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Linux 2.6 - man page for ps (linux section 1)

PS(1)				       Linux User's Manual				    PS(1)

NAME
       ps - report a snapshot of the current processes.

SYNOPSIS
       ps [options]

DESCRIPTION
       ps displays information about a selection of the active processes. If you want a
       repetitive update of the selection and the displayed information, use top(1) instead.

       This version of ps accepts several kinds of options:
       1   UNIX options, which may be grouped and must be preceded by a dash.
       2   BSD options, which may be grouped and must not be used with a dash.
       3   GNU long options, which are preceded by two dashes.

       Options of different types may be freely mixed, but conflicts can appear. There are some
       synonymous options, which are functionally identical, due to the many standards and ps
       implementations that this ps is compatible with.

       Note that "ps -aux" is distinct from "ps aux". The POSIX and UNIX standards require that
       "ps -aux" print all processes owned by a user named "x", as well as printing all processes
       that would be selected by the -a option. If the user named "x" does not exist, this ps may
       interpret the command as "ps aux" instead and print a warning. This behavior is intended
       to aid in transitioning old scripts and habits. It is fragile, subject to change, and thus
       should not be relied upon.

       By default, ps selects all processes with the same effective user ID (euid=EUID) as the
       current user and associated with the same terminal as the invoker. It displays the process
       ID (pid=PID), the terminal associated with the process (tname=TTY), the cumulated CPU time
       in [DD-]hh:mm:ss format (time=TIME), and the executable name (ucmd=CMD). Output is
       unsorted by default.

       The use of BSD-style options will add process state (stat=STAT) to the default display and
       show the command args (args=COMMAND) instead of the executable name. You can override this
       with the PS_FORMAT environment variable. The use of BSD-style options will also change the
       process selection to include processes on other terminals (TTYs) that are owned by you;
       alternately, this may be described as setting the selection to be the set of all processes
       filtered to exclude processes owned by other users or not on a terminal. These effects are
       not considered when options are described as being "identical" below, so -M will be
       considered identical to Z and so on.

       Except as described below, process selection options are additive. The default selection
       is discarded, and then the selected processes are added to the set of processes to be
       displayed. A process will thus be shown if it meets any of the given selection criteria.

EXAMPLES
       To see every process on the system using standard syntax:
	  ps -e
	  ps -ef
	  ps -eF
	  ps -ely

       To see every process on the system using BSD syntax:
	  ps ax
	  ps axu

       To print a process tree:
	  ps -ejH
	  ps axjf

       To get info about threads:
	  ps -eLf
	  ps axms

       To get security info:
	  ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
	  ps axZ
	  ps -eM

       To see every process running as root (real & effective ID) in user format:
	  ps -U root -u root u

       To see every process with a user-defined format:
	  ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
	  ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
	  ps -eopid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan

       Print only the process IDs of syslogd:
	  ps -C syslogd -o pid=

       Print only the name of PID 42:
	  ps -p 42 -o comm=

SIMPLE PROCESS SELECTION
       a	       Lift the BSD-style "only yourself" restriction, which is imposed upon the
		       set of all processes when some BSD-style (without "-") options are used or
		       when the ps personality setting is BSD-like. The set of processes selected
		       in this manner is in addition to the set of processes selected by other
		       means. An alternate description is that this option causes ps to list all
		       processes with a terminal (tty), or to list all processes when used
		       together with the x option.

       -A	       Select all processes. Identical to -e.

       -a	       Select all processes except both session leaders (see getsid(2)) and
		       processes not associated with a terminal.

       -d	       Select all processes except session leaders.

       --deselect      Select all processes except those that fulfill the specified conditions
		       (negates the selection). Identical to -N.

       -e	       Select all processes. Identical to -A.

       g	       Really all, even session leaders. This flag is obsolete and may be
		       discontinued in a future release. It is normally implied by the a flag,
		       and is only useful when operating in the sunos4 personality.

       -N	       Select all processes except those that fulfill the specified conditions
		       (negates the selection). Identical to --deselect.

