👤
Home Man
Search
Today's Posts
Register

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages
Man Page or Keyword Search:
Select Section of Man Page:
Select Man Page Repository:

NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for ed (netbsd section 1)

ED(1)				   BSD General Commands Manual				    ED(1)

NAME
     ed -- text editor

SYNOPSIS
     ed [-] [-Esx] [-p string] [file]

DESCRIPTION
     ed is a line-oriented text editor.  It is used to create, display, modify, and otherwise
     manipulate text files.  If invoked with a file argument, then a copy of file is read into
     the editor's buffer.  Changes are made to this copy and not directly to file itself.  Upon
     quitting ed, any changes not explicitly saved with a w command are lost.

     Editing is done in two distinct modes: command and input.	When first invoked, ed is in com-
     mand mode.  In this mode, commands are read from the standard input and executed to manipu-
     late the contents of the editor buffer.

     A typical command might look like:

	   ,s/old/new/g

     which replaces all occurrences of the string old with new.

     When an input command, such as a (append), i (insert), or c (change) is given, ed enters
     input mode.  This is the primary means of adding text to a file.  In this mode, no commands
     are available; instead, the standard input is written directly to the editor buffer.  Lines
     consist of text up to and including a newline character.  Input mode is terminated by enter-
     ing a single period ('.') on a line.

     All ed commands operate on whole lines or ranges of lines; e.g., the d command deletes
     lines; the m command moves lines, and so on.  It is possible to modify only a portion of a
     line by means of replacement, as in the example above.  However, even here, the s command is
     applied to whole lines at a time.

     In general, ed commands consist of zero or more line addresses, followed by a single charac-
     ter command and possibly additional parameters; i.e., commands have the structure:

	   [address [,address]]command[parameters]

     The address(es) indicate the line or range of lines to be affected by the command.  If fewer
     addresses are given than the command accepts, then default addresses are supplied.

     The options are as follows:

     -	     Same as the -s option (deprecated).

     -E      Enables the use of extended regular expressions instead of the basic regular expres-
	     sions that are normally used.

     -p string
	     Specifies a command prompt.  This may be toggled on and off with the P command.

     -s      Suppress diagnostics.  This should be used if ed standard input is from a script.

     -x      Prompt for an encryption key to be used in subsequent reads and writes (see the x
	     command).

     file    Specifies the name of a file to read.  If file is prefixed with a bang ('!'), then
	     it is interpreted as a shell command.  In this case, what is read is the standard
	     output of file executed via sh(1).  To read a file whose name begins with a bang,
	     prefix the name with a backslash ('\').  The default filename is set to file only if
	     it is not prefixed with a bang.

   LINE ADDRESSING
     An address represents the number of a line in the buffer.	ed maintains a current address
     which is typically supplied to commands as the default address when none is specified.  When
     a file is first read, the current address is set to the last line of the file.  In general,
     the current address is set to the last line affected by a command.

     A line address is constructed from one of the bases in the list below, optionally followed
     by a numeric offset.  The offset may include any combination of digits, operators (i.e.,
     '+', '-', and '^'), and whitespace.  Addresses are read from left to right, and their values
     are computed relative to the current address.

     One exception to the rule that addresses represent line numbers is the address 0 (zero).
     This means ``before the first line'', and is legal wherever it makes sense.

     An address range is two addresses separated either by a comma or semi-colon.  The value of
     the first address in a range cannot exceed the value of the second.  If only one address is
     given in a range, then the second address is set to the given address.  If an n-tuple of
     addresses is given where n > 2, then the corresponding range is determined by the last two
     addresses in the n-tuple. If only one address is expected, then the last address is used.

     Each address in a comma-delimited range is interpreted relative to the current address.  In
     a semi-colon-delimited range, the first address is used to set the current address, and the
     second address is interpreted relative to the first.

     The following address symbols are recognized:

     .	     The current line (address) in the buffer.

     $	     The last line in the buffer.

     n	     The nth line in the buffer where n is a number in the range [0,$].

     - or ^  The previous line.  This is equivalent to -1 and may be repeated with cumulative
	     effect.

     -n or ^n
	     The nth previous line, where n is a non-negative number.

     +	     The next line.  This is equivalent to +1 and may be repeated with cumulative effect.

     +n      The nth next line, where n is a non-negative number.

     whitespace n
	     whitespace followed by a number n is interpreted as '+n'.

     , or %  The first through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent to the address range
	     1,$.

     ;	     The current through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent to the address
	     range .,$.

     /re/    The next line containing the regular expression re.  The search wraps to the begin-
	     ning of the buffer and continues down to the current line, if necessary.  // repeats
	     the last search.

