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RMMOD(8)			       Linux Module Support				 RMMOD(8)

       rmmod - unload loadable modules

       rmmod [ -aehrsvV ] module ...

       rmmod unloads loadable modules from the running kernel.

       rmmod tries to unload a set of modules from the kernel, with the restriction that they are
       not in use and that they are not referred to by other modules.

       If more than one module is named on the command line, the modules will be removed  in  the
       given order. This supports unloading of stacked modules.

       With  the  option '-r', a recursive removal of modules will be attempted.  This means that
       if a top module in a stack is named on the command line, all modules that are used by this
       module will be removed as well, if possible.

       -a, --all
	      Do autoclean: tag unused modules as "to be cleaned", and also remove already tagged
	      modules.	Modules stay tagged if they stay unused since previous autoclean.   These
	      two passes avoid removing transiently unused modules.

       -e, --persist
	      Save  persistent	data for the named modules, without unloading any modules.  If no
	      module names are specified then data is saved for all modules that have  persistent
	      data.   Data  is only saved if both the kernel and modutils support persistent data
	      and /proc/ksyms contains an entry

       -h, --help
	      Display a summary of options and immediately exit.

       -r, --stacks
	      Remove a module stack.

       -s, --syslog
	      Output everything to syslog(3) instead of the terminal.

       -v, --verbose
	      Be verbose.

       -V, --version
	      Print the version of modutils.

       If a module contains persistent data (see insmod(8) and modules.conf(5)) then removing the
       module  always writes the persistent data to the filename in the __insmod _P symbol entry.
       You can also save the persistent data at any time by rmmod -e, this will  not  unload  any

       When the persistent data is written to file, it is preceded by a generated comment line,
       #% kernel_version timestamp
       Generated  comment  lines  start  with  '#%', all generated comments are stripped from the
       existing file, other comments are preserved.  The saved data values  are  written  to  the
       file,  preserving the existing order of comments and assignments.  New values are added at
       the end of the file.  If the file contains values that do not exist  in	the  module  then
       these  values  are preserved but are preceded by a generated comment warning that they are
       not being used.	The latter operation allows a user  to	switch	between  kernels  without
       losing persistent data and without getting any error messages.

       Note:  Comments	are  only  supported when the first non-space character on a line is '#'.
       Any non-blank lines that do not start with '#' are module  options,  one  per  line.   The
       option lines have leading spaces removed, the remainder of the line is passed to insmod as
       an option, including any trailing characters.

       insmod(8), lsmod(8), ksyms(8), modprobe(8).

       rmmod [-V | --version] should display  version  information  and  then  exit  immediately.
       Instead, it prints the version information and behaves as if no options were given.

       Module support was first conceived by Anonymous
       Initial Linux version by Bas Laarhoven <bas@vimec.nl>
       Version 0.99.14 by Jon Tombs <jon@gtex02.us.es>
       Extended by Bjorn Ekwall <bj0rn@blox.se>
       Updated for 2.1.17 by Richard Henderson <rth@tamu.edu>
       Updated for 2.2.2 by by Bjorn Ekwall <bj0rn@blox.se>
       Updated for modutils 2.3.20 by by Keith Owens <kaos@ocs.com.au>
       Persistent data for modutils 2.3.22 by by Keith Owens <kaos@ocs.com.au>

Linux					 February 6, 2002				 RMMOD(8)
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