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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for amanda (redhat section 8)

AMANDA(8)			     System Manager's Manual				AMANDA(8)

       amanda - Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver

       amdump config
       amflush [ -f ] config
       amcleanup config
       amrecover [ config ] [ options ]
       amrestore [ options ] tapedevice [ hostname [ diskname ]]
       amlabel config label [ slot slot ]
       amcheck [ options ] config
       amadmin config command [ options ]
       amtape config command [ options ]
       amverify config
       amrmtape [ options ] config label
       amstatus config [ options ]
       amoverview config [ options ]
       amplot [ options ] amdump-files
       amreport [ config ] [ options ]
       amtoc [ options ] logfile
       amcheckdb config
       amgetconf [ config ] parameter

       Amanda is the "Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver".  This manual page gives
       an overview of the Amanda commands and configuration files for quick reference.

       Here are all the Amanda commands.  Each one has its own manual page.  See them for all the
       gory details.

       amdump Take care of automatic Amanda backups.  This is normally executed by cron on a com-
	      puter called the tape server host and requests backups of file systems  located  on
	      backup  clients.	 Amdump backs up all disks in the disklist file (discussed below)
	      to tape or, if there is a problem, to a special holding disk.   After  all  backups
	      are done, amdump sends mail reporting failures and successes.

	      Flush  backups  from  the  holding  disk to tape.  Amflush is used after amdump has
	      reported it could not write backups to tape for some reason.   When  this  happens,
	      backups  stay in the holding disk.  Run amflush after the tape problem is corrected
	      to write backups from the holding disk to tape.

	      Clean up after an interrupted amdump.  This command is only needed  if  amdump  was
	      unable  to  complete  for some reason, usually because the tape server host crashed
	      while amdump was running.

	      Provides an interactive interface to browse the Amanda index  files  (backup  image
	      catalogues)  and	select	which tapes to recover files from.  It can also run amre-
	      store and a restore program (e.g. tar) to actually recover the files.

	      Read an Amanda tape, searching for requested backups.  Amrestore	is  suitable  for
	      everything  from interactive restores of single files to a full restore of all par-
	      titions on a failed disk.

	      Write an Amanda format label onto a tape.  All Amanda tapes must	be  labeled  with
	      amlabel.	 Amdump and amflush will not write to an unlabeled tape (see TAPE MANAGE-
	      MENT below).

	      Verify the correct tape is mounted and all file systems on all backup  client  sys-
	      tems are ready to be backed up.  Often run by cron before amdump to generate a mail
	      warning that backups might fail unless corrective action is taken.

	      Take care of administrative tasks like  finding  out  which  tapes  are  needed  to
	      restore  a filesystem, forcing hosts to do full backups of selected disks and look-
	      ing at schedule balance information.

       amtape Take care of tape changer control operations like loading particular tapes,  eject-
	      ing tapes and scanning the tape storage slots.

	      Check Amanda backup tapes for errors.

	      Delete a tape from the Amanda databases.

	      Report the status of a running or completed amdump.

	      Display a chart of hosts and file systems backed up every run.

       amplot Generate utilization plots of Amanda runs for performance tuning.

	      Generate an Amanda summary E-mail report.

       amtoc  Generate table of content files for Amanda tapes.

	      Verify every tape Amanda knows about is consistent in the database.

	      Look up parameters in the Amanda configuration file.

       There  are  three  user-editable  files that control the behavior of Amanda.  The first is
       amanda.conf, the main configuration file.  It contains parameters to customize Amanda  for
       the  site.  Second is the disklist file, which lists hosts and disk partitions to back up.
       Third is the tapelist file, which lists tapes that are currently active.  These files  are
       described in more detail in the following sections.

       All  files  are	stored in individual configuration directories under /etc/amanda.  A site
       will often have more than one configuration.  For example, it might have a normal configu-
       ration  for  everyday  backups  and  an archive configuration for infrequent full archival
       backups.  The configuration files would be stored  under  directories  /etc/amanda/normal/
       and  /etc/amanda/archive/, respectively.  Part of the job of an Amanda administrator is to
       create, populate and maintain these directories.

       All log and database files generated by Amanda go in corresponding directories  somewhere.
       The  exact  location is controlled by entries in amanda.conf.  A typical location would be
       under /var/adm/amanda.  For the above example, the files might go in  /var/adm/amanda/nor-
       mal/ and /var/adm/amanda/archive/.

       As  log files are no longer needed (no longer contain relevant information), Amanda cycles
       them out in various ways, depending on the type of file.

       Detailed information about amdump runs are stored in files named amdump.NN where NN  is	a
       sequence  number, with 1 being the most recent file.  Amdump rotates these files each run,
       keeping roughly the last tapecycle (see below) worth of them.

       The file used by amreport to generate the mail  summary	is  named  log.YYYYMMDD.NN  where
       YYYYMMDD  is  the  datestamp  of  the  start of the amdump run and NN is a sequence number
       started at 0.  At the end of each amdump run, log files for runs  whose	tapes  have  been
       reused are renamed into a subdirectory of the main log directory (see the logdir parameter
       below) named oldlog.  It is up to the Amanda administrator to remove them from this direc-
       tory when desired.

