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FIND(1) 										  FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches the directory tree
       rooted at each given file name by evaluating the given  expression  from  left  to  right,
       according  to  the rules of precedence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome is known
       (the left hand side is false for and operations, true for or), at which point  find  moves
       on to the next file name.

       If  you	are  using find in an environment where security is important (for example if you
       are using it to search directories that are writable by other users), you should read  the
       "Security  Considerations" chapter of the findutils documentation, which is called Finding
       Files and comes with findutils.	 That document also includes a lot more detail	and  dis-
       cussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more useful source of information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links.  Command-line arguments
       following these are taken to be names of files or directories to be examined,  up  to  the
       first  argument	that  begins with `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any
       following arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is to be searched  for.
       If  no  paths  are  given,  the current directory is used.  If no expression is given, the
       expression -print is used (but you should probably consider using  -print0  instead,  any-
       way).

       This  manual page talks about `options' within the expression list.  These options control
       the behaviour of find but are specified immediately after the last path	name.	The  five
       `real' options -H, -L, -P, -D and -O must appear before the first path name, if at all.	A
       double dash -- can also be used to signal that any remaining  arguments	are  not  options
       (though ensuring that all start points begin with either `./' or `/' is generally safer if
       you use wildcards in the list of start points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This is the default behaviour.  When find examines or
	      prints  information  a  file, and the file is a symbolic link, the information used
	      shall be taken from the properties of the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information about  files,  the
	      information  used  shall be taken from the properties of the file to which the link
	      points, not from the link itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link  or  find  is
	      unable  to  examine the file to which the link points).  Use of this option implies
	      -noleaf.	If you later use the -P option, -noleaf will still be in effect.   If  -L
	      is  in  effect  and  find  discovers  a  symbolic link to a subdirectory during its
	      search, the subdirectory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

	      When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always match against  the
	      type of the file that a symbolic link points to rather than the link itself (unless
	      the symbolic link is broken).  Using -L causes the -lname  and  -ilname  predicates
	      always to return false.

       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the command line arguments.
	      When find examines or prints information about files, the information used shall be
	      taken from the properties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
	      behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a symbolic link, and  the
	      link can be resolved.  For that situation, the information used is taken from what-
	      ever the link points to (that is, the link is followed).	The information about the
	      link  itself is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the symbolic link can-
	      not be examined.	If -H is in effect and one of the paths specified on the  command
	      line  is	a  symbolic  link  to a directory, the contents of that directory will be
	      examined (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the others;  the	last  one
       appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it is the default, the -P option should
       be considered to be in effect unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing of the command line  itself,  before
       any  searching  has  begun.   These options also affect how those arguments are processed.
       Specifically, there are a number of tests that compare files listed on  the  command  line
       against a file we are currently considering.  In each case, the file specified on the com-
       mand line will have been examined and some of its properties will have been saved.  If the
       named  file  is	in fact a symbolic link, and the -P option is in effect (or if neither -H
       nor -L were specified), the information used for the comparison will  be  taken	from  the
       properties  of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties of the
       file the link points to.  If find cannot follow the  link  (for	example  because  it  has
       insufficient  privileges  or  the link points to a nonexistent file) the properties of the
       link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as	the  argument  of
       -newer  will  be  dereferenced, and the timestamp will be taken from the file to which the
       symbolic link points.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The -follow option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect at the  point  where
       it  appears (that is, if -L is not used but -follow is, any symbolic links appearing after
       -follow on the command line will be dereferenced, and those before it will not).

       -D debugoptions
	      Print diagnostic information; this can be helpful to  diagnose  problems	with  why
	      find  is	not doing what you want.  The list of debug options should be comma sepa-
	      rated.  Compatibility of the debug options is not guaranteed  between  releases  of
	      findutils.   For	a complete list of valid debug options, see the output of find -D
	      help.  Valid debug options include

	      help   Explain the debugging options

	      tree   Show the expression tree in its original and optimised form.

	      stat   Print messages as files are examined with the stat and lstat  system  calls.
		     The find program tries to minimise such calls.

	      opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to the optimisation of the expression
		     tree; see the -O option.

	      rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate succeeded or failed.

       -Olevel
	      Enables query optimisation.   The find program reorders tests to speed up execution
	      while  preserving the overall effect; that is, predicates with side effects are not
	      reordered relative to each other.  The optimisations performed at each optimisation
	      level are as follows.

	      0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

	      1      This  is  the  default optimisation level and corresponds to the traditional
		     behaviour.  Expressions are reordered so that tests based only on the  names
		     of files (for example -name and -regex) are performed first.

	      2      Any  -type  or  -xtype tests are performed after any tests based only on the
		     names of files, but before any  tests  that  require  information	from  the
		     inode.   On  many	modern versions of Unix, file types are returned by read-
		     dir() and so these predicates are faster to evaluate than	predicates  which
		     need to stat the file first.

	      3      At  this optimisation level, the full cost-based query optimiser is enabled.
		     The order of tests is modified so that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed
		     first  and  more  expensive  ones are performed later, if necessary.  Within
		     each cost band, predicates are  evaluated	earlier  or  later  according  to
		     whether  they  are  likely  to succeed or not.  For -o, predicates which are
		     likely to succeed are evaluated earlier, and for -a,  predicates  which  are
		     likely to fail are evaluated earlier.

