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vmstat(1) [bsd man page]

VMSTAT(1)						      General Commands Manual							 VMSTAT(1)

vmstat - report virtual memory statistics SYNOPSIS
vmstat [ -fsi ] [ drives ] [ interval [ count ] ] DESCRIPTION
Vmstat delves into the system and normally reports certain statistics kept about process, virtual memory, disk, trap and cpu activity. If given a -f argument, it instead reports on the number of forks and vforks since system startup and the number of pages of virtual memory involved in each kind of fork. If given a -s argument, it instead prints the contents of the sum structure, giving the total number of several kinds of paging related events which have occurred since boot. If given a -i argument, it instead reports on the number of inter- rupts taken by each device since system startup. If none of these options are given, vmstat will report in the first line a summary of the virtual memory activity since the system has been booted. If interval is specified, then successive lines are summaries over the last interval seconds. ``vmstat 5'' will print what the system is doing every five seconds; this is a good choice of printing interval since this is how often some of the statistics are sampled in the system; others vary every second, running the output for a while will make it apparent which are recomputed every second. If a count is given, the statistics are repeated count times. The format fields are: Procs: information about numbers of processes in various states. r in run queue b blocked for resources (i/o, paging, etc.) w runnable or short sleeper (< 20 secs) but swapped Memory: information about the usage of virtual and real memory. Virtual pages are considered active if they belong to processes which are running or have run in the last 20 seconds. A ``page'' here is 1024 bytes. avm active virtual pages fre size of the free list Page: information about page faults and paging activity. These are averaged each five seconds, and given in units per second. re page reclaims (simulating reference bits) at pages attached (found in free list) pi pages paged in po pages paged out fr pages freed per second de anticipated short term memory shortfall sr pages scanned by clock algorithm, per-second up/hp/rk/ra: Disk operations per second (this field is system dependent). Typically paging will be split across several of the available drives. The number under each of these is the unit number. Faults: trap/interrupt rate averages per second over last 5 seconds. in (non clock) device interrupts per second sy system calls per second cs cpu context switch rate (switches/sec) Cpu: breakdown of percentage usage of CPU time us user time for normal and low priority processes sy system time id cpu idle If more than 4 disk drives are configured in the system, vmstat displays only the first 4 drives, with priority given to Massbus disk drives (i.e. if both Unibus and Massbus drives are present and the total number of drives exceeds 4, then some number of Unibus drives will not be displayed in favor of the Massbus drives). To force vmstat to display specific drives, their names may be supplied on the command line. FILES
/dev/kmem, /vmunix SEE ALSO
systat(1), iostat(1) The sections starting with ``Interpreting system activity'' in Installing and Operating 4.2bsd. 4th Berkeley Distribution March 15, 1986 VMSTAT(1)

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VMSTAT(8)						   Linux Administrator's Manual 						 VMSTAT(8)

vmstat - Report virtual memory statistics SYNOPSIS
vmstat [-n] [delay [ count]] vmstat[-V] DESCRIPTION
vmstat reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, and cpu activity. The first report produced gives averages since the last reboot. Additional reports give information on a sampling period of length delay. The process and memory reports are instantaneous in either case. Options The -n switch causes the header to be displayed only once rather than periodically. delay is the delay between updates in seconds. If no delay is specified, only one report is printed with the average values since boot. count is the number of updates. If no count is specified and delay is defined, count defaults to infinity. The -V switch results in displaying version information. FIELD DESCRIPTIONS
Procs r: The number of processes waiting for run time. b: The number of processes in uninterruptable sleep. w: The number of processes swapped out but otherwise runnable. This field is calculated, but Linux never desperation swaps. Memory swpd: the amount of virtual memory used (kB). free: the amount of idle memory (kB). buff: the amount of memory used as buffers (kB). Swap si: Amount of memory swapped in from disk (kB/s). so: Amount of memory swapped to disk (kB/s). IO bi: Blocks sent to a block device (blocks/s). bo: Blocks received from a block device (blocks/s). System in: The number of interrupts per second, including the clock. cs: The number of context switches per second. CPU These are percentages of total CPU time. us: user time sy: system time id: idle time NOTES
vmstat does not require special permissions. These reports are intended to help identify system bottlenecks. Linux vmstat does not count itself as a running process. All linux blocks are currently 1k, except for CD-ROM blocks which are 2k. FILES
/proc/meminfo /proc/stat /proc/*/stat SEE ALSO
ps(1), top(1), free(1) BUGS
Does not tabulate the block io per device or count the number of system calls. AUTHOR
Written by Henry Ware <>. Throatwobbler Ginkgo Labs 27 July 1994 VMSTAT(8)

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