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Linux 2.6 - man page for lsof (linux section 8)

LSOF(8) 										  LSOF(8)

NAME
       lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS
       lsof [ -?abChlnNOPRtUvVX ] [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [ +|-D D ] [ +|-f [cfgGn]
       ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k ] [ +|-L [l] ] [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ]	[
       -p s ] [ +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] ] [ -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -x [fl]
       ] [ -z [z] ] [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       Lsof revision 4.81 lists on its standard output file information  about	files  opened  by
       processes for the following UNIX dialects:

	    AIX 5.3
	    FreeBSD 4.9 for x86-based systems
	    FreeBSD 7.0 and 8.0 for AMD64-based systems
	    Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
	    Solaris 9 and 10

       (See  the  DISTRIBUTION	section  of this manual page for information on how to obtain the
       latest lsof revision.)

       An open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file, a character special
       file, an executing text reference, a library, a stream or a network file (Internet socket,
       NFS file or UNIX domain socket.)  A specific file or all the files in a file system may be
       selected by path.

       Instead	of a formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be parsed by other pro-
       grams.  See the -F, option description, and the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more
       information.

       In  addition  to  producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat mode.	In repeat
       mode it will produce output, delay, then repeat the output operation until stopped with an
       interrupt  or  quit signal.  See the +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] option description for more informa-
       tion.

OPTIONS
       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files  belonging  to	all  active  pro-
       cesses.

       If  any	list  request  option  is  specified,  other  list  requests must be specifically
       requested - e.g., if -U is specified for the listing of UNIX socket files, NFS files won't
       be  listed unless -N is also specified; or if a user list is specified with the -u option,
       UNIX domain socket files, belonging to users not in the list, won't be listed  unless  the
       -U option is also specified.

       Normally  list  options	that  are  specifically stated are ORed - i.e., specifying the -i
       option without an address and the -ufoo option produces a listing of all network files  OR
       files belonging to processes owned by user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

       1)								       the  `^' (negated)
									       login name or user
									       ID  (UID),  speci-
									       fied with  the  -u
									       option;

       2)								       the  `^' (negated)
									       process ID  (PID),
									       specified with the
									       -p option;

       3)								       the `^'	(negated)
									       process	group  ID
									       (PGID),	specified
									       with	the    -g
									       option;

       4)								       the `^'	(negated)
									       command, specified
									       with    the     -c
									       option;

       5)								       the  ('^') negated
									       TCP or UDP  proto-
									       col  state  names,
									       specified with the
									       -s [p:s] option.

       Since  they represent exclusions, they are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect
       before any other selection criteria are applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For  example,	specifying  -a,  -U,  and
       -ufoo  produces a listing of only UNIX socket files that belong to processes owned by user
       ``foo''.

       Caution: the -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed; it can't be used  to
       cause  ANDing  of  selected  pairs  of  selection options by placing it between them, even
       though its placement there is acceptable.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the ANDing  of
       all selection options.

       Items  of  the  same  selection	set - command names, file descriptors, network addresses,
       process identifiers, user identifiers, zone names, security contexts -  are  joined  in	a
       single  ORed set and applied before the result participates in ANDing.  Thus, for example,
       specifying -i@aaa.bbb, -i@ccc.ddd, -a, and -ufff,ggg will select the listing of files that
       belong  to  either  login  ``fff''  OR ``ggg'' AND have network connections to either host
       aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the option set ``-a  -b
       -C''  may  be  stated as -abC.  However, since values are optional following +|-f, -F, -g,
       -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s, -S, -T, -x and -z.  when you have no values for	them  be  careful
       that the following character isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and
       -n options, or it might represent the  n  field	identifier  character  following  the  -F
       option.	 When ambiguity is possible, start a new option with a `-' character - e.g., ``-F
       -n''.  If the next option is a file name, follow the possibly ambiguous option with ``--''
       - e.g., ``-F -- name''.

       Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of options.  Options that don't
       take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i - may be grouped under either prefix.
       Thus,  for example, ``+M -i'' may be stated as ``+Mi'' and the group means the same as the
       separate options.  Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more  options  in  the  group
       does  take  on separate meanings under different prefixes - e.g., +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the
       same request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h	These two equivalent options select a usage (help) output list.  Lsof displays	a
		shortened form of this output when it detects an error in the options supplied to
		it, after it has displayed messages explaining each error.  (Escape the `?' char-
		acter as your shell requires.)

       -a	This option causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described above.

       -A A	This  option  is available on systems configured for AFS whose AFS kernel code is
		implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows the lsof user  to  specify	A  as  an
		alternate  name list file where the kernel addresses of the dynamic modules might
		be found.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ  section  gives  its  location.)	for  more
		information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof.

       -b	This  option  causes  lsof to avoid kernel functions that might block - lstat(2),
		readlink(2), and stat(2).

		See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections  for  information
		on using this option.

       -c c	This option selects the listing of files for processes executing the command that
		begins with the characters of c.  Multiple commands may be specified, using  mul-
		tiple  -c  options.  They are joined in a single ORed set before participating in
		AND option selection.

		If c begins with a '^', then the following  characters	specify  a  command  name
		whose processes are to be ignored (excluded.)

		If  c  begins and ends with a slash ('/'), the characters between the slashes are
		interpreted as a  regular  expression.	 Shell	meta-characters  in  the  regular
		expression  must  be  quoted  to  prevent their interpretation by the shell.  The
		closing slash may be followed by these modifiers:

		     b	  the regular expression is a basic one.
		     i	  ignore the case of letters.
		     x	  the regular expression is an extended one
			  (default).

		See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)	for more  information  on
		basic and extended regular expressions.

		The  simple  command specification is tested first.  If that test fails, the com-
		mand regular expression is applied.  If the simple  command  test  succeeds,  the
		command  regular  expression  test  isn't  made.  This may result in ``no command
		found for regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

       +c w	This option defines the maximum number of initial characters of  the  name,  sup-
		plied  by  the	UNIX dialect, of the UNIX command associated with a process to be
		printed in the COMMAND column.	(The lsof default is nine.)

		Note that many UNIX dialects do not supply all command name characters to lsof in
		the  files  and  structures from which lsof obtains command name.  Often dialects
		limit the number of characters supplied in those  sources.   For  example,  Linux
		2.4.27 and Solaris 9 both limit command name length to 16 characters.

		If  w  is zero ('0'), all command characters supplied to lsof by the UNIX dialect
		will be printed.

		If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'', it will be  raised
		to that length.

       -C	This  option disables the reporting of any path name components from the kernel's
		name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for more information.

       +d s	This option causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory s  and  the
		files and directories it contains at its top level.  This option does NOT descend
		the directory tree, rooted at s.  The +D D  option  may  be  used  to  request	a
		full-descent directory tree search, rooted at directory D.

		Processing of the +d option does not follow symbolic links within s unless the -x
		or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor does it search for  open  files  on  file
		system	mount points on subdirectories of s unless the -x or -x  f option is also
		specified.

		Note: the authority of the user of this option limits it to searching  for  files
		that the user has permission to examine with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s	This option specifies a list of file descriptors (FDs) to exclude from or include
		in the output listing.	The file descriptors are specified in the comma-separated
		set s - e.g., ``cwd,1,3'', ``^6,^2''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

		The list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set begin with '^'.  It is an
		inclusion list if no entry begins with '^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

		A file descriptor number range may be in the set as long  as  neither  member  is
		empty,	both members are numbers, and the ending member is larger than the start-
		ing one - e.g., ``0-7'' or ``3-10''.  Ranges may be specified  for  exclusion  if
		they have the '^' prefix - e.g., ``^0-7'' excludes all file descriptors 0 through
		7.

		Multiple file descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed set before  partici-
		pating in AND option selection.

		When  there  are exclusion and inclusion members in the set, lsof reports them as
		errors and exits with a non-zero return code.

		See the description of File Descriptor (FD) output values in the  OUTPUT  section
		for more information on file descriptor names.

       +D D	This  option  causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory D and all
		the files and directories it contains to its complete depth.

		Processing of the +D option does not follow symbolic links within D unless the -x
		or  -x	 l  option  is also specified.	Nor does it search for open files on file
		system mount points on subdirectories of D unless the -x or -x	f option is  also
		specified.

		Note:  the  authority of the user of this option limits it to searching for files
		that the user has permission to examine with the system stat(2) function.

		Further note: lsof may process this option slowly and require a large  amount  of
		dynamic  memory  to  do it.  This is because it must descend the entire directory
		tree, rooted at D, calling stat(2) for each file and directory, building  a  list
		of  all  the  files it finds, and searching that list for a match with every open
		file.  When directory D is large, these steps can take a long time, so	use  this
		option prudently.

       -D D	This  option directs lsof's use of the device cache file.  The use of this option
		is sometimes restricted.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the sections that
		follow it for more information on this option.

		-D  must  be followed by a function letter; the function letter may optionally be
		followed by a path name.  Lsof recognizes these function letters:

		     ? - report device cache file paths
		     b - build the device cache file
		     i - ignore the device cache file
		     r - read the device cache file
		     u - read and update the device cache file

		The b, r, and u functions, accompanied by a path name, are sometimes  restricted.
		When  these  functions are restricted, they will not appear in the description of
		the -D option that accompanies -h or -?  option output.   See  the  DEVICE  CACHE
		FILE  section and the sections that follow it for more information on these func-
		tions and when they're restricted.

		The ?  function reports the read-only and write paths that lsof can use  for  the
		device	cache file, the names of any environment variables whose values lsof will
		examine when forming the device cache file path, and the format for the  personal
		device cache file path.  (Escape the `?' character as your shell requires.)

		When  available,  the  b,  r, and u functions may be followed by the device cache
		file's path.  The standard default is .lsof_hostname in the home directory of the
		real  user  ID that executes lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof was
		configured and compiled.  (The output of the -h and -?	options show the  current
		default  prefix - e.g., ``.lsof''.)  The suffix, hostname, is the first component
		of the host's name returned by gethostname(2).

		When available, the b function directs lsof to build a new device cache  file  at
		the default or specified path.