       Index  (backup  image catalogue) files older than the full dump matching the oldest backup
       image for a given client and disk are removed by amdump at the end of each run.

       There are a number of configuration parameters that control the	behavior  of  the  Amanda
       programs.   All	have default values, so you need not specify the parameter in amanda.conf
       if the default is suitable.

       Lines starting with # are ignored, as are blank lines.  Comments may be placed on  a  line
       with a directive by starting the comment with a #.  The remainder of the line is ignored.

       Keywords are case insensitive, i.e. mailto and MailTo are treated the same.

       Integer arguments may have one of the following (case insensitive) suffixes, some of which
       have a multiplier effect:

	      b byte bytes
		     Some number of bytes.

	      bps    Some number of bytes per second.

	      k kb kbyte kbytes kilobyte kilobytes
		     Some number of kilobytes (bytes*1024).

	      kps kbps
		     Some number of kilobytes per second (bytes*1024).

	      m mb meg mbyte mbytes megabyte megabytes
		     Some number of megabytes (bytes*1024*1024).

	      mps mbps
		     Some number of megabytes per second (bytes*1024*1024).

	      g gb gbyte gbytes gigabyte gigabytes
		     Some number of gigabytes (bytes*1024*1024*1024).

	      tape tapes
		     Some number of tapes.

	      day days
		     Some number of days.

	      week weeks
		     Some number of weeks (days*7).

       The value inf may be used in most places where an integer is expected to mean an  infinite

       Boolean	arguments  may	have  any  of the values y, yes, t, true or on to indicate a true
       state, or n, no, f, false or off to indicate a false state.  If no argument is given, true
       is assumed.

       org "string"
	      Default: DailySet1.  A descriptive name for the configuration.  This string appears
	      in the Subject line of mail reports.  Each Amanda configuration should have a  dif-
	      ferent string to keep mail reports distinct.

       mailto "string"
	      Default: operators.  A space separated list of recipients for mail reports.

       dumpcycle int
	      Default:	10  days.   The number of days in the backup cycle.  Each disk will get a
	      full backup at least this often.	Setting this to zero tries to do  a  full  backup
	      each run.

	      Note  that this parameter may also be set in a specific dumptype (see below).  This
	      value sets the default for all dumptypes so must appear in amanda.conf  before  any
	      dumptypes are defined.

       runspercycle int
	      Default:	same as dumpcycle.  The number of amdump runs in dumpcycle days.  A value
	      of 0 means the same value as dumpcycle.  A value of -1 means guess  the  number  of
	      runs  from the tapelist file, which is the number of tapes used in the last dumpcy-
	      cle days / runtapes.

       tapecycle int
	      Default: 15 tapes.  The mininum number of tapes in the active tape cycle.  You  can
	      have  more  tapes in your active tape cycle.  It means that you must write at least
	      tapecycle tape before a tape is overwritten.  A tape marked as no-reuse is  not  in
	      the active tape cycle.

	      Amanda  will  accept any tape for writting if it is not in the last tapecycle tapes

	      This must be at least one larger than the number of Amanda runs done during a  dump
	      cycle (see the dumpcycle parameter) times the number of tapes used per run (see the
	      runtapes parameter).

	      For instance, if dumpcycle is set to 14 days, one Amanda	run  is  done  every  day
	      (Sunday  through	Saturday),  and runtapes is set to one, then tapecycle must be at
	      least 15 (14 days * one run/day * one tape/run + one tape).

	      In practice, there should be several extra tapes to allow for schedule  adjustments
	      or disaster recovery.

       dumpuser "string"
	      Default: amanda.	The login name Amanda uses to run the backups.	The backup client
	      hosts must allow access from the tape server host  as  this  user  via  .rhosts  or
	      .amandahosts, depending on how the Amanda software was built.

       printer "string"
	      Printer to use when doing tape labels.  See the lbl-templ tapetype option.

       tapedev "string"
	      Default: /dev/null.  The path name of the non-rewinding tape device.  Non-rewinding
	      tape device names often have an 'n' in the name, e.g.  /dev/rmt/0mn,  however  this
	      is operating system specific and you should consult that documentation for detailed
	      naming information.

	      If a tape changer is configured (see the tpchanger option), this option  might  not
	      be used.

	      If  the  null  output  driver is selected (see the OUTPUT DRIVERS section later for
	      more information), programs such as amdump will run normally but all images will be
	      thrown away.  This should only be used for debugging and testing, and probably only
	      with the record option set to no.

       rawtapedev "string"
	      Default: /dev/null.  The path name of the raw tape device.  This is  only  used  if
	      Amanda  is compiled for Linux machines with floppy tapes and is needed for QIC vol-
	      ume table operations.

       tpchanger "string"
	      Default: none.  The name of the tape changer.  If a tape changer is not configured,
	      this option is not used and should be commented out of the configuration file.

