netstat - show network status
netstat [ -Aan ] [ -f address_family ] [ system ] [ core ]
netstat [ -himnrs ] [ -f address_family ] [ system ] [ core ]
netstat [ -n ] [ -I interface ] interval [ system ] [ core ]
The netstat command symbolically displays the contents of various network-related data
structures. There are a number of output formats, depending on the options for the infor-
mation presented. The first form of the command displays a list of active sockets for
each protocol. The second form presents the contents of one of the other network data
structures according to the option selected. Using the third form, with an interval spec-
ified, netstat will continuously display the information regarding packet traffic on the
configured network interfaces.
The options have the following meaning:
-A With the default display, show the address of any protocol control blocks associ-
ated with sockets; used for debugging.
-a With the default display, show the state of all sockets; normally sockets used by
server processes are not shown.
-h Show the state of the IMP host table.
-i Show the state of interfaces which have been auto-configured (interfaces statically
configured into a system, but not located at boot time are not shown).
Show information only about this interface; used with an interval as described
-m Show statistics recorded by the memory management routines (the network manages a
private pool of memory buffers).
-n Show network addresses as numbers (normally netstat interprets addresses and
attempts to display them symbolically). This option may be used with any of the
-s Show per-protocol statistics.
-r Show the routing tables. When -s is also present, show routing statistics instead.
Limit statistics or address control block reports to those of the specified
address family. The following address families are recognized: inet, for AF_INET,
ns, for AF_NS, and unix, for AF_UNIX.
The arguments, system and core allow substitutes for the defaults ``/vmunix'' and
The default display, for active sockets, shows the local and remote addresses, send and
receive queue sizes (in bytes), protocol, and the internal state of the protocol. Address
formats are of the form ``host.port'' or ``network.port'' if a socket's address specifies
a network but no specific host address. When known the host and network addresses are
displayed symbolically according to the data bases /etc/hosts and /etc/networks, respec-
tively. If a symbolic name for an address is unknown, or if the -n option is specified,
the address is printed numerically, according to the address family. For more information
regarding the Internet ``dot format,'' refer to inet(3N). Unspecified, or ``wildcard'',
addresses and ports appear as ``*''.
The interface display provides a table of cumulative statistics regarding packets trans-
ferred, errors, and collisions. The network addresses of the interface and the maximum
transmission unit (``mtu'') are also displayed.
The routing table display indicates the available routes and their status. Each route
consists of a destination host or network and a gateway to use in forwarding packets. The
flags field shows the state of the route (``U'' if ``up''), whether the route is to a
gateway (``G''), and whether the route was created dynamically by a redirect (``D'').
Direct routes are created for each interface attached to the local host; the gateway field
for such entries shows the address of the outgoing interface. The refcnt field gives the
current number of active uses of the route. Connection oriented protocols normally hold
on to a single route for the duration of a connection while connectionless protocols
obtain a route while sending to the same destination. The use field provides a count of
the number of packets sent using that route. The interface entry indicates the network
interface utilized for the route.
When netstat is invoked with an interval argument, it displays a running count of statis-
tics related to network interfaces. This display consists of a column for the primary
interface (the first interface found during autoconfiguration) and a column summarizing
information for all interfaces. The primary interface may be replaced with another inter-
face with the -I option. The first line of each screen of information contains a summary
since the system was last rebooted. Subsequent lines of output show values accumulated
over the preceding interval.
iostat(1), vmstat(1), hosts(5), networks(5), protocols(5), services(5), trpt(8C)
The notion of errors is ill-defined. Collisions mean something else for the IMP.
4.2 Berkeley Distribution May 8, 1986 NETSTAT(1)