	      The  cost-based  optimiser has a fixed idea of how likely any given test is to suc-
	      ceed.  In some cases the probability takes account of the specific  nature  of  the
	      test  (for  example, -type f is assumed to be more likely to succeed than -type c).
	      The cost-based optimiser is currently being evaluated.   If it  does  not  actually
	      improve  the  performance of find, it will be removed again.  Conversely, optimisa-
	      tions that prove to be reliable, robust and effective may be enabled at lower opti-
	      misation levels over time.  However, the default behaviour (i.e. optimisation level
	      1) will not be changed in the 4.3.x release series.  The findutils test suite  runs
	      all the tests on find at each optimisation level and ensures that the result is the
	      same.

EXPRESSIONS
       The expression is made up of options (which affect overall operation rather than the  pro-
       cessing	of  a specific file, and always return true), tests (which return a true or false
       value), and actions (which have side effects and return a true or false value), all  sepa-
       rated by operators.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.

       If  the expression contains no actions other than -prune, -print is performed on all files
       for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.	Except for -daystart, -follow and -regextype, the options
       affect  all  tests,  including  tests  specified  before  the option.  This is because the
       options are processed when the command line is parsed, while the tests don't  do  anything
       until  files are examined.  The -daystart, -follow and -regextype options are different in
       this respect, and have an effect only on tests which appear later  in  the  command  line.
       Therefore,  for	clarity,  it is best to place them at the beginning of the expression.	A
       warning is issued if you don't do this.

       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD, MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -daystart
	      Measure times (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and -mtime) from the begin-
	      ning  of today rather than from 24 hours ago.  This option only affects tests which
	      appear later on the command line.

       -depth Process each directory's contents before the directory itself.  The -delete  action
	      also implies -depth.

       -follow
	      Deprecated;  use	the  -L  option  instead.   Dereference  symbolic links.  Implies
	      -noleaf.	The -follow option affects only those tests which appear after it on  the
	      command  line.   Unless the -H or -L option has been specified, the position of the
	      -follow option changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files  listed  as
	      the  argument  of -newer will be dereferenced if they are symbolic links.  The same
	      consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type pred-
	      icate will always match against the type of the file that a symbolic link points to
	      rather than the link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname  and  -ilname  predi-
	      cates always to return false.

       -help, --help
	      Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
	      Normally,  find  will  emit  an error message when it fails to stat a file.  If you
	      give this option and a file is deleted between the time find reads the name of  the
	      file  from  the  directory and the time it tries to stat the file, no error message
	      will be issued.	 This also applies to files or directories whose names are  given
	      on  the  command	line.	This  option takes effect at the time the command line is
	      read, which means that you cannot search one  part  of  the  filesystem  with  this
	      option  on  and  part  of it with this option off (if you need to do that, you will
	      need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
	      Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels  of  directories  below  the
	      command line arguments.  -maxdepth 0
	       means only apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.

       -mindepth levels
	      Do  not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a non-negative inte-
	      ger).  -mindepth 1 means process all files except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't descend directories on other filesystems.  An alternate name for  -xdev,  for
	      compatibility with some other versions of find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
	      Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
	      Do  not  optimize  by assuming that directories contain 2 fewer subdirectories than
	      their hard link count.  This option is needed when searching  filesystems  that  do
	      not follow the Unix directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
	      or AFS volume mount points.  Each directory on a	normal	Unix  filesystem  has  at
	      least  2 hard links: its name and its `.'  entry.  Additionally, its subdirectories
	      (if any) each have a `..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is	examining
	      a  directory, after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the directory's link
	      count, it knows that the rest of the entries in the directory  are  non-directories
	      (`leaf'  files  in  the directory tree).	If only the files' names need to be exam-
	      ined, there is no need to stat them; this gives a significant  increase  in  search
	      speed.

       -regextype type
	      Changes  the regular expression syntax understood by -regex and -iregex tests which
	      occur later on the command line.	Currently-implemented types are  emacs	(this  is
	      the default), posix-awk, posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.

       -version, --version
	      Print the find version number and exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
	      Turn  warning  messages  on  or off.  These warnings apply only to the command line
	      usage, not to any conditions that find might encounter when  it  searches  directo-
	      ries.   The  default behaviour corresponds to -warn if standard input is a tty, and
	      to -nowarn otherwise.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some tests, for example -newerXY and -samefile, allow comparison  between  the  file  cur-
       rently  being  examined and some reference file specified on the command line.  When these
       tests are used, the interpretation of the reference file is determined by the options  -H,
       -L  and	-P and any previous -follow, but the reference file is only examined once, at the
       time the command line is parsed.  If the reference file cannot be examined  (for  example,
       the  stat(2)  system call fails for it), an error message is issued, and find exits with a
       nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
	      File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
	      File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a symbolic
	      link  and  the -H option or the -L option is in effect, the access time of the file
	      it points to is always used.