		The  i	function  directs lsof to ignore the default device cache file and obtain
		its information about devices via direct calls to the kernel.

		The r function directs lsof to read the device cache at the default or	specified
		path,  but  prevents it from creating a new device cache file when none exists or
		the existing one is improperly structured.  The r function, when specified  with-
		out  a	path  name,  prevents  lsof from updating an incorrect or outdated device
		cache file, or creating a new one in its place.  The r function is always  avail-
		able  when  it is specified without a path name argument; it may be restricted by
		the permissions of the lsof process.

		When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device cache file at  the
		default or specified path, if possible, and to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is
		the default device cache file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
		f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be interpreted.   When  fol-
		lowed  by  c,  f,  g, G, or n in any combination it specifies that the listing of
		kernel file structure information is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

		Normally a path name argument is taken to be a file system name if it  matches	a
		mounted-on  directory  name  reported  by  mount(8),  or if it represents a block
		device, named in the mount output and associated with a mounted  directory  name.
		When  +f  is  specified,  all path name arguments will be taken to be file system
		names, and lsof will complain if any are not.  This can be useful,  for  example,
		when the file system name (mounted-on device) isn't a block device.  This happens
		for some CD-ROM file systems.

		When -f is specified by itself, all path name arguments will be taken to be  sim-
		ple  files.   Thus,  for example, the ``-f -- /'' arguments direct lsof to search
		for open files with a `/' path name, not all open files in the	`/'  (root)  file
		system.

		Be  careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated and aren't followed by
		a character (e.g., of the file or file system name) that  might  be  taken  as	a
		parameter.  For example, use ``--'' after +f and -f as in these examples.

		     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
		     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

		The  listing  of  information  from kernel file structures, requested with the +f
		[cfgGn] option form, is normally inhibited, and is not available in whole or part
		for  some dialects - e.g., /proc-based Linux kernels below 2.6.22.  When the pre-
		fix to f is a plus sign (`+'), these characters request file  structure  informa-
		tion:

		     c	  file structure use count (not Linux)
		     f	  file structure address (not Linux)
		     g	  file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
		     G	  file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
		     n	  file structure node address (not Linux)

		When  the  prefix  is  minus (`-') the same characters disable the listing of the
		indicated values.

		File structure addresses, use counts, flags, and node addresses may  be  used  to
		detect	more  readily  identical files inherited by child processes and identical
		files in use by different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by  output
		columns  holding  the  values  and listed to identify identical file use, or lsof
		field output can be parsed by an AWK or Perl post-filter script, or by a  C  pro-
		gram.

       -F f	This  option  specifies a character list, f, that selects the fields to be output
		for processing by another program, and the character that terminates each  output
		field.	 Each  field to be output is specified with a single character in f.  The
		field terminator defaults to NL, but may be changed to NUL(000).  See the OUTPUT
		FOR  OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of the field identification charac-
		ters and the field output process.

		When the field selection  character  list  is  empty,  all  standard  fields  are
		selected  (except  the raw device field, security context and zone field for com-
		patibility reasons) and the NL field terminator is used.

		When the field selection character list contains only a zero  (`0'),  all  fields
		are  selected (except the raw device field for compatibility reasons) and the NUL
		terminator character is used.

		Other combinations of fields and their associated field terminator character must
		be  set with explicit entries in f, as described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
		section.

		When a field selection character identifies an item lsof does not normally list -
		e.g.,  PPID,  selected	with  -R  -  specification of the field character - e.g.,
		``-FR'' - also selects the listing of the item.

		When the field selection character list contains the single character  `?',  lsof
		will display a help list of the field identification characters.  (Escape the `?'
		character as your shell requires.)

       -g [s]	This option excludes or selects the listing of	files  for  the  processes  whose
		optional  process  group IDentification (PGID) numbers are in the comma-separated
		set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.	(There should be no spaces in the set.)

		PGID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent exclusions.

		Multiple PGID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND
		option	selection.   However, PGID exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing
		and take effect before other selection criteria are applied.

		The -g option also enables the output display of PGID  numbers.   When	specified
		without a PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]	This  option  selects  the listing of files any of whose Internet address matches
		the address specified in i.  If no address is specified, this option selects  the
		listing of all Internet and x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

		If -i4 or -i6 is specified with no following address, only files of the indicated
		IP version, IPv4 or IPv6, are displayed.  (An IPv6 specification may be used only
		if the dialects supports IPv6, as indicated by ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'' in lsof's
		-h or -?  output.)  Sequentially specifying -i4, followed by -i6 is the  same  as
		specifying  -i,  and  vice-versa.  Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is the same as
		specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

		Multiple addresses (up to a limit of 100)  may	be  specified  with  multiple  -i
		options.   (A port number or service name range is counted as one address.)  They
		are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

		An Internet address is specified in  the  form	(Items	in  square  brackets  are
		optional.):

		[46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

		where:
		     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
			  that applies to the following address.
			  '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
			  dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
			  '6' is specified, the following address
			  applies to all IP versions.
		     protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
		     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
			  specific IP version is specified, open
			  network files associated with host names
			  of all versions will be selected.
		     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
			  dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
			  colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
			  UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
			  version is selected, only its numeric
			  addresses may be specified.
		     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
			  or a list of them.
		     port is a port number, or a list of them.

		IPv6  options  may be used only if the UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  To see if the
		dialect supports IPv6, run lsof and specify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If  the
		displayed description of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'', IPv6 is
		supported.

		IPv4 host names and addresses may not be specified if network file  selection  is
		limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host names and addresses may not be specified if
		network file selection is limited to IPv4 with -i 4.  When an open  IPv4  network
		file's	address  is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open file's type will be IPv6,
		not IPv4, and its display will be selected by '6', not '4'.

		At least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, ,IR hostname , hostaddr, or ser-
		vice  -  must be supplied.  The `@' character, leading the host specification, is
		always required; as is the `:', leading the port specification.   Specify  either
		hostname  or hostaddr.	Specify either service name list or port number list.  If
		a service name list is specified, the protocol may also need to be  specified  if
		the  TCP,  UDP	and UDPLITE port numbers for the service name are different.  Use
		any case - lower or upper - for protocol.

		Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose entries are  sepa-
		rated  by  commas  and	whose numeric range entries are separated by minus signs.
		There may be no embedded spaces, and all service names must belong to the  speci-
		fied  protocol.  Since service names may contain embedded minus signs, the start-
		ing entry of a range can't be a service name; it can be a port number, however.

		Here are some sample addresses:

		     -i6 - IPv6 only
		     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
		     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
		     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
			  3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
		     UDP:who - UDP who service port
		     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
		     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
			  service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
		     tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
		     :time - either TCP, UDP or UDPLITE time service port

       -k k	This option specifies a kernel name list file, k, in  place  of  /vmunix,  /mach,
		etc.  This option is not available under AIX on the IBM RISC/System 6000.

       -l	This  option  inhibits	the  conversion of user ID numbers to login names.  It is
		also useful when login name lookup is working improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] This option enables (`+') or disables (`-') the  listing  of  file  link  counts,
		where they are available - e.g., they aren't available for sockets, or most FIFOs
		and pipes.

		When +L is specified without a following number, all link counts will be  listed.
		When -L is specified (the default), no link counts will be listed.

		When  +L  is  followed by a number, only files having a link count less than that
		number will be listed.	(No number may follow -L.)  A specification of	the  form
		``+L1''  will  select open files that have been unlinked.  A specification of the
		form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files on the specified file
		system.

		For  other  link  count  comparisons, use field output (-F) and a post-processing
		script or program.

       +|-m m	This option specifies an alternate kernel memory file or  activates  mount  table
		supplement processing.

		The  option form -m m specifies a kernel memory file, m, in place of /dev/kmem or
		/dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

		The option form +m requests that a mount supplement file be written to the  stan-
		dard output file.  All other options are silently ignored.

		There  will  be a line in the mount supplement file for each mounted file system,
		containing the mounted file system directory, followed by a  single  space,  fol-
		lowed by the device number in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

		     / 0x801

		Lsof  can  use	the  mount supplement file to get device numbers for file systems
		when it can't get them via stat(2) or lstat(2).

		The option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement file.

		Note: the +m and +m m options are  not	available  for	all  supported	dialects.
		Check  the  output  of lsof's -h or -?	options to see if the +m and +m m options
		are available.

       +|-M	Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper registrations  for  local
		TCP,  UDP  and	UDPLITE  ports.   The  default	reporting mode is set by the lsof
		builder with the HASPMAPENABLED #define in the dialect's machine.h  header  file;
		lsof  is  distributed  with the HASPMAPENABLED #define deactivated, so portmapper
		reporting is disabled by default and  must  be	requested  with  +M.   Specifying
		lsof's	-h or -?  option will report the default mode.	Disabling portmapper reg-
		istration when it is already disabled or enabling  it  when  already  enabled  is
		acceptable.

		When  portmapper  registration reporting is enabled, lsof displays the portmapper
		registration (if any) for local TCP, UDP or  UDPLITE  ports  in  square  brackets
		immediately  following	the port numbers or service names - e.g., ``:1234[name]''
		or ``:name[100083]''.  The registration information may  be  a	name  or  number,
		depending on what the registering program supplied to the portmapper when it reg-
		istered the port.

		When portmapper registration reporting is enabled, lsof may  run  a  little  more
		slowly	or even become blocked when access to the portmapper becomes congested or
		stopped.  Reverse the reporting mode  to  determine  if  portmapper  registration
		reporting is slowing or blocking lsof.

		For  purposes  of  portmapper registration reporting lsof considers a TCP, UDP or
		UDPLITE port local if: it is found in the local part  of  its  containing  kernel
		structure;  or	if  it	is  located  in the foreign part of its containing kernel
		structure and the local and foreign Internet addresses are the same; or if it  is
		located  in  the  foreign part of its containing kernel structure and the foreign
		Internet address is INADDR_LOOPBACK (127.0.0.1).  This rule may make lsof  ignore
		some foreign ports on machines with multiple interfaces when the foreign Internet
		address is on a different interface from the local one.

