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Linux 2.6 - man page for groff (linux section 1)

GROFF(1)										 GROFF(1)

       groff - front-end for the groff document formatting system

       groff [-abcegiklpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-D arg] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-K arg]
	     [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn] [-T dev] [-w name]
	     [-W name] [file ...]
       groff -h | --help
       groff -v | --version [option ...]

       This  document describes the groff program, the main front-end for the groff document for-
       matting system.	The groff program and macro suite is the implementation of a roff(7) sys-
       tem  within  the  free software collection GNU <http://www.gnu.org>.  The groff system has
       all features of the classical roff, but adds many extensions.

       The groff program allows to control the whole groff system by command line options.   This
       is a great simplification in comparison to the classical case (which uses pipes only).

       The  command line is parsed according to the usual GNU convention.  The whitespace between
       a command line option and its argument is optional.  Options can be grouped behind a  sin-
       gle `-' (minus character).  A filename of - (minus character) denotes the standard input.

       As  groff  is  a  wrapper program for troff both programs share a set of options.  But the
       groff program has some additional, native options and gives a new meaning  to  some  troff
       options.  On the other hand, not all troff options can be fed into groff.

   Native groff Options
       The  following  options	either	do  not exist for troff or are differently interpreted by

       -D arg Set default input encoding used by preconv to arg.  Implies -k.

       -e     Preprocess with eqn.

       -g     Preprocess with grn.

       -G     Preprocess with grap.

       --help Print a help message.

       -I dir This option may be used to specify a directory to search for files (both	those  on
	      the  command line and those named in .psbb and .so requests, and \X'ps: import' and
	      \X'ps: file' escapes).  The current  directory  is  always  searched  first.   This
	      option  may  be specified more than once; the directories are searched in the order
	      specified.  No directory search is performed for files specified using an  absolute
	      path.  This option implies the -s option.

       -k     Preprocess  with preconv.  This is run before any other preprocessor.  Please refer
	      to preconv's manual page for its behaviour if no -K (or -D) option is specified.

       -K arg Set input encoding used by preconv to arg.  Implies -k.

       -l     Send the output to a spooler program for printing.  The command that should be used
	      for  this  is  specified	by  the print command in the device description file, see
	      groff_font(5).  If this command is not present, the output is piped into the lpr(1)
	      program by default.  See options -L and -X.

       -L arg Pass  arg  to the spooler program.  Several arguments should be passed with a sepa-
	      rate -L option each.  Note that groff does not prepend `-' (a minus  sign)  to  arg
	      before passing it to the spooler program.

       -N     Don't  allow  newlines within eqn delimiters.  This is the same as the -N option in

       -p     Preprocess with pic.

       -P -option
       -P -option -P arg
	      Pass -option or -option arg to the postprocessor.  The  option  must  be	specified
	      with  the  necessary  preceding  minus  sign(s)  '-' or '--' because groff does not
	      prepend any dashes before passing it to the postprocessor.  For example, to pass	a
	      title to the gxditview postprocessor, the shell command

		     groff -X -P -title -P 'groff it' foo

	      is equivalent to

		     groff -X -Z foo | gxditview -title 'groff it' -

       -R     Preprocess  with	refer.	 No  mechanism is provided for passing arguments to refer
	      because most refer options have equivalent language elements that can be	specified
	      within the document.  See refer(1) for more details.

       -s     Preprocess with soelim.

       -S     Safer  mode.   Pass  the -S option to pic and disable the following troff requests:
	      .open, .opena, .pso, .sy, and .pi.  For security reasons, safer mode is enabled  by

       -t     Preprocess with tbl.

       -T dev Set  output  device to dev.  For this device, troff generates the intermediate out-
	      put; see groff_out(5).  Then groff calls a postprocessor to convert troff's  inter-
	      mediate output to its final format.  Real devices in groff are

		     dvi    TeX DVI format (postprocessor is grodvi).

		     xhtml  HTML  and  XHTML  output  (preprocessors  are soelim and pre-grohtml,
			    postprocessor is post-grohtml).

		     lbp    Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser printers; postpro-
			    cessor is grolbp).

		     lj4    HP LaserJet4 compatible (or other PCL5 compatible) printers (postpro-
			    cessor is grolj4).

		     ps     PostScript output (postprocessor is grops).