       -atime n
	      File was last accessed n*24 hours ago.  When find  figures  out  how  many  24-hour
	      periods ago the file was last accessed, any fractional part is ignored, so to match
	      -atime +1, a file has to have been accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
	      File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
	      File's status was last changed more recently than file was modified.  If file is	a
	      symbolic	link  and  the -H option or the -L option is in effect, the status-change
	      time of the file it points to is always used.

       -ctime n
	      File's status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See  the	comments  for  -atime  to
	      understand how rounding affects the interpretation of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
	      Matches  files which are executable and directories which are searchable (in a file
	      name resolution sense).  This takes into account access  control	lists  and  other
	      permissions  artefacts  which  the  -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the
	      access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping (or
	      root-squashing),	since many systems implement access(2) in the client's kernel and
	      so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.  Because this
	      test  is based only on the result of the access(2) system call, there is no guaran-
	      tee that a file for which this test succeeds can actually be executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
	      File is on a filesystem of type type.  The valid filesystem types vary  among  dif-
	      ferent  versions	of Unix; an incomplete list of filesystem types that are accepted
	      on some version of Unix or another is: ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp,  mfs,  S51K,  S52K.
	      You can use -printf with the %F directive to see the types of your filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
	      File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
	      Like  -lname,  but  the match is case insensitive.  If the -L option or the -follow
	      option is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
	      Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the patterns `fo*' and
	      `F??'  match  the  file names `Foo', `FOO', `foo', `fOo', etc.   In these patterns,
	      unlike filename expansion by the shell, an initial '.' can be matched by `*'.  That
	      is,  find  -name	*bar will match the file `.foobar'.   Please note that you should
	      quote patterns as a matter of course, otherwise the shell will expand any  wildcard
	      characters in them.

       -inum n
	      File has inode number n.	It is normally easier to use the -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
	      Behaves  in  the	same way as -iwholename.  This option is deprecated, so please do
	      not use it.

       -iregex pattern
	      Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
	      Like -wholename, but the match is case insensitive.

       -links n
	      File has n links.

       -lname pattern
	      File is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pattern.  The	metachar-
	      acters  do  not treat `/' or `.' specially.  If the -L option or the -follow option
	      is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
	      File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
	      File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.   See  the	comments  for  -atime  to
	      understand how rounding affects the interpretation of file modification times.

       -name pattern
	      Base  of	file  name  (the path with the leading directories removed) matches shell
	      pattern pattern.	The metacharacters (`*', `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the  start
	      of  the  base name (this is a change in findutils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CON-
	      FORMANCE below).	To ignore a directory and the files under it, use -prune; see  an
	      example  in  the description of -path.  Braces are not recognised as being special,
	      despite the fact that some shells including Bash imbue braces with a special  mean-
	      ing  in  shell  patterns.   The  filename matching is performed with the use of the
	      fnmatch(3) library function.   Don't forget to enclose the  pattern  in  quotes  in
	      order to protect it from expansion by the shell.

       -newer file
	      File  was  modified more recently than file.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H
	      option or the -L option is in effect, the modification time of the file  it  points
	      to is always used.

       -newerXY reference
	      Compares	the timestamp of the current file with reference.  The reference argument
	      is normally the name of a file (and one of its timestamps is used for the  compari-
	      son)  but  it may also be a string describing an absolute time.  X and Y are place-
	      holders for other letters, and these letters select which  time  belonging  to  how
	      reference is used for the comparison.

	      a   The access time of the file reference
	      B   The birth time of the file reference
	      c   The inode status change time of reference
	      m   The modification time of the file reference
	      t   reference is interpreted directly as a time

	      Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for X to be t.	Some com-
	      binations are not implemented on all systems; for example B is not supported on all
	      systems.	 If  an  invalid  or  unsupported combination of XY is specified, a fatal
	      error results.  Time specifications are interpreted as for the argument to  the  -d
	      option  of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth time of a reference file, and the
	      birth time cannot be determined, a fatal error message results.  If you  specify	a
	      test  which  refers  to the birth time of files being examined, this test will fail
	      for any files where the birth time is unknown.

       -nogroup
	      No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
	      No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
	      File name matches shell pattern pattern.	The metacharacters do not  treat  `/'  or
	      `.' specially; so, for example,
			find . -path "./sr*sc"
	      will print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if one exists).	To ignore
	      a whole directory tree, use -prune rather than checking every  file  in  the  tree.
	      For  example, to skip the directory `src/emacs' and all files and directories under
	      it, and print the names of the other files found, do something like this:
			find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
	      Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name, starting from  one
	      of  the start points named on the command line.  It would only make sense to use an
	      absolute path name here if the relevant start point is also an absolute path.  This
	      means that this command will never match anything:
			find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
	      The  predicate  -path  is also supported by HP-UX find and will be in a forthcoming
	      version of the POSIX standard.