	      If  a tape changer is configured, choose one of the changer scripts (e.g. chg-scsi)
	      and enter that here.

       changerdev "string"
	      Default: /dev/null.  A tape changer configuration parameter.  Usage depends on  the
	      particular changer defined with the tpchanger option.

       changerfile "string"
	      Default:	/usr/adm/amanda/log/changer-status.  A tape changer configuration parame-
	      ter.  Usage depends on the particular changer defined with the tpchanger option.

       runtapes int
	      Default: 1.  The maximum number of tapes used in a single run.  If a  tape  changer
	      is  not configured, this option is not used and should be commented out of the con-
	      figuration file.

	      If a tape changer is configured, this may be set larger  than  one  to  let  Amanda
	      write to more than one tape.

	      Note that this is an upper bound on the number of tapes, and Amanda may use less.

	      Also  note  that	as  of	this release, Amanda does not support true tape overflow.
	      When it reaches the end of one tape, the backup image Amanda was processing  starts
	      over again on the next tape.

       labelstr "string"
	      Default: .*.  The tape label constraint regular expression.  All tape labels gener-
	      ated (see amlabel(8)) and used by this configuration must match the regular expres-
	      sion.   If  multiple  configurations  are run from the same tape server host, it is
	      helpful to set their labels to different strings (for  example,  "DAILY[0-9][0-9]*"
	      vs. "ARCHIVE[0-9][0-9]*") to avoid overwriting each other's tapes.

       tapetype "string"
	      Default:	EXABYTE.   The	type  of tape drive associated with tapedev or tpchanger.
	      This refers to one of the defined tapetypes in the config file (see  below),  which
	      specify  various	tape parameters, like the length, filemark size, and speed of the
	      tape media and device.

       ctimeout int
	      Default: 30 seconds.  Maximum amount of time that amcheck will wait for each client

       dtimeout int
	      Default:	1800  seconds.	 Amount  of  idle  time per disk on a given client that a
	      dumper running from within amdump will wait before it fails  with  a  data  timeout

       etimeout int
	      Default:	300  seconds.  Amount of time per disk on a given client that the planner
	      step of amdump will wait to get the dump size estimates.	For  instance,	with  the
	      default  of 300 seconds and four disks on client A, planner will wait up to 20 min-
	      utes for that machine.  A negative value will be interpreted as a total  amount  of
	      time to wait per client instead of per disk.

       netusage int
	      Default:	300  Kbps.   The maximum network bandwidth allocated to Amanda, in Kbytes
	      per second.  See also the interface section.

       inparallel int
	      Default: 10.  The maximum number of backups that Amanda will attempt to run in par-
	      allel.   Amanda  will  stay within the constraints of network bandwidth and holding
	      disk space available, so it doesn't hurt to set this number a bit high.  Some  con-
	      tention  can  occur  with  larger numbers of backups, but this effect is relatively
	      small on most systems.

       dumporder "string"
	      Default: tttTTTTTTT.  The priority order of each dumper:
		     s: smallest size
		     S: largest size
		     t: smallest time
		     T: largest time
		     b: smallest bandwidth
		     B: largest bandwidth

       maxdumps int
	      Default: 1.  The maximum number of backups from a  single  host  that  Amanda  will
	      attempt to run in parallel.  See also the inparallel option.

	      Note  that this parameter may also be set in a specific dumptype (see below).  This
	      value sets the default for all dumptypes so must appear in amanda.conf  before  any
	      dumptypes are defined.

       bumpsize int
	      Default: 10 Mbytes.  The minimum savings required to trigger an automatic bump from
	      one incremental level to the next.  If  Amanda  determines  that	the  next  higher
	      backup  level will be this much smaller than the current level, it will do the next
	      level.  See also the bumpmult option.

       bumpmult float
	      Default: 1.5.  The bump size multiplier.	Amanda multiplies bumpsize by this factor
	      for  each  level.  This prevents active filesystems from bumping too much by making
	      it harder to bump to the next level.  For example, with the  default  bumpsize  and
	      bumpmult	set to 2.0, the bump threshold will be 10 Mbytes for level one, 20 Mbytes
	      for level two, 40 Mbytes for level three, and so on.

       bumpdays int
	      Default: 2 days.	To insure redundancy in the dumps, Amanda  keeps  filesystems  at
	      the  same  incremental  level  for  at  least bumpdays days, even if the other bump
	      threshold criteria are met.

       diskfile "string"
	      Default: disklist.  The file name for the disklist file holding client hosts, disks
	      and other client dumping information.

       infofile "string"
	      Default:	/usr/adm/amanda/curinfo.   The	file or directory name for the historical
	      information database.  If Amanda was configured to use DBM databases, this  is  the
	      base  file name for them.  If it was configured to use text formated databases (the
	      default), this is the base directory and	within	here  will  be	a  directory  per
	      client, then a directory per disk, then a text file of data.

       logdir "string"
	      Default: /usr/adm/amanda.  The directory for the amdump and log files.