	      For the following TTY output devices (postprocessor is always grotty),  -T  selects
	      the output encoding:

		     ascii  7bit ASCII.

		     cp1047 Latin-1 character set for EBCDIC hosts.

		     latin1 ISO 8859-1.

		     utf8   Unicode character set in UTF-8 encoding.

	      The  following  arguments  select  gxditview as the `postprocessor' (it is rather a
	      viewing program):

		     X75    75dpi resolution, 10pt document base font.

		     X75-12 75dpi resolution, 12pt document base font.

		     X100   100dpi resolution, 10pt document base font.

			    100dpi resolution, 12pt document base font.

	      The default device is ps.

       -U     Unsafe mode.  Reverts to the (old) unsafe behaviour; see option -S.

	      Output version information of groff and of all programs that are run  by	it;  that
	      is,  the	given  command line is parsed in the usual way, passing -v to all subpro-

       -V     Output the pipeline that would be run by groff (as a wrapper program) on the  stan-
	      dard output, but do not execute it.  If given more than once, the commands are both
	      printed on the standard error and run.

       -X     Use gxditview instead of using the usual postprocessor  to  (pre)view  a	document.
	      The printing spooler behavior as outlined with options -l and -L is carried over to
	      gxditview(1)  by	determining  an  argument  for	the   -printCommand   option   of
	      gxditview(1).   This sets the default Print action and the corresponding menu entry
	      to that value.  -X only produces good results with -Tps, -TX75,  -TX75-12,  -TX100,
	      and  -TX100-12.	The  default resolution for previewing -Tps output is 75dpi; this
	      can be changed by passing the -resolution option to gxditview, for example

		     groff -X -P-resolution -P100 -man foo.1

       -z     Suppress output generated by troff.  Only error messages are printed.

       -Z     Do not automatically postprocess groff intermediate output  in  the  usual  manner.
	      This  will cause the troff output to appear on standard output, replacing the usual
	      postprocessor output; see groff_out(5).

   Transparent Options
       The following options are transparently handed over to the formatter program troff that is
       called by groff subsequently.  These options are described in more detail in troff(1).

       -a     ASCII approximation of output.

       -b     Backtrace on error or warning.

       -c     Disable color output.  Please consult the grotty(1) man page for more details.

       -C     Enable compatibility mode.

       -d cs
       -d name=s
	      Define string.

       -E     Disable troff error messages.

       -f fam Set default font family.

       -F dir Set path for font DESC files.

       -i     Process standard input after the specified input files.

       -m name
	      Include macro file name.tmac (or tmac.name); see also groff_tmac(5).

       -M dir Path for macro files.

       -n num Number the first page num.

       -o list
	      Output only pages in list.

       -r cn
       -r name=n
	      Set number register.

       -w name
	      Enable warning name.  See troff(1) for names.

       -W name
	      disable warning name.  See troff(1) for names.

       The groff system implements the infrastructure of classical roff; see roff(7) for a survey
       on how a roff system works in general.  Due to the front-end programs available within the
       groff system, using groff is much easier than classical roff.  This section gives an over-
       view of the parts that constitute the groff system.  It complements  roff(7)  with  groff-
       specific  features.   This  section can be regarded as a guide to the documentation around
       the groff system.

   Paper Size
       The virtual paper size used by troff to format the input is controlled globally	with  the
       requests  .po,  .pl,  and  .ll.	See groff_tmac(5) for the `papersize' macro package which
       provides a convenient interface.

       The physical paper size, giving the actual dimensions of the paper sheets,  is  controlled
       by  output  devices like grops with the command line options -p and -l.	See groff_font(5)
       and the man pages of the output devices for more details.  groff  uses  the  command  line
       option  -P  to pass options to output devices; for example, the following selects A4 paper
       in landscape orientation for the PS device:

	      groff -Tps -P-pa4 -P-l ...

       The groff program is a wrapper around the troff(1) program.  It allows to specify the pre-
       processors by command line options and automatically runs the postprocessor that is appro-
       priate for the selected device.	Doing so, the sometimes tedious piping mechanism of clas-
       sical roff(7) can be avoided.

       The  grog(1)  program  can be used for guessing the correct groff command line to format a

       The groffer(1) program is an allround-viewer for groff files and man pages.