       -perm mode
	      File's permission bits are exactly mode (octal or symbolic).  Since an exact  match
	      is required, if you want to use this form for symbolic modes, you may have to spec-
	      ify a rather complex mode string.  For example -perm  g=w  will  only  match  files
	      which  have  mode  0020 (that is, ones for which group write permission is the only
	      permission set).	It is more likely that you will want to use the `/' or `-' forms,
	      for  example  -perm  -g=w, which matches any file with group write permission.  See
	      the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
	      All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are  accepted
	      in  this	form,  and  this is usually the way in which would want to use them.  You
	      must specify `u', `g' or `o' if you use a symbolic mode.	 See the EXAMPLES section
	      for some illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
	      Any  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are accepted
	      in this form.  You must specify `u', `g' or `o' if you use a  symbolic  mode.   See
	      the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in mode
	      are set, this test matches any file (the idea here is to be consistent with the be-
	      haviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
	      Deprecated,  old way of searching for files with any of the permission bits in mode
	      set.  You should use -perm /mode instead. Trying to use the `+'  syntax  with  sym-
	      bolic modes will yield surprising results.  For example, `+u+x' is a valid symbolic
	      mode (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will therefore not be evaluated as  -perm
	      +mode  but  instead  as the exact mode specifier -perm mode and so it matches files
	      with exact permissions 0111 instead of files with any  execute  bit  set.   If  you
	      found this paragraph confusing, you're not alone - just use -perm /mode.	This form
	      of the -perm test is deprecated because the POSIX specification requires the inter-
	      pretation  of a leading `+' as being part of a symbolic mode, and so we switched to
	      using `/' instead.

       -readable
	      Matches files which are readable.  This takes into account access control lists and
	      other  permissions  artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of
	      the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping
	      (or  root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's kernel
	      and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.

       -regex pattern
	      File name matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match on the  whole  path,
	      not a search.  For example, to match a file named `./fubar3', you can use the regu-
	      lar expression `.*bar.' or `.*b.*3', but	not  `f.*r3'.	The  regular  expressions
	      understood  by  find  are  by  default  Emacs  Regular Expressions, but this can be
	      changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
	      File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is in  effect,  this  can  include
	      symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
	      File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

	      `b'    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is used)

	      `c'    for bytes

	      `w'    for two-byte words

	      `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

	      `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

	      `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

	      The  size  does not count indirect blocks, but it does count blocks in sparse files
	      that are not actually allocated.	Bear in mind that the `%k' and `%b' format speci-
	      fiers  of  -printf  handle sparse files differently.  The `b' suffix always denotes
	      512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is different to the behaviour of
	      -ls.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
	      File is of type c:

	      b      block (buffered) special

	      c      character (unbuffered) special

	      d      directory

	      p      named pipe (FIFO)

	      f      regular file

	      l      symbolic  link; this is never true if the -L option or the -follow option is
		     in effect, unless the symbolic link is broken.  If you want  to  search  for
		     symbolic links when -L is in effect, use -xtype.

	      s      socket

	      D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
	      File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
	      File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
	      See -path.    This alternative is less portable than -path.

       -writable
	      Matches files which are writable.  This takes into account access control lists and
	      other permissions artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes  use  of
	      the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping
	      (or root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's  kernel
	      and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.

       -xtype c
	      The  same  as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For symbolic links: if the
	      -H or -P option was specified, true if the file is a link to a file of type  c;  if
	      the  -L  option  has  been  given,  true if c is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic
	      links, -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
	      Delete files; true if removal succeeded.	If the removal failed, an  error  message
	      is  issued.   If -delete fails, find's exit status will be nonzero (when it eventu-
	      ally exits).  Use of -delete automatically turns on the -depth option.

	      Warnings: Don't forget that the find command line is evaluated as an expression, so
	      putting  -delete	first  will make find try to delete everything below the starting
	      points you specified.  When testing a find command line that you	later  intend  to
	      use with -delete, you should explicitly specify -depth in order to avoid later sur-
	      prises.  Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete
	      together.

       -exec command ;
	      Execute command; true if 0 status is returned.  All following arguments to find are
	      taken to be arguments to the command until an argument consisting of `;' is encoun-
	      tered.  The string `{}' is replaced by the current file name being processed every-
	      where it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments where it  is
	      alone,  as  in some versions of find.  Both of these constructions might need to be
	      escaped (with a `\') or quoted to protect them from expansion by	the  shell.   See
	      the  EXAMPLES  section  for examples of the use of the -exec option.  The specified
	      command is run once for each matched file.  The command is executed in the starting
	      directory.    There  are unavoidable security problems surrounding use of the -exec
	      action; you should use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
	      This variant of the -exec action runs the specified command on the selected  files,
	      but  the command line is built by appending each selected file name at the end; the
	      total number of invocations of the command will be much less  than  the  number  of
	      matched  files.	The  command line is built in much the same way that xargs builds
	      its command lines.  Only one instance of `{}' is allowed within the  command.   The
	      command is executed in the starting directory.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
	      Like  -exec,  but the specified command is run from the subdirectory containing the
	      matched file, which is not normally the directory in which you started find.   This
	      a  much more secure method for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions dur-
	      ing resolution of the paths to the matched files.  As with the  -exec  action,  the
	      `+'  form  of  -execdir  will build a command line to process more than one matched
	      file, but any given invocation of command will only list files that  exist  in  the
	      same  subdirectory.   If you use this option, you must ensure that your $PATH envi-
	      ronment variable does not reference `.'; otherwise, an attacker can  run	any  com-
	      mands  they like by leaving an appropriately-named file in a directory in which you
	      will run -execdir.  The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are empty  or
	      which are not absolute directory names.