       indexdir "string"
	      Default /usr/adm/amanda/index.  The directory where index files (backup image cata-
	      logues) are stored.  Index files are only generated for filesystems whose  dumptype
	      has the index option enabled.

       tapelist "string"
	      Default:	tapelist.   The file name for the active tapelist file.  Amanda maintains
	      this file with information about the active set of tapes.

       tapebufs int
	      Default: 20.  The number of buffers used by the taper process  run  by  amdump  and
	      amflush to hold data as it is read from the network or disk before it is written to
	      tape.  Each buffer is a little larger than 32 KBytes and is held in a shared memory

       reserve number
	      Default:	100(percent).	The  amount of holding-disk space that should not be used
	      for full backups if no tape is available.  By default, when there  is  no  tape  to
	      write  to,  degraded  mode  (incremental)  backups will be performed to the holding
	      disk.  If full backups should also be allowed in this case, the amount  of  holding
	      disk space reserved for incrementals should be lowered.

       autoflush bool
	      Default: off.  Whether an amdump run will flush the dump already on holding disk to

       columnspec "string"
	      Defines the width of columns amreport should use.  String is a  comma  (',')  sepa-
	      rated  list of triples.  Each triple consists of three parts which are separated by
	      a equal sign ('=') and a colon (':') (see the example).  These three parts specify:

	      + the name of the column, which may be:

		     Compress (compression ratio)
		     Disk (client disk name)
		     DumpRate (dump rate in KBytes/sec)
		     DumpTime (total dump time in hours:minutes)
		     HostName (client host name)
		     Level (dump level)
		     OrigKB (original image size in KBytes)
		     OutKB (output image size in KBytes)
		     TapeRate (tape writing rate in KBytes/sec)
		     TapeTime (total tape time in hours:minutes)

	      + the amount of space to display before the column (used to get whitespace  between

	      + the  width  of	the column itself.  If set to a negative value, the width will be
		calculated on demand to fit the largest entry in this column.

	      Here is an example:

		   columnspec "Disk=1:18,HostName=0:10,OutKB=1:7"

	      The above will display the disk information in 18  characters  and  put  one  space
	      before  it.   The  hostname  column will be 10 characters wide with no space to the
	      left.  The output KBytes column is seven characters wide with one space before it.

       includefile "string"
	      Default: none.  The name of an amanda configuration file to include within the cur-
	      rent file.  Useful for sharing dumptypes, tapetypes and interface definitions among
	      several configurations.

       The amanda.conf file may define one or more holding disks used as buffers to  hold  backup
       images before they are written to tape.	The syntax is:

	      holdingdisk name {
		  holdingdisk-option holdingdisk-value

       Name is a logical name for this holding disk.

       The options and values are:

       comment "string"
	      Default: none.  A comment string describing this holding disk.

       directory "disk"
	      Default: /dumps/amanda.  The path to this holding area.

       use int
	      Default: 0 Gb.  Amount of space that can be used in this holding disk area.  If the
	      value is zero, all available space on the file system is used.   If  the	value  is
	      negative, Amanda will use all available space minus that value.

       chunksize int
	      Default: 1 Gb.  Holding disk chunk size.	Dumps larger than the specified size will
	      be stored in multiple holding disk files.  The size of each chunk will  not  exceed
	      the  specified  value.   However,  even though dump images are split in the holding
	      disk, they are concatenated as they are written to tape, so each dump  image  still
	      corresponds to a single continuous tape section.

	      If   0   is  specified,  Amanda  will  create  holding  disk  chunks  as	large  as
	      ((INT_MAX/1024)-64) Kbytes.

	      Each holding disk chunk includes a 32 Kbyte header, so the minimum chunk size is 64
	      Kbytes (but that would be really silly).

	      Operating systems that are limited to a maximum file size of 2 Gbytes actually can-
	      not handle files that large.  They must be at least one byte less  than  2  Gbytes.
	      Since Amanda works with 32 Kbyte blocks, and to handle the final read at the end of
	      the chunk, the chunk size should be at least 64 Kbytes (2 * 32 Kbytes) smaller than
	      the maximum file size, e.g. 2047 Mbytes.

       The  amanda.conf file may define multiple sets of backup options and refer to them by name
       from the disklist file.	For instance, one set of options might be defined for  file  sys-
       tems  that  can	benefit  from  high compression, another set that does not compress well,
       another set for file systems that should always get a full backup and so on.

       A set of backup options are entered in a dumptype section, which looks like this:

	      define dumptype name {
		  dumptype-option dumptype-value

       Name is the name of this set of backup options.	It is referenced from the disklist file.

       Some of the options in a dumptype section are the same  as  those  in  the  main  part  of
       amanda.conf.   The main option value is used to set the default for all dumptype sections.
       For instance, setting dumpcycle to 50 in the main part of the config file causes all  fol-
       lowing  dumptype sections to start with that value, but the value may be changed on a sec-
       tion by section basis.  Changes to variables in the main part of the config file  must  be
       done before (earlier in the file) any dumptypes are defined.