       T	       Select all processes associated with this terminal. Identical to the t
		       option without any argument.

       r	       Restrict the selection to only running processes.

       x	       Lift the BSD-style "must have a tty" restriction, which is imposed upon
		       the set of all processes when some BSD-style (without "-") options are
		       used or when the ps personality setting is BSD-like. The set of processes
		       selected in this manner is in addition to the set of processes selected by
		       other means. An alternate description is that this option causes ps to
		       list all processes owned by you (same EUID as ps), or to list all
		       processes when used together with the a option.

PROCESS SELECTION BY LIST
       These options accept a single argument in the form of a blank-separated or comma-separated
       list. They can be used multiple times. For example: ps -p "1 2" -p 3,4

       -123	       Identical to --sid 123.

       123	       Identical to --pid 123.

       -C cmdlist      Select by command name.
		       This selects the processes whose executable name is given in cmdlist.

       -G grplist      Select by real group ID (RGID) or name.
		       This selects the processes whose real group name or ID is in the grplist
		       list. The real group ID identifies the group of the user who created the
		       process, see getgid(2).

       -g grplist      Select by session OR by effective group name.
		       Selection by session is specified by many standards, but selection by
		       effective group is the logical behavior that several other operating
		       systems use. This ps will select by session when the list is completely
		       numeric (as sessions are). Group ID numbers will work only when some group
		       names are also specified. See the -s and --group options.

       --Group grplist Select by real group ID (RGID) or name. Identical to -G.

       --group grplist Select by effective group ID (EGID) or name.
		       This selects the processes whose effective group name or ID is in
		       grouplist. The effective group ID describes the group whose file access
		       permissions are used by the process (see getegid(2)). The -g option is
		       often an alternative to --group.

       p pidlist       Select by process ID. Identical to -p and --pid.

       -p pidlist      Select by PID.
		       This selects the processes whose process ID numbers appear in pidlist.
		       Identical to p and --pid.

       --pid pidlist   Select by process ID. Identical to -p and p.

       --ppid pidlist  Select by parent process ID. This selects the processes with a
		       parent process ID in pidlist. That is, it selects processes that are
		       children of those listed in pidlist.

       -s sesslist     Select by session ID.
		       This selects the processes with a session ID specified in sesslist.

       --sid sesslist  Select by session ID. Identical to -s.

       t ttylist       Select by tty. Nearly identical to -t and --tty, but can also be used with
		       an empty ttylist to indicate the terminal associated with ps. Using the T
		       option is considered cleaner than using t with an empty ttylist.

       -t ttylist      Select by tty.
		       This selects the processes associated with the terminals given in ttylist.
		       Terminals (ttys, or screens for text output) can be specified in several
		       forms: /dev/ttyS1, ttyS1, S1. A plain "-" may be used to select processes
		       not attached to any terminal.

       --tty ttylist   Select by terminal. Identical to -t and t.

       U userlist      Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
		       This selects the processes whose effective user name or ID is in userlist.
		       The effective user ID describes the user whose file access permissions are
		       used by the process (see geteuid(2)). Identical to -u and --user.

       -U userlist     Select by real user ID (RUID) or name.
		       It selects the processes whose real user name or ID is in the userlist
		       list. The real user ID identifies the user who created the process,
		       see getuid(2).

       -u userlist     Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
		       This selects the processes whose effective user name or ID is in userlist.
		       The effective user ID describes the user whose file access permissions are
		       used by the process (see geteuid(2)). Identical to U and --user.

       --User userlist Select by real user ID (RUID) or name. Identical to -U.

       --user userlist Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name. Identical to -u and U.

OUTPUT FORMAT CONTROL
       These options are used to choose the information displayed by ps. The output may differ by
       personality.

       -c	       Show different scheduler information for the -l option.

       --context       Display security context format (for SE Linux).

       -f	       Do full-format listing. This option can be combined with many other
		       UNIX-style options to add additional columns. It also causes the command
		       arguments to be printed. When used with -L, the NLWP (number of threads)
		       and LWP (thread ID) columns will be added. See the c option, the format
		       keyword args, and the format keyword comm.

       -F	       Extra full format. See the -f option, which -F implies.

       --format format user-defined format. Identical to -o and o.

       j	       BSD job control format.

       -j	       Jobs format

       l	       Display BSD long format.

       -l	       Long format. The -y option is often useful with this.

       -M	       Add a column of security data. Identical to Z (for SE Linux).

