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Linux 2.6 - man page for grops (linux section 1)

GROPS(1)										 GROPS(1)

       grops - PostScript driver for groff

       grops [-glmv] [-b n] [-c n] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-p papersize] [-P prologue] [-w n] [files

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.

       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.	Normally grops should be  invoked
       by using the groff command with a -Tps option.  (Actually, this is the default for groff.)
       If no files are given, grops reads the standard input.  A filename of - also causes  grops
       to  read  the  standard input.  PostScript output is written to the standard output.  When
       grops is run by groff options can be passed to grops using groff's -P option.

       Note that grops doesn't produce a valid document structure  (conforming	to  the  Document
       Structuring  Convention)  if  called with multiple file arguments.  To print such concate-
       nated output it is necessary to deactivate DSC handling in the printing	program  or  pre-
       viewer.	See section FONT INSTALLATION below for a guide how to install fonts for grops.

       -bn    Provide  workarounds for older printers, broken spoolers, and previewers.  Normally
	      grops produces output at PostScript LanguageLevel 2 that conforms to  the  Document
	      Structuring Conventions version 3.0.  Some older printers, spoolers, and previewers
	      can't handle such output.  The value of n controls what grops does to make its out-
	      put acceptable to such programs.	A value of 0 causes grops not to employ any work-

	      Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup comments should  be  gener-
	      ated; this is needed for early versions of TranScript that get confused by anything
	      between the %%EndProlog comment and the first %%Page comment.

	      Add 2 if lines in included files beginning with %! should be stripped out; this  is
	      needed for Sun's pageview previewer.

	      Add  4  if  %%Page,  %%Trailer  and  %%EndProlog comments should be stripped out of
	      included files; this is needed for spoolers  that  don't	understand  the  %%Begin-
	      Document and %%EndDocument comments.

	      Add  8  if  the first line of the PostScript output should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather
	      than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when using Sun's Newsprint with a printer  that
	      requires page reversal.

	      Add  16  if  no media size information should be included in the document (this is,
	      neither use %%DocumentMedia nor the setpagedevice PostScript  command).	This  was
	      the  behaviour of groff version 1.18.1 and earlier; it is needed for older printers
	      which don't understand PostScript LanguageLevel 2.  It is  also  necessary  if  the
	      output is further processed to get an encapsulated PS (EPS) file - see below.

	      The default value can be specified by a

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend  directory  dir/devname  to  the search path for prologue, font, and device
	      description files; name is the name of the device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess the page length.  This  generates  PostScript  code  that  guesses	the  page
	      length.	The guess is correct only if the imageable area is vertically centered on
	      the page.  This option allows you to generate documents that can be printed both on
	      letter (8.5x11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -Idir  This option may be used to add a directory to the search path for files on the com-
	      mand line and files named in \X'ps: import' and \X'ps: file' escapes.   The  search
	      path  is initialized with the current directory.	This option may be specified more
	      than once; the directories are then searched in the order specified (but before the
	      current directory).  If you want to make the current directory be read before other
	      directories, add -I. at the appropriate place.

	      No directory search is performed for files with an absolute file name.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

	      Set physical dimension of output medium.	 This  overrides  the  papersize,  paper-
	      length,  and paperwidth commands in the DESC file; it accepts the same arguments as
	      the papersize command.  See groff_font (5) for details.

	      Use the file prologue-file (in the font  path)  as  the  prologue  instead  of  the
	      default  prologue  file  prologue.   This option overrides the environment variable

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths of an em.  If this  option
	      is not given, the line thickness defaults to 0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.

       The  input  to  grops  must  be	in  the  format output by troff(1).  This is described in

       In addition, the device and font description files for the device used must  meet  certain
       requirements:  The  resolution must be an integer multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The
       ps device uses a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The device description file must contain a valid paper size; see  groff_font(5)	for  more

       Each font description file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which  says  that  the PostScript font should be reencoded using the encoding described in
       enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence of lines of the form:

	      pschar code

       where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code  is  its	position  in  the
       encoding  expressed  as	a decimal integer; valid values are in the range 0 to 255.  Lines
       starting with # and blank lines are ignored.  The code for each	character  given  in  the
       font  file  must correspond to the code for the character in encoding file, or to the code
       in the default encoding for the font if the PostScript font is not to be reencoded.   This
       code can be used with the \N escape sequence in troff to select the character, even if the
       character does not have a groff name.  Every character in the font file must exist in  the
       PostScript  font,  and the widths given in the font file must match the widths used in the
       PostScript font.  grops assumes that a character with a	groff  name  of  space	is  blank
       (makes  no  marks on the page); it can make use of such a character to generate more effi-
       cient and compact PostScript output.