		See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)	for further discussion of
		portmapper registration reporting issues.

       -n	This  option inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host names for network
		files.	Inhibiting conversion may make lsof run faster.  It is also  useful  when
		host name lookup is not working properly.

       -N	This option selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o	This  option  directs  lsof  to  display file offset at all times.  It causes the
		SIZE/OFF output column title to  be  changed  to  OFFSET.   Note:  on  some  UNIX
		dialects  lsof	can't  obtain accurate or consistent file offset information from
		its kernel data sources, sometimes just for  particular  kinds	of  files  (e.g.,
		socket	files.)   Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
		more information.

		The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When
		neither  is  specified, lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is appro-
		priate and available for the type of the file.

       -o o	This option defines the number of decimal digits (o)  to  be  printed  after  the
		``0t'' for a file offset before the form is switched to ``0x...''.  An o value of
		zero (unlimited) directs lsof to use the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

		This option does NOT direct lsof to display  offset  at  all  times;  specify  -o
		(without a trailing number) to do that.  This option only specifies the number of
		digits after ``0t'' in either mixed size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus,
		for  example,  to direct lsof to display offset at all times with a decimal digit
		count of 10, use:

		     -o -o 10
		or
		     -oo10

		The default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is normally  8,  but	may  have
		been  changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the description of the -o o option in
		the output of the -h or -?  option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O	This option directs lsof to bypass the strategy it uses to avoid being blocked by
		some  kernel  operations  -  i.e., doing them in forked child processes.  See the
		BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections for more  information  on
		kernel operations that may block lsof.

		While  use  of	this  option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it may also cause
		lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to a function.  Use this option cau-
		tiously.

       -p s	This  option  excludes	or  selects  the listing of files for the processes whose
		optional process IDentification (PID) numbers are in the comma-separated set s	-
		e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.	(There should be no spaces in the set.)

		PID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent exclusions.

		Multiple  process ID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating
		in AND option selection.  However, PID exclusions are applied  without	ORing  or
		ANDing and take effect before other selection criteria are applied.

       -P	This  option  inhibits	the  conversion of port numbers to port names for network
		files.	Inhibiting the conversion may make lsof run a little faster.  It is  also
		useful when port name lookup is not working properly.

       +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
		This option puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof lists open files as selected by
		other options, delays t seconds (default  fifteen),  then  repeats  the  listing,
		delaying  and  listing	repetitively  until stopped by a condition defined by the
		prefix to the option.

		If the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must be terminated with  an
		interrupt or quit signal.

		If  the  prefix  is  `+',  repeat mode will end the first cycle no open files are
		listed - and of course when lsof is stopped with an  interrupt	or  quit  signal.
		When  repeat mode ends because no files are listed, the process exit code will be
		zero if any open files were ever listed; one, if none were ever listed.

		Lsof marks the end of each listing: if field  output  is  in  progress	(the  -F,
		option	has  been  specified),	the  default marker is `m'; otherwise the default
		marker is ``========''.  The marker is followed by a NL character.

		The optional "m<fmt>" argument specifies a format for the marker line.	The <fmt>
		characters  following  `m' are interpreted as a format specification to the strf-
		time(3) function, when both it and the localtime(3) function are available in the
		dialect's  C  library.	Consult the strftime(3) documentation for what may appear
		in its format specification.  Note that when field output is requested	with  the
		-F option, <fmt> cannot contain the NL format, ``%n''.	Note also that when <fmt>
		contains spaces or other characters that affect  the  shell's  interpretation  of
		arguments, <fmt> must be quoted appropriately.

		Repeat	mode  reduces  lsof startup overhead, so it is more efficient to use this
		mode than to call lsof repetitively from a shell script, for example.

		To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with specification	of  other
		lsof  selection  options, so the amount of kernel memory access lsof does will be
		kept to a minimum.  Options that filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g,  -p,
		-u - are the most efficient selectors.

		Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field output (see the -F, option descrip-
		tion) and a supervising awk or Perl script, or a C program.

       -R	This option directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification number in  the
		PPID column.

       -s [p:s] s  alone  directs lsof to display file size at all times.  It causes the SIZE/OFF
		output column title to be changed to SIZE.  If the file does  not  have  a  size,
		nothing is displayed.

		When  followed	by  a  protocol  name (p), either TCP or UDP, a colon (`:') and a
		comma-separated protocol state name list, the option  causes  open  TCP  and  UDP
		files  to  be  excluded  if their state name(s) are in the list (s) preceded by a
		`^'; or included if their name(s) are not preceded by a `^'.

		When an inclusion list is defined, only network files with  state  names  in  the
		list  will  be present in the lsof output.  Thus, specifying one state name means
		that only network files with that lone state name wil be listed.

		Case is unimportant in the protocol or state names, but there may  be  no  spaces
		and  the colon (`:') separating the protocol name (p) and the state name list (s)
		is required.

		If only TCP and UDP files are to be listed, as controlled by the specified exclu-
		sions  and  inclusions,  the  -i option must be specified, too.  If only a single
		protocol's files are to be listed, add its name as an argument to the -i option.

		For example, to list only network files with TCP state LISTEN, use:

		     -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN

		Or, for example, to list network files with all UDP states except Idle, use:

		     -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

		State names vary with UNIX dialects, so it's not possible to provide  a  complete
		list.  Some common TCP state names are: CLOSED, IDLE, BOUND, LISTEN, ESTABLISHED,
		SYN_SENT,  SYN_RCDV,  ESTABLISHED,  CLOSE_WAIT,  FIN_WAIT1,  CLOSING,	LAST_ACK,
		FIN_WAIT_2, and TIME_WAIT.  Two common UDP state names are Unbound and Idle.

		See  the  lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information on
		how to use protocol state exclusion and inclusion, including examples.

		The -o (without a following decimal digit count) and -s option (without a follow-
		ing  protocol  and  state  name  list) are mutually exclusive; they can't both be
		specified.  When neither is specified, lsof displays whatever  value  -  size  or
		offset - is appropriate and available for the type of file.

		Since  some  types of files don't have true sizes - sockets, FIFOs, pipes, etc. -
		lsof displays for their sizes the content amounts in their associated kernel buf-
		fers, if possible.

       -S [t]	This  option  specifies an optional time-out seconds value for kernel functions -
		lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2) - that might otherwise deadlock.  The  minimum
		for  t	is  two; the default, fifteen; when no value is specified, the default is
		used.

		See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]	This option controls the reporting of some TCP/TPI information, also reported  by
		netstat(1),  following	the  network addresses.  In normal output the information
		appears in parentheses, each item except TCP or TPI state name	identified  by	a
		keyword, followed by `=', separated from others by a single space:

		     <TCP or TPI state name>
		     QR=<read queue length>
		     QS=<send queue length>
		     SO=<socket options and values>
		     SS=<socket states>
		     TF=<TCP flags and values>
		     WR=<window read length>
		     WW=<window write length>

		Not all values are reported for all UNIX dialects.  Items values (when available)
		are reported after the item name and '='.

		When the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR  OTHER	PROGRAMS.)   each
		item appears as a field with a `T' leading character.

		-T with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI information reporting.

		-T  with  following characters selects the reporting of specific TCP/TPI informa-
		tion:

		     f	  selects reporting of socket options,
			  states and values, and TCP flags and
			  values.
		     q	  selects queue length reporting.
		     s	  selects connection state reporting.
		     w	  selects window size reporting.

		Not all selections are enabled for some UNIX dialects.	State may be selected for
		all  dialects  and  is reported by default.  The -h or -?  help output for the -T
		option will show what selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

		When -T is used to select information - i.e., it  is  followed	by  one  or  more
		selection  characters  -  the  displaying of state is disabled by default, and it
		must be explicitly selected again in the characters following  -T.   (In  effect,
		then, the default is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if queue lengths and state
		are desired, use -Tqs.

		Socket options, socket states, some socket values, TCP flags and  one  TCP  value
		may  be  reported  (when  available in the UNIX dialect) in the form of the names
		that commonly appear after SO_, so_, SS_, TCP_	and TF_ in the	dialect's  header
		files  -  most	often  <sys/socket.h>, <sys/socketvar.h> and <netinet/tcp_var.h>.
		Consult those header files for the meaning of the flags, options, states and val-
		ues.

		``SO=''  precedes socket options and values; ``SS='', socket states; and ``TF='',
		TCP flags and values.

		If a flag or option has a value, the value will follow an '='  and  the  name  --
		e.g., ``SO=LINGER=5'', ``SO=QLIM=5'', ``TF=MSS=512''.  The following seven values
		may be reported:

		     Name
		     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

		     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
		     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
		     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
		     PQLEN     partial listen queue connections
		     QLEN      established listen queue connections
		     QLIM      established listen queue limit
		     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
		     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

		Details on what socket options and values, socket states, and TCP flags and  val-
		ues  may  be displayed for particular UNIX dialects may be found in the answer to
		the ``Why doesn't lsof report socket options, socket states, and  TCP  flags  and
		values	for  my dialect?'' and ``Why doesn't lsof report the partial listen queue
		connection count for my dialect?''  questions in the lsof FAQ  (The  FAQ  section
		gives its location.)

       -t	This  option specifies that lsof should produce terse output with process identi-
		fiers only and no header - e.g., so that the output  may  be  piped  to  kill(1).
		This option selects the -w option.

       -u s	This  option  selects the listing of files for the user whose login names or user
		ID numbers are in the comma-separated set s -  e.g.,  ``abe'',	or  ``548,root''.
		(There should be no spaces in the set.)

		Multiple  login  names	or user ID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before
		participating in AND option selection.

		If a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes a  negation  -  i.e.,
		files  of  processes  owned by the login name or user ID will never be listed.	A
		negated login name or user ID selection is neither  ANDed  nor	ORed  with  other
		selections; it is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes the
		listing of the files of the process.  For example, to direct lsof to exclude  the
		listing of files belonging to root processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U	This option selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v	This  option selects the listing of lsof version information, including: revision
		number; when the lsof binary was constructed;  who  constructed  the  binary  and
		where;	the  name  of the compiler used to construct the lsof binary; the version
		number of the compiler when readily available; the compiler and loader flags used
		to  construct  the  lsof  binary; and system information, typically the output of
		uname's -a option.