       O format        is preloaded o (overloaded).
		       The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output format with some
		       common fields predefined) or can be used to specify sort order. Heuristics
		       are used to determine the behavior of this option. To ensure that the
		       desired behavior is obtained (sorting or formatting), specify the option
		       in some other way (e.g. with -O or --sort). When used as a formatting
		       option, it is identical to -O, with the BSD personality.

       -O format       Like -o, but preloaded with some default columns. Identical to
		       -o pid,format,state,tname,time,command or -o pid,format,tname,time,cmd,
		       see -o below.

       o format        Specify user-defined format. Identical to -o and --format.

       -o format       User-defined format.
		       format is a single argument in the form of a blank-separated or
		       comma-separated list, which offers a way to specify individual output
		       columns. The recognized keywords are described in the STANDARD FORMAT
		       SPECIFIERS section below. Headers may be renamed
		       (ps -o pid,ruser=RealUser -o comm=Command) as desired. If all column
		       headers are empty (ps -o pid= -o comm=) then the header line will not be
		       output. Column width will increase as needed for wide headers; this may be
		       used to widen up columns such as WCHAN
		       (ps -o pid,wchan=WIDE-WCHAN-COLUMN -o comm). Explicit width control
		       (ps opid,wchan:42,cmd) is offered too. The behavior of ps -o pid=X,comm=Y
		       varies with personality; output may be one column named "X,comm=Y" or two
		       columns named "X" and "Y". Use multiple -o options when in doubt. Use the
		       PS_FORMAT environment variable to specify a default as desired; DefSysV
		       and DefBSD are macros that may be used to choose the default UNIX or BSD
		       columns.

       s	       Display signal format

       u	       Display user-oriented format

       v	       Display virtual memory format

       X	       Register format.

       -y	       Do not show flags; show rss in place of addr. This option can only be used
		       with -l.

       Z	       Add a column of security data. Identical to -M (for SE Linux).

OUTPUT MODIFIERS
       c	       Show the true command name. This is derived from the name of the
		       executable file, rather than from the argv value. Command arguments and
		       any modifications to them  are thus not shown. This option effectively
		       turns the args format keyword into the comm format keyword; it is useful
		       with the -f format option and with the various BSD-style format options,
		       which all normally display the command arguments. See the -f option, the
		       format keyword args, and the format keyword comm.

       --cols n        Set screen width

       --columns n     Set screen width

       --cumulative    Include some dead child process data (as a sum with the parent)

       e	       Show the environment after the command.

       f	       ASCII art process hierarchy (forest).

       --forest        ASCII art process tree.

       h	       No header. (or, one header per screen in the BSD personality)
		       The h option is problematic. Standard BSD ps uses this option to print a
		       header on each page of output, but older Linux ps uses this option to
		       totally disable the header. This version of ps follows the Linux usage of
		       not printing the header unless the BSD personality has been selected, in
		       which case it prints a header on each page of output. Regardless of the
		       current personality, you can use the long options --headers and
		       --no-headers to enable printing headers each page or disable headers
		       entirely, respectively.

       -H	       Show process hierarchy (forest).

       --headers       Repeat header lines, one per page of output.

       k spec	       Specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]]. Choose
		       a multi-letter key from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. The "+" is
		       optional since default direction is increasing numerical or lexicographic
		       order. Identical to --sort. Examples:
		       ps jaxkuid,-ppid,+pid
		       ps axk comm o comm,args
		       ps kstart_time -ef

       -n namelist     Set namelist file. Identical to N.
		       The namelist file is needed for a proper WCHAN display, and must match the
		       current Linux kernel exactly for correct output. Without this option, the
		       default search path for the namelist is:

			    $PS_SYSMAP
			    $PS_SYSTEM_MAP
			    /proc/*/wchan
			    /boot/System.map-`uname -r`
			    /boot/System.map
			    /lib/modules/`uname -r`/System.map
			    /usr/src/linux/System.map
			    /System.map

       --lines n       Set screen height.

       n	       Numeric output for WCHAN and USER (including all types of UID and GID).

       N namelist      Specify namelist file. Identical to -n, see -n above.

       O order	       Sorting order (overloaded).
		       The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output format with some
		       common fields predefined) or can be used to specify sort order. Heuristics
		       are used to determine the behavior of this option. To ensure that the
		       desired behavior is obtained (sorting or formatting), specify the option
		       in some other way (e.g. with -O or --sort).