     ?re?    The previous line containing the regular expression re.  The search wraps to the end
	     of the buffer and continues up to the current line, if necessary.	?? repeats the
	     last search.

     'lc     The line previously marked by a k (mark) command, where lc is a lower case letter.

   REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
     Regular expressions are patterns used in selecting text.  For example, the ed command

	   g/string/

     prints all lines containing string.  Regular expressions are also used by the s command for
     selecting old text to be replaced with new.

     In addition to specifying string literals, regular expressions can represent classes of
     strings.  Strings thus represented are said to be matched by the corresponding regular
     expression.  If it is possible for a regular expression to match several strings in a line,
     then the leftmost longest match is the one selected.

     The following symbols are used in constructing regular expressions:

     c	       Any character c not listed below, including '{', '}', '(', ')', '<', and '>'
	       matches itself.

     \c        Any backslash-escaped character c, except for '{', '}', '(', ')', '<', and '>'
	       matches itself.

     .	       Matches any single character.

     [char-class]
	       Matches any single character in the character class char-class.	See CHARACTER
	       CLASSES below for further information.

     [^char-class]
	       Matches any single character, other than newline, not in the character class
	       char-class.

     ^	       If ^ is the first character of a regular expression, then it anchors the regular
	       expression to the beginning of a line.  Otherwise, it matches itself.

     $	       If $ is the last character of a regular expression, it anchors the regular expres-
	       sion to the end of a line.  Otherwise, it matches itself.

     \<        Anchors the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately fol-
	       lowing it to the beginning of a word.  (This may not be available.)

     \>        Anchors the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately fol-
	       lowing it to the end of a word.	(This may not be available.)

     \(re\)    Defines a subexpression re.  Subexpressions may be nested.  A subsequent backref-
	       erence of the form \n, where n is a number in the range [1,9], expands to the text
	       matched by the nth subexpression.  For example, the regular expression \(.*\)\1
	       matches any string consisting of identical adjacent substrings.	Subexpressions
	       are ordered relative to their left delimiter.

     *	       Matches the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately pre-
	       ceding it zero or more times.  If * is the first character of a regular expression
	       or subexpression, then it matches itself.  The * operator sometimes yields unex-
	       pected results.	For example, the regular expression b* matches the beginning of
	       the string abbb (as opposed to the substring bbb), since a null match is the only
	       leftmost match.

     \{n,m\} \{n,\} \{n\}
	       Matches the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately pre-
	       ceding it at least n and at most m times.  If m is omitted, then it matches at
	       least n times.  If the comma is also omitted, then it matches exactly n times.

     Additional regular expression operators may be defined depending on the particular regex(3)
     implementation.

   CHARACTER CLASSES
     A character class specifies a set of characters. It is written within square brackets ([])
     and in its most basic form contains just the characters in the set.

     To include a ']' in a character class, it must be the first character.  A range of charac-
     ters may be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a '-', e.g., 'a-z'
     specifies the lower case characters.

     The following literals can also be used within character classes as shorthand for particular
     sets of characters:
	   [:alnum:]	 Alphanumeric characters.
	   [:cntrl:]	 Control characters.
	   [:lower:]	 Lowercase alphabetic characters.
	   [:space:]	 Whitespace (space, tab, newline, form feed, etc.)
	   [:alpha:]	 Alphabetic characters.
	   [:digit:]	 Numeric characters (digits).
	   [:print:]	 Printable characters.
	   [:upper:]	 Uppercase alphabetic characters.
	   [:blank:]	 Blank characters (space and tab).
	   [:graph:]	 Graphical characters (printing nonblank characters).
	   [:punct:]	 Punctuation characters.
	   [:xdigit:]	 Hexadecimal digits.
     If '-' appears as the first or last character of a character class, then it matches itself.
     All other characters in a character class match themselves.

     Patterns in a character class of the form [.col-elm.] or [=col-elm=] where col-elm is a
     collating element are interpreted according to locale(5) (not currently supported).  See
     regex(3) for an explanation of these constructs.

   COMMANDS
     All ed commands are single characters, though some require additional parameters.	If a com-
     mand's parameters extend over several lines, then each line except for the last must be ter-
     minated with a backslash ('\').

     In general, at most one command is allowed per line.  However, most commands accept a print
     suffix, which is any of p (print), l (list), or n (enumerate), to print the last line
     affected by the command.

     An interrupt (typically ^C) has the effect of aborting the current command and returning the
     editor to command mode.

     ed recognizes the following commands.  The commands are shown together with the default
     address or address range supplied if none is specified (in parentheses), and other possible
     arguments on the right.

     (.)a  Appends text to the buffer after the addressed line.  Text is entered in input mode.
	   The current address is set to last line entered.