       -V	This option directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to list and failed to
		find  -  command names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login names, NFS
		files, PIDs, PGIDs, and UIDs.

		When other options are ANDed to search options, or compile-time options  restrict
		the  listing  of  some files, lsof may not report that it failed to find a search
		item when an ANDed option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open
		file containing the located search item.

		For  example,  ``lsof  -V  -iTCP@foobar  -a  -d 999'' may not report a failure to
		locate open files at ``TCP@foobar'' and may not list any, if  none  have  a  file
		descriptor  number  of 999.  A similar situation arises when HASSECURITY and HAS-
		NOSOCKSECURITY are defined at compile time and they prevent the listing  of  open
		files.

       +|-w	Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression of warning messages.

		The  lsof  builder  may  choose  to  have warning messages disabled or enabled by
		default.  The default warning message state is indicated in the output of the  -h
		or  -?	 option.   Disabling  warning  messages when they are already disabled or
		enabling them when already enabled is acceptable.

		The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x  [fl] This option may accompany the +d and +D options to  direct  their  processing  to
		cross  over symbolic links and|or file system mount points encountered when scan-
		ning the directory (+d) or directory tree (+D).

		If -x is specified by itself without a following parameter, cross-over processing
		of  both  symbolic links and file system mount points is enabled.  Note that when
		-x is specified without a parameter, the next argument must  begin  with  '-'  or
		'+'.

		The optional 'f' parameter enables file system mount point cross-over processing;
		'l', symbolic link cross-over processing.

		The -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a +d or +D option.

       -X	This is a dialect-specific option.

	   AIX:
		This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting of executed text file
		and shared library references.

		WARNING:  because this option uses the kernel readx() function, its use on a busy
		AIX system might cause an application process to hang so completely that  it  can
		neither  be killed nor stopped.  I have never seen this happen or had a report of
		its happening, but I think there is a remote possibility it could happen.

		By default use of readx() is disabled.	 On  AIX  5L  and  above  lsof	may  need
		setuid-root permission to perform the actions this option requests.

		The  lsof builder may specify that the -X option be restricted to processes whose
		real UID is root.  If that has been done, the -X option will not appear in the -h
		or  -?	help output unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The default
		lsof distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by default it will  appear  in
		the help output.

		When  AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof may not be able to report information for
		all text and loader file references, but it may also avoid  exacerbating  an  AIX
		kernel directory search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

		The  readx()  function, used by lsof or any other program to access some sections
		of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the
		kernel's  dir_search()	function to believe erroneously that part of an in-memory
		copy of a file system directory has been zeroed.   Another  application  process,
		distinct  from	lsof,  asking the kernel to search the directory - e.g., by using
		open(2) - can cause dir_search() to loop forever, thus	hanging  the  application
		process.

		Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  and the 00README file
		of the lsof distribution for a more complete description of the Stale Segment  ID
		bug, its APAR, and methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

	   Linux:
		This  Linux  option  requests  that lsof skip the reporting of information on all
		open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE IPv4 and IPv6 files.

		This Linux option is most useful when the system has an extremely large number of
		open  TCP,  UDP  and  UDPLITE  files,  the processing of whose information in the
		/proc/net/tcp* and /proc/net/udp* files would take lsof a long	time,  and  whose
		reporting is not of interest.

		Use  this  option  with  care and only when you are sure that the information you
		want lsof to display isn't associated with open TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket files.

	   Solaris 10 and above:
		This Solaris 10 and above option requests the reporting of cached paths for files
		that have been deleted - i.e., removed with rm(1) or unlink(2).

		The  cached  path  is  followed by the string `` (deleted)'' to indicate that the
		path by which the file was opened has been deleted.

		Because intervening changes made to the  path  -  i.e.,  renames  with	mv(1)  or
		rename(2)  -  are  not recorded in the cached path, what lsof reports is only the
		path by which the file was opened, not its possibly different final path.

       -z [z]	specifies how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to be handled.

		Without a following argument - e.g., NO z - the option specifies that zone  names
		are to be listed in the ZONE output column.

		The  -z  option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That causes lsof to list only
		open files for processes in that zone.	Multiple -z z option and  argument  pairs
		may  be specified to form a list of named zones.  Any open file of any process in
		any of the zones will be listed, subject to other conditions specified	by  other
		options and arguments.

       -Z [Z]	specifies  how	SELinux security contexts are to be handled.  This option and 'Z'
		field output character support are inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the run-
		ning Linux kernel.  See OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more information on the 'Z'
		field output character.

		Without a following argument - e.g., NO Z - the option	specifies  that  security
		contexts are to be listed in the SECURITY-CONTEXT output column.

		The  -Z  option  may  be  followed  by a wildcard security context name, Z.  That
		causes lsof to list only open files for processes in that security context.  Mul-
		tiple  -Z Z option and argument pairs may be specified to form a list of security
		contexts.  Any open file of any process in any of the security contexts  will  be
		listed,  subject  to  other  conditions specified by other options and arguments.
		Note that Z can be A:B:C or *:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C to match  against  the  A:B:C
		context.

       --	The  double  minus  sign  option  is  a  marker that signals the end of the keyed
		options.  It may be used, for example, when the first file  name  begins  with	a
		minus  sign.   It may also be used when the absence of a value for the last keyed
		option must be signified by the presence of a minus sign in the following  option
		and before the start of the file names.

       names	These  are  path  names  of  specific files to list.  Symbolic links are resolved
		before use.  The first name may be separated from the preceding options with  the
		``--'' option.

		If  a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or the device of the file
		system, lsof will list all the files open on the file system.  To be considered a
		file  system, the name must match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output,
		or match the name of a block device associated with a mounted-on directory  name.
		The  +|-f option may be used to force lsof to consider a name a file system iden-
		tifier (+f) or a simple file (-f).

		If name is a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on directory name  of	a
		file  system, it is treated just as a regular file is treated - i.e., its listing
		is restricted to processes that have it open as a file or as  a  process-specific
		directory,  such  as the root or current working directory.  To request that lsof
		look for open files inside a directory name, use the +d s and +D D options.

		If a name is the base name of a  family  of  multiplexed  files  -  e.	g,  AIX's
		/dev/pt[cs]  -	lsof will list all the associated multiplexed files on the device
		that are open - e.g., /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

		If a name is a UNIX domain socket name, lsof will usually search for  it  by  the
		characters  of the name alone - exactly as it is specified and is recorded in the
		kernel socket structure.  (See the next paragraph for an exception to  that  rule
		for  Linux.)   Specifying a relative path - e.g., ./file - in place of the file's
		absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file - won't work because lsof must match the  charac-
		ters you specify with what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket structures.

		If  a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case lsof is able to search
		for it by its device and inode number, allowing name to be a relative path.   The
		case requires that the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash ('/') be
		used by the process  that  created  the  socket,  and  hence  be  stored  in  the
		/proc/net/unix	file;  and it requires that lsof be able to obtain the device and
		node numbers of both the absolute path in /proc/net/unix and name via  successful
		stat(2) system calls.  When those conditions are met, lsof will be able to search
		for the UNIX domain socket when some path to it is is specified in  name.   Thus,
		for  example,  if  the path is /dev/log, and an lsof search is initiated when the
		working directory is /dev, then name could be ./log.

		If a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open files  whose  device  and
		inode match that of the specified path name.

		If  you  have also specified the -b option, the only names you may safely specify
		are file systems for which your mount table supplies  alternate  device  numbers.
		See  the  AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more
		information.

		Multiple file names are joined in a single ORed set before participating  in  AND
		option selection.

AFS
       Lsof supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS versions):

	    AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
	    HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
	    Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
	    Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It  may	recognize  AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has not been tested
       there.  Depending on how AFS is	implemented,  lsof  may  recognize  AFS  files	in  other
       dialects, or may have difficulties recognizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof  may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported dialects when AFS
       kernel support is implemented via dynamic modules whose addresses do  not  appear  in  the
       kernel's  variable name list.  In that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity of AFS
       files, and might not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that  is  needed
       for  calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When lsof can't compute volume node numbers, it
       reports blank in the NODE column.

       The -A A option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof  for  specifying  the
       name  list  file  where dynamic module kernel addresses may be found.  When this option is
       available, it will be listed in the lsof help output, presented in response to the  -h  or
       -?

       See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information about dynamic
       modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's name cache  operations,
       lsof can't identify path name components for AFS files.

SECURITY
       Lsof  has three features that may cause security concerns.  First, its default compilation
       mode allows anyone to list all open files with  it.   Second,  by  default  it  creates	a
       user-readable  and  user-writable device cache file in the home directory of the real user
       ID that executes lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features may be disabled
       when  lsof  is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options name alternate kernel name list or
       memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open files is controlled by  the	compile-time  HASSECURITY
       and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When HASSECURITY is defined, lsof will allow only the root
       user to list all open files.  The non-root user may list only open files of processes with
       the  same  user	IDentification number as the real user ID number of the lsof process (the
       one that its user logged on with).

       However, if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are  both	defined,  anyone  may  list  open
       socket files, provided they are selected with the -i option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help output, presented in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the status of the HASSE-
       CURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security section of the 00README file of the lsof distribution for information  on
       building lsof with the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options enabled.

       Creation  and  use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file is controlled by
       the compile-time HASDCACHE option.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE  section  and  the  sections
       that  follow  it for details on how its path is formed.	For security considerations it is
       important to note that in the default lsof distribution, if the real user ID  under  which
       lsof is executed is root, the device cache file will be written in root's home directory -
       e.g., / or /root.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a
       device cache file.

       When  HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in response to the -h, -D?, or
       -?  options, will provide device cache file handling information.  When HASDCACHE  is  not
       defined, the -h or -?  output will have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature - enabling it improves the per-
       formance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of examining all the nodes in	/dev  (or
       /devices)  -  read  the discussion of it in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and
       the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE CACHE FILE WITH  THE  -Di
       OPTION.