       -fls file
	      True;  like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always created,
	      even if the predicate is never matched.  See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for
	      information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
	      True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not exist when find is
	      run, it is created; if it does exist, it is truncated.  The file names  ``/dev/std-
	      out''  and ``/dev/stderr'' are handled specially; they refer to the standard output
	      and standard error output, respectively.	The output file is always  created,  even
	      if  the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for informa-
	      tion about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
	      True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always  cre-
	      ated,  even  if  the predicate is never matched.	See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section
	      for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
	      True; like -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always  cre-
	      ated,  even  if  the predicate is never matched.	See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section
	      for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ls    True; list current file in ls -dils format on standard output.   The  block  counts
	      are  of 1K blocks, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which
	      case 512-byte blocks are used.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section  for  information
	      about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
	      Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the command.	Otherwise
	      just return false.  If the command is run, its standard input  is  redirected  from
	      /dev/null.

	      The  response  to  the  prompt  is matched against a pair of regular expressions to
	      determine if it is an affirmative or negative response.  This regular expression is
	      obtained	from  the system if the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, or
	      otherwise from find's message translations.  If the system has no suitable  defini-
	      tion,  find's  own definition will be used.   In either case, the interpretation of
	      the regular expression  itself  will  be	affected  by  the  environment	variables
	      'LC_CTYPE'  (character  classes) and 'LC_COLLATE' (character ranges and equivalence
	      classes).

       -okdir command ;
	      Like -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.	If the user  does
	      not  agree,  just return false.  If the command is run, its standard input is redi-
	      rected from /dev/null.

       -print True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a newline.    If
	      you  are	piping	the output of find into another program and there is the faintest
	      possibility that the files which you are searching for  might  contain  a  newline,
	      then you should seriously consider using the -print0 option instead of -print.  See
	      the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in file-
	      names are handled.

       -print0
	      True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character
	      (instead of the newline character that -print uses).  This allows file  names  that
	      contain  newlines or other types of white space to be correctly interpreted by pro-
	      grams that process the find output.  This option corresponds to the  -0  option  of
	      xargs.

       -printf format
	      True;  print format on the standard output, interpreting `\' escapes and `%' direc-
	      tives.  Field widths and precisions can be specified as with the `printf'  C  func-
	      tion.   Please  note  that many of the fields are printed as %s rather than %d, and
	      this may mean that flags don't work as you might expect.	This also means that  the
	      `-'  flag  does work (it forces fields to be left-aligned).  Unlike -print, -printf
	      does not add a newline at the end of the string.	The escapes and directives are:

	      \a     Alarm bell.

	      \b     Backspace.

	      \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush the output.

	      \f     Form feed.

	      \n     Newline.

	      \r     Carriage return.

	      \t     Horizontal tab.

	      \v     Vertical tab.

	      \0     ASCII NUL.

	      \\     A literal backslash (`\').

	      \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

	      A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an	ordinary  charac-
	      ter, so they both are printed.

	      %%     A literal percent sign.

	      %a     File's last access time in the format returned by the C `ctime' function.

	      %Ak    File's last access time in the format specified by k, which is either `@' or
		     a directive for the C `strftime' function.  The possible values  for  k  are
		     listed  below;  some  of  them might not be available on all systems, due to
		     differences in `strftime' between systems.

		     @	    seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with fractional part.

		     Time fields:

		     H	    hour (00..23)

		     I	    hour (01..12)

		     k	    hour ( 0..23)

		     l	    hour ( 1..12)

		     M	    minute (00..59)

		     p	    locale's AM or PM

		     r	    time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

		     S	    Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There is a fractional part.

		     T	    time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

		     +	    Date and time, separated by `+', for example `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.
			    This  is  a GNU extension.	The time is given in the current timezone
			    (which may be affected by setting the TZ environment variable).   The
			    seconds field includes a fractional part.

		     X	    locale's time representation (H:M:S)

		     Z	    time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable

		     Date fields:

		     a	    locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

		     A	    locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday)

		     b	    locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

		     B	    locale's full month name, variable length (January..December)

		     c	    locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989).  The format is
			    the same as for ctime(3) and so to preserve compatibility  with  that
			    format, there is no fractional part in the seconds field.

		     d	    day of month (01..31)

		     D	    date (mm/dd/yy)

		     h	    same as b

		     j	    day of year (001..366)

		     m	    month (01..12)

		     U	    week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)

		     w	    day of week (0..6)

		     W	    week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53)

		     x	    locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

		     y	    last two digits of year (00..99)

		     Y	    year (1970...)

	      %b     The  amount  of disk space used for this file in 512-byte blocks. Since disk
		     space is allocated in multiples of the filesystem block size this is usually
		     greater  than  %s/512,  but  it  can also be smaller if the file is a sparse
		     file.

	      %c     File's last status change time in the format returned by the C `ctime' func-
		     tion.

	      %Ck    File's  last  status  change time in the format specified by k, which is the
		     same as for %A.

	      %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a command line argu-
		     ment.

	      %D     The  device  number  on  which  the  file exists (the st_dev field of struct
		     stat), in decimal.