		       For sorting, obsolete BSD O option syntax is O[+|-]k1[,[+|-]k2[,...]]. It
		       orders the processes listing according to the multilevel sort specified by
		       the sequence of one-letter short keys k1, k2, ... described in the
		       OBSOLETE SORT KEYS section below. The "+" is currently optional, merely
		       re-iterating the default direction on a key, but may help to distinguish
		       an O sort from an O format. The "-" reverses direction only on the key it
		       precedes.

       --no-headers    Print no header line at all. --no-heading is an alias for this option.

       --rows n        Set screen height.

       S	       Sum up some information, such as CPU usage, from dead child processes into
		       their parent. This is useful for examining a system where a parent process
		       repeatedly forks off short-lived children to do work.

       --sort spec     Specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]]. Choose
		       a multi-letter key from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. The "+" is
		       optional since default direction is increasing numerical or lexicographic
		       order. Identical to k. For example: ps jax --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid

       w	       Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.

       -w	       Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.

       --width n       set screen width

THREAD DISPLAY
       H	       Show threads as if they were processes.

       -L	       Show threads, possibly with LWP and NLWP columns.

       m	       Show threads after processes.

       -m	       Show threads after processes.

       -T	       Show threads, possibly with SPID column.

OTHER INFORMATION
       --help	       Print a help message.

       --info	       Print debugging info.

       L	       List all format specifiers.

       V	       Print the procps version.

       -V	       Print the procps version.

       --version       Print the procps version.

NOTES
       This ps works by reading the virtual files in /proc. This ps does not need to be setuid
       kmem or have any privileges to run. Do not give this ps any special permissions.

       This ps needs access to namelist data for proper WCHAN display. For kernels prior to 2.6,
       the System.map file must be installed.

       CPU usage is currently expressed as the percentage of time spent running during the entire
       lifetime of a process. This is not ideal, and it does not conform to the standards that ps
       otherwise conforms to. CPU usage is unlikely to add up to exactly 100%.

       The SIZE and RSS fields don't count some parts of a process including the page tables,
       kernel stack, struct thread_info, and struct task_struct. This is usually at least 20 KiB
       of memory that is always resident. SIZE is the virtual size of the process
       (code+data+stack).

       Processes marked <defunct> are dead processes (so-called "zombies") that remain because
       their parent has not destroyed them properly. These processes will be destroyed by init(8)
       if the parent process exits.

PROCESS FLAGS
       The sum of these values is displayed in the "F" column, which is provided by the flags
       output specifier:
       1    forked but didn't exec
       4    used super-user privileges

PROCESS STATE CODES
       Here are the different values that the s, stat and state output specifiers
       (header "STAT" or "S") will display to describe the state of a process:
       D    uninterruptible sleep (usually IO)
       R    running or runnable (on run queue)
       S    interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete)
       T    stopped, either by a job control signal or because it is being traced.
       W    paging (not valid since the 2.6.xx kernel)
       X    dead (should never be seen)
       Z    defunct ("zombie") process, terminated but not reaped by its parent.

       For BSD formats and when the stat keyword is used, additional characters may be displayed:
       <    high-priority (not nice to other users)
       N    low-priority (nice to other users)
       L    has pages locked into memory (for real-time and custom IO)
       s    is a session leader
       l    is multi-threaded (using CLONE_THREAD, like NPTL pthreads do)
       +    is in the foreground process group.

OBSOLETE SORT KEYS
       These keys are used by the BSD O option (when it is used for sorting). The GNU --sort
       option doesn't use these keys, but the specifiers described below in the STANDARD FORMAT
       SPECIFIERS section. Note that the values used in sorting are the internal values ps uses
       and not the "cooked" values used in some of the output format fields (e.g. sorting on tty
       will sort into device number, not according to the terminal name displayed). Pipe ps
       output into the sort(1) command if you want to sort the cooked values.