       When  lsof  user  declares  alternate  kernel name list or memory files with the -k and -m
       options, lsof checks the user's authority to read them with access(2).  This  is  intended
       to  prevent  whatever  special  power lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read
       files not normally accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT
       This section describes the information lsof lists for each open file.  See the OUTPUT  FOR
       OTHER  PROGRAMS	section  for  additional  information  on output that can be processed by
       another program.

       Lsof only outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit  characters.   Non-printable
       characters are printed in one of three forms: the C ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control charac-
       ter `^' form (e.g., ``^@''); or hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g.,  ``\xab'').   Space
       is non-printable in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       For  some  dialects  - if HASSETLOCALE is defined in the dialect's machine.h header file -
       lsof will print the extended 8 bit characters of a language locale.  The lsof process must
       be  supplied  a language locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents a
       known language locale in  which	the  extended  characters  are	considered  printable  by
       isprint(3).   Otherwise	lsof  considers  the extended characters non-printable and prints
       them according to its rules for non-printable  characters,  stated  above.   Consult  your
       dialect's  setlocale(3)	man page for the names of other environment variables that may be
       used in place of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsof's language locale support for a dialect also covers wide characters - e.g.,  UTF-8	-
       when  HASSETLOCALE and HASWIDECHAR are defined in the dialect's machine.h header file, and
       when a suitable language locale has been defined in the appropriate  environment  variable
       for the lsof process.  Wide characters are printable under those conditions if iswprint(3)
       reports them to be.  If HASSETLOCALE, HASWIDECHAR and a suitable  language  locale  aren't
       defined,  or  if iswprint(3) reports wide characters that aren't printable, lsof considers
       the wide characters non-printable and prints each of their 8 bits according to  its  rules
       for non-printable characters, stated above.

       Consult	the  answers  to the "Language locale support" questions in the lsof FAQ (The FAQ
       section gives its location.) for more information.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guaranteeing that each column
       is  a minimum size.  It also guarantees that each column is separated from its predecessor
       by at least one space.

       COMMAND	  contains the first nine characters of the name of the UNIX  command  associated
		  with	the  process.  If a non-zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the
		  column contains the first w characters of the name of the UNIX command  associ-
		  ated	with  the  process  up to the limit of characters supplied to lsof by the
		  UNIX dialect.  (See the description of the +c w command or  the  lsof  FAQ  for
		  more information.  The FAQ section gives its location.)

		  If  w  is  less  than  the  length of the column title, ``COMMAND'', it will be
		  raised to that length.

		  If a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the column contains all  the
		  characters of the name of the UNIX command associated with the process.

		  All command name characters maintained by the kernel in its structures are dis-
		  played in field output when the command name	descriptor  (`c')  is  specified.
		  See  the  OUTPUT  FOR OTHER COMMANDS section for information on selecting field
		  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID	  is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       ZONE	  is the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must be selected with  the
		  -z option.

       SECURITY-CONTEXT
		  is  the  SELinux  security  context.	 This column must be selected with the -Z
		  option.  Note that the -Z option is inhibited when SELinux is disabled  in  the
		  running Linux kernel.

       PPID	  is  the  Parent  Process IDentification number of the process.  It is only dis-
		  played when the -R option has been specified.

       PGID	  is the process group IDentification number associated with the process.  It  is
		  only displayed when the -g option has been specified.

       USER	  is  the  user  ID number or login name of the user to whom the process belongs,
		  usually the same as reported by ps(1).  However, on Linux USER is the  user  ID
		  number  or  login that owns the directory in /proc where lsof finds information
		  about the process.  Usually that is the same value reported by ps(1),  but  may
		  differ  when the process has changed its effective user ID.  (See the -l option
		  description for information on when a user ID number	or  login  name  is  dis-
		  played.)

       FD	  is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

		       cwd  current working directory;
		       Lnn  library references (AIX);
		       err  FD information error (see NAME column);
		       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
		       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
		       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
		       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
		       mem  memory-mapped file;
		       mmap memory-mapped device;
		       pd   parent directory;
		       rtd  root directory;
		       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
		       txt  program text (code and data);
		       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

		  FD  is followed by one of these characters, describing the mode under which the
		  file is open:

		       r for read access;
		       w for write access;
		       u for read and write access;
		       space if mode unknown and no lock
			    character follows;
		       `-' if mode unknown and lock
			    character follows.

		  The mode character is followed by one of these lock characters, describing  the
		  type of lock applied to the file:

		       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
		       r for read lock on part of the file;
		       R for a read lock on the entire file;
		       w for a write lock on part of the file;
		       W for a write lock on the entire file;
		       u for a read and write lock of any length;
		       U for a lock of unknown type;
		       x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of the file;
		       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the      entire file;
		       space if there is no lock.

		  See the LOCKS section for more information on the lock information character.

		  The  FD column contents constitutes a single field for parsing in post-process-
		  ing scripts.

       TYPE	  is the type of the node associated with the file  -  e.g.,  GDIR,  GREG,  VDIR,
		  VREG, etc.

		  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

		  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network file - even if its address is IPv4, mapped
		  in an IPv6 address;

		  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

		  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

		  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

		  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

		  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

		  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

		  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

		  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

		  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

		  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

		  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

		  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

		  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

		  or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

		  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

		  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

		  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

		  or ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that can't be  opened  --  the
		  directory path appears in the NAME column, followed by an error message;

		  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

		  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

		  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

		  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

		  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

		  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

		  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

		  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

		  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

		  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

		  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

		  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

		  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

		  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

		  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

		  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

		  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

		  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

		  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

		  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

		  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

		  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

		  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

		  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file'

		  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

		  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

		  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

		  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

		  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

		  or ``POLP'' for an old format /proc light weight process file;

		  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

		  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

		  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

		  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

		  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

		  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

		  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

		  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

		  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

		  or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

		  or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

		  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

		  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

		  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

		  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

		  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

		  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

		  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

		  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of unknown type;

		  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

		  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

		  or the four type number octets if the corresponding name isn't known.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f has been specified to +f;

       FCT	  contains  the  file  reference  count from the kernel file structure when c has
		  been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f, this field contains the contents  of  the
		  f_flag[s] member of the kernel file structure and the kernel's per-process open
		  file flags (if available); `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal; `g',
		  as  short-hand names; two lists may be displayed with entries separated by com-
		  mas, the lists separated by a semicolon  (`;');  the	first  list  may  contain
		  short-hand names for f_flag[s] values from the following table:

		       AIO	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
		       AP	 append
		       ASYN	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
		       BAS	 block, test, and set in use
		       BKIU	 block if in use
		       BL	 use block offsets
		       BSK	 block seek
		       CA	 copy avoid
		       CIO	 concurrent I/O
		       CLON	 clone
		       CLRD	 CL read
		       CR	 create
		       DF	 defer
		       DFI	 defer IND
		       DFLU	 data flush
		       DIR	 direct
		       DLY	 delay
		       DOCL	 do clone
		       DSYN	 data-only integrity
		       DTY	 must be a directory
		       EVO	 event only
		       EX	 open for exec
		       EXCL	 exclusive open
		       FSYN	 synchronous writes
		       GCDF	 defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GCMK	 mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GTTY	 accessed via /dev/tty
		       HUP	 HUP in progress
		       KERN	 kernel
		       KIOC	 kernel-issued ioctl
		       LCK	 has lock
		       LG	 large file
		       MBLK	 stream message block
		       MK	 mark
		       MNT	 mount
		       MSYN	 multiplex synchronization
		       NATM	 don't update atime
		       NB	 non-blocking I/O
		       NBDR	 no BDRM check
		       NBIO	 SYSV non-blocking I/O
		       NBF	 n-buffering in effect
		       NC	 no cache
		       ND	 no delay
		       NDSY	 no data synchronization
		       NET	 network
		       NFLK	 don't follow links
		       NMFS	 NM file system
		       NOTO	 disable background stop
		       NSH	 no share
		       NTTY	 no controlling TTY
		       OLRM	 OLR mirror
		       PAIO	 POSIX asynchronous I/O
		       PP	 POSIX pipe
		       R	 read
		       RC	 file and record locking cache
		       REV	 revoked
		       RSH	 shared read
		       RSYN	 read synchronization
		       RW	 read and write access
		       SL	 shared lock
		       SNAP	 cooked snapshot
		       SOCK	 socket
		       SQSH	 Sequent shared set on open
		       SQSV	 Sequent SVM set on open
		       SQR	 Sequent set repair on open
		       SQS1	 Sequent full shared open
		       SQS2	 Sequent partial shared open
		       STPI	 stop I/O
		       SWR	 synchronous read
		       SYN	 file integrity while writing
		       TCPM	 avoid TCP collision
		       TR	 truncate
		       W	 write
		       WKUP	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       WTG	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       VH	 vhangup pending
		       VTXT	 virtual text
		       XL	 exclusive lock

		  this	list  of  names  was  derived  from  F* #define's in dialect header files
		  <fcntl.h>, <linux</fs.h>, <sys/fcntl.c>,  <sys/fcntlcom.h>,  and  <sys/file.h>;
		  see  the  lsof.h  header file for a list showing the correspondence between the
		  above short-hand names and the header file definitions;

		  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand names  for  kernel
		  per-process open file flags from this table:

		       ALLC	 allocated
		       BR	 the file has been read
		       BHUP	 activity stopped by SIGHUP
		       BW	 the file has been written
		       CLSG	 closing
		       CX	 close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
		       LCK	 lock was applied
		       MP	 memory-mapped
		       OPIP	 open pending - in progress
		       RSVW	 reserved wait
		       SHMT	 UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
		       USE	 in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID	  (or  INODE-ADDR  for	some  dialects) contains a unique identifier for the file
		  node (usually the kernel vnode or inode address, but also occasionally  a  con-
		  catenation of device and node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE	  contains  the  device  numbers,  separated  by commas, for a character special,
		  block special, regular, directory or NFS file;

		  or ``memory'' for a memory file system node under Tru64 UNIX;

		  or the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket stream;

		  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file  (The	kernel	reference
		  address may be used for FIFO's, for example.);

		  or the base address or device name of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

		  Usually  only the lower thirty two bits of Tru64 UNIX kernel addresses are dis-
		  played.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
		  is the size of the file or the file offset in bytes.	A value is  displayed  in
		  this	column	only  if it is available.  Lsof displays whatever value - size or
		  offset - is appropriate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

		  On some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain  accurate  or  consistent  file  offset
		  information  from  its kernel data sources, sometimes just for particular kinds
		  of files (e.g., socket files.)  In other cases, files don't have true  sizes	-
		  e.g.,  sockets,  FIFOs,  pipes  -  so lsof displays for their sizes the content
		  amounts it finds in their kernel buffer descriptors (e.g., socket  buffer  size
		  counts  or  TCP/IP  window sizes.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
		  its location.)  for more information.