       The dumptype options and values are:

       auth "string"
	      Default:	bsd.   Type  of  authorization	to perform between tape server and backup
	      client hosts.  May be krb4 to use Kerberos-IV authorization.

       comment "string"
	      Default: none.  A comment string describing this set of backup options.

       comprate float [, float ]
	      Default: 0.50, 0.50.  The expected full  and  incremental  compression  factor  for
	      dumps.  It is only used if Amanda does not have any history information on compres-
	      sion rates for a filesystem, so should not usually need to be set.  However, it may
	      be useful for the first time a very large filesystem that compresses very little is
	      backed up.

       compress [client|server] "string"
	      Default: client fast.  If Amanda does compression of the backup images, it  can  do
	      so  either  on  the backup client host before it crosses the network or on the tape
	      server host as it goes from the network into the holding disk or	to  tape.   Which
	      place to do compression (if at all) depends on how well the dump image usually com-
	      presses, the speed and load on the client or server, network capacity, holding disk
	      capacity, availability of tape hardware compression, etc.

	      For  either  type of compression, Amanda also allows the selection of two styles of
	      compression.  Best is the best compression available, often at the expense  of  CPU
	      overhead.   Fast	is  often not as good a compression as best, but usually less CPU

	      So the compress options line may be one of:

		     compress none
		     compress [client] fast
		     compress [client] best
		     compress server fast
		     compress server best

	      Note that some tape devices do compression and this option has nothing to  do  with
	      whether  that  is  used.	If hardware compression is used (usually via a particular
	      tape device name or mt option), Amanda (software) compression should be disabled.

       dumpcycle int
	      Default: 10 days.  The number of days in the backup cycle.  Each	disk  using  this
	      set  of  options	will get a full backup at least this often.  Setting this to zero
	      tries to do a full backup each run.

       exclude [ list|file ][[optional][ append ][ "string" ]+]
	      Default: file.  There is two exclude list exclude  file  and  exclude  list.   With
	      exclude  file  , the string is a gnutar exclude expression. With exclude list , the
	      string is a file name on the client containing gnutar exclude expression.

	      All exclude expression are concatenated in one file  and	passed	to  gnutar  as	a
	      --exclude-from argument.

	      With  the append keyword, the string are appended to the current value of the list,
	      without it, the string overwrite the list.

	      If optional is specified for exclude list, then amcheck will not	complain  if  the
	      file doesn't exist or is not readable.

	      For  exclude  list,  If the file name is relative, the disk name being backed up is
	      prepended.  So if this is entered:

	   exclude list ".amanda.excludes"

	      the  actual  file  use  would  be  /var/.amanda.excludes	for  a	backup	of  /var,
	      /usr/local/.amanda.excludes for a backup of /usr/local, and so on.

       holdingdisk "boolean"
	      Default:	yes.   Whether a holding disk should be used for these backups or whether
	      they should go directly to tape.	If the holding disk is a portion of another  file
	      system  that Amanda is backing up, that file system should refer to a dumptype with
	      holdingdisk set to no to avoid backing up the holding disk into itself.

       ignore "boolean"
	      Default: no.  Whether disks associated with this backup type should be backed up or
	      not.  This option is useful when the disklist file is shared among several configu-
	      rations, some of which should not back up all the listed file systems.

       include [ list|file ][[optional][ append ][ "string" ]+]
	      Default: file ".".  There is two include list include file and include list.   With
	      include file , the string is a glob expression. With include list , the string is a
	      file name on the client containing glob expression.

	      All include expression are expanded by amanda and  concatenated  in  one	file  and
	      passed to gnutar as a --files-from argument. They must start with "./" and contain-
	      ing no other "/".

	      With the append keyword, the string are appended to the current value of the  list,
	      without it, the string overwrite the list.

	      If  optional  is	specified for include list, then amcheck will not complain if the
	      file doesn't exist or is not readable.

	      For include list, If the file name is relative, the disk name being  backed  up  is

       index "boolean"
	      Default:	no.   Whether  an index (catalogue) of the backup should be generated and
	      saved in indexdir.  These catalogues are used by the amrecover utility.

       kencrypt "boolean"
	      Default: no.  Whether the backup image should be encrypted by  Kerberos  as  it  is
	      sent across the network from the backup client host to the tape server host.

       maxdumps "int"
	      Default:	1.   The  maximum  number  of backups from a single host that Amanda will
	      attempt to run in parallel.  See also the main section inparallel option.

       priority "string"
	      Default: medium.	When there is no tape to write to,  Amanda  will  do  incremental
	      backups  in  priority  order  to	the  holding  disk.  The priority may be high(2),
	      medium(1), low(0) or a number of your choice.

       program "string"
	      Default: DUMP.  The type of backup to perform.   Valid  values  are  DUMP  for  the
	      native operating system backup program, and GNUTAR to use GNU tar or to do Samba PC

       record "boolean"
	      Default: yes.  Whether to ask the backup	program  to  update  its  database  (e.g.
	      /etc/dumpdates)  of  time  stamps.   This is normally enabled for daily backups and
	      turned off for periodic archival runs.