	      %f     File's name with any leading directories removed (only the last element).

	      %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for -fstype.

	      %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

	      %G     File's numeric group ID.

	      %h     Leading directories of file's name (all but the last element).  If the  file
		     name contains no slashes (since it is in the current directory) the %h spec-
		     ifier expands to ".".

	      %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

	      %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

	      %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks. Since  disk  space
		     is  allocated  in	multiples  of  the  filesystem block size this is usually
		     greater than %s/1024, but it can also be smaller if the  file  is	a  sparse
		     file.

	      %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic link).

	      %m     File's  permission bits (in octal).  This option uses the `traditional' num-
		     bers which most Unix implementations use, but if your particular implementa-
		     tion uses an unusual ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see a dif-
		     ference between the actual value of the file's mode and the  output  of  %m.
		     Normally  you  will  want	to  have a leading zero on this number, and to do
		     this, you should use the # flag (as in, for example, `%#m').

	      %M     File's permissions (in symbolic form, as for ls).	This  directive  is  sup-
		     ported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

	      %n     Number of hard links to file.

	      %p     File's name.

	      %P     File's  name  with  the name of the command line argument under which it was
		     found removed.

	      %s     File's size in bytes.

	      %S     File's sparseness.  This is calculated as (BLOCKSIZE*st_blocks  /	st_size).
		     The  exact  value	you  will get for an ordinary file of a certain length is
		     system-dependent.	However, normally sparse files will have values less than
		     1.0,  and	files which use indirect blocks may have a value which is greater
		     than 1.0.	 The value used for BLOCKSIZE is system-dependent, but is usually
		     512  bytes.    If the file size is zero, the value printed is undefined.  On
		     systems which lack support for st_blocks, a file's sparseness is assumed  to
		     be 1.0.

	      %t     File's  last modification time in the format returned by the C `ctime' func-
		     tion.

	      %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified by  k,  which  is  the
		     same as for %A.

	      %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

	      %U     File's numeric user ID.

	      %y     File's type (like in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't happen)

	      %Y     File's type (like %y), plus follow symlinks: L=loop, N=nonexistent

	      A `%' character followed by any other character is discarded, but the other charac-
	      ter is printed (don't rely on this, as further  format  characters  may  be  intro-
	      duced).	A  `%' at the end of the format argument causes undefined behaviour since
	      there is no following character.	In some locales, it  may  hide	your  door  keys,
	      while in others it may remove the final page from the novel you are reading.

	      The %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the other directives do
	      not, even if they print numbers.	Numeric directives  that  do  not  support  these
	      flags  include  G,  U, b, D, k and n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes
	      the alignment of a field from right-justified (which is the default) to left-justi-
	      fied.

	      See  the	UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in
	      filenames are handled.

       -prune True; if the file is a directory, do not descend	into  it.  If  -depth  is  given,
	      false;  no  effect.  Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune
	      and -delete together.

       -quit  Exit immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but no more paths spec-
	      ified  on  the command line will be processed.  For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar
	      -print -quit will print only /tmp/foo.  Any command lines which have been built  up
	      with  -execdir ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The exit status may or
	      may not be zero, depending on whether an error has already occurred.

   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many of the actions of find result in the printing of data which is under the  control  of
       other  users.   This  includes  file  names, sizes, modification times and so forth.  File
       names are a potential problem since they can contain any character except  `\0'	and  `/'.
       Unusual	characters  in	file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things to your
       terminal (for example, changing the settings of your function  keys  on	some  terminals).
       Unusual characters are handled differently by various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
	      Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output is going to a termi-
	      nal.

       -ls, -fls
	      Unusual characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash,  and  double  quote
	      characters  are  printed	using  C-style	escaping (for example `\f', `\"').  Other
	      unusual characters are printed using an octal escape.  Other  printable  characters
	      (for  -ls and -fls these are the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are printed
	      as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
	      If the output is not going to a terminal, it  is	printed  as-is.   Otherwise,  the
	      result  depends  on  which directive is in use.  The directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H,
	      %Y, and %y expand to values which are not under control of files'  owners,  and  so
	      are  printed  as-is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s, %t, %u
	      and %U have values which are under the control of files' owners but which cannot be
	      used  to	send arbitrary data to the terminal, and so these are printed as-is.  The
	      directives %f, %h, %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same
	      way  as for GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as the one used for -ls
	      and -fls.  If you are able to decide what format to use for the output of find then
	      it  is  normally	better	to  use `\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as file
	      names can  contain  white  space	and  newline  characters.   The  setting  of  the
	      `LC_CTYPE'  environment  variable  is used to determine which characters need to be
	      quoted.

       -print, -fprint
	      Quoting is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.  If you  are  using
	      find  in	a  script  or in a situation where the matched files might have arbitrary
	      names, you should consider using -print0 instead of -print.

       The -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may change in a  future
       release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
	      Force  precedence.   Since  parentheses are special to the shell, you will normally
	      need to quote them.  Many of the examples in this manual page use  backslashes  for
	      this purpose: `\(...\)' instead of `(...)'.

       ! expr True  if	expr  is  false.   This  character will also usually need protection from
	      interpretation by the shell.