		  The file size is displayed in decimal; the offset is normally displayed in dec-
		  imal with a leading ``0t'' if it contains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with
		  a leading ``0x'' if it is longer than 8  digits.   (Consult  the  -o	o  option
		  description for information on when 8 might default to some other value.)

		  Thus	the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an offset when the column may con-
		  tain both a size and an offset (i.e., its title is SIZE/OFF).

		  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file offset (or nothing
		  if  no  offset  is  available) and labels the column OFFSET.	The offset always
		  begins with ``0t'' or ``0x'' as described above.

		  The lsof user can control the switch from  ``0t''  to  ``0x''  with  the  -o	o
		  option.  Consult its description for more information.

		  If  the  -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file size (or nothing
		  if no size is available) and labels the column SIZE.	The -o and -s options are
		  mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.

		  For  files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't reside on a disk device -
		  lsof will display appropriate information about the current size or position of
		  the file if it is available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NLINK	  contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

       NODE	  is the node number of a local file;

		  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

		  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ``TCP'';

		  or ``STR'' for a stream;

		  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

		  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME	  is the name of the mount point and file system on which the file resides;

		  or  the  name of a file specified in the names option (after any symbolic links
		  have been resolved);

		  or the name of a character special or block special device;

		  or the local and remote Internet addresses of a network file;  the  local  host
		  name	or  IP	number	is  followed  by a colon (':'), the port, ``->'', and the
		  two-part remote address; IP addresses may be	reported  as  numbers  or  names,
		  depending  on  the  +|-M,  -n, and -P options; colon-separated IPv6 numbers are
		  enclosed in square brackets; IPv4 INADDR_ANY and  IPv6  IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED
		  addresses,  and  zero  port numbers are represented by an asterisk ('*'); a UDP
		  destination address may be followed by the amount of	time  elapsed  since  the
		  last	packet was sent to the destination; TCP, UDP and UDPLITE remote addresses
		  may be followed by TCP/TPI information in parentheses - state (e.g.,	``(ESTAB-
		  LISHED)'',  ``(Unbound)''),  queue sizes, and window sizes (not all dialects) -
		  in a fashion similar to what netstat(1) reports; see the -T option  description
		  or  the  description of the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more
		  information on state, queue size, and window size;

		  or the address or name of a UNIX domain socket,  possibly  including	a  stream
		  clone  device  name, a file system object's path name, local and foreign kernel
		  addresses, socket pair information, and a bound vnode address;

		  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

		  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

		  or a stream character device name, followed by ``->'' and the stream name or	a
		  list of stream module names, separated by ``->'';

		  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and module names, sep-
		  arated by ``->'';

		  or system directory name, `` -- '', and as many components of the path name  as
		  lsof	can find in the kernel's name cache for selected dialects (See the KERNEL
		  NAME CACHE section for more information.);

		  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination address;

		  or ``COMMON:'', followed by the vnode  device  information  structure's  device
		  name, for a Solaris common vnode;

		  or  the  address  family,  followed  by  a  slash  (`/'),  followed by fourteen
		  comma-separated bytes of a non-Internet raw socket address;

		  or the HP-UX x.25 local address, followed by the virtual connection number  (if
		  any), followed by the remote address (if any);

		  or  ``(dead)''  for  disassociated  Tru64 UNIX files - typically terminal files
		  that have been flagged with the TIOCNOTTY ioctl and closed by daemons;

		  or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of  the  read  and  write
		  offsets of a FIFO;

		  or  ``clone  n:/dev/event''  for  SCO  OpenServer file clones of the /dev/event
		  device, where n is the minor device number of the file;

		  or ``(socketpair: n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or 10 UNIX domain socket,  cre-
		  ated by the socketpair(3N) network function;

		  or  ``no  PCB''  for	socket files that do not have a protocol block associated
		  with them, optionally followed by ``, CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on  the  socket
		  has  been  disabled,	or  ``, CANTRCVMORE'' if receiving on the socket has been
		  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

		  or the local and remote addresses of a  Linux  IPX  socket  file  in	the  form
		  <net>:[<node>:]<port>,  followed  in	parentheses  by  the transmit and receive
		  queue sizes, and the connection state;

		  or ``dgram'' or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and above in-kernel UNIX
		  domain  sockets,  followed by a colon (':') and the local path name when avail-
		  able, followed by ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket  address  in
		  hexadecimal when available.

       For  dialects  that  support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file to be attached to
       another with fattach(3C), lsof will add	``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)''  to  the
       NAME column.  <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction> will
       be ``<-'' if <address2> has been fattach'ed to this vnode whose address is <address1>; and
       ``->''  if <address1>, the vnode address of this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.
       <address1> may be omitted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

       Lsof may add two parenthetical notes to the NAME column for open Solaris 10 files: ``(?)''
       if  lsof  considers  the  path  name of questionable accuracy; and ``(deleted)'' if the -X
       option has been specified and lsof detects the open file's path	name  has  been  deleted.
       Consult	the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information on these
       NAME column additions.

LOCKS
       Lsof can't adequately report the wide variety of UNIX dialect file locks in a single char-
       acter.	What  it reports in a single character is a compromise between the information it
       finds in the kernel and the limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof only  reports  the
       status of the first lock it encounters.	If it is a byte level lock, then the lock charac-
       ter will be reported in lower case - i.e., `r', `w', or `x' - rather than the  upper  case
       equivalent reported for a full file lock.

       Generally  lsof	can  only report on locks held by local processes on local files.  When a
       local process sets a lock on a remotely mounted (e.g., NFS) file, the remote  server  host
       usually	records  the lock state.  One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3,
       and in all versions above 2.4, the Solaris kernel records information on remote	locks  in
       local structures.

       Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the BUGS section of this
       manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
       When the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is suitable for  processing  by
       another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a C program.

       Each  unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a leading character
       and terminated by a NL(012) (or a NUL(000) if the 0 (zero) field identifier character is
       specified.)   The  data	of  the  field follows immediately after the field identification
       character and extends to the field terminator.

       It is possible to think of field output as process and file sets.  A  process  set  begins
       with  a	field  whose identifier is `p' (for process IDentifier (PID)).	It extends to the
       beginning of the next PID field or the beginning of the first file  set	of  the  process,
       whichever  comes first.	Included in the process set are fields that identify the command,
       the process group IDentification (PGID) number, and the user  ID  (UID)	number	or  login
       name.

       A  file set begins with a field whose identifier is `f' (for file descriptor).  It is fol-
       lowed by lines that describe the file's access mode, lock state, type, device, size,  off-
       set,  inode,  protocol,	name and stream module names.  It extends to the beginning of the
       next file or process set, whichever comes first.

       When the NUL(000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero)	field  identifier
       character, lsof ends each process and file set with a NL(012) character.

       Lsof  always  produces  one  field, the PID (`p') field.  All other fields may be declared
       optionally in the field identifier character list that follows  the  -F	option.   When	a
       field  selection  character  identifies	an item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID,
       selected with -R - specification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
       listing of the item.

       It  is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be parsed - e.g., if
       the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be difficult to identify file sets.  To
       help  you avoid this difficulty, lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of all
       fields with NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output of all fields with  NUL
       terminators).  For compatibility reasons neither -F nor -F0 select the raw device field.

       These  are  the	fields	that lsof will produce.  The single character listed first is the
       field identifier.

	    a	 file access mode
	    c	 process command name (all characters from proc or
		 user structure)
	    C	 file structure share count
	    d	 file's device character code
	    D	 file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    f	 file descriptor
	    F	 file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    G	 file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
	    i	 file's inode number
	    k	 link count
	    l	 file's lock status
	    L	 process login name
	    m	 marker between repeated output
	    n	 file name, comment, Internet address
	    N	 node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
	    o	 file's offset (decimal)
	    p	 process ID (always selected)
	    g	 process group ID
	    P	 protocol name
	    r	 raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    R	 parent process ID
	    s	 file's size (decimal)
	    S	 file's stream identification
	    t	 file's type
	    T	 TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
		 `=' is part of the prefix):
		     QR=<read queue size>
		     QS=<send queue size>
		     SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
		     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
		     ST=<connection state>
		     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
		     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
		     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
		 (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
		   UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
		   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
		   requested.)
	    u	 process user ID
	    z	 Solaris 10 and higher zone name
	    Z	 SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
	    0	 use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
	    1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
		 of -F? identifies the information to be found
		 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You can get on-line help information on these characters and their descriptions by  speci-
       fying  the  -F?	 option  pair.	(Escape the `?' character as your shell requires.)  Addi-
       tional information on field content can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As an example, ``-F pcfn'' will select the process ID  (`p'),  command  name  (`c'),  file
       descriptor  (`f')  and  file name (`n') fields with an NL field terminator character; ``-F
       pcfn0'' selects the same output with a NUL(000) field terminator character.

       Lsof doesn't produce all fields for every process or file set, only those that are  avail-
       able.   Some  fields  are  mutually exclusive: file device characters and file major/minor
       device numbers; file inode number and protocol name; file name and stream  identification;
       file  size  and	offset.   One  or  the other member of these mutually exclusive sets will
       appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally lsof ends each field with a NL(012) character.  The 0	(zero)	field  identifier
       character may be specified to change the field terminator character to a NUL(000).  A NUL
       terminator may be easier to process with xargs(1), for example, or  with  programs  whose
       quoting	mechanisms  may not easily cope with the range of characters in the field output.
       When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends each process and file  set  with  a  NL(012).