       KEY   LONG	  DESCRIPTION
       c     cmd	  simple name of executable
       C     pcpu	  cpu utilization
       f     flags	  flags as in long format F field
       g     pgrp	  process group ID
       G     tpgid	  controlling tty process group ID
       j     cutime	  cumulative user time

       J     cstime	  cumulative system time
       k     utime	  user time
       m     min_flt	  number of minor page faults
       M     maj_flt	  number of major page faults
       n     cmin_flt	  cumulative minor page faults
       N     cmaj_flt	  cumulative major page faults
       o     session	  session ID
       p     pid	  process ID
       P     ppid	  parent process ID
       r     rss	  resident set size
       R     resident	  resident pages
       s     size	  memory size in kilobytes
       S     share	  amount of shared pages
       t     tty	  the device number of the controlling tty
       T     start_time   time process was started
       U     uid	  user ID number
       u     user	  user name
       v     vsize	  total VM size in kB
       y     priority	  kernel scheduling priority

AIX FORMAT DESCRIPTORS
       This ps supports AIX format descriptors, which work somewhat like the formatting codes of
       printf(1) and printf(3). For example, the normal default output can be produced with this:
       ps -eo "%p %y %x %c". The NORMAL codes are described in the next section.

       CODE   NORMAL   HEADER
       %C     pcpu     %CPU
       %G     group    GROUP
       %P     ppid     PPID
       %U     user     USER
       %a     args     COMMAND
       %c     comm     COMMAND
       %g     rgroup   RGROUP
       %n     nice     NI
       %p     pid      PID
       %r     pgid     PGID
       %t     etime    ELAPSED
       %u     ruser    RUSER
       %x     time     TIME
       %y     tty      TTY
       %z     vsz      VSZ

STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS
       Here are the different keywords that may be used to control the output format (e.g. with
       option -o) or to sort the selected processes with the GNU-style --sort option.

       For example:  ps -eo pid,user,args --sort user

       This version of ps tries to recognize most of the keywords used in other implementations
       of ps.

       The following user-defined format specifiers may contain spaces: args, cmd, comm, command,
       fname, ucmd, ucomm, lstart, bsdstart, start.

       Some keywords may not be available for sorting.

       CODE	  HEADER  DESCRIPTION

       %cpu	  %CPU	  cpu utilization of the process in "##.#" format. Currently, it is the
			  CPU time used divided by the time the process has been running
			  (cputime/realtime ratio), expressed as a percentage. It will not add up
			  to 100% unless you are lucky. (alias pcpu).

       %mem	  %MEM	  ratio of the process's resident set size  to the physical memory on the
			  machine, expressed as a percentage. (alias pmem).

       args	  COMMAND command with all its arguments as a string. Modifications to the
			  arguments may be shown. The output in this column may contain spaces.
			  A process marked <defunct> is partly dead, waiting to be fully
			  destroyed by its parent. Sometimes the process args will be
			  unavailable; when this happens, ps will instead print the executable
			  name in brackets. (alias cmd, command). See also the comm format
			  keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
			  When specified last, this column will extend to the edge of the
			  display. If ps can not determine display width, as when output is
			  redirected (piped) into a file or another command, the output width is
			  undefined (it may be 80, unlimited, determined by the TERM variable,
			  and so on). The COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be
			  used to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w option
			  may be also be used to adjust width.

       blocked	  BLOCKED mask of the blocked signals, see signal(7). According to the width of
			  the field, a 32 or 64-bit mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
			  (alias sig_block, sigmask).

       bsdstart   START   time the command started. If the process was started less than 24 hours
			  ago, the output format is " HH:MM", else it is "Mmm dd" (where Mmm is
			  the three letters of the month). See also lstart, start, start_time,
			  and stime.

       bsdtime	  TIME	  accumulated cpu time, user + system. The display format is usually
			  "MMM:SS", but can be shifted to the right if the process used more than
			  999 minutes of cpu time.

       c	  C	  processor utilization. Currently, this is the integer value of the
			  percent usage over the lifetime of the process. (see %cpu).

       caught	  CAUGHT  mask of the caught signals, see signal(7). According to the width of
			  the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
			  (alias sig_catch, sigcatch).

       cgroup	  CGROUP  display control groups to which the process belongs.