     (.,.)c
	   Changes lines in the buffer.  The addressed lines are deleted from the buffer, and
	   text is appended in their place.  Text is entered in input mode.  The current address
	   is set to last line entered.

     (.,.)d
	   Deletes the addressed lines from the buffer.  If there is a line after the deleted
	   range, then the current address is set to this line.  Otherwise the current address is
	   set to the line before the deleted range.

     e file
	   Edits file, and sets the default filename.  If file is not specified, then the default
	   filename is used.  Any lines in the buffer are deleted before the new file is read.
	   The current address is set to the last line read.

     e !command
	   Edits the standard output of command, (see ! command below).  The default filename is
	   unchanged.  Any lines in the buffer are deleted before the output of command is read.
	   The current address is set to the last line read.

     E file
	   Edits file unconditionally.	This is similar to the e command, except that unwritten
	   changes are discarded without warning.  The current address is set to the last line
	   read.

     f file
	   Sets the default filename to file.  If file is not specified, then the default
	   unescaped filename is printed.

     (1,$)g/re/command-list
	   Applies command-list to each of the addressed lines matching a regular expression re.
	   The current address is set to the line currently matched before command-list is exe-
	   cuted.  At the end of the g command, the current address is set to the last line
	   affected by command-list.

	   Each command in command-list must be on a separate line, and every line except for the
	   last must be terminated by a backslash ('\').  Any commands are allowed, except for g,
	   G, v, and V.  A newline alone in command-list is equivalent to a p command.

     (1,$)G/re/
	   Interactively edits the addressed lines matching a regular expression re.  For each
	   matching line, the line is printed, the current address is set, and the user is
	   prompted to enter a command-list.  At the end of the G command, the current address is
	   set to the last line affected by (the last) command-list.

	   The format of command-list is the same as that of the g command.  A newline alone acts
	   as a null command list.  A single '&' repeats the last non-null command list.

     H	   Toggles the printing of error explanations.	By default, explanations are not printed.
	   It is recommended that ed scripts begin with this command to aid in debugging.

     h	   Prints an explanation of the last error.

     (.)i  Inserts text in the buffer before the current line.	Text is entered in input mode.
	   The current address is set to the last line entered.

     (.,.+1)j
	   Joins the addressed lines.  The addressed lines are deleted from the buffer and
	   replaced by a single line containing their joined text.  The current address is set to
	   the resultant line.

     (.)klc
	   Marks a line with a lower case letter lc.  The line can then be addressed as 'lc
	   (i.e., a single quote followed by lc) in subsequent commands.  The mark is not cleared
	   until the line is deleted or otherwise modified.

     (.,.)l
	   Prints the addressed lines unambiguously.  If a single line fills more than one screen
	   (as might be the case when viewing a binary file, for instance), a ``--More--'' prompt
	   is printed on the last line.  ed waits until the RETURN key is pressed before display-
	   ing the next screen.  The current address is set to the last line printed.

     (.,.)m(.)
	   Moves lines in the buffer.  The addressed lines are moved to after the right-hand des-
	   tination address, which may be the address 0 (zero).  The current address is set to
	   the last line moved.

     (.,.)n
	   Prints the addressed lines along with their line numbers.  The current address is set
	   to the last line printed.

     (.,.)p
	   Prints the addressed lines.	The current address is set to the last line printed.

     P	   Toggles the command prompt on and off.  Unless a prompt was specified with the com-
	   mand-line option -p string, the command prompt is by default turned off.

     q	   Quits ed.

     Q	   Quits ed unconditionally.  This is similar to the q command, except that unwritten
	   changes are discarded without warning.

     ($)r file
	   Reads file to after the addressed line.  If file is not specified, then the default
	   filename is used.  If there was no default filename prior to the command, then the
	   default filename is set to file.  Otherwise, the default filename is unchanged.  The
	   current address is set to the last line read.

     ($)r !command
	   Reads to after the addressed line the standard output of command, (see the ! command
	   below).  The default filename is unchanged.	The current address is set to the last
	   line read.

     (.,.)s/re/replacement/, (.,.)s/re/replacement/g, (.,.)s/re/replacement/n
	   Replaces text in the addressed lines matching a regular expression re with
	   replacement.  By default, only the first match in each line is replaced.  If the g
	   (global) suffix is given, then every match to be replaced.  The n suffix, where n is a
	   positive number, causes only the nth match to be replaced.  It is an error if no sub-
	   stitutions are performed on any of the addressed lines.  The current address is set
	   the last line affected.

	   re and replacement may be delimited by any character other than space and newline (see
	   the s command below).  If one or two of the last delimiters is omitted, then the last
	   line affected is printed as though the print suffix p were specified.

