The temporary files /tmp/rstdir* and /tmp/rstmode* are generated with a unique name based on
     the date of the dump and the process ID (see mktemp(3)), except for when -r or -R is used.
     Because -R allows you to restart a -r operation that may have been interrupted, the tempo-
     rary files should be the same across different processes.	In all other cases, the files are
     unique because it is possible to have two different dumps started at the same time, and sep-
     arate operations shouldn't conflict with each other.

BSD					  April 30, 2007				      BSD

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