       class	  CLS	  scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, cls). Field's possible
			  values are:
			  -   not reported
			  TS  SCHED_OTHER
			  FF  SCHED_FIFO
			  RR  SCHED_RR
			  B   SCHED_BATCH
			  ISO SCHED_ISO
			  IDL SCHED_IDLE
			  ?   unknown value

       cls	  CLS	  scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, class). Field's
			  possible values are:
			  -   not reported
			  TS  SCHED_OTHER
			  FF  SCHED_FIFO
			  RR  SCHED_RR
			  B   SCHED_BATCH
			  ISO SCHED_ISO
			  IDL SCHED_IDLE
			  ?   unknown value

       cmd	  CMD	  see args. (alias args, command).

       comm	  COMMAND command name (only the executable name). Modifications to the command
			  name will not be shown. A process marked <defunct> is partly dead,
			  waiting to be fully destroyed by its parent. The output in this column
			  may contain spaces. (alias ucmd, ucomm). See also the args format
			  keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
			  When specified last, this column will extend to the edge of the
			  display. If ps can not determine display width, as when output is
			  redirected (piped) into a file or another command, the output width is
			  undefined (it may be 80, unlimited, determined by the TERM variable,
			  and so on). The COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be
			  used to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w option
			  may be also be used to adjust width.

       command	  COMMAND see args. (alias args, cmd).

       cp	  CP	  per-mill (tenths of a percent) CPU usage. (see %cpu).

       cputime	  TIME	  cumulative CPU time, "[DD-]hh:mm:ss" format. (alias time).

       egid	  EGID	  effective group ID number of the process as a decimal integer.
			  (alias gid).

       egroup	  EGROUP  effective group ID of the process. This will be the textual group ID,
			  if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
			  representation otherwise. (alias group).

       eip	  EIP	  instruction pointer.

       esp	  ESP	  stack pointer.

       etime	  ELAPSED elapsed time since the process was started, in the
			  form [[DD-]hh:]mm:ss.

       euid	  EUID	  effective user ID (alias uid).

       euser	  EUSER   effective user name. This will be the textual user ID, if it can be
			  obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
			  otherwise. The n option can be used to force the decimal
			  representation. (alias uname, user).

       f	  F	  flags associated with the process, see the PROCESS FLAGS section.
			  (alias flag, flags).

       fgid	  FGID	  filesystem access group ID. (alias fsgid).

       fgroup	  FGROUP  filesystem access group ID. This will be the textual group ID, if it
			  can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
			  representation otherwise. (alias fsgroup).

       flag	  F	  see f. (alias f, flags).

       flags	  F	  see f. (alias f, flag).

       fname	  COMMAND first 8 bytes of the base name of the process's executable file. The
			  output in this column may contain spaces.

       fuid	  FUID	  filesystem access user ID. (alias fsuid).

       fuser	  FUSER   filesystem access user ID. This will be the textual user ID, if it can
			  be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
			  otherwise.

       gid	  GID	  see egid. (alias egid).

       group	  GROUP   see egroup. (alias egroup).

       ignored	  IGNORED mask of the ignored signals, see signal(7). According to the width of
			  the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
			  (alias sig_ignore, sigignore).

       label	  LABEL   security label, most commonly used for SE Linux context data. This is
			  for the Mandatory Access Control ("MAC") found on high-security
			  systems.

       lstart	  STARTED time the command started. See also bsdstart, start, start_time, and
			  stime.

       lwp	  LWP	  lwp (light weight process, or thread) ID of the lwp being reported.
			  (alias spid, tid).

       maj_flt	  MAJFLT  The number of major page faults that have occured with this process.

       min_flt	  MINFLT  The number of minor page faults that have occured with this process.

       ni	  NI	  nice value. This ranges from 19 (nicest) to -20 (not nice to others),
			  see nice(1). (alias nice).

       nice	  NI	  see ni. (alias ni).

       nlwp	  NLWP	  number of lwps (threads) in the process. (alias thcount).

       nwchan	  WCHAN   address of the kernel function where the process is sleeping (use wchan
			  if you want the kernel function name). Running tasks will display a
			  dash ('-') in this column.

       pcpu	  %CPU	  see %cpu. (alias %cpu).

       pending	  PENDING mask of the pending signals. See signal(7). Signals pending on the
			  process are distinct from signals pending on individual threads. Use
			  the m option or the -m option to see both. According to the width of
			  the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
			  (alias sig).

       pgid	  PGID	  process group ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the process group
			  leader. (alias pgrp).