	   An unescaped '&' in replacement is replaced by the currently matched text.  The char-
	   acter sequence \m, where m is a number in the range [1,9], is replaced by the mth
	   backreference expression of the matched text.  If replacement consists of a single
	   '%', then replacement from the last substitution is used.  Newlines may be embedded in
	   replacement if they are escaped with a backslash ('\').

     (.,.)s
	   Repeats the last substitution.  This form of the s command accepts a count suffix n,
	   or any combination of the characters r, g, and p.  If a count suffix n is given, then
	   only the nth match is replaced.  The r suffix causes the regular expression of the
	   last search to be used instead of that of the last substitution.  The g suffix toggles
	   the global suffix of the last substitution.	The p suffix toggles the print suffix of
	   the last substitution.  The current address is set to the last line affected.

     (.,.)t(.)
	   Copies (i.e., transfers) the addressed lines to after the right-hand destination
	   address, which may be the address 0 (zero).	The current address is set to the last
	   line copied.

     u	   Undoes the last command and restores the current address to what it was before the
	   command.  The global commands g, G, v, and V are treated as a single command by undo.
	   u is its own inverse.

     (1,$)v/re/command-list
	   Applies command-list to each of the addressed lines not matching a regular expression
	   re.	This is similar to the g command.

     (1,$)V/re/
	   Interactively edits the addressed lines not matching a regular expression re.  This is
	   similar to the G command.

     (1,$)w file
	   Writes the addressed lines to file.	Any previous contents of file are lost without
	   warning.  If there is no default filename, then the default filename is set to file,
	   otherwise it is unchanged.  If no filename is specified, then the default filename is
	   used.  The current address is unchanged.

     (1,$)wq file
	   Writes the addressed lines to file, and then executes a q command.

     (1,$)w !command
	   Writes the addressed lines to the standard input of command, (see the ! command
	   below).  The default filename and current address are unchanged.

     (1,$)W file
	   Appends the addressed lines to the end of file.  This is similar to the w command,
	   except that the previous contents of file are not clobbered.  The current address is
	   unchanged.

     x	   Prompts for an encryption key which is used in subsequent reads and writes.	If a new-
	   line alone is entered as the key, then encryption is turned off.  Otherwise, echoing
	   is disabled while a key is read.  Encryption/decryption is done using the bdes(1)
	   algorithm.

     (.+1)zn
	   Scrolls n lines at a time starting at addressed line.  If n is not specified, then the
	   current window size is used.  The current address is set to the last line printed.

     ($)=  Prints the line number of the addressed line.

     (.+1)newline
	   Prints the addressed line, and sets the current address to that line.

     !command
	   Executes command via sh(1).	If the first character of command is !, then it is
	   replaced by text of the previous !command.  ed does not process command for '\' (back-
	   slash) escapes.  However, an unescaped '%' is replaced by the default filename.  When
	   the shell returns from execution, a '!' is printed to the standard output.  The cur-
	   rent line is unchanged.

LIMITATIONS
     ed processes file arguments for backslash escapes, i.e., in a filename, any characters pre-
     ceded by a backslash ('\') are interpreted literally.

     If a text (non-binary) file is not terminated by a newline character, then ed appends one on
     reading/writing it.  In the case of a binary file, ed does not append a newline on read-
     ing/writing.

ENVIRONMENT
     TMPDIR   The location used to store temporary files.

FILES
     /tmp/ed.*	buffer file
     ed.hup	where ed attempts to write the buffer if the terminal hangs up

DIAGNOSTICS
     When an error occurs, ed prints a ``?'' and either returns to command mode or exits if its
     input is from a script.  An explanation of the last error can be printed with the h (help)
     command.

     Since the g (global) command masks any errors from failed searches and substitutions, it can
     be used to perform conditional operations in scripts; e.g.,

	   g/old/s//new/

     replaces any occurrences of old with new.

     If the u (undo) command occurs in a global command list, then the command list is executed
     only once.

     If diagnostics are not disabled, attempting to quit ed or edit another file before writing a
     modified buffer results in an error.  If the command is entered a second time, it succeeds,
     but any changes to the buffer are lost.

SEE ALSO
     bdes(1), sed(1), sh(1), vi(1), regex(3)

     USD:09-10

     B. W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger, Software Tools in Pascal, Addison-Wesley, 1981.

HISTORY
     An ed command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

BSD					 January 23, 2002				      BSD


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 02:29 AM.

Unix & Linux Forums Content Copyrightę1993-2018. All Rights Reserved.
×
UNIX.COM Login
Username:
Password:  
Show Password





Not a Forum Member?
Forgot Password?