       skip-full "boolean"
	      Default: no.  If true and planner has scheduled a full backup, these disks will  be
	      skipped,	and  full  backups should be run off-line on these days.  It was reported
	      that Amanda only schedules level 1 incrementals  in  this  configuration;  this  is
	      probably a bug.

       skip-incr "boolean"
	      Default:	no.  If true and planner has scheduled an incremental backup, these disks
	      will be skipped.

       starttime "int"
	      Default: none.  Backups will not start until after this time  of	day.   The  value
	      should be hh*100+mm, e.g. 6:30PM (18:30) would be entered as 1830.

       strategy "string"
	      Default: standard.  Strategy to use when planning what level of backup to run next.
	      Values are:

		     The standard Amanda schedule.

	      nofull Never do full backups, only level 1 incrementals.

	      noinc  Never do incremental backups, only full dumps.

	      skip   Never do backups (useful when sharing the disklist file).

		     Only do incremental dumps.  `amadmin force' should be used  to  tell  Amanda
		     that  a full dump has been performed off-line, so that it resets to level 1.
		     It is similar to skip-full, but with incronly full dumps  may  be	scheduled
		     manually.	 Unfortunately,  it appears that Amanda will perform full backups
		     with this configuration, which is probably a bug.

       The following dumptype entries are predefined by Amanda:

	      define dumptype no-compress {
		  compress none
	      define dumptype compress-fast {
		  compress client fast
	      define dumptype compress-best {
		  compress client best
	      define dumptype srvcompress {
		  compress server fast
	      define dumptype bsd-auth {
		  auth bsd
	      define dumptype krb4-auth {
		  auth krb4
	      define dumptype no-record {
		  record no
	      define dumptype no-hold {
		  holdingdisk no
	      define dumptype no-full {
		  skip-full yes

       In addition to options in a dumptype section, one or more  other  dumptype  names  may  be
       entered, which make this dumptype inherit options from other previously defined dumptypes.
       For instance, two sections might be the same except for the record option:

	      define dumptype normal {
		  comment "Normal backup, no compression, do indexing"
		  index yes
		  maxdumps 2
	      define dumptype testing {
		  comment "Test backup, no compression, do indexing, no recording"
		  record no

       Amanda provides a dumptype named global in the sample amanda.conf file that all	dumptypes
       should  reference.   This  provides  an	easy place to make changes that will affect every

       The amanda.conf file may define multiple types of tape media and devices.  The information
       is entered in a tapetype section, which looks like this in the config file:

	      define tapetype name {
		  tapetype-option tapetype-value

       Name  is  the name of this type of tape medium/device.  It is referenced from the tapetype
       option in the main part of the config file.

       The tapetype options and values are:

       comment "string"
	      Default: none.  A comment string describing this set of tape information.

       filemark "int"
	      Default: 1000 bytes.  How large a file mark (tape mark) is, measured in bytes.   If
	      the  size  is  only  known  in some linear measurement (e.g. inches), convert it to
	      bytes using the device density.

       length "int"
	      Default: 2000 kbytes.  How much data will fit on a tape.

	      Note that this value is only used by Amanda to schedule which backups will be  run.
	      Once  the  backups  start, Amanda will continue to write to a tape until it gets an
	      error, regardless of what value is entered for length (but see the  OUTPUT  DRIVERS
	      section later for exceptions).

       blocksize "int"
	      Default:	32 kbytes.  How much data will be written in each tape record.	The mini-
	      mum blocksize value is 32 KBytes.  The maximum blocksize value is 32 KBytes.

       file-pad "boolean"
	      Default: true.  If true, every record, including the last one  in  the  file,  will
	      have  the same length.  This matches the way Amanda wrote tapes prior to the avail-
	      ability of this parameter.  It may also be useful on devices that  only  support	a
	      fixed blocksize.

	      Note that the last record on the tape probably includes trailing null byte padding,
	      which will be passed back to gzip, compress or the restore program.  Most  programs
	      just ignore this (although possibly with a warning).

	      If this parameter is false, the last record in a file may be shorter than the block
	      size.  The file will contain the same amount of data the	dump  program  generated,
	      without  trailing  null  byte padding.  When read, the same amount of data that was
	      written will be returned.

       speed "int"
	      Default: 200 bps.  How fast the drive will accept data, in bytes per second.   This
	      parameter is not currently used by Amanda.

       lbl-templ "string"
	      A  PostScript  template  file  used by amreport to generate labels.  Several sample
	      files are provided with the Amanda sources in the example directory.  See the amre-
	      port(8) man page for more information.