       The groff preprocessors are reimplementations of the classical preprocessors with moderate
       extensions.  The standard preprocessors distributed with the groff package are

       eqn(1) for mathematical formulae,

       grn(1) for including gremlin(1) pictures,

       pic(1) for drawing diagrams,

	      for chemical structure diagrams,

	      for bibliographic references,

	      for including macro files from standard locations,


       tbl(1) for tables.

       A  new  preprocessor not available in classical troff is preconv(1) which converts various
       input encodings to something groff can understand.  It is  always  run  first  before  any
       other preprocessor.

       Besides	these, there are some internal preprocessors that are automatically run with some
       devices.  These aren't visible to the user.

   Macro Packages
       Macro packages can be included by option -m.  The groff system implements and extends  all
       classical macro packages in a compatible way and adds some packages of its own.	Actually,
       the following macro packages come with groff:

       man    The traditional man page format; see groff_man(7).  It can be specified on the com-
	      mand line as -man or -m man.

       mandoc The  general  package  for man pages; it automatically recognizes whether the docu-
	      ments uses the man or the mdoc format and branches to the corresponding macro pack-
	      age.  It can be specified on the command line as -mandoc or -m mandoc.

       mdoc   The  BSD-style man page format; see groff_mdoc(7).  It can be specified on the com-
	      mand line as -mdoc or -m mdoc.

       me     The classical me document format; see groff_me(7).  It can be specified on the com-
	      mand line as -me or -m me.

       mm     The classical mm document format; see groff_mm(7).  It can be specified on the com-
	      mand line as -mm or -m mm.

       ms     The classical ms document format; see groff_ms(7).  It can be specified on the com-
	      mand line as -ms or -m ms.

       www    HTML-like macros for inclusion in arbitrary groff documents; see groff_www(7).

       Details	on  the  naming of macro files and their placement can be found in groff_tmac(5);
       this man page also documents some other, minor  auxiliary  macro  packages  not	mentioned

   Programming Language
       General concepts common to all roff programming languages are described in roff(7).

       The groff extensions to the classical troff language are documented in groff_diff(7).

       The  groff  language  as a whole is described in the (still incomplete) groff info file; a
       short (but complete) reference can be found in groff(7).

       The central roff formatter within the groff system is troff(1).	It provides the  features
       of  both the classical troff and nroff, as well as the groff extensions.  The command line
       option -C switches troff into compatibility mode which tries to emulate classical roff  as
       much as possible.

       There  is a shell script nroff(1) that emulates the behavior of classical nroff.  It tries
       to automatically select the proper output encoding, according to the current locale.

       The formatter program generates intermediate output; see groff_out(7).

       In roff, the output targets are called devices.	A device can  be  a  piece  of	hardware,
       e.g.,  a printer, or a software file format.  A device is specified by the option -T.  The
       groff devices are as follows.

       ascii  Text output using the ascii(7) character set.

       cp1047 Text output using the EBCDIC code page IBM cp1047 (e.g., OS/390 Unix).

       dvi    TeX DVI format.

       html   HTML output.

       latin1 Text output using the ISO Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) character set; see iso_8859_1(7).

       lbp    Output for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser printers).

       lj4    HP LaserJet4-compatible (or other PCL5-compatible) printers.

       ps     PostScript output; suitable for printers and previewers like gv(1).

       utf8   Text output using the Unicode (ISO 10646) character set with  UTF-8  encoding;  see

       xhtml  XHTML output.

       X75    75dpi  X	Window	System	output	suitable  for  the  previewers	xditview(1x)  and
	      gxditview(1).  A variant for a 12pt document base font is X75-12.

       X100   100dpi X	Window	System	output	suitable  for  the  previewers	xditview(1x)  and
	      gxditview(1).  A variant for a 12pt document base font is X100-12.

       The  postprocessor  to  be  used  for  a device is specified by the postpro command in the
       device description file; see groff_font(5).  This can be overridden with the -X option.

       The default device is ps.

       groff provides 3 hardware postprocessors:

	      for some Canon printers,

	      for printers compatible to the HP LaserJet 4 and PCL5,

	      for text output using various encodings, e.g., on text-oriented terminals or  line-

       Today,  most  printing  or  drawing hardware is handled by the operating system, by device
       drivers, or by software interfaces, usually  accepting  PostScript.   Consequently,  there
       isn't an urgent need for more hardware device postprocessors.