       Note that grops is able to display  all	glyphs	in  a  PostScript  font,  not  only  256.
       enc_file (or the default encoding if no encoding file specified) just defines the order of
       glyphs for the first 256 characters; all other glyphs are accessed with additional  encod-
       ing vectors which grops produces on the fly.

       grops  can  automatically  include the downloadable fonts necessary to print the document.
       Such fonts must be in PFA format.  Use pfbtops(1) to convert a Type 1 font in PFB  format.
       Any downloadable fonts which should, when required, be included by grops must be listed in
       the file /usr/share/groff/1.21/font/devps/download; this should consist of  lines  of  the

	      font filename

       where  font  is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name of the file con-
       taining the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines are ignored; fields may be  sepa-
       rated  by  tabs	or spaces; filename is searched for using the same mechanism that is used
       for groff font metric files.  The download file itself is also  searched  for  using  this
       mechanism; currently, only the first found file in the font path is used.

       If the file containing a downloadable font or imported document conforms to the Adobe Doc-
       ument Structuring Conventions, then grops interprets any  comments  in  the  files  suffi-
       ciently	to  ensure  that  its own output is conforming.  It also supplies any needed font
       resources that are listed in the download file as well as any needed file  resources.   It
       is  also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For example, suppose that you have a
       downloadable font called Garamond, and also a downloadable  font  called  Garamond-Outline
       which  depends  on Garamond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictio-
       nary, and change the PaintType), then it is necessary for Garamond to appear before  Gara-
       mond-Outline  in  the PostScript document.  grops handles this automatically provided that
       the downloadable font file for Garamond-Outline indicates its dependence  on  Garamond  by
       means of the Document Structuring Conventions, for example by beginning with the following

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed	in  the  download
       file.   A  downloadable	font  should  not  include  its own name in a %%DocumentSupplied-
       Resources comment.

       grops  does  not  interpret  %%DocumentFonts  comments.	 The   %%DocumentNeededResources,
       %%DocumentSuppliedResources,  %%IncludeResource,  %%BeginResource,  and %%EndResource com-
       ments (or possibly the old %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts,  %%IncludeFont,
       %%BeginFont, and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

       In  the	default setup there are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted at font positions 1
       to 4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P, and T having members  in
       each of these styles:

	      AR     AvantGarde-Book
	      AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
	      AB     AvantGarde-Demi
	      ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
	      BMR    Bookman-Light
	      BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
	      BMB    Bookman-Demi
	      BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
	      CR     Courier
	      CI     Courier-Oblique
	      CB     Courier-Bold
	      CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
	      HR     Helvetica
	      HI     Helvetica-Oblique
	      HB     Helvetica-Bold
	      HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
	      HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
	      HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
	      HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
	      HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
	      NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
	      NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
	      NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
	      NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
	      PR     Palatino-Roman
	      PI     Palatino-Italic
	      PB     Palatino-Bold
	      PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
	      TR     Times-Roman
	      TI     Times-Italic
	      TB     Times-Bold
	      TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

	      ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There  are  also  some  special	fonts called S for the PS Symbol font, and SS, containing
       slanted lowercase Greek letters taken from PS Symbol.  Zapf Dingbats is available  as  ZD,
       and  a  reversed version of ZapfDingbats (with symbols pointing in the opposite direction)
       is available as ZDR; most characters in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using

       The  default  color  for  \m  and \M is black; for colors defined in the `rgb' color space
       setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and `cmyk' setcmykcolor, and for `gray' setgray.	Note that
       setcmykcolor  is a PostScript LanguageLevel 2 command and thus not available on some older

       grops understands various X commands produced using the \X  escape  sequence;  grops  only
       interprets commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This  executes  the arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The PostScript current-
	      point is set to the position of the \X command before executing code.   The  origin
	      is at the top left corner of the page, and y coordinates increase down the page.	A
	      procedure u is defined that converts groff units to the coordinate system in effect
	      (provided the user doesn't change the scale).  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      draws  a	horizontal  line  one  inch  long.  code may make changes to the graphics
	      state, but any changes persist only to the end of the page.  A dictionary  contain-
	      ing  the	definitions  specified	by  the  def and mdef is on top of the dictionary
	      stack.  If your code adds definitions to this dictionary, you should allocate space
	      for  them  using	\X'ps mdef n'.	Any definitions persist only until the end of the
	      page.  If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro,  code
	      can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto

	      is  another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.	Note the single backslash
	      before `nx' - the only reason to use a number register while defining the macro `y'
	      is  to convert a user-specified dimension `1i' to internal groff units which are in
	      turn converted to PS units with the u procedure.

