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TAR(1)				   BSD General Commands Manual				   TAR(1)

     tar -- tape archiver

     tar [-]{crtux}[-014578befHhjklmOoPpqSvwXZz] [archive] [blocksize] [-C directory]
	 [-s replstr] [-T file] [file ...]

     The tar command creates, adds files to, or extracts files from an archive file in ``tar''
     format.  A tar archive is often stored on a magnetic tape, but can be stored equally well on
     a floppy, CD-ROM, or in a regular disk file.

     One of the following flags must be present:

     -c, --create  Create new archive, or overwrite an existing archive, adding the specified
		   files to it.

     -r, --append  Append the named new files to existing archive.  Note that this will only work
		   on media on which an end-of-file mark can be overwritten.

     -t, --list    List contents of archive.  If any files are named on the command line, only
		   those files will be listed.

     -u, --update  Alias for -r.

     -x, --extract, --get
		   Extract files from archive.	If any files are named on the command line, only
		   those files will be extracted from the archive.  If more than one copy of a
		   file exists in the archive, later copies will overwrite earlier copies during
		   extraction.	The file mode and modification time are preserved if possible.
		   The file mode is subject to modification by the umask(2).

     In addition to the flags mentioned above, any of the following flags may be used:

     -b blocking factor, --block-size blocking factor
		   Set blocking factor to use for the archive.	tar uses 512 byte blocks.  The
		   default is 20, the maximum is 126.  Archives with a blocking factor larger 63
		   violate the POSIX standard and will not be portable to all systems.

     -e 	   Stop after first error.

     -f archive, --file archive
		   Filename where the archive is stored.  Defaults to /dev/rst0.  If the archive
		   is of the form: [[user@]host:]file then the archive will be processed using

     -h, --dereference
		   Follow symbolic links as if they were normal files or directories.

     -j, --bzip2, --bunzip2
		   Use bzip2(1) for compression of the archive.  This option is a GNU extension.

     -k, --keep-old-files
		   Keep existing files; don't overwrite them from archive.

     -l, --one-file-system
		   Do not descend across mount points.

     -m, --modification-time
		   Do not preserve modification time.

     -O 	   When creating and appending to an archive, write old-style (non-POSIX) ar-
		   chives.  When extracting from an archive, extract to standard output.

     -o, --portability, --old-archive
		   Don't write directory information that the older (V7) style tar is unable to
		   decode.  This implies the -O flag.

     -p, --preserve-permissions, --preserve
		   Preserve user and group ID as well as file mode regardless of the current
		   umask(2).  The setuid and setgid bits are only preserved if the user is the
		   superuser.  Only meaningful in conjunction with the -x flag.

     -q, --fast-read
		   Select the first archive member that matches each pattern operand.  No more
		   than one archive member is matched for each pattern.  When members of type
		   directory are matched, the file hierarchy rooted at that directory is also

     -S, --sparse  This flag has no effect as tar always generates sparse files.

     -s replstr    Modify the file or archive member names specified by the pattern or file oper-
		   ands according to the substitution expression replstr, using the syntax of the
		   ed(1) utility regular expressions.  The format of these regular expressions
		   As in ed(1), old is a basic regular expression and new can contain an amper-
		   sand (&), \n (where n is a digit) back-references, or subexpression matching.
		   The old string may also contain <newline> characters.  Any non-null character
		   can be used as a delimiter (/ is shown here).  Multiple -s expressions can be
		   specified.  The expressions are applied in the order they are specified on the
		   command line, terminating with the first successful substitution.  The
		   optional trailing g continues to apply the substitution expression to the
		   pathname substring which starts with the first character following the end of
		   the last successful substitution.  The first unsuccessful substitution stops
		   the operation of the g option.  The optional trailing p will cause the final
		   result of a successful substitution to be written to standard error in the
		   following format:
			 <original pathname> >> <new pathname>
		   File or archive member names that substitute to the empty string are not
		   selected and will be skipped.  The substitutions are applied by default to the
		   destination hard and symbolic links.  The optional trailing s prevents the
		   substitutions from being performed on symbolic link destinations.

     -v 	   Verbose operation mode.

     -w, --interactive, --confirmation
		   Interactively rename files.	This option causes tar to prompt the user for the
		   filename to use when storing or extracting files in an archive.

     --xz	   Compress/decompress archive using xz(1).

     -z, --gzip, --gunzip
		   Compress/decompress archive using gzip(1).

     -B, --read-full-blocks
		   Reassemble small reads into full blocks (For reading from 4.2BSD pipes).

     -C directory, --directory directory
		   This is a positional argument which sets the working directory for the follow-
		   ing files.  When extracting, files will be extracted into the specified direc-
		   tory; when creating, the specified files will be matched from the directory.
		   This argument and its parameter may also appear in a file list specified by

     -H 	   Only follow symlinks given on command line.

		   Note SysVr3/i386 picked up ISC/SCO UNIX compatibility which implemented ``-F
		   file'' which was defined as obtaining a list of command line switches and
		   files on which to operate from the specified file, but SunOS-5 uses ``-I
		   file'' because they use '-F' to mean something else.  We might someday provide
		   SunOS-5 compatibility but it makes little sense to confuse things with ISC/SCO

     -P, --absolute-paths
		   Do not strip leading slashes ('/') from pathnames.  The default is to strip
		   leading slashes.

     -T file, --files-from file
		   Read the names of files to archive or extract from the given file, one per
		   line.  A line may also specify the positional argument ``-C directory''.

     -X file, --exclude-from file
		   Exclude files matching the shell glob patterns listed in the given file.

		   Note that it would be more standard to use this option to mean ``do not cross
		   filesystem mount points.''

     -Z, --compress, --uncompress
		   Compress archive using compress.

     --strict	   Do not enable GNU tar extensions such as long filenames and long link names.

		   Preserve file access times.

     --chroot	   chroot() to the current directory before extracting files.  Use with -x and -h
		   to make absolute symlinks relative to the current directory.

     --unlink	   Ignored, only accepted for compatibility with other tar implementations.  tar
		   always unlinks files before creating them.

     --use-compress-program program
		   Use the named program as the program to decompress the input.

		   Do not interpret filenames that contain a ':' as remote files.

     --insecure    Normally tar ignores filenames that contain ``..'' as a path component.  With
		   this option, files that contain ``..'' can be processed.

		   Cause files of type directory being copied or archived, or archive members of
		   type directory being extracted, to match only the directory file or archive
		   member and not the file hierarchy rooted at the directory.

     The options [-014578] can be used to select one of the compiled-in backup devices,

     /dev/rst0	default archive name

     tar will exit with one of the following values:

     0	 All files were processed successfully.

     1	 An error occurred.

     Whenever tar cannot create a file or a link when extracting an archive or cannot find a file
     while writing an archive, or cannot preserve the user ID, group ID, file mode, or access and
     modification times when the -p option is specified, a diagnostic message is written to stan-
     dard error and a non-zero exit value will be returned, but processing will continue.  In the
     case where tar cannot create a link to a file, tar will not create a second copy of the

     If the extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error,
     tar may have only partially extracted the file the user wanted.  Additionally, the file
     modes of extracted files and directories may have incorrect file bits, and the modification
     and access times may be wrong.

     If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error, tar may have
     only partially created the archive which may violate the specific archive format specifica-

     cpio(1), pax(1)

     A tar command first appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

     Keith Muller at the University of California, San Diego.

BSD					  June 18, 2011 				      BSD
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