Join Date: May 2005
Last Activity: 27 June 2016, 2:12 PM EDT
Thanks Given: 4
Thanked 110 Times in 107 Posts
Linux isn't Windows. So at least in some cases, while there are ways to get the information, Linux doesn't spray the network constantly with sensitive information like Windows does. In particular, what a host calls itself isn't necessarily easy. At best you can do IP to DNS name correlation, but that's really outside of the host itself.
For the rest, e.g. port scanning and service information...
nmap is your friend.
Also, unlike Windows, service scanning can be slow... which is a security feature. The insecurity of Windows arguably makes it "friendlier" for scanning...