       The groff software devices for conversion into other document file formats are

	      for the DVI format,

	      for HTML and XHTML formats,

	      for PostScript.

       Combined with the many existing free conversion tools this should be sufficient to convert
       a troff document into virtually any existing data format.

       The following utility programs around groff are available.

	      Add information to troff font description files for use with groff.

	      Create font description files for PostScript device.

	      Convert an eqn image into a cropped image.

	      Mark differences between groff, nroff, or troff files.

	      Convert a grap diagram into a cropped bitmap image.

	      General viewer program for groff files and man pages.

	      The groff X viewer, the GNU version of xditview.

	      Create font description files for lj4 device.

	      Make inverted index for bibliographic databases.

	      Search bibliographic databases.

	      Interactively search bibliographic databases.

	      Create PDF documents using groff.

	      Translate a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII.

	      Convert a pic diagram into a cropped image.

	      Create font description files for TeX DVI device.

	      roff viewer distributed with X window.

	      Convert X font metrics into GNU troff font metrics.

       Normally, the path separator in the following environment variables is the colon; this may
       vary  depending	on  the  operating  system.  For example, DOS and Windows use a semicolon

	      This search path, followed by $PATH, is used for	commands  that	are  executed  by
	      groff.  If it is not set then the directory where the groff binaries were installed
	      is prepended to PATH.

	      When there is a need to run different roff implementations at the same  time  groff
	      provides	the  facility to prepend a prefix to most of its programs that could pro-
	      voke name clashings at run time (default is to have none).  Historically, this pre-
	      fix  was	the  character	g, but it can be anything.  For example, gtroff stood for
	      groff's troff, gtbl for the groff version of tbl.  By setting  GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX
	      to  different  values,  the  different  roff  installations can be addressed.  More
	      exactly, if it is set to prefix xxx then groff  as  a  wrapper  program  internally
	      calls  xxxtroff instead of troff.  This also applies to the preprocessors eqn, grn,
	      pic, refer, tbl, soelim, and to the utilities indxbib and  lookbib.   This  feature
	      does  not  apply	to any programs different from the ones above (most notably groff
	      itself) since they are unique to the groff package.

	      The value of this environment value is passed to the preconv preprocessor to select
	      the  encoding  of  input	files.	 Setting this option implies groff's command line
	      option -k (this is, groff actually always calls preconv).  If set without a  value,
	      groff  calls  preconv  without arguments.  An explicit -K command line option over-
	      rides the value of GROFF_ENCODING.  See preconv(1) for details.

	      A list of directories in which to search for the devname directory in  addition  to
	      the default ones.  See troff(1) and groff_font(5) for more details.

	      A list of directories in which to search for macro files in addition to the default
	      directories.  See troff(1) and groff_tmac(5) for more details.

	      The directory in which temporary files are created.  If this is  not  set  but  the
	      environment  variable  TMPDIR instead, temporary files are created in the directory
	      $TMPDIR.	On MS-DOS and Windows 32 platforms, the  environment  variables  TMP  and
	      TEMP  (in that order) are searched also, after GROFF_TMPDIR and TMPDIR.  Otherwise,
	      temporary files are created in /tmp.  The  refer(1),  groffer(1),  grohtml(1),  and
	      grops(1) commands use temporary files.

	      Preset  the  default  device.  If this is not set the ps device is used as default.
	      This device name is overwritten by the option -T.

       There are some directories in which groff installs all of its data files.  Due to  differ-
       ent installation habits on different operating systems, their locations are not absolutely
       fixed, but their function is clearly defined and coincides on all systems.

   groff Macro Directory
       This contains all information related to macro packages.  Note that  more  than	a  single
       directory  is  searched	for  those  files  as documented in groff_tmac(5).  For the groff
       installation corresponding to this document, it is located at  /usr/share/groff/1.21/tmac.
       The following files contained in the groff macro directory have a special meaning:

	      Initialization  file  for  troff.   This is interpreted by troff before reading the
	      macro sets and any input.

	      Final startup file for troff.  It is parsed after all macro sets have been read.

	      Macro file for macro package name.

   groff Font Directory
       This contains all information related to output devices.  Note that  more  than	a  single
       directory  is  searched	for those files; see troff(1).	For the groff installation corre-
       sponding to this document, it is located  at  /usr/share/groff/1.21/font.   The	following
       files contained in the groff font directory have a special meaning:

	      Device description file for device name, see groff_font(5).

