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TROFF(1) 										   TROFF(1) 

NAME
       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

SYNOPSIS
       troff [-abcivzCERU] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num]
	     [-o list] [-r cn] [-T name] [-w name] [-W name] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part  of  the  groff  document
       formatting  system.   It  is  functionally compatible with UNIX troff, but has many exten-
       sions, see   groff_diff(7) .  Usually it should be invoked using the   groff(1)   command  which
       will  also  run	preprocessors  and  postprocessors  in the appropriate order and with the
       appropriate options.

OPTIONS
       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.

       -a	 Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b	 Print a backtrace with each warning or error  message.   This	backtrace  should
		 help track down the cause of the error.  The line numbers given in the backtrace
		 may not always be correct, for troff's idea of line numbers gets confused by  as
		 or am requests.

       -c	 Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C	 Enable compatibility mode.

       -dcs
       -dname=s  Define c or name to be a string s; c must be a one letter name.

       -E	 Inhibit  all  error  messages	of troff.  Note that this doesn't affect messages
		 output to standard error by macro packages using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam	 Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir	 Search in directory (or directory path) dir for subdirectories devname (name  is
		 the  name  of	the  device)  and there for the DESC file and font files.  dir is
		 scanned before all other font directories.

       -i	 Read the standard input after all the named input files have been processed.

       -Idir	 This option may be used to add a directory to the search path	for  files  (both
		 those	on  the command line and those named in .psbb requests).  The search path
		 is initialized with the current directory.  This option may  be  specified  more
		 than  once; the directories are then searched in the order specified (but before
		 the current directory).  If you want to  make	the  current  directory  be  read
		 before other directories, add -I. at the appropriate place.

		 No directory search is performed for files with an absolute file name.

       -mname	 Read  in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try tmac.name instead.  It will
		 be first searched for in directories given with the -M command line option, then
		 in  directories  given  in the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the
		 current  directory   (only   if   in	unsafe	 mode),   the	home   directory,
		 /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,	       /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,	      and
		 /usr/share/groff/1.21/tmac.

       -Mdir	 Search directory (or directory path) dir  for	macro  files.	This  is  scanned
		 before all other macro directories.

       -nnum	 Number the first page num.

       -olist	 Output  only  pages  in  list, which is a comma-separated list of page ranges; n
		 means print page n, m-n means print every page between m and n, -n  means  print
		 every	page  up  to  n, n- means print every page from n.  troff will exit after
		 printing the last page in the list.

       -rcn
       -rname=n  Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character name; n can be any
		 troff numeric expression.

       -R	 Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname	 Prepare  output  for device name, rather than the default ps; see   groff(1)  for a
		 more detailed description.

       -U	 Unsafe mode.  This will enable the following requests: open, opena, pso, sy, and
		 pi.   For  security  reasons,	these potentially dangerous requests are disabled
		 otherwise.  It will also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v	 Print the version number.

       -wname	 Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the	section  WARNINGS
		 below.   For  example,  to enable all warnings, use -w all.  Multiple -w options
		 are allowed.

       -Wname	 Inhibit warning name.	Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z	 Suppress formatted output.

WARNINGS
       The warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the  following	categories.   The
       name  associated with each warning is used by the -w and -W options; the number is used by
       the warn request, and by the .warn register; it is always a power of 2  to  allow  bitwise
       composition.

			  +---------------------+-----------------------------+
			  |Bit	 Code	Warning | Bit	 Code	    Warning   |
			  +---------------------+-----------------------------+
			  |  0	    1	char	|  10	   1024   reg	      |
			  |  1	    2	number	|  11	   2048   tab	      |
			  |  2	    4	break	|  12	   4096   right-brace |
			  |  3	    8	delim	|  13	   8192   missing     |
			  |  4	   16	el	|  14	  16384   input       |
			  |  5	   32	scale	|  15	  32768   escape      |
			  |  6	   64	range	|  16	  65536   space       |
			  |  7	  128	syntax	|  17	 131072   font	      |
			  |  8	  256	di	|  18	 262144   ig	      |
			  |  9	  512	mac	|  19	 524288   color       |
			  |			|  20	1048576   file	      |
			  +---------------------+-----------------------------+
       break	       4   In fill mode, lines which could not be broken so that their length was
			   less than the line length.  This is enabled by default.

