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HIER(7) 			    Linux Programmer's Manual				  HIER(7)

NAME
       hier - Description of the file system hierarchy

DESCRIPTION
       A typical Linux system has, among others, the following directories:

       /      This is the root directory.  This is where the whole tree starts.

       /bin   This  directory  contains  executable programs which are needed in single user mode
	      and to bring the system up or repair it.

       /boot  Contains static files for the boot loader.  This directory  only	holds  the  files
	      which  are  needed  during  the  boot process.  The map installer and configuration
	      files should go to /sbin and /etc.

       /dev   Special or device files, which refer to physical devices.  See mknod(1).

       /etc   Contains configuration files which are local to the machine.  Some larger  software
	      packages,  like  X11, can have their own subdirectories below /etc.  Site-wide con-
	      figuration files may be placed here or in /usr/etc.  Nevertheless, programs  should
	      always  look  for  these	files  in  /etc and you may have links for these files to
	      /usr/etc.

       /etc/opt
	      Host-specific configuration files for add-on applications installed in /opt.

       /etc/sgml
	      This directory contains the configuration files for SGML and XML (optional).

       /etc/skel
	      When a new user account is created, files from this directory  are  usually  copied
	      into the user's home directory.

       /etc/X11
	      Configuration files for the X11 window system (optional).

       /home  On  machines with home directories for users, these are usually beneath this direc-
	      tory, directly or not.  The structure of this directory depends on  local  adminis-
	      tration decisions.

       /lib   This  directory  should  hold those shared libraries that are necessary to boot the
	      system and to run the commands in the root file system.

       /media This directory contains mount points for removable media such as CD and  DVD  disks
	      or USB sticks.

       /mnt   This  directory  is  a  mount point for a temporarily mounted file system.  In some
	      distributions, /mnt contains subdirectories intended to be used as mount points for
	      several temporary file systems.

       /opt   This directory should contain add-on packages that contain static files.

       /proc  This  is	a  mount point for the proc file system, which provides information about
	      running processes and the kernel.  This pseudo-file system  is  described  in  more
	      detail in proc(5).

       /root  This directory is usually the home directory for the root user (optional).

       /sbin  Like  /bin,  this directory holds commands needed to boot the system, but which are
	      usually not executed by normal users.

       /srv   This directory contains site-specific data that is served by this system.

       /tmp   This directory contains temporary files which may be deleted with no  notice,  such
	      as by a regular job or at system boot up.

       /usr   This  directory  is usually mounted from a separate partition.  It should hold only
	      sharable, read-only data, so that it can be mounted  by  various	machines  running
	      Linux.

       /usr/X11R6
	      The X-Window system, version 11 release 6 (optional).

       /usr/X11R6/bin
	      Binaries	which belong to the X-Window system; often, there is a symbolic link from
	      the more traditional /usr/bin/X11 to here.

       /usr/X11R6/lib
	      Data files associated with the X-Window system.

       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11
	      These contain miscellaneous files needed to run X;  Often, there is a symbolic link
	      from /usr/lib/X11 to this directory.

       /usr/X11R6/include/X11
	      Contains	include  files needed for compiling programs using the X11 window system.
	      Often, there is a symbolic link from /usr/include/X11 to this directory.

       /usr/bin
	      This is the primary directory for executable programs.  Most programs  executed  by
	      normal users which are not needed for booting or for repairing the system and which
	      are not installed locally should be placed in this directory.

       /usr/bin/X11
	      is the traditional place to look for X11 executables; on Linux,  it  usually  is	a
	      symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/bin.

       /usr/dict
	      Replaced by /usr/share/dict.

       /usr/doc
	      Replaced by /usr/share/doc.

       /usr/etc
	      Site-wide  configuration	files to be shared between several machines may be stored
	      in this directory.  However, commands should always reference those files using the
	      /etc  directory.	Links from files in /etc should point to the appropriate files in
	      /usr/etc.

       /usr/games
	      Binaries for games and educational programs (optional).

       /usr/include
	      Include files for the C compiler.

       /usr/include/X11
	      Include files for the C compiler and the X-Window system.  This is usually  a  sym-
	      bolic link to /usr/X11R6/include/X11.

       /usr/include/asm
	      Include  files  which declare some assembler functions.  This used to be a symbolic
	      link to /usr/src/linux/include/asm.

       /usr/include/linux
	      This contains information which may change from system release  to  system  release
	      and  used to be a symbolic link to /usr/src/linux/include/linux to get at operating
	      system specific information.

	      (Note that one should have include files there that work correctly with the current
	      libc  and  in  user space.  However, Linux kernel source is not designed to be used
	      with user programs and does not know anything about the libc you are using.  It  is
	      very   likely   that   things   will   break   if   you  let  /usr/include/asm  and
	      /usr/include/linux point at a random kernel tree.  Debian systems don't do this and
	      use headers from a known good kernel version, provided in the libc*-dev package.)

       /usr/include/g++
	      Include files to use with the GNU C++ compiler.

       /usr/lib
	      Object  libraries, including dynamic libraries, plus some executables which usually
	      are not invoked directly.  More complicated programs may have whole  subdirectories
	      there.

       /usr/lib/X11
	      The  usual place for data files associated with X programs, and configuration files
	      for  the	X  system  itself.   On  Linux,  it  usually  is  a  symbolic	link   to
	      /usr/X11R6/lib/X11.

       /usr/lib/gcc-lib
	      contains executables and include files for the GNU C compiler, gcc(1).

