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REFER(1)										 REFER(1)

       refer - find and insert literature references in documents

       refer [ -a ] [ -b ] [ -c ] [ -e ] [ -fn ] [ -kx ] [ -lm,n ] [ -n ] [ -p bib ] [ -skeys ] [
       -Bl.m ] [ -P ] [ -S ] [ file ... ]

       Refer is a preprocessor for nroff or troff(1) that finds and formats references for  foot-
       notes  or  endnotes.   It  is  also  the  base for a series of programs designed to index,
       search, sort, and print stand-alone bibliographies, or other data entered in the appropri-
       ate form.

       Given  an incomplete citation with sufficiently precise keywords, refer will search a bib-
       liographic database for references  containing  these  keywords	anywhere  in  the  title,
       author,	journal,  etc.	 The input file (or standard input) is copied to standard output,
       except for lines between .[ and .] delimiters, which are assumed to contain keywords,  and
       are  replaced  by  information  from the bibliographic database.  The user may also search
       different databases, override particular fields, or add new fields.  The  reference  data,
       from  whatever  source,	are  assigned  to a set of troff strings.  Macro packages such as
       ms(7) print the finished reference text from these strings.   By  default  references  are
       flagged by footnote numbers.

       The following options are available:

       -an   Reverse  the  first  n  author names (Jones, J. A. instead of J. A. Jones).  If n is
	     omitted all author names are reversed.

       -b    Bare mode: do not put any flags in text (neither numbers nor labels).

	     Capitalize (with CAPS SMALL CAPS) the fields whose key-letters are in keys.

       -e    Instead of leaving  the  references  where  encountered,  accumulate  them  until	a
	     sequence of the form
	     is encountered, and then write out all references collected so far.  Collapse refer-
	     ences to same source.

       -fn   Set the footnote number to n instead of the default of 1 (one).  With labels  rather
	     than numbers, this flag is a no-op.

       -kx   Instead  of  numbering  references, use labels as specified in a reference data line
	     beginning %x; by default x is L.

       -lm,n Instead of numbering references, use labels made from the senior author's last  name
	     and the year of publication.  Only the first m letters of the last name and the last
	     n digits of the date are used.  If either m or n is omitted the entire name or  date
	     respectively is used.

       -n    Do  not  search the default file /usr/dict/papers/Ind.  If there is a REFER environ-
	     ment variable, the specified file will be searched instead of the default	file;  in
	     this case the -n flag has no effect.

       -p bib
	     Take the next argument bib as a file of references to be searched.  The default file
	     is searched last.

	     Sort references by fields whose key-letters are in the keys string;  permute  refer-
	     ence  numbers in text accordingly.  Implies -e.  The key-letters in keys may be fol-
	     lowed by a number to indicate how many such fields are used, with + taken as a  very
	     large  number.  The default is AD which sorts on the senior author and then date; to
	     sort, for example, on all authors and then title, use -sA+T.

       -Bl.m Bibliography mode.  Take a file composed of records separated by  blank  lines,  and
	     turn  them  into  troff  input.   Label  l  will  be turned into the macro .m with l
	     defaulting to %X and .m defaulting to .AP (annotation paragraph).

       -P    Place punctuation marks .,:;?! after  the	reference  signal,  rather  than  before.
	     (Periods and commas used to be done with strings.)

       -S    Produce references in the Natural or Social Science format.

       To  use your own references, put them in the format described below.  They can be searched
       more rapidly by running indxbib(1) on them before using refer; failure to index results in
       a  linear search.  When refer is used with the eqn, neqn or tbl preprocessors refer should
       be first, to minimize the volume of data passed through pipes.

       The refer preprocessor and associated programs expect input from a file of references com-
       posed of records separated by blank lines.  A record is a set of lines (fields), each con-
       taining one kind of information.  Fields start on a line beginning with a ``%'',  followed
       by  a  key-letter, then a blank, and finally the contents of the field, and continue until
       the next line starting with ``%''.  The output ordering and formatting of fields  is  con-
       trolled	by  the  macros specified for nroff/troff (for footnotes and endnotes) or roffbib
       (for stand-alone bibliographies).  For a list of the most  common  key-letters  and  their
       corresponding fields, see addbib(1).  An example of a refer entry is given below.

       %A   M. E. Lesk
       %T   Some Applications of Inverted Indexes on the UNIX System
       %B   UNIX Programmer's Manual
       %V   2b
       %I   Bell Laboratories
       %C   Murray Hill, NJ
       %D   1978

       /usr/dict/papers  directory of default publication lists
       /usr/libexec/refer  directory of companion programs

       addbib(1), sortbib(1), roffbib(1), indxbib(1), lookbib(1)

       Mike Lesk

       Blank spaces at the end of lines in bibliography fields will cause the records to sort and
       reverse incorrectly.  Sorting large numbers of references causes a core dump.

7th Edition				 October 22, 1996				 REFER(1)
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