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Unix Version 7 - man page for eqn (v7 section 1)

EQN(1)				     General Commands Manual				   EQN(1)

delim $$

       eqn, neqn, checkeq  -  typeset mathematics

       eqn [ -dxy ] [ -pn ] [ -sn ] [ -fn ] [ file ] ...
       checkeq [ file ] ...

       Eqn is a troff(1) preprocessor for typesetting mathematics on a Graphic Systems phototype-
       setter, neqn on terminals.  Usage is almost always

	    eqn file ... | troff
	    neqn file ... | nroff

       If no files are specified, these programs reads from the standard input.  A line beginning
       with  `.EQ'  marks  the	start  of an equation; the end of an equation is marked by a line
       beginning with `.EN'.  Neither of these lines is altered, so they may be defined in  macro
       packages  to  get centering, numbering, etc.  It is also possible to set two characters as
       `delimiters'; subsequent text between delimiters is also treated as eqn input.  Delimiters
       may  be	set  to characters x and y with the command-line argument -dxy or (more commonly)
       with `delim xy' between .EQ and .EN.  The left and  right  delimiters  may  be  identical.
       Delimiters are turned off by `delim off'.  All text that is neither between delimiters nor
       between .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.

       The program checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN pairs.

       Tokens within eqn are separated by spaces, tabs, newlines, braces, double  quotes,  tildes
       or  circumflexes.   Braces {} are used for grouping; generally speaking, anywhere a single
       character like x could appear, a complicated construction enclosed in braces may  be  used
       instead.  Tilde ~ represents a full space in the output, circumflex ^ half as much.

       Subscripts  and	superscripts  are  produced  with the keywords sub and sup.  Thus x sub i
       makes $x sub i$, a sub i sup 2 produces $a sub i sup 2$, and e sup {x sup 2  +  y  sup  2}
       gives $e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}$.

       Fractions are made with over: a over b yields $a over b$.

       sqrt  makes  square  roots: 1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c} results in $1 over sqrt {ax sup 2
       +bx+c}$ .

       The keywords from and to introduce lower and upper limits on arbitrary things:  $lim  from
       {n->  inf} sum from 0 to n x sub i$ is made with lim from {n-> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub

       Left and right brackets, braces, etc., of the right height are made with left  and  right:
       left  [	x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1 produces $left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over
       alpha right ] ~=~1$.  The right clause is optional.  Legal characters after left and right
       are braces, brackets, bars, c and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing at all (use-
       ful for a right-side-only bracket).

       Vertical piles of things are made with pile, lpile, cpile, and  rpile:  pile  {a  above	b
       above  c}  produces  $pile {a above b above c}$.  There can be an arbitrary number of ele-
       ments in a pile.  lpile left-justifies, pile and cpile  center,	with  different  vertical
       spacing, and rpile right justifies.

       Matrices  are made with matrix: matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 }
       } produces $matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } }$.   In	addition,
       there is rcol for a right-justified column.

       Diacritical  marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat, tilde, bar, vec, dyad, and under: x dot
       = f(t) bar is $x dot = f(t) bar$, y dotdot bar ~=~ n under is $y dotdot bar ~=~ n  under$,
       and x vec ~=~ y dyad is $x vec ~=~ y dyad$.

       Sizes  and  font  can be changed with size n or size +-n, roman, italic, bold, and font n.
       Size and fonts can be changed globally in a document by gsize n and gfont  n,  or  by  the
       command-line arguments -sn and -fn.

       Normally  subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3 point sizes from the previous size;
       this may be changed by the command-line argument -pn.

       Successive display arguments can be lined up.  Place mark before the desired lineup  point
       in  the	first equation; place lineup at the place that is to line up vertically in subse-
       quent equations.

       Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords  redefined  with	define:  define  thing	%
       replacement % defines a new token called thing which will be replaced by replacement when-
       ever it appears thereafter.  The % may be any character that does not  occur  in  replace-

       Keywords like sum ( sum ) int ( int ) inf ( inf ) and shorthands like >= (>=) -> (->), and
       != ( != ) are recognized.  Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as in  alpha
       or  GAMMA.   Mathematical words like sin, cos, log are made Roman automatically.  Troff(1)
       four-character escapes like \(bs () can be used	anywhere.   Strings  enclosed  in  double
       quotes  "..."   are passed through untouched; this permits keywords to be entered as text,
       and can be used to communicate with troff when all else fails.

       troff(1), tbl(1), ms(7), eqnchar(7)
       B. W. Kernighan and L. L. Cherry, Typesetting Mathematics--User's Guide
       J. F. Ossanna, NROFF/TROFF User's Manual

       To embolden digits, parens, etc., it is necessary to quote them, as in `bold "12.3"'.

					     2/22/74					   EQN(1)

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