       -not expr
	      Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
	      Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied "and"; expr2 is not
	      evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
	      Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
	      Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
	      List;  both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of expr1 is discarded;
	      the value of the list is the value of expr2. The comma operator can be  useful  for
	      searching for several different types of thing, but traversing the filesystem hier-
	      archy only once.	The -fprintf action can be used to list the various matched items
	      into several different output files.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For  closest compliance to the POSIX standard, you should set the POSIXLY_CORRECT environ-
       ment variable.  The following options are  specified  in  the  POSIX  standard  (IEEE  Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This option is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the POSIX conformance of
	      the system's fnmatch(3) library function.  As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharac-
	      ters  (`*',  `?'	or  `[]' for example) will match a leading `.', because IEEE PASC
	      interpretation 126 requires this.   This is a  change  from  previous  versions  of
	      findutils.

       -type  Supported.    POSIX  specifies `b', `c', `d', `l', `p', `f' and `s'.  GNU find also
	      supports `D', representing a Door, where the OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.  Interpretation of the response is according to the "yes" and "no"  pat-
	      terns  selected  by  setting  the  `LC_MESSAGES'	environment  variable.	 When the
	      `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, these patterns  are  taken  system's
	      definition of a positive (yes) or negative (no) response. See the system's documen-
	      tation for nl_langinfo(3), in particular YESEXPR and NOEXPR.    When  `POSIXLY_COR-
	      RECT' is not set, the patterns are instead taken from find's own message catalogue.

       -newer Supported.   If  the  file specified is a symbolic link, it is always dereferenced.
	      This is a change from previous behaviour, which used to take the relevant time from
	      the symbolic link; see the HISTORY section below.

       -perm  Supported.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is not set, some mode argu-
	      ments (for example +a+x) which are not valid in POSIX are supported  for	backward-
	      compatibility.

       Other predicates
	      The  predicates  -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group, -links, -mtime, -nogroup, -nouser,
	      -print, -prune, -size, -user and -xdev are all supported.

       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and  the  `and'	and  `or'
       operators ( -a, -o).

       All  other  options,  predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions beyond the POSIX
       standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

	      The find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering a  previously  vis-
	      ited directory that is an ancestor of the last file encountered. When it detects an
	      infinite loop, find shall write a diagnostic message to standard	error  and  shall
	      either recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU  find  complies  with these requirements.  The link count of directories which contain
       entries which are hard links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should
       be.   This can mean that GNU find will sometimes optimise away the visiting of a subdirec-
       tory which is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not actually enter  such	a
       subdirectory,  it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic message.  Although this behav-
       iour may be somewhat confusing, it is unlikely that anybody actually depends on	this  be-
       haviour.   If  the leaf optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the directory entry
       will always be examined and the diagnostic message will be issued where it is appropriate.
       Symbolic links cannot be used to create filesystem cycles as such, but if the -L option or
       the -follow option is in use, a diagnostic message is issued when find encounters  a  loop
       of  symbolic links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will often
       mean that find knows that it doesn't need to call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic  link,
       so this diagnostic is frequently not necessary.

       The  -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems, but you should use
       the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable does not affect the behaviour of  the  -regex  or
       -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides	a  default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
	      null.

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the  other  interna-
	      tionalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
	      The  POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pattern matching to be
	      used for the -name option.   GNU find uses the fnmatch(3) library function, and  so
	      support  for  `LC_COLLATE'  depends  on  the  system library.    This variable also
	      affects the interpretation of the response to -ok; while the `LC_MESSAGES' variable
	      selects  the  actual pattern used to interpret the response to -ok, the interpreta-
	      tion of any bracket expressions in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
	      This variable affects the treatment of character classes used  in  regular  expres-
	      sions  and  also	with  the -name test, if the system's fnmatch(3) library function
	      supports this.  This variable also affects  the  interpretation  of  any	character
	      classes  in  the	regular  expressions used to interpret the response to the prompt
	      issued by -ok.  The `LC_CTYPE' environment variable will also affect which  charac-
	      ters  are  considered to be unprintable when filenames are printed; see the section
	      UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determines  the  locale  to  be  used  for  internationalised  messages.	 If   the
	      `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, this also determines the interpreta-
	      tion of the response to the prompt made by the -ok action.

       NLSPATH
	      Determines the location of the internationalisation message catalogues.

       PATH   Affects the directories which are searched  to  find  the  executables  invoked  by
	      -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	      Determines  the block size used by -ls and -fls.	If POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, blocks
	      are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they are units of 1024 bytes.

	      Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that is, implies -nowarn) by
	      default,	because  POSIX	requires that apart from the output for -ok, all messages
	      printed on stderr are diagnostics and must result in a non-zero exit status.

	      When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like -perm /zzz if +zzz
	      is  not  a  valid  symbolic mode.  When POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are
	      treated as an error.

