NETSTAT(1) BSD General Commands Manual NETSTAT(1)
netstat -- show network status
netstat [-Aan] [-f address_family] [-M core] [-N system]
netstat [-bdghiLlmnqrSsTtv] [-f address_family] [-M core] [-N system]
netstat [-dn] [-I interface] [-M core] [-N system] [-w wait]
netstat [-M core] [-N system] [-p protocol]
netstat [-M core] [-N system] [-p protocol] -P pcbaddr
netstat [-i] [-I Interface] [-p protocol]
netstat [-is] [-f address_family] [-I Interface]
netstat [-s] [-I Interface] -B
The netstat command symbolically displays the contents of various network-related data
structures. There are a number of output formats, depending on the options for the informa-
tion presented. The first form of the command displays a list of active sockets for each
protocol. The second form presents the contents of one of the other network data structures
according to the option selected. Using the third form, with a wait interval specified,
netstat will continuously display the information regarding packet traffic on the configured
network interfaces. The fourth form displays statistics about the named protocol. The
fifth and sixth forms display per interface statistics for the specified protocol or address
The options have the following meaning:
-A With the default display, show the address of any protocol control blocks associated
with sockets; used for debugging.
-a With the default display, show the state of all sockets; normally sockets used by
server processes are not shown.
-B With the default display, show the current bpf(4) peers. To show only the peers lis-
tening to a specific interface, use the -I option. If the -s option is present, show
the current bpf(4) statistics.
-b With the interface display (option -i), show bytes in and out, instead of packets in
-d With either interface display (option -i or an interval, as described below), show the
number of dropped packets.
Limit statistics or address control block reports to those of the specified
address_family. The following address families are recognized: inet, for AF_INET;
inet6, for AF_INET6; arp, for AF_ARP; ns, for AF_NS; iso, for AF_ISO; atalk, for
AF_APPLETALK; mpls, for AF_MPLS; and local or unix, for AF_LOCAL.
-g Show information related to multicast (group address) routing. By default, show the
IP Multicast virtual-interface and routing tables. If the -s option is also present,
show multicast routing statistics.
Show information about the specified interface; used with a wait interval as described
below. If the -f address_family option (with the -s option) or the -p protocol option
is present, show per-interface statistics on the interface for the specified
address_family or protocol, respectively.
-h When used with -b in combination with either -i or -I, output "human-readable" byte
-i Show the state of interfaces which have been auto-configured (interfaces statically
configured into a system, but not located at boot time are not shown). If the -a
options is also present, multicast addresses currently in use are shown for each Eth-
ernet interface and for each IP interface address. Multicast addresses are shown on
separate lines following the interface address with which they are associated. If the
-f address_family option (with the -s option) or the -p protocol option is present,
show per-interface statistics on all interfaces for the specified address_family or
-L Don't show link-level routes (e.g., IPv4 ARP or IPv6 neighbour cache).
-l With the -g option, display wider fields for the IPv6 multicast routing table "Origin"
and "Group" columns.
-M Extract values associated with the name list from the specified core instead of the
-m Show statistics recorded by the mbuf memory management routines (the network manages a
private pool of memory buffers).
-N Extract the name list from the specified system instead of the default /netbsd.
-n Show network addresses and ports as numbers (normally netstat interprets addresses and
ports and attempts to display them symbolically). This option may be used with any of
the display formats.
Dump the contents of the protocol control block (PCB) located at kernel virtual
address pcbaddr. This address may be obtained using the -A flag. The default proto-
col is TCP, but may be overridden using the -p flag.
Show statistics about protocol, which is either a well-known name for a protocol or an
alias for it. Some protocol names and aliases are listed in the file /etc/protocols.
A null response typically means that there are no interesting numbers to report. The
program will complain if protocol is unknown or if there is no statistics routine for
-q Show software interrupt queue setting/statistics for all protocols.
-r Show the routing tables. When -s is also present, show routing statistics instead.
-S Show network addresses as numbers (as with -n, but show ports symbolically).
-s Show per-protocol statistics. If this option is repeated, counters with a value of
zero are suppressed.
-T Show MPLS Tags for the routing tables. If multiple tags exists, they will be comma
separated, first tag being the BoS one.
-t With the -i option, display the current value of the watchdog timer function.