       char	       1   Non-existent characters.  This is enabled by default.

       color	  524288   Color related warnings.

       delim	       8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di	     256   Use of di or da without an argument when there is  no  current  diver-
			   sion.

       el	      16   Use of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape	   32768   Unrecognized  escape  sequences.  When an unrecognized escape sequence
			   is encountered, the escape character is ignored.

       file	 1048576   Indicates a missing file for the mso request.  Enabled by default.

       font	  131072   Non-existent fonts.	This is enabled by default.

       ig	  262144   Invalid escapes in text ignored with the ig request.  These are condi-
			   tions that are errors when they do not occur in ignored text.

       input	   16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac	     512   Use	of  undefined  strings, macros and diversions.	When an undefined
			   string, macro or diversion  is  used,  that	string	is  automatically
			   defined  as	empty.	 So,  in  most cases, at most one warning will be
			   given for each name.

       missing	    8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number	       2   Invalid numeric expressions.  This is enabled by default.

       range	      64   Out of range arguments.

       reg	    1024   Use of undefined number registers.  When an undefined number  register
			   is  used, that register is automatically defined to have a value of 0.
			   So, in most cases, at most one warning will be given for use of a par-
			   ticular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale	      32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space	   65536   Missing space between a request or macro and its argument.  This warn-
			   ing will be given when an undefined name longer than two characters is
			   encountered,  and  the first two characters of the name make a defined
			   name.  The request or macro will not be invoked.  When this warning is
			   given, no macro is automatically defined.  This is enabled by default.
			   This warning will never occur in compatibility mode.

       syntax	     128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab	    2048   Inappropriate use of a tab character.  Either use of a  tab	character
			   where  a  number  was expected, or use of tab character in an unquoted
			   macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this covers all warnings
	      that are useful with traditional macro packages.

       w      All warnings.

ENVIRONMENT
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH
	      A  colon	separated  list of directories in which to search for macro files.  troff
	      will scan directories given in the -M option before these, and in standard directo-
	      ries  (current  directory  if  in unsafe mode, home directory, /usr/lib/groff/site-
	      tmac, /usr/share/groff/site-tmac, /usr/share/groff/1.21/tmac) after these.

       GROFF_TYPESETTER
	      Default device.

       GROFF_FONT_PATH
	      A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the devname directory.
	      troff  will  scan  directories given in the -F option before these, and in standard
	      directories (/usr/share/groff/site-font, /usr/share/groff/1.21/font, /usr/lib/font)
	      after these.

FILES
       /usr/share/groff/1.21/tmac/troffrc
	      Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

       /usr/share/groff/1.21/tmac/troffrc-end
	      Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

       /usr/share/groff/1.21/tmac/name.tmac
       /usr/share/groff/1.21/tmac/tmac.name
	      Macro files

       /usr/share/groff/1.21/font/devname/DESC
	      Device description file for device name.

       /usr/share/groff/1.21/font/devname/F
	      Font file for font F of device name.

       Note  that  troffrc  and  troffrc-end  are neither searched in the current nor in the home
       directory by default for security reasons (even if the -U option is given).   Use  the  -M
       command	line  option or the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these directories
       to the search path if necessary.

AUTHOR
       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free  Documentation  License)
       version	1.3  or  later.  You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is
       also available on-line at the GNU  copyleft  site  <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.
       This  document  was  written  by  James	Clark,	with  modifications  from  Werner Lemberg
       <wl@gnu.org> and Bernd Warken <bwarken@mayn.de>.

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.

SEE ALSO
         groff(1) 
	      The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

         groff(7) 
	      A description of the groff language, including a short but  complete  reference  of
	      all  predefined  requests, registers, and escapes of plain groff.  From the command
	      line, this is called by

		     man 7 groff

         groff_diff(7) 
	      The differences of the groff language and the classical troff language.  Currently,
	      this is the most actual document of the groff system.

         roff(7) 
	      An  overview  over  groff  and  other  roff  systems, including pointers to further
	      related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf.   info(1) , presents all groff documentation within a  single  docu-
       ment.

Groff Version 1.21			   07 June 2011 				   TROFF(1)
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