	      When POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the response to the prompt made by the -ok  action  is
	      interpreted according to the system's message catalogue, as opposed to according to
	      find's own message translations.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for  some  of	the  time-related  format  directives  of
	      -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.  Note that this will
       work incorrectly if there are any filenames containing newlines, single or double  quotes,
       or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them, processing filenames
       in such a way that file or directory names containing single or double quotes,  spaces  or
       newlines  are  correctly  handled.  The -name test comes before the -type test in order to
       avoid having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs `file' on every file in or below the current directory.  Notice that the  braces  are
       enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from interpretation as shell script punctu-
       ation.  The semicolon is similarly protected by the use	of  a  backslash,  though  single
       quotes could have been used in that case also.

       find / \
       \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt %#m %u %p\n \) , \
       \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt %-10s %p\n \)

       Traverse   the	filesystem   just   once,  listing  setuid  files  and	directories  into
       /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the	last  twenty-four
       hours.	This command works this way because the time since each file was last modified is
       divided by 24 hours and any remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0,	a
       file will have to have a modification in the past which is less than 24 hours ago.

       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print

       Search for files which are executable but not readable.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for  files  which  have	read and write permission for their owner, and group, but
       which other users can read but not write to.  Files which meet  these  criteria	but  have
       other  permissions  bits  set  (for  example  if someone can execute the file) will not be
       matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for their owner and group, and which
       other  users  can  read,  without regard to the presence of any extra permission bits (for
       example the executable bit).  This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their group,  or  anybody
       else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All  three of these commands do the same thing, but the first one uses the octal represen-
       tation of the file mode, and the other two use the  symbolic  form.   These  commands  all
       search for files which are writable by either their owner or their group.  The files don't
       have to be writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same thing; search for files which are writable by  both  their
       owner and their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands both search for files that are readable for everybody ( -perm -444 or
       -perm -a+r), have at least one write bit set ( -perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not  exe-
       cutable for anybody ( ! -perm /111 and ! -perm /a+x respectively).

       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits files and directo-
       ries named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It also omits  files  or  directories  whose
       name  ends  in  ~,  but	not their contents.  The construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is
       quite common.  The idea here is that the expression before -prune matches things which are
       to be pruned.  However, the -prune action itself returns true, so the following -o ensures
       that the right hand side is evaluated only for those directories which didn't  get  pruned
       (the contents of the pruned directories are not even visited, so their contents are irrel-
       evant).	The expression on the right hand side of the -o is in parentheses only for  clar-
       ity.   It  emphasises that the -print0 action takes place only for things that didn't have
       -prune applied to them.	Because the default `and'  condition  between  tests  binds  more
       tightly	than  -o,  this  is  the default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what is
       going on.

       find repo/ -exec test -d {}/.svn -o -d {}/.git -o -d {}/CVS ; \
       -print -prune

       Given the following directory of projects and their associated SCM administrative directo-
       ries, perform an efficient search for the projects' roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In  this  example,  -prune prevents unnecessary descent into directories that have already
       been discovered (for example we do  not	search	project3/src  because  we  already  found
       project3/.svn), but ensures sibling directories (project2 and project3) are found.

EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0 if all files are processed successfully, greater than 0 if errors
       occur.	This is deliberately a very broad description, but if the return  value  is  non-
       zero, you should not rely on the correctness of the results of find.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1),  locatedb(5),  updatedb(1),  xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3), regex(7), stat(2),
       lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3), Finding  Files  (on-line  in	Info,  or
       printed).

HISTORY
       As  of  findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for example) used in file-
       name patterns will match a leading `.', because IEEE  POSIX  interpretation  126  requires
       this.

       The  syntax  -perm +MODE was deprecated in findutils-4.2.21, in favour of -perm /MODE.  As
       of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches all files instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a nonzero value when
       it  fails.   However,  find will not exit immediately.  Previously, find's exit status was
       unaffected by the failure of -delete.

       Feature		      Added in	 Also occurs in
       -newerXY 	      4.3.3	 BSD
       -D		      4.3.1
       -O		      4.3.1
       -readable	      4.3.0
       -writable	      4.3.0
       -executable	      4.3.0
       -regextype	      4.2.24
       -exec ... +	      4.2.12	 POSIX
       -execdir 	      4.2.12	 BSD
       -okdir		      4.2.12
       -samefile	      4.2.11
       -H		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -L		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -P		      4.2.5	 BSD
       -delete		      4.2.3
       -quit		      4.2.3
       -d		      4.2.3	 BSD
       -wholename	      4.2.0
       -iwholename	      4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls		      4.0

       -ilname		      3.8
       -iname		      3.8
       -ipath		      3.8
       -iregex		      3.8

NON-BUGS
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D help|tree|search|stat|rates|opt|exec] [path...] [expression]

       This happens because *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in find actually receiv-
       ing a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of doing things this way, you should
       enclose the pattern in quotes or escape the wildcard:
       $ find . -name \*.c -print


BUGS
       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour that the  POSIX  standard	specifies
       for  find,  which  therefore cannot be fixed.  For example, the -exec action is inherently
       insecure, and -execdir should be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more informa-
       tion.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

       The   best   way   to   report	a   bug   is   to   use   the	form   at   http://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.  The reason for this is that you will then be  able  to
       track  progress in fixing the problem.	Other comments about find(1) and about the findu-
       tils package in general can be sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the  list,
       send email to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

											  FIND(1)
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