vmstat - report virtual memory statistics
vmstat [ -fsi ] [ drives ] [ interval [ count ] ]
Vmstat delves into the system and normally reports certain statistics kept about process,
virtual memory, disk, trap and cpu activity. If given a -f argument, it instead reports
on the number of forks and vforks since system startup and the number of pages of virtual
memory involved in each kind of fork. If given a -s argument, it instead prints the con-
tents of the sum structure, giving the total number of several kinds of paging related
events which have occurred since boot. If given a -i argument, it instead reports on the
number of interrupts taken by each device since system startup.
If none of these options are given, vmstat will report in the first line a summary of the
virtual memory activity since the system has been booted. If interval is specified, then
successive lines are summaries over the last interval seconds. ``vmstat 5'' will print
what the system is doing every five seconds; this is a good choice of printing interval
since this is how often some of the statistics are sampled in the system; others vary
every second, running the output for a while will make it apparent which are recomputed
every second. If a count is given, the statistics are repeated count times. The format
Procs: information about numbers of processes in various states.
r in run queue
b blocked for resources (i/o, paging, etc.)
w runnable or short sleeper (< 20 secs) but swapped
Memory: information about the usage of virtual and real memory. Virtual pages are consid-
ered active if they belong to processes which are running or have run in the last 20 sec-
onds. A ``page'' here is 1024 bytes.
avm active virtual pages
fre size of the free list
Page: information about page faults and paging activity. These are averaged each five
seconds, and given in units per second.
re page reclaims (simulating reference bits)
at pages attached (found in free list)
pi pages paged in
po pages paged out
fr pages freed per second
de anticipated short term memory shortfall
sr pages scanned by clock algorithm, per-second
up/hp/rk/ra: Disk operations per second (this field is system dependent). Typically pag-
ing will be split across several of the available drives. The number under each of these
is the unit number.
Faults: trap/interrupt rate averages per second over last 5 seconds.
in (non clock) device interrupts per second
sy system calls per second
cs cpu context switch rate (switches/sec)
Cpu: breakdown of percentage usage of CPU time
us user time for normal and low priority processes
sy system time
id cpu idle
If more than 4 disk drives are configured in the system, vmstat displays only the first 4
drives, with priority given to Massbus disk drives (i.e. if both Unibus and Massbus drives
are present and the total number of drives exceeds 4, then some number of Unibus drives
will not be displayed in favor of the Massbus drives). To force vmstat to display spe-
cific drives, their names may be supplied on the command line.
The sections starting with ``Interpreting system activity'' in Installing and Operating
4th Berkeley Distribution March 15, 1986 VMSTAT(1)