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LS(1)					  User Commands 				    LS(1)

NAME
       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS
       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       List  information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).  Sort entries alpha-
       betically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -a, --all
	      do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
	      do not list implied . and ..

       --author
	      with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
	      print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
	      use SIZE-byte blocks.  See SIZE format below

       -B, --ignore-backups
	      do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status infor-
	      mation) with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
	      colorize	the output.  WHEN defaults to `always' or can be `never' or `auto'.  More
	      info below

       -d, --directory
	      list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links

       -D, --dired
	      generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
	      append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

       --file-type
	      likewise, except do not append `*'

       --format=WORD
	      across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l,  verti-
	      cal -C

       --full-time
	      like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       --group-directories-first
	      group directories before files.

	      augment with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

       -G, --no-group
	      in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
	      with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
	      follow symbolic links listed on the command line

       --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
	      follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory

       --hide=PATTERN
	      do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

       --indicator-style=WORD
	      append  indicator  with  style  WORD  to	entry  names: none (default), slash (-p),
	      file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
	      print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
	      do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
	      when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information  for	the  file
	      the link references rather than for the link itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
	      like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
	      print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
	      append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
	      print ? instead of non graphic characters

       --show-control-chars
	      show  non  graphic characters as-is (default unless program is `ls' and output is a
	      terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
	      enclose entry names in double quotes

       --quoting-style=WORD
	      use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale,	shell,	shell-always,  c,
	      escape

       -r, --reverse
	      reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
	      list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
	      print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

       --sort=WORD
	      sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v

       --time=WORD
	      with  -l,  show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime -u, access -u, use
	      -u, ctime -c, or status -c; use specified time as sort key if --sort=time

       --time-style=STYLE
	      with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso,  iso,	locale,  +FORMAT.
	      FORMAT  is  interpreted  like `date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1
	      applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed  with
	      `posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
	      assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name
	      otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
	      assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
	      print any SELinux security context of each file

       -1     list one file per line

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
	      output version information and exit

       SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of  following:  KB  1000,	K
       1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

       Using  color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with --color=never.
       With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a termi-
       nal.   The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors com-
       mand to set it.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

AUTHOR
       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report ls bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
       GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>
       Report ls translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL  version  3  or
       later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This  is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY,
       to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
       The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and ls  pro-
       grams are properly installed at your site, the command

	      info coreutils 'ls invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.5			  February 2011 				    LS(1)
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