	      grops wraps user-specified PostScript code into a  dictionary,  nothing  more.   In
	      particular,  it  doesn't	start  and  end  the inserted code with save and restore,
	      respectively.  This must be supplied by the user, if necessary.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This is the same as the exec command except that the PostScript code is  read  from
	      file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place  a	PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.  There should be
	      at most one definition per \X command.  Long definitions can be split over  several
	      \X  commands;  all  the code arguments are simply joined together separated by new-
	      lines.  The definitions are placed in a dictionary which is automatically pushed on
	      the  dictionary  stack  when an exec command is executed.  If you use the \Y escape
	      sequence with an argument that names a macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like def, except that code may contain up to n definitions.  grops  needs  to  know
	      how  many  definitions  code  contains so that it can create an appropriately sized
	      PostScript dictionary to contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
	      Import a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx, lly, urx, and	ury  give
	      the  bounding  box of the graphic in the default PostScript coordinate system; they
	      should all be integers; llx and lly are the x and y coordinates of the  lower  left
	      corner  of  the graphic; urx and ury are the x and y coordinates of the upper right
	      corner of the graphic; width and height are integers that give  the  desired  width
	      and height in groff units of the graphic.

	      The  graphic  is scaled so that it has this width and height and translated so that
	      the lower left corner of the graphic is located at the position associated with  \X
	      command.	 If  the  height  argument is omitted it is scaled uniformly in the x and
	      y directions so that it has the specified width.

	      Note that the contents of the \X command are not interpreted by troff; so  vertical
	      space  for  the  graphic is not automatically added, and the width and height argu-
	      ments are not allowed to have attached scaling indicators.

	      If the PostScript file complies with the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and
	      contains	a  %%BoundingBox  comment,  then  the  bounding  box can be automatically
	      extracted from within groff by using the psbb request.

	      See groff_tmac(5) for a description of the PSPIC macro which provides a  convenient
	      high-level interface for inclusion of PostScript graphics.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No  output is generated for text and drawing commands that are bracketed with these
	      \X commands.  These commands are intended for use when output from  troff  is  pre-
	      viewed  before  being  processed	with grops; if the previewer is unable to display
	      certain characters or other constructs, then other substitute  characters  or  con-
	      structs can be used for previewing by bracketing them with these \X commands.

	      For  example,  gxditview is not able to display a proper \(em character because the
	      standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this problem can be overcome by executing the
	      following request

		     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In this case, gxditview is unable to display the \(em character and draws the line,
	      whereas grops prints the \(em character and ignores the line (this code is  already
	      in file Xps.tmac which is loaded if a document intended for grops is previewed with

       If a PostScript procedure BPhook has been defined via a	`ps: def'  or  `ps: mdef'  device
       command,  it is executed at the beginning of every page (before anything is drawn or writ-
       ten by groff).  For example, to underlay the page contents with the word `DRAFT' in  light
       gray, you might use

	      .de XX
	      ps: def
	      { gsave .9 setgray clippath pathbbox exch 2 copy
		.5 mul exch .5 mul translate atan rotate pop pop
		/NewCenturySchlbk-Roman findfont 200 scalefont setfont
		(DRAFT) dup stringwidth pop -.5 mul -70 moveto show
		grestore }
	      .devicem XX

       Or,  to	cause  lines  and polygons to be drawn with square linecaps and mitered linejoins
       instead of the round linecaps and linejoins normally used by grops, use

	      .de XX
	      ps: def
	      /BPhook { 2 setlinecap 0 setlinejoin } def
	      .devicem XX

       (square linecaps, as opposed to butt linecaps (0 setlinecap), give true corners	in  boxed
       tables even though the lines are drawn unconnected).

   Encapsulated PostScript
       grops itself doesn't emit bounding box information.  With the help of Ghostscript the fol-
       lowing simple script, groff2eps, produces an encapsulated PS file.

	      #! /bin/sh
	      groff -P-b16 $1 >$1.ps
	      gs -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=bbox -- $1.ps 2>$1.bbox
	      cat $1.ps \
	      | sed -e "/^%%Orientation/r$1.bbox" \
		    -e "/^%!PS-Adobe-3.0/s/$/ EPSF-3.0/" >$1.eps
	      rm $1.ps $1.bbox

       Just say

	      groff2eps foo

       to convert file foo to foo.eps.

   TrueType and other font formats
       TrueType fonts can be used with grops if converted first to  Type  42  format,  a  special
       PostScript  wrapper  equivalent to the PFA format mentioned in pfbtops(1).  There are sev-
       eral different methods to generate a type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of	a
       PostScript interpreter such as Ghostscript - see gs(1).