       Three  aids  to	producing programs that can process lsof field output are included in the
       lsof distribution.  The first is a C header file, lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for
       the  field identification characters, indexes for storing them in a table, and explanation
       strings that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The second aid is a set of sample scripts that process field output, written in awk,  Perl
       4, and Perl 5.  They're located in the scripts subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test suite is written in
       C and uses field output to validate the correct operation of lsof.   The  library  can  be
       found in the tests/LTlib.c file of the lsof distribution.  The library uses the first aid,
       the lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
       Lsof can be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses  -  lstat(2),	readlink(2),  and
       stat(2).   These  functions  are  stalled in the kernel, for example, when the hosts where
       mounted NFS file systems reside become inaccessible.

       Lsof attempts to break these blocks with timers and child processes,  but  the  techniques
       are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to break a block, it will report the break
       with an error message.  The messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The default timeout value may be displayed with the -h  or  -?	option,  and  it  may  be
       changed	with  the  -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is two seconds, but you should avoid
       small values, since slow system responsiveness can cause short timeouts	to  expire  unex-
       pectedly and perhaps stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When  lsof  has	to break a block during its access of mounted file system information, it
       normally continues, although with less information available to display about open files.

       Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child processes when using
       the  kernel functions that might block by specifying the -O option.  While this will allow
       lsof to start up with less overhead, it exposes lsof completely to the  kernel  situations
       that might block it.  Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
       You  can  use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions that would block.
       Some cautions apply.

       First, using this option usually requires that your system supply alternate device numbers
       in  place  of  the  device  numbers  that lsof would normally obtain with the lstat(2) and
       stat(2) kernel functions.  See the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for	more  information
       on alternate device numbers.

       Second, you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're file system names.  This
       is because lsof needs to know the device and inode numbers of files listed with	names  in
       the  lsof  options,  and the -b option prevents lsof from obtaining them.  Moreover, since
       lsof only has device numbers for the file systems that have  alternates,  its  ability  to
       locate  files  on  file systems depends completely on the availability and accuracy of the
       alternates.  If no alternates are available, or if they're incorrect, lsof won't  be  able
       to locate files on the named file systems.

       Third,  if  the names of your file system directories that lsof obtains from your system's
       mount table are symbolic links, lsof won't be able to resolve the links.  This is  because
       the -b option causes lsof to avoid the kernel readlink(2) function it uses to resolve sym-
       bolic links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when it  needs  to  use
       the  kernel functions that the -b option directs it to avoid.  You can suppress these mes-
       sages by specifying the -w option, but if you do, you won't see the alternate device  num-
       bers reported in the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
       On  some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it can't get information about a
       mounted file system via the lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions, or because  you  speci-
       fied  the  -b option, lsof can obtain some of the information it needs - the device number
       and possibly the file system type - from the system mount table.  When that  is	possible,
       lsof  will report the device number it obtained.  (You can suppress the report by specify-
       ing the -w option.)

       You can assist this process if  your  mount  table  is  supported  with	an  /etc/mtab  or
       /etc/mnttab  file  that contains an options field by adding a ``dev=xxxx'' field for mount
       points that do not have one in their options strings.  Note: you must be able to edit  the
       file  -	i.e., some mount tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux /proc/mounts are
       read-only and can't be modified.

       You may also be able to supply device numbers using the +m and +m m options, provided they
       are supported by your dialect.  Check the output of lsof's -h or -?  options to see if the
       +m and +m m options are available.

       The ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of  the  file  system's  device
       number.	(Consult the st_dev field of the output of the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for
       the appropriate values for your file systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun  Solaris  2.6
       /etc/mnttab for a file system remotely mounted via NFS:

	    nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's	an  advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table file, especially
       for file systems that are mounted from remote NFS servers.  When a remote  server  crashes
       and  you  want  to identify its users by running lsof on one of its clients, lsof probably
       won't be able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the  file  system.
       If  it can obtain the file system's device number from the mount table, it will be able to
       display the files open on the crashed NFS server.

       Some dialects that do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file for the  mount  table
       may  still  provide  an	alternative  device  number in their internal mount tables.  This
       includes AIX, Apple Darwin, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof knows  how  to
       obtain  the  alternative  device number for these dialects and uses it when its attempt to
       lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If you're not sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for  file  systems  from
       its  mount table, use this lsof incantation to see if it reports any alternate device num-
       bers:

	      lsof -b

       Look for standard error file warning messages that begin ``assuming "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE
       Lsof is able to examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel facilities (e.g.,  the
       ADVFS  4.x  tag_to_path() function under Tru64 UNIX) on some dialects for most file system
       types, excluding AFS, and extract recently used path name components from it.   (AFS  file
       system path lookups don't use the kernel's name cache; some Solaris VxFS file system oper-
       ations apparently don't use it, either.)

       Lsof reports the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If  lsof  can't  report  all
       components  in  a  path, it reports in the NAME column the file system name, followed by a
       space, two `-' characters, another space, and the name components it  has  located,  sepa-
       rated by the `/' character.

       When lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified - the extent to which
       it can report path name components for the same file may vary from cycle to cycle.  That's
       because other running processes can cause the kernel to remove entries from its name cache
       and replace them with others.

       Lsof's use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files can lead it  to  report
       incorrect components under some circumstances.  This can happen when the kernel name cache
       uses device and node number as a key (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly  chang-
       ing  file  system  is  reused.	If the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge the name cache
       entry for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to the wrong entry in  the
       cache.	The  lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  has more information on this
       situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

	    FreeBSD
	    HP-UX
	    Linux
	    NetBSD
	    NEXTSTEP
	    OpenBSD
	    OPENSTEP
	    SCO OpenServer
	    SCO|Caldera UnixWare
	    Solaris
	    Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

	    AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for some dialects, see  the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE
       Examining  all  members	of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2) functions can be
       time consuming.	What's more, the information that lsof needs - device number, inode  num-
       ber, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently,  lsof  normally  maintains  an  ASCII text file of cached /dev (or /devices)
       information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof where it's not needed.)  The local sys-
       tem  administrator  who	builds	lsof  can  control  the way the device cache file path is
       formed, selecting from these options:

	    Path from the -D option;
	    Path from an environment variable;
	    System-wide path;
	    Personal path (the default);
	    Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current	state  of  device
       cache support.  The help output lists the default read-mode device cache file path that is
       in effect for the current invocation of lsof.  The -D?  option output lists the	read-only
       and  write device cache file paths, the names of any applicable environment variables, and
       the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof can detect that the current device cache file has been  accidentally  or  maliciously
       modified  by integrity checks, including the computation and verification of a sixteen bit
       Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) sum on the file's	contents.   When  lsof	senses	something
       wrong with the file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file and
       create a new copy, but only to a path that the process can legitimately write.

       The path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a device cache file may not be  the
       same  as the path to which it can legitimately write.  Thus when lsof senses that it needs
       to update the device cache file, it may choose a different path for writing  it	from  the
       path from which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If  available,  the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a new device cache file.  (It's
       always available when specified without a path name argument.)

       When a new device is added to the system, the device cache file may need to be  recreated.
       Since  lsof  compares  the  mtime of the device cache file with the mtime and ctime of the
       /dev (or /devices) directory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that
       case lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device cache file.

       Whenever  lsof  writes  a  device cache file, it sets its ownership to the real UID of the
       executing process, and its permission modes to 0600,  this  restricting	its  reading  and
       writing to the file's owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS
       Two  permissions  of  the lsof executable affect its ability to access device cache files.
       The permissions are set by the local system administrator when lsof is installed.

       The first and rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into effect  when  lsof  is  exe-
       cuted;  its  effective UID is then root, while its real (i.e., that of the logged-on user)
       UID is not.  The lsof  distribution  recommends	that  versions	for  these  dialects  run
       setuid-root.

	    HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
	    Linux

       The  second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into effect when the effective
       group IDentification number (GID) of the lsof process is set to one that can access kernel
       memory devices - e.g., ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An  lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the permission after it has
       accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it does that, lsof can allow more liberal device
       cache  path formations.	The lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects
       run setgid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

	    AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
	    Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
	    FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [67].x for x86-based systems
	    FreeBSD 5.x and [67].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
		systems
	    HP-UX 11.00
	    NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
		systems
	    NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
	    OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
	    OPENSTEP 4.x
	    SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
	    SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
	    Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
	    Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X option is used.)

       Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permissions given  to  the
       executable don't apply to the device cache file.

	    Linux

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION
       The  -D	option	provides  limited means for specifying the device cache file path.  Its ?
       function will report the read-only and write device cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When the -D b, r, and u functions are available, you can use  them  to  request	that  the
       cache  file  be built in a specific location (b[path]); read but not rebuilt (r[path]); or
       read and rebuilt (u[path]).  The b, r, and u functions are restricted  under  some  condi-
       tions.  They are restricted when the lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified with
       the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted when the lsof process runs setgid	and  lsof
       doesn't	surrender  the	setgid	permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE
       CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list of	implementations  that  normally  don't	surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When  available, the b function tells lsof to read device information from the kernel with
       the stat(2) function and build a device cache file at the indicated path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof to read the device cache file,  but  not  update
       it.   When  a  path  argument accompanies -Dr, it names the device cache file path.  The r
       function is always available when it is specified without a path name argument.	 If  lsof
       is  not running setuid-root and surrenders its setgid permission, a path name argument may
       accompany the r function.

       When available, the u function tells lsof to attempt to read  and  use  the  device  cache
       file.   If  it  can't  read the file, or if it finds the contents of the file incorrect or
       outdated, it will read information from the kernel, and attempt to write an  updated  ver-
       sion  of  the  device  cache file, but only to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
       Lsof's second choice for the device cache file is the contents of the  LSOFDEVCACHE  envi-
       ronment	variable.   It avoids this choice if the lsof process is setuid-root, or the real
       UID of the process is root.