       pgrp	  PGRP	  see pgid. (alias pgid).

       pid	  PID	  process ID number of the process.

       pmem	  %MEM	  see %mem. (alias %mem).

       policy	  POL	  scheduling class of the process. (alias class, cls). Possible values
			  are:
			  -   not reported
			  TS  SCHED_OTHER
			  FF  SCHED_FIFO
			  RR  SCHED_RR
			  B   SCHED_BATCH
			  ISO SCHED_ISO
			  IDL SCHED_IDLE
			  ?   unknown value

       ppid	  PPID	  parent process ID.

       pri	  PRI	  priority of the process. Higher number means lower priority.

       psr	  PSR	  processor that process is currently assigned to.

       rgid	  RGID	  real group ID.

       rgroup	  RGROUP  real group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it can be
			  obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
			  otherwise.

       rss	  RSS	  resident set size, the non-swapped physical memory that a task has used
			  (in kiloBytes). (alias rssize, rsz).

       rssize	  RSS	  see rss. (alias rss, rsz).

       rsz	  RSZ	  see rss. (alias rss, rssize).

       rtprio	  RTPRIO  realtime priority.

       ruid	  RUID	  real user ID.

       ruser	  RUSER   real user ID. This will be the textual user ID, if it can be obtained
			  and the field width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

       s	  S	  minimal state display (one character). See section PROCESS STATE CODES
			  for the different values. See also stat if you want additional
			  information displayed. (alias state).

       sched	  SCH	  scheduling policy of the process. The policies SCHED_OTHER
			  (SCHED_NORMAL), SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR, SCHED_BATCH, SCHED_ISO, and
			  SCHED_IDLE are respectively displayed as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

       sess	  SESS	  session ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the session leader.
			  (alias session, sid).

       sgi_p	  P	  processor that the process is currently executing on. Displays "*" if
			  the process is not currently running or runnable.

       sgid	  SGID	  saved group ID. (alias svgid).

       sgroup	  SGROUP  saved group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it can be
			  obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
			  otherwise.

       sid	  SID	  see sess. (alias sess, session).

       sig	  PENDING see pending. (alias pending, sig_pend).

       sigcatch   CAUGHT  see caught. (alias caught, sig_catch).

       sigignore  IGNORED see ignored. (alias ignored, sig_ignore).

       sigmask	  BLOCKED see blocked. (alias blocked, sig_block).

       size	  SIZE	  approximate amount of swap space that would be required if the process
			  were to dirty all writable pages and then be swapped out. This number
			  is very rough!

       spid	  SPID	  see lwp. (alias lwp, tid).

       stackp	  STACKP  address of the bottom (start) of stack for the process.

       start	  STARTED time the command started. If the process was started less than 24 hours
			  ago, the output format is "HH:MM:SS", else it is "  <mm dd" (where Mmm
			  is a three-letter month name). See also lstart, bsdstart, start_time,
			  and stime.

       start_time START   starting time or date of the process. Only the year will be displayed
			  if the process was not started the same year ps was invoked, or "MmmDD"
			  if it was not started the same day, or "HH:MM" otherwise. See also
			  bsdstart, start, lstart, and stime.

       stat	  STAT	  multi-character process state. See section PROCESS STATE CODES for the
			  different values meaning. See also s and state if you just want the
			  first character displayed.

       state	  S	  see s. (alias s).

       suid	  SUID	  saved user ID. (alias svuid).

       supgid	  SUPGID  gid of supplementary groups, see getgroups(2).

       supgrp	  SUPGRP  names of supplementary groups, see getgroups(2).

       suser	  SUSER   saved user name. This will be the textual user ID, if it can be
			  obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
			  otherwise. (alias svuser).

       svgid	  SVGID   see sgid. (alias sgid).

       svuid	  SVUID   see suid. (alias suid).

       sz	  SZ	  size in physical pages of the core image of the process. This includes
			  text, data, and stack space. Device mappings are currently excluded;
			  this is subject to change. See vsz and rss.

       thcount	  THCNT   see nlwp. (alias nlwp). number of kernel threads owned by the process.

       tid	  TID	  see lwp. (alias lwp).

       time	  TIME	  cumulative CPU time, "[DD-]HH:MM:SS" format. (alias cputime).