       Yet,  the  easiest  method  involves the use of the application ttftot42(1).  This program
       uses freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to generate type42  font  wrappers  and  well-formed  AFM
       files  that  can be fed to the afmtodit(1) script to create appropriate metric files.  The
       resulting font wrappers should be added to the download file.  ttftot42 source code can be
       downloaded   from   ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/nih/ttftot42/  <ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/nih/

       Another solution for creating type42 wrappers is to use FontForge, available from  http://
       fontforge.sf.net  <http://fontforge.sf.net>.   This  font  editor can convert most outline
       font formats.

       This section gives a summary of the above explanations; it can  serve  as  a  step-by-step
       font installation guide for grops.

	o  Convert  your font to something groff understands.  This is either a PostScript Type 1
	   font in PFA format or a PostScript Type 42 font, together with an AFM file.

	   The very first characters in a PFA file look like this:


	   A PFB file has this also in the first line, but  the  string  is  preceded  with  some
	   binary bytes.

	   The very first characters in a Type 42 font file look like this:


	   This  is  a	wrapper  format for TrueType fonts.  Old PS printers might not support it
	   (this is, they don't have a built-in TrueType font interpreter).

	   If your font is in PFB format (such fonts normally have `.pfb' as the file extension),
	   you	might  use  groff's pfbtops(1) program to convert it to PFA.  For TrueType fonts,
	   try ttftot42 or fontforge.  For all other font formats use fontforge which can convert
	   most outline font formats.

	o  Convert  the  AFM  file to a groff font description file with the afmtodit(1) program.
	   An example call is

		  afmtodit Foo-Bar-Bold.afm textmap FBB

	   which converts the metric file `Foo-Bar-Bold.afm' to the groff  font  `FBB'.   If  you
	   have a font family which comes with normal, bold, italic, and bold italic faces, it is
	   recommended to use the letters R, B, I, and BI,  respectively,  as  postfixes  in  the
	   groff  font names to make groff's `.fam' request work.  An example is groff's built-in
	   Times-Roman font: The font family name is T, and the groff font names are TR, TB,  TI,
	   and TBI.

	o  Install  both the groff font description files and the fonts in a `devps' subdirectory
	   of the font path which groff finds.	See the ENVIRONMENT section in the  troff(1)  man
	   page  which	lists the actual value of the font path.  Note that groff doesn't use the
	   AFM files (but it is a good idea to store them anyway).

	o  Register all fonts which must be downloaded to the  printer	in  the  `devps/download'
	   file.   Only  the  first occurrence of this file in the font path is read.  This means
	   that you should copy the default `download' file to the first directory in  your  font
	   path  and  add  your fonts there.  To continue the above example we assume that the PS
	   font name for Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa is `XY-Foo-Bar-Bold' (the PS font name is stored in the
	   internalname  field	in  the  `FBB'	file), thus the following line should be added to

		  XY-Foo-Bar-Bold Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa

       groff versions 1.19.2 and earlier contain a slightly different set of the  35  Adobe  core
       fonts;  the difference is mainly the lack of the `Euro' glyph and a reduced set of kerning
       pairs.  For backwards compatibility, these old fonts are installed also in the



       To use them, make sure that grops finds the fonts before the default  system  fonts  (with
       the same names): Either add command line option -F to grops

	      groff -Tps -P-F -P/usr/share/groff/1.21/oldfont ...

       or add the directory to groff's font path environment variable


	      If  this	is set to foo, then grops uses the file foo (in the font path) instead of
	      the default prologue file prologue.  The option -P overrides this environment vari-

	      A  list  of directories in which to search for the devname directory in addition to
	      the default ones.  See troff(1) and groff_font(5) for more details.

       /usr/share/groff/1.21/font/devps/DESC	  Device description file.

       /usr/share/groff/1.21/font/devps/F	  Font description file for font F.

       /usr/share/groff/1.21/font/devps/download  List of downloadable fonts.

       /usr/share/groff/1.21/font/devps/text.enc  Encoding used for text fonts.

       /usr/share/groff/1.21/tmac/ps.tmac	  Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded
						  by troffrc

       /usr/share/groff/1.21/tmac/pspic.tmac	  Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded
						  by ps.tmac.

       /usr/share/groff/1.21/tmac/psold.tmac	  Macros to disable use of characters not present
						  in  older  PostScript  printers (e.g., `eth' or

       /tmp/gropsXXXXXX 			  Temporary file.  See groff(1)  for  details  on
						  the location of temporary files.

       afmtodit(1),  groff(1),	troff(1), pfbtops(1), groff_out(5), groff_font(5), groff_char(7),

       PostScript   Language   Document   Structuring	 Conventions	Specification	 <http://

Groff Version 1.21			 31 December 2010				 GROPS(1)

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