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glob(7) [netbsd man page]

GLOB(7) 					       BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual						   GLOB(7)

NAME
glob -- shell-style pattern matching DESCRIPTION
Globbing characters (wildcards) are special characters used to perform pattern matching of pathnames and command arguments in the csh(1), ksh(1), and sh(1) shells as well as the C library functions fnmatch(3) and glob(3). A glob pattern is a word containing one or more unquoted '?' or '*' characters, or ``[..]'' sequences. Globs should not be confused with the more powerful regular expressions used by programs such as grep(1). While there is some overlap in the special characters used in regular expressions and globs, their meaning is different. The pattern elements have the following meaning: ? Matches any single character. * Matches any sequence of zero or more characters. [..] Matches any of the characters inside the brackets. Ranges of characters can be specified by separating two characters by a '-' (e.g. ``[a0-9]'' matches the letter 'a' or any digit). In order to represent itself, a '-' must either be quoted or the first or last character in the character list. Similarly, a ']' must be quoted or the first character in the list if it is to represent itself instead of the end of the list. Also, a '!' appearing at the start of the list has special meaning (see below), so to represent itself it must be quoted or appear later in the list. Within a bracket expression, the name of a character class enclosed in '[:' and ':]' stands for the list of all characters belonging to that class. Supported character classes: alnum cntrl lower space alpha digit print upper blank graph punct xdigit These match characters using the macros specified in ctype(3). A character class may not be used as an endpoint of a range. [!..] Like [..], except it matches any character not inside the brackets. Matches the character following it verbatim. This is useful to quote the special characters '?', '*', '[', and '' such that they lose their special meaning. For example, the pattern ``\*[x]?'' matches the string ``*[x]?''. Note that when matching a pathname, the path separator '/', is not matched by a '?', or '*', character or by a ``[..]'' sequence. Thus, /usr/*/*/X11 would match /usr/X11R6/lib/X11 and /usr/X11R6/include/X11 while /usr/*/X11 would not match either. Likewise, /usr/*/bin would match /usr/local/bin but not /usr/bin. SEE ALSO
fnmatch(3), glob(3), re_format(7) HISTORY
In early versions of UNIX, the shell did not do pattern expansion itself. A dedicated program, /etc/glob, was used to perform the expansion and pass the results to a command. In Version 7 AT&T UNIX, with the introduction of the Bourne shell, this functionality was incorporated into the shell itself. BSD
November 30, 2010 BSD

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MATCH(1L)						      Schily's USER COMMANDS							 MATCH(1L)

NAME
match - searches for patterns in files SYNOPSIS
match [ -option ] pattern [ file ... ] DESCRIPTION
Match searches the named files or standard input (if no filenames are given) for the occurrences of the given pattern on each line. The program accepts literal characters or special pattern matching characters. All lines that match the pattern are output on standard output. You can only specify one pattern string for each match, however, you can construct an arbitrarily complex string. When you do not specify a file, match can be used as a filter to display desired lines. Standard in is used if no files are specified. OPTIONS
-not, -v Prints all lines that do not match. -i Ignore the case of letters -m Force not to use the magic mode -w Search for pattern as a word -x Display only those lines which match exactly -c Display matching count for each file -l Display name of each file which matches -s Be silent indicate match in exit code -h Do not display filenames -n Precede matching lines with line number (with respect to the input file) -b Precede matching lines with block number REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
The following is a table of all the pattern matching characters: c An ordinary character (not one of the special characters discussed below) is a one character regular expression that matches that character. c A backslash () followed by any special character is a one character regular expression that matches the special character itself. The special characters are: ! # % * { } [ ] ? ^ $ ! Logical OR as in match this!that!the_other. You may have to use `{}' for precedence grouping. # A hash mark followed by any regular expression matches any number (including zero) occurrences of the regular expression. ? Matches exactly any one character. W? matches Wa, Wb, Wc, W1, W2, W3 ... * Matches any number of any character. % Matches exactly nothing. It can be used in groups of ored patterns to specify that an empty alternative is possible. {} Curly brackets may be used to enclose patterns to specify a precedence grouping, and may be nested. {%!{test}}version matches the strings testversion and version. [string] A non empty string of characters enclosed in square brackets is a one character regular expression that matches any one character in that string. If however the first character of the string is a circumflex (^), the one character expression matches any character which is not in the string. The ^ has this special meaning only if it occurs first in the string. The minus (-) may be used to indi- cate a range of consecutive ASCII characters; for example, [0-9] is equivalent to any one of the digits. The - loses it's special meaning if it occurs first (after an initial ^, if any) or last in the string. The right square bracket (]) and the backslash () must be quoted with a backslash if you want to use it within the string. ^ Matches the beginning of a line. $ Matches the end of a line. (^*$ matches any entire line) EXAMPLES
FILES
None. SEE ALSO
grep(1), fgrep(1), egrep(1) DIAGNOSTICS
NOTES
Even if a match occurs more than once per line, the line is output only once. Quote special pattern matching characters to prevent them from being expanded by the Command Interpreter. BUGS
The length of the pattern is currently limited to 100 characters. This limit is reduced by 38 if the -w option is used. Joerg Schilling 15. Juli 1988 MATCH(1L)

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