       tname	  TTY	  controlling tty (terminal). (alias tt, tty).

       tpgid	  TPGID   ID of the foreground process group on the tty (terminal) that the
			  process is connected to, or -1 if the process is not connected to a
			  tty.

       tt	  TT	  controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tty).

       tty	  TT	  controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tt).

       ucmd	  CMD	  see comm. (alias comm, ucomm).

       ucomm	  COMMAND see comm. (alias comm, ucmd).

       uid	  UID	  see euid. (alias euid).

       uname	  USER	  see euser. (alias euser, user).

       user	  USER	  see euser. (alias euser, uname).

       vsize	  VSZ	  see vsz. (alias vsz).

       vsz	  VSZ	  virtual memory size of the process in KiB (1024-byte units). Device
			  mappings are currently excluded; this is subject to change.
			  (alias vsize).

       wchan	  WCHAN   name of the kernel function in which the process is sleeping, a "-" if
			  the process is running, or a "*" if the process is multi-threaded and
			  ps is not displaying threads.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables could affect ps:

       COLUMNS
	  Override default display width.

       LINES
	  Override default display height.

       PS_PERSONALITY
	  Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital... (see section PERSONALITY below).

       CMD_ENV
	  Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital... (see section PERSONALITY below).

       I_WANT_A_BROKEN_PS
	  Force obsolete command line interpretation.

       LC_TIME
	  Date format.

       PS_COLORS
	  Not currently supported.

       PS_FORMAT
	  Default output format override. You may set this to a format string of the type used
	  for the -o option. The DefSysV and DefBSD values are particularly useful.

       PS_SYSMAP
	  Default namelist (System.map) location.

       PS_SYSTEM_MAP
	  Default namelist (System.map) location.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	  Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       POSIX2
	  When set to "on", acts as POSIXLY_CORRECT.

       UNIX95
	  Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       _XPG
	  Cancel CMD_ENV=irix non-standard behavior.

       In general, it is a bad idea to set these variables. The one exception is CMD_ENV or
       PS_PERSONALITY, which could be set to Linux for normal systems. Without that setting, ps
       follows the useless and bad parts of the Unix98 standard.

PERSONALITY
       390	  like the OS/390 OpenEdition ps
       aix	  like AIX ps
       bsd	  like FreeBSD ps (totally non-standard)
       compaq	  like Digital Unix ps
       debian	  like the old Debian ps
       digital	  like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       gnu	  like the old Debian ps
       hp	  like HP-UX ps
       hpux	  like HP-UX ps
       irix	  like Irix ps
       linux	  ***** RECOMMENDED *****
       old	  like the original Linux ps (totally non-standard)
       os390	  like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       posix	  standard
       s390	  like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       sco	  like SCO ps
       sgi	  like Irix ps
       solaris2   like Solaris 2+ (SunOS 5) ps
       sunos4	  like SunOS 4 (Solaris 1) ps (totally non-standard)
       svr4	  standard
       sysv	  standard
       tru64	  like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       unix	  standard
       unix95	  standard
       unix98	  standard

SEE ALSO
       top(1), pgrep(1), pstree(1), proc(5).

STANDARDS
       This ps conforms to:

       1   Version 2 of the Single Unix Specification
       2   The Open Group Technical Standard Base Specifications, Issue 6
       3   IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition
       4   X/Open System Interfaces Extension [UP XSI]
       5   ISO/IEC 9945:2003

AUTHOR
       ps was originally written by Branko Lankester <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl>. Michael K. Johnson
       <johnsonm@redhat.com> re-wrote it significantly to use the proc filesystem, changing a few
       things in the process. Michael Shields <mjshield@nyx.cs.du.edu> added the pid-list
       feature. Charles Blake <cblake@bbn.com> added multi-level sorting, the dirent-style
       library, the device name-to-number mmaped database, the approximate binary search directly
       on System.map, and many code and documentation cleanups. David Mossberger-Tang wrote the
       generic BFD support for psupdate. Albert Cahalan <albert@users.sf.net> rewrote ps for full
       Unix98 and BSD support, along with some ugly hacks for obsolete and foreign syntax.

       Please send bug reports to <procps-feedback@lists.sf.net>. No subscription is required or
       suggested.

Linux					February 25, 2010				    PS(1)


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