       /usr/lib/groff
	      Files for the GNU groff document formatting system.

       /usr/lib/uucp
	      Files for uucp(1).

       /usr/local
	      This is where programs which are local to the site typically go.

       /usr/local/bin
	      Binaries for programs local to the site.

       /usr/local/doc
	      Local documentation.

       /usr/local/etc
	      Configuration files associated with locally installed programs.

       /usr/local/games
	      Binaries for locally installed games.

       /usr/local/lib
	      Files associated with locally installed programs.

       /usr/local/include
	      Header files for the local C compiler.

       /usr/local/info
	      Info pages associated with locally installed programs.

       /usr/local/man
	      Man pages associated with locally installed programs.

       /usr/local/sbin
	      Locally installed programs for system administration.

       /usr/local/share
	      Local application data that can be shared among different architectures of the same
	      OS.

       /usr/local/src
	      Source code for locally installed software.

       /usr/man
	      Replaced by /usr/share/man.

       /usr/sbin
	      This directory contains program binaries for system administration  which  are  not
	      essential for the boot process, for mounting /usr, or for system repair.

       /usr/share
	      This  directory contains subdirectories with specific application data, that can be
	      shared among different architectures of the same OS.  Often one  finds  stuff  here
	      that used to live in /usr/doc or /usr/lib or /usr/man.

       /usr/share/dict
	      Contains the word lists used by spell checkers.

       /usr/share/doc
	      Documentation about installed programs.

       /usr/share/games
	      Static data files for games in /usr/games.

       /usr/share/info
	      Info pages go here.

       /usr/share/locale
	      Locale information goes here.

       /usr/share/man
	      Manual pages go here in subdirectories according to the man page sections.

       /usr/share/man/<locale>/man[1-9]
	      These directories contain manual pages for the specific locale in source code form.
	      Systems which use a unique language and code set for all manual pages may omit  the
	      <locale> substring.

       /usr/share/misc
	      Miscellaneous data that can be shared among different architectures of the same OS.

       /usr/share/nls
	      The message catalogs for native language support go here.

       /usr/share/sgml
	      Files for SGML and XML.

       /usr/share/terminfo
	      The database for terminfo.

       /usr/share/tmac
	      Troff macros that are not distributed with groff.

       /usr/share/zoneinfo
	      Files for timezone information.

       /usr/src
	      Source  files  for  different  parts of the system, included with some packages for
	      reference purposes.  Don't work here with your own projects, as  files  below  /usr
	      should be read-only except when installing software.

       /usr/src/linux
	      This  was the traditional place for the kernel source.  Some distributions put here
	      the source for the default kernel they  ship.   You  should  probably  use  another
	      directory when building your own kernel.

       /usr/tmp
	      Obsolete.   This	should be a link to /var/tmp.  This link is present only for com-
	      patibility reasons and shouldn't be used.

       /var   This directory contains files which may change in  size,	such  as  spool  and  log
	      files.

       /var/adm
	      This directory is superseded by /var/log and should be a symbolic link to /var/log.

       /var/backups
	      Reserved for historical reasons.

       /var/cache
	      Data cached for programs.

       /var/catman/cat[1-9] or /var/cache/man/cat[1-9]
	      These  directories  contain  preformatted  manual pages according to their man page
	      section.	(The use of preformatted manual pages is deprecated.)

       /var/cron
	      Reserved for historical reasons.

       /var/lib
	      Variable state information for programs.

       /var/local
	      Variable data for /usr/local.

       /var/lock
	      Lock files are placed in this directory.	The naming  convention	for  device  lock
	      files is LCK..<device> where <device> is the device's name in the file system.  The
	      format used is that of HDU UUCP lock files, that is, lock files contain a PID as	a
	      10-byte ASCII decimal number, followed by a newline character.

       /var/log
	      Miscellaneous log files.

       /var/opt
	      Variable data for /opt.

       /var/mail
	      Users' mailboxes.  Replaces /var/spool/mail.

       /var/msgs
	      Reserved for historical reasons.

       /var/preserve
	      Reserved for historical reasons.

       /var/run
	      Run-time	variable  files, like files holding process identifiers (PIDs) and logged
	      user information (utmp).	Files in this directory are usually cleared when the sys-
	      tem boots.

       /var/spool
	      Spooled (or queued) files for various programs.

       /var/spool/at
	      Spooled jobs for at(1).

       /var/spool/cron
	      Spooled jobs for cron(8).

       /var/spool/lpd
	      Spooled files for printing.

       /var/spool/mail
	      Replaced by /var/mail.

       /var/spool/mqueue
	      Queued outgoing mail.

       /var/spool/news
	      Spool directory for news.

       /var/spool/rwho
	      Spooled files for rwhod(8).

       /var/spool/smail
	      Spooled files for the smail(1) mail delivery program.

       /var/spool/uucp
	      Spooled files for uucp(1).

       /var/tmp
	      Like /tmp, this directory holds temporary files stored for an unspecified duration.

       /var/yp
	      Database files for NIS.

CONFORMING TO
       The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard, Version 2.2 <http://www.pathname.com/fhs/>.

BUGS
       This list is not exhaustive; different systems may be configured differently.

SEE ALSO
       find(1), ln(1), proc(5), mount(8)

       The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

COLOPHON
       This  page  is  part of release 3.25 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the
       project,  and  information  about  reporting  bugs,  can  be  found   at   http://www.ker-
       nel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux					    2009-03-30					  HIER(7)
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