       In  addition  to  options, another tapetype name may be entered, which makes this tapetype
       inherit options from another tapetype.	For  instance,	the  only  difference  between	a
       DLT4000 tape drive using Compact-III tapes and one using Compact-IV tapes is the length of
       the tape.  So they could be entered as:

	      define tapetype DLT4000-III {
		  comment "DLT4000 tape drives with Compact-III tapes"
		  length 12500 mbytes	      # 10 Gig tapes with some compression
		  filemark 2000 kbytes
		  speed 1536 kps
	      define tapetype DLT4000-IV {
		  comment "DLT4000 tape drives with Compact-IV tapes"
		  length 25000 mbytes	      # 20 Gig tapes with some compression

       The amanda.conf file may define multiple types of network interfaces.  The information  is
       entered in an interface section, which looks like this:

	      define interface name {
		  interface-option interface-value

       Name  is  the  name of this type of network interface.  It is referenced from the disklist

       Note that these sections define network interface characteristics, not the  actual  inter-
       face  that will be used.  Nor do they impose limits on the bandwidth that will actually be
       taken up by Amanda.  Amanda computes the estimated bandwidth each file system backup  will
       take based on the estimated size and time, then compares that plus any other running back-
       ups with the limit as another of the criteria when deciding whether to start  the  backup.
       Once  a backup starts, Amanda will use as much of the network as it can leaving throttling
       up to the operating system and network hardware.

       The interface options and values are:

       comment "string"
	      Default: none.  A comment string describing this set of network information.

       use "int"
	      Default: 300 Kbps.  The speed of the interface in Kbytes per second.

       In addition to options, another interface name may be entered, which makes this	interface
       inherit options from another interface.	At the moment, this is of little use.

       The  disklist  file  determines which disks will be backed up by Amanda.  The file usually
       contains one line per disk:

	      hostname diskname [ diskdevice ] dumptype [ spindle [ interface ] ]

       All pair [ hostname diskname ] must be unique.

       Lines starting with # are ignored, as are blank lines.	The  fields  have  the	following

	      The  name of the host to be backed up.  If diskdevice refers to a PC share, this is
	      the host Amanda will run the Samba smbclient program on to back up the share.

	      The name of the disk (a label).  In most case, you set your diskname to the diskde-
	      vice  and  you  don't set the diskdevice.  If you want multiple entry with the same
	      diskdevice, you must set a different diskname for each  entry.  It's  the  diskname
	      that  you use on command line for any amanda command.  Look at the example/disklist
	      file for example.

	      Default: same as diskname.  The name of the disk device to be backed up.	It may be
	      a  full  device name, a device name without the /dev/ prefix, e.g. sd0a, or a mount
	      point such as /usr.

	      It may also refer to a PC share by starting the name with  two  (forward)  slashes,
	      e.g.  //some-pc/home.   In this case, the program option in the associated dumptype
	      must be entered as GNUTAR.  It is the combination of the double slash disk name and
	      program GNUTAR in the dumptype that triggers the use of Samba.

	      Refers  to  a  dumptype  defined in the amanda.conf file.  Dumptypes specify backup
	      related parameters, such as whether to compress  the  backups,  whether  to  record
	      backup results in /etc/dumpdates, the disk's relative priority, etc.

	      Default:	-1.  A number used to balance backup load on a host.  Amanda will not run
	      multiple backups at the same time on the same spindle, unless the spindle number is
	      -1, which means there is no spindle restriction.

	      Default:	local.	 The  name  of	a network interface definition in the amanda.conf
	      file, used to balance network load.

       Instead of naming a dumptype, it is possible to define  one  in-line,  enclosing  dumptype
       options within curly braces, one per line, just like a dumptype definition in amanda.conf.
       Since pre-existing dumptypes are valid option names, this syntax may be used to	customize
       dumptypes for particular disks.

       A line break must follow the left curly bracket.

       For  instance,  if  a dumptype named normal is used for most disks, but use of the holding
       disk needs to be disabled for the file system that holds it, this would	work  instead  of
       defining a new dumptype:
	      hostname diskname [ diskdevice ] {
		holdingdisk no
	      } [ spindle [ interface ] ]

       The  tapelist  file  contains  the  list  of tapes in active use.  This file is maintained
       entirely by Amanda and should not be created or edited during normal operation.	 It  con-
       tains lines of the form:

	      YYYYMMDD label flags

       Where  YYYYMMDD is the date the tape was written, label is a label for the tape as written
       by amlabel and flags tell Amanda whether the tape  may  be  reused,  etc  (see  the  reuse
       options of amadmin).

       Amdump and amflush will refuse to write to an unlabeled tape, or to a labeled tape that is
       considered active.  There must be more tapes in active rotation (see the tapecycle option)
       than  there are runs in the backup cycle (see the dumpcycle option) to prevent overwriting
       a backup image that would be needed to do a full recovery.

       The normal value for the tapedev parameter, or for what a tape changer returns, is a  full
       path name to a non-rewinding tape device, such as /dev/nst0 or /dev/rmt/0mn or /dev/nst0.1
       or whatever conventions the operating system uses.  Amanda provides additional application
       level  drivers that support non-tradition tape simulatation or features.  To access a spe-
       cific output driver, set tapedev (or configure your changer to return)  a  string  of  the
       form  driver:driver-info  where	driver is one of the supported drivers and driver-info is
       optional additional information needed by the driver.