-v Show extra (verbose) detail for the routing tables (-r), or avoid truncation of long
Show network interface statistics at intervals of wait seconds.
-X Force use of sysctl(3) when retrieving information. Some features of netstat may not
be (fully) supported when using sysctl(3). This flag forces the use of the latter
regardless, and emits a message if a not yet fully supported feature is used in con-
junction with it. This flag might be removed at any time; do not rely on its pres-
The default display, for active sockets, shows the local and remote addresses, send and
receive queue sizes (in bytes), protocol, and the internal state of the protocol. Address
formats are of the form ``host.port'' or ``network.port'' if a socket's address specifies a
network but no specific host address. When known the host and network addresses are dis-
played symbolically according to the data bases /etc/hosts and /etc/networks, respectively.
If a symbolic name for an address is unknown, or if the -n option is specified, the address
is printed numerically, according to the address family. For more information regarding the
Internet ``dot format,'' refer to inet(3)). Unspecified, or ``wildcard'', addresses and
ports appear as ``*''. You can use the fstat(1) command to find out which process or pro-
cesses hold references to a socket.
The interface display provides a table of cumulative statistics regarding packets trans-
ferred, errors, and collisions. The network addresses of the interface and the maximum
transmission unit (``mtu'') are also displayed.
The routing table display indicates the available routes and their status. Each route con-
sists of a destination host or network and a gateway to use in forwarding packets. The
flags field shows a collection of information about the route stored as binary choices. The
individual flags are discussed in more detail in the route(8) and route(4) manual pages.
The mapping between letters and flags is:
1 RTF_PROTO1 Protocol specific routing flag #1
2 RTF_PROTO2 Protocol specific routing flag #2
B RTF_BLACKHOLE Just discard pkts (during updates)
C RTF_CLONING Generate new routes on use
c RTF_CLONED Cloned routes (generated from RTF_CLONING)
D RTF_DYNAMIC Created dynamically (by redirect)
G RTF_GATEWAY Destination requires forwarding by intermediary
H RTF_HOST Host entry (net otherwise)
L RTF_LLINFO Valid protocol to link address translation.
M RTF_MODIFIED Modified dynamically (by redirect)
p RTF_ANNOUNCE Link level proxy
R RTF_REJECT Host or net unreachable
S RTF_STATIC Manually added
U RTF_UP Route usable
X RTF_XRESOLVE External daemon translates proto to link address
Direct routes are created for each interface attached to the local host; the gateway field
for such entries shows the address of the outgoing interface. The refcnt field gives the
current number of active uses of the route. Connection oriented protocols normally hold on
to a single route for the duration of a connection while connectionless protocols obtain a
route while sending to the same destination. The use field provides a count of the number
of packets sent using that route. The mtu entry shows the mtu associated with that route.
This mtu value is used as the basis for the TCP maximum segment size. The 'L' flag appended
to the mtu value indicates that the value is locked, and that path mtu discovery is turned
off for that route. A '-' indicates that the mtu for this route has not been set, and a
default TCP maximum segment size will be used. The interface entry indicates the network
interface used for the route.
When netstat is invoked with the -w option and a wait interval argument, it displays a run-
ning count of statistics related to network interfaces. An obsolescent version of this
option used a numeric parameter with no option, and is currently supported for backward com-
patibility. This display consists of a column for the primary interface (the first inter-
face found during autoconfiguration) and a column summarizing information for all inter-
faces. The primary interface may be replaced with another interface with the -I option.
The first line of each screen of information contains a summary since the system was last
rebooted. Subsequent lines of output show values accumulated over the preceding interval.
The first character of the flags column in the -B option shows the status of the bpf(4)
descriptor which has three different values: Idle ('I'), Waiting ('W') and Timed Out ('T').
The second character indicates whether the promisc flag is set. The third character indi-
cates the status of the immediate mode. The fourth character indicates whether the peer
will have the ability to see the packets sent. And the fifth character shows the header
complete flag status.
fstat(1), nfsstat(1), ps(1), sockstat(1), vmstat(1), inet(3), bpf(4), hosts(5), networks(5),
protocols(5), services(5), iostat(8), trpt(8)
The netstat command appeared in 4.2BSD. IPv6 support was added by WIDE/KAME project.
The notion of errors is ill-defined.
BSD October 20, 2012 BSD