	      Font file for font F of device name.

       The  following  example	illustrates  the  power  of the groff program as a wrapper around

       To process a roff file using the preprocessors tbl and pic and the me macro set, classical
       troff had to be called by

	      pic foo.me | tbl | troff -me -Tlatin1 | grotty

       Using groff, this pipe can be shortened to the equivalent command

	      groff -p -t -me -T latin1 foo.me

       An  even  easier  way  to  call this is to use grog(1) to guess the preprocessor and macro
       options and execute the generated command (by using backquotes to  specify  shell  command

	      `grog -Tlatin1 foo.me`

       The simplest way is to view the contents in an automated way by calling

	      groffer foo.me

       On  EBCDIC  hosts  (e.g.,  OS/390 Unix), output devices ascii and latin1 aren't available.
       Similarly, output for EBCDIC code page cp1047 is not available on  ASCII  based	operating

       Report  bugs  to the groff maling list <bug-groff@gnu.org>.  Include a complete, self-con-
       tained example that allows the bug to be reproduced, and say which version  of  groff  you
       are using.

       Information  on	how  to  get  groff and related information is available at the groff GNU
       website <http://www.gnu.org/software/groff>.  The most recent released version of groff is
       available   at	the   groff  development  site	<http://groff.ffii.org/groff/devel/groff-

       Three groff mailing lists are available:

	      for reporting bugs <bug-groff@gnu.org>.

	      for general discussion of groff, <groff@gnu.org>.

	      the groff commit list <groff-commit@ffii.org>, a read-only  list	showing  logs  of
	      commitments to the CVS repository.

       Details	on  CVS access and much more can be found in the file README at the top directory
       of the groff source package.

       There  is  a  free  implementation  of  the  grap  preprocessor,  written  by  Ted   Faber
       <faber@lunabase.org>.   The  actual  version  can  be  found  at the grap website <http://
       www.lunabase.org/~faber/Vault/software/grap/>.  This is the only grap version supported by

       Copyright  (C)  1989, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Founda-
       tion, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free  Documentation  License)
       version	1.3  or  later.  You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is
       also available on-line at the GNU copyleft site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.

       This  document  is  based  on  the  original  groff  man  page  written	by  James   Clark
       <jjc@jclark.com>.   It  was  rewritten,	enhanced,  and put under the FDL license by Bernd
       Warken.	It is maintained by Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>.

       groff is a GNU free software project.  All parts of the groff package are protected by GNU
       copyleft  licenses.  The software files are distributed under the terms of the GNU General
       Public License (GPL), while the documentation files mostly use the GNU Free  Documentation
       License (FDL).

       The groff info file contains all information on the groff system within a single document,
       providing many examples and background information.  See info(1) on how to read it.

       Due to its complex structure, the groff system has many man pages.  They can be read  with
       man(1) or groffer(1).

       Introduction, history and further readings:

       Viewer for groff files:
	      groffer(1), gxditview(1), xditview(1x).

       Wrapper programs for formatters:
	      groff(1), grog(1).

       Roff preprocessors:
	      eqn(1), grn(1), pic(1), chem(1), preconv(1), refer(1), soelim(1), tbl(1), grap(1).

       Roff language with the groff extensions:
	      groff(7), groff_char(7), groff_diff(7), groff_font(5).

       Roff formatter programs:
	      nroff(1), troff(1), ditroff(7).

       The intermediate output language:

       Postprocessors for the output devices:
	      grodvi(1), grohtml(1), grolbp(1), grolj4(1), lj4_font(5), grops(1), grotty(1).

       Groff macro packages and macro-specific utilities:
	      groff_tmac(5),	 groff_man(7),	   groff_mdoc(7),    groff_me(7),    groff_mm(7),
	      groff_mmse(7), groff_mom(7), groff_ms(7), groff_www(7), groff_trace(7), mmroff(7).

       The following utilities are available:
	      addftinfo(1), afmtodit(1),  eqn2graph(1),  gdiffmk(1),  grap2graph(1),  groffer(1),
	      gxditview(1),    hpftodit(1),   indxbib(1),   lkbib(1),	lookbib(1),   pdfroff(1),
	      pfbtops(1), pic2graph(1), tfmtodit(1), xtotroff(1).

Groff Version 1.21			   07 June 2011 				 GROFF(1)

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