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DIFF(1) 										  DIFF(1)

       diff - differential file and directory comparator

       diff [ -l ] [ -r ] [ -s ] [ -cefhn ] [ -biwt ] dir1 dir2
       diff [ -cefhn ] [ -biwt ] file1 file2
       diff [ -Dstring ] [ -biw ] file1 file2

       If both arguments are directories, diff sorts the contents of the directories by name, and
       then runs the regular file diff algorithm (described below) on text files which	are  dif-
       ferent.	 Binary files which differ, common subdirectories, and files which appear in only
       one directory are listed.  Options when comparing directories are:

       -l     long output format; each text file diff is piped	through  pr(1)	to  paginate  it,
	      other differences are remembered and summarized after all text file differences are

       -r     causes application of diff recursively to common subdirectories encountered.

       -s     causes diff to report files which are the same, which are otherwise not mentioned.

       -Sname starts a directory diff in the middle beginning with file name.

       When run on regular files, and when comparing text files  which	differ	during	directory
       comparison,  diff  tells what lines must be changed in the files to bring them into agree-
       ment.  Except in rare circumstances, diff finds a smallest sufficient set of file  differ-
       ences.	If  neither  file1  nor file2 is a directory, then either may be given as `-', in
       which case the standard input is used.  If file1 is a  directory,  then	a  file  in  that
       directory whose file-name is the same as the file-name of file2 is used (and vice versa).

       There  are  several options for output format; the default output format contains lines of
       these forms:

	    n1 a n3,n4
	    n1,n2 d n3
	    n1,n2 c n3,n4

       These lines resemble ed commands to convert file1 into file2.  The numbers after the  let-
       ters  pertain  to  file2.  In fact, by exchanging `a' for `d' and reading backward one may
       ascertain equally how to convert file2 into file1.  As in ed, identical pairs where  n1	=
       n2 or n3 = n4 are abbreviated as a single number.

       Following  each	of  these  lines  come	all the lines that are affected in the first file
       flagged by `<', then all the lines that are affected in the second file flagged by `>'.

       Except for -b, -w, -i or -t which may be given with  any  of  the  others,  the	following
       options are mutually exclusive:

       -e	produces  a  script of a, c and d commands for the editor ed, which will recreate
		file2 from file1.  In connection with -e, the following shell  program	may  help
		maintain multiple versions of a file.  Only an ancestral file ($1) and a chain of
		version-to-version ed scripts ($2,$3,...) made by diff need be on hand.  A  `lat-
		est version' appears on the standard output.

			(shift; cat $*; echo '1,$p') | ed - $1

		Extra  commands  are  added  to the output when comparing directories with -e, so
		that the result is a sh(1) script for converting text files which are  common  to
		the two directories from their state in dir1 to their state in dir2.

       -f	produces  a script similar to that of -e, not useful with ed, and in the opposite

       -n	produces a script similar to that of -e, but in the opposite  order  and  with	a
		count  of  changed lines on each insert or delete command.  This is the form used
		by rcsdiff(1).

       -c	produces a diff with lines of context.	The default is to present 3 lines of con-
		text  and may be changed, e.g to 10, by -c10.  With -c the output format is modi-
		fied slightly: the output beginning with identification of the files involved and
		their  creation  dates	and  then each change is separated by a line with a dozen
		*'s.  The lines removed from file1 are marked with `- '; those added to file2 are
		marked	`+  '.	 Lines which are changed from one file to the other are marked in
		both files with with `! '.

		Changes which lie within <context> lines of each other are  grouped  together  on
		output.  (This is a change from the previous ``diff -c'' but the resulting output
		is usually much easier to interpret.)

       -h	does a fast, half-hearted job.	It works only when changed  stretches  are  short
		and well separated, but does work on files of unlimited length.

       -Dstring causes diff to create a merged version of file1 and file2 on the standard output,
		with C preprocessor controls included so that a compilation of the result without
		defining  string  is  equivalent  to  compiling file1, while defining string will
		yield file2.

       -b	causes trailing blanks (spaces and tabs) to be	ignored,  and  other  strings  of
		blanks to compare equal.

       -w	is  similar  to -b but causes whitespace (blanks and tabs) to be totally ignored.
		E.g., ``if ( a == b )'' will compare equal to ``if(a==b)''.

       -i	ignores the case of letters.  E.g., ``A'' will compare equal to ``a''.

       -t	will expand tabs in output lines.  Normal or -c output adds character(s)  to  the
		front  of  each  line  which  may screw up the indentation of the original source
		lines and make the output listing difficult to interpret.  This option will  pre-
		serve the original source's indentation.

       /usr/libexec/diffh for -h
       /bin/diff for directory diffs

       cmp(1), cc(1), comm(1), ed(1), diff3(1)

       Exit status is 0 for no differences, 1 for some, 2 for trouble.

       Editing scripts produced under the -e or -f option are naive about creating lines consist-
       ing of a single `.'.

       When comparing directories with the -b, -w or -i options specified,  diff  first  compares
       the files ala cmp, and then decides to run the diff algorithm if they are not equal.  This
       may cause a small amount of spurious output if the files then turn  out	to  be	identical
       because the only differences are insignificant blank string or case differences.

4th Berkeley Distribution		 October 21, 1996				  DIFF(1)
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