       A further restriction applies to a device cache file  path  taken  from	the  LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment  variable:  lsof  will  not	write a device cache file to the path if the lsof
       process doesn't surrender its setgid permission.  (See the LSOF	PERMISSIONS  THAT  AFFECT
       DEVICE  CACHE  FILE ACCESS section for information on implementations that don't surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The local system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  vari-
       able  or  change its name when building lsof.  Consult the output of -D?  for the environ-
       ment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
       The local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide	device	cache  file  when
       building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed by a special system administration
       procedure when the system is booted or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If
       defined, it is lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your local installation
       by examining the lsof help option output - i.e., the output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof will never write to the system-wide device cache file path by default.   It  must  be
       explicitly  named  with	a  -D function in a root-owned procedure.  Once the file has been
       written,  the  procedure  must  change  its  permission	modes  to  0644  (owner-read  and
       owner-write, group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)
       The  default  device  cache file path of the lsof distribution is one recorded in the home
       directory of the real UID that executes lsof.  Added to the home  directory  is	a  second
       path component of the form .lsof_hostname.

       This  is  lsof's  fourth  device cache file path choice, and is usually the default.  If a
       system-wide device cache file path was defined when lsof was  built,  this  fourth  choice
       will  be applied when lsof can't find the system-wide device cache file.  This is the only
       time lsof uses two paths when reading the device cache file.

       The hostname part of the second component is the base  name  of	the  executing	host,  as
       returned  by  gethostname(2).  The base name is defined to be the characters preceding the
       first `.'  in the gethostname(2) output, or all the gethostname(2) output if  it  contains
       no `.'.

       The  device  cache file belongs to the user ID and is readable and writable by the user ID
       alone - i.e., its modes are 0600.  Each distinct real user ID on a given  host  that  exe-
       cutes  lsof has a distinct device cache file.  The hostname part of the path distinguishes
       device cache files in an NFS-mounted home directory into  which	device	cache  files  are
       written from several different hosts.

       The  personal  device cache file path formed by this method represents a device cache file
       that lsof will attempt to read, and will attempt to write should it not	exist  or  should
       its contents be incorrect or outdated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of a new device cache
       file.

       The -D?	option will list the format specification for constructing  the  personal  device
       cache  file.   The  conversions	used  in  the  format  specification are described in the
       00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
       If this option is defined by the local system administrator when lsof is built, the  LSOF-
       PERSDCPATH  environment	variable  contents may be used to add a component of the personal
       device cache file path.

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are inserted in the path at the place marked  by  the
       local  system  administrator with the ``%p'' conversion in the HASPERSDC format specifica-
       tion of the dialect's machine.h header file.  (It's placed right after the home	directory
       in the default lsof distribution.)

       Thus,   for   example,	if  LSOFPERSDCPATH  contains  ``LSOF'',  the  home  directory  is
       ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and the HASPERSDC format is the
       default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''), the modified personal device cache file path is:

	    /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable is ignored when the lsof process is setuid-root or
       when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache file  path  if  the  lsof  process
       doesn't	surrender  setgid permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE
       FILE ACCESS section for a list of implementations that normally don't surrender their set-
       gid permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal device cache file paths by
       using the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable to name it, and lsof doesn't  surrender  its
       setgid  permission,  you will have to allow lsof to create device cache files at the stan-
       dard personal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The local system administrator may: disable this option when lsof  is  built;  change  the
       name  of  the  environment  variable  from  LSOFPERSDCPATH  to  something else; change the
       HASPERSDC format to include the personal path component in another place; or  exclude  the
       personal  path component entirely.  Consult the output of the -D?  option for the environ-
       ment variable's name and the HASPERSDC format specification.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one(1) if any error was detected, including the failure to locate  command
       names,  file  names,  Internet addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or
       UIDs it was asked to list.  If the -V option is specified, lsof will indicate  the  search
       items it failed to list.

       It  returns a zero(0) if no errors were detected and if it was able to list some informa-
       tion about all the specified search arguments.

       When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its  subdirectories,  or  get
       information  on	a  file  in them with stat(2), it issues a warning message and continues.
       That lsof will issue warning messages about inaccessible files in /dev  (or  /devices)  is
       indicated  in  its  help output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -  with the mes-
       sage:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It  may  also  have  been  sup-
       pressed	by  the system administrator when lsof was compiled by the setting of the WARNDE-
       VACCESS definition.  In this case, the output from the help options will include the  mes-
       sage:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible  device  warning  messages usually disappear after lsof has created a working
       device cache file.

EXAMPLES
       For a more extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the 00QUICKSTART file  of
       the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

	      lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

	      lsof -i -U

       To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID is 1234, use:

	      lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open IPv6 network files, use:

	      lsof -i 6

       To  list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of host wonderland.cc.pur-
       due.edu, use:

	      lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To list all files using any protocol on any port of mace.cc.purdue.edu  (cc.purdue.edu  is
       the default domain), use:

	      lsof -i @mace

       To list all open files for login name ``abe'', or user ID 1234, or process 456, or process
       123, or process 789, use:

	      lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

	      lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

	      lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

	      kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with the name	/dev/log,
       use:

	      lsof /dev/log

       To  find  processes  with  open	files on the NFS file system named /nfs/mount/point whose
       server is inaccessible, and presuming your mount table  supplies  the  device  number  for
       /nfs/mount/point, use:

	      lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

	      lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

	      lsof -Di

       To obtain PID and command name field output for each process, file descriptor, file device
       number, and file inode number for each file of each process, use:

	      lsof -FpcfDi

       To list the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running  the  lsof  command  for
       login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

	      lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To  list the current working directory of processes running a command that is exactly four
       characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in character three, use this regular expression form
       of the -c c option:

	      lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric dot-form address, use:

	      lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To  find  an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports IPv6) by its associ-
       ated numeric colon-form address, use:

	      lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports IPv6) by an associated
       numeric	colon-form address that has a run of zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address -
       use:

	      lsof -i@[::1]

       To obtain a repeat mode marker line that contains the current time, use:

	      lsof -rm====%T====

       To add spaces to the previous marker line, use:

	      lsof -r "m==== %T ===="

BUGS
       Since lsof reads kernel memory in its search for open files, rapid changes in kernel  mem-
       ory may produce unpredictable results.

       When  a	file  has  multiple  record  locks, the lock status character (following the file
       descriptor) is derived from a test of the first lock structure, not from  any  combination
       of the individual record locks that might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof  can't  search  for  files	with  restrictive access permissions by name unless it is
       installed with root set-UID permission.	Otherwise it is limited to searching for files to
       which its user or its set-GID group (if any) has access permission.

       The  display  of  the  destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping) depends on the
       UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the destination address in  the  raw  socket's
       protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof  can't  always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that ls(1) does.  For
       example, the major and minor device numbers that the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report
       for the directory on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as
       the ones that it reports for the device on  which  CD-ROM  files  are  mounted  (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The  support  for  /proc  file  systems is available only for BSD and Tru64 UNIX dialects,
       Linux, and dialects derived from SYSV  R4  -  e.g.,  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,  OpenBSD,  Solaris,
       UnixWare.

       Some  /proc  file  items - device number, inode number, and file size - are unavailable in
       some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc file system may require that the full  path
       name be specified.

       No  text  (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.  All entries for files
       other than the current working directory, the root directory, and numerical file  descrip-
       tors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof  can't search for Tru64 UNIX named pipes by name, because their kernel implementation
       of lstat(2) returns an improper device number for a named pipe.

       Lsof can't report fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01, 10.20,  and	11.00  locks  because  of
       insufficient  access  to  kernel data or errors in the kernel data.  See the lsof FAQ (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)  for details.

       The AIX SMT file type is a fabrication.	It's made up for file structures whose type(15)
       isn't defined in the AIX /usr/include/sys/file.h header file.  One way to create such file
       structures is to run X clients with the DISPLAY variable set to ``:0.0''.

       The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based Linux lsof, because  it  doesn't
       read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT
       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LANG		 defines  a  language  locale.	 See  setlocale(3) for the names of other
			 variables that can be used in place of LANG  -  e.g.,	LC_ALL,  LC_TYPE,
			 etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE	 defines the path to a device cache file.  See the DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM
			 AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE section for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH	 defines the middle component of a modified personal  device  cache  file
			 path.	 See  the  MODIFIED  PERSONAL  DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more
			 information.

FAQ
       Frequently-asked questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available in the 00FAQ  file  of
       the lsof distribution.

       That   file   is   also	 available   via   anonymous  ftp  from  lsof.itap.purdue.edu  at
       pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.	The URL is:

	      ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES
       /dev/kmem	 kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem 	 physical memory device

       /dev/swap	 system paging device

       .lsof_hostname	 lsof's device cache file (The suffix, hostname, is the  first	component
			 of the host's name returned by gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS
       Lsof  was  written  by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue University.  Many others
       have contributed to lsof.  They're listed in the 00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION
       The  latest  distribution  of  lsof  is	available  via	anonymous  ftp	from   the   host
       lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll find the lsof distribution in the pub/tools/unix/lsof direc-
       tory.

       You can also use this URL:

	      ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu and change  to  its
       pub/tools/unix/lsof  directory,	you'll	be  given  a  list  of	some  mirror  sites.  The
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use
       mirrors with caution - not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some pre-compiled Lsof executables are available on lsof.itap.purdue.edu, but their use is
       discouraged - it's better that you build your own from the sources.  If you feel you  must
       use a pre-compiled executable, please read the cautions that appear in the README files of
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in the 00* files of the distribution.

       More information on the lsof distribution can be found in its README.lsof_<version>  file.
       If you intend to get the lsof distribution and build it, please read README.lsof_<version>
       and the other 00* files of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO
       Not all the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX dialect to which lsof has  been
       ported.

       access(2),  awk(1),  crash(1),  fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),	fuser(1), gethostname(2),
       isprint(3), kill(1), localtime(3), lstat(2), modload(8), mount(8), netstat(1), ofiles(8L),
       perl(1), ps(1), readlink(2), setlocale(3), stat(2), strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).

					  Revision-4.81 				  LSOF(8)


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