       The supported drivers are:

       tape	 This is the default driver.  The driver-info is the tape device name.	 Entering
		 /dev/rmt/0mn is really a short hand for tape:/dev/rmt/0mn.

       null	 This  driver  throws  away  anything written to it and returns EOF for any reads
		 except a special case is made for reading a label, in which case a "fake"  value
		 is  returned  that  Amanda  checks for and allows through regardless of what you
		 have set in labelstr.	The driver-info field is not used and may be left blank:

			tapedev "null:"

		 The length value from the associated tapetype is used to  limit  the  amount  of
		 data written.	When the limit is reached, the driver will simulate end of tape.

		 NOTE:	this  driver  should only be used for debugging and testing, and probably
		 only with the record option set to no.

       rait	 Redundant Array of Inexpensive (?)  Tapes.  Reads and writes  tapes  mounted  on
		 multiple drives by spreading the data across N-1 drives and using the last drive
		 for a checksum.  See docs/RAIT for more information.

		 The driver-info field describes the devices to use.  Curly braces indicate  mul-
		 tiple replacements in the string.  For instance:

			tapedev "rait:/dev/rmt/tps0d{4,5,6}n"

		 would use the following devices:


       file	 This  driver  emulates  a  tape  device with a set of files in a directory.  The
		 driver-info field must be the name of an existing directory.	The  driver  will
		 test  for  a  subdirectory  of  that  named  data and return offline until it is
		 present.  When present, the driver uses two files in the data	subdirectory  for
		 each tape file.  One contains the actual data.  The other contains record length

		 The driver uses a file named status in the file device directory to hold  driver
		 status information, such as tape position.  If not present, the driver will cre-
		 ate it as though the device is rewound.

		 The length value from the associated tapetype is used to  limit  the  amount  of
		 data written.	When the limit is reached, the driver will simulate end of tape.

		 One way to use this driver with a real device such as a CD is to create a direc-
		 tory for the file device and one or more other directories for the actual  data.
		 Create  a  symlink  named data in the file directory to one of the data directo-
		 ries.	Set the tapetype length to whatever the medium will hold.

		 When Amanda fills the file device, remove the symlink and (optionally) create	a
		 new  symlink to another data area.  Use a CD writer software package to burn the
		 image from the first data area.

		 To read the CD, mount it and create the data symlink in the file  device  direc-

       Amanda  processes  on the tape server host run as the dumpuser user listed in amanda.conf.
       When they connect to a backup client, they do so with an Amanda-specific  protocol.   They
       do not, for instance, use rsh or ssh directly.

       On the client side, the amandad daemon validates the connection using one of several meth-
       ods, depending on how it was compiled and on options it is passed:

	      Even though Amanda does not use rsh, it can use .rhosts-style authentication and	a
	      .rhosts file.

	      This  is	essentially  the  same as .rhosts authentication except a different file,
	      with almost the same format, is used.  This is the  default  mechanism  built  into

	      The format of the .amandahosts file is:

		     hostname [ username ]

	      If  username  is	ommitted,  it defaults to the user running amandad, i.e. the user
	      listed in the inetd or xinetd configuration file.

	      Amanda may use the Kerberos authentication system.  Further information is  in  the
	      docs/KERBEROS file that comes with an Amanda distribution.

       For  Samba  access,  Amanda needs a file on the Samba server (which may or may not also be
       the tape server) named /etc/amandapass  with  share  names,  (clear  text)  passwords  and
       (optional)  domain  names, in that order, one per line, whitespace separated.  By default,
       the user used to connect to the PC is the same for all PC's and is compiled  into  Amanda.
       It  may	be changed on a host by host basis by listing it first in the password field fol-
       lowed by a percent sign and then the password.  For instance:

	 //some-pc/home    normalpw
	 //another-pc/disk otheruser%otherpw

       With clear text passwords, this file should obviously be tightly protected.  It only needs
       to be readable by the Amanda user on the Samba server.

       Further information is in the docs/SAMBA file that comes with an Amanda distribution.

       All  host and disk arguments to programs are special expression.  The command apply to all
       disk that match your arguments.	This section describe the matcher.

       The matcher match by word, each word is a glob expression, word are separated by the sepa-
       rator '.' for host and '/' for disk. You can anchor the expression at left with a '^'. You
       can anchor the expression at right with a '$'. The matcher is case  insensitive	for  host
       but  is case sensitive for disk. A match succeed if all word in your expression match con-
       tiguous word in the host or disk.

	.   word separator for a host
	/   word separator for a disk
	^   anchor at left
	$   anchor at right
	?   match exactly one character except the separator
	*   match zero or more characters except the separator
	**  match zero or more characters including the separator

       Some examples:

	 hosta		 hosta			 hostb
	 host		 host			 hosta
	 host?		 hosta			 host
	 ho*na		 hoina			 ho.aina.org
	 ho**na 	 hoina
	 ^hosta 	 hosta			 foo.hosta.org
	 sda*		 /dev/sda1
	 /opt/		 opt (disk)		 opt (host)
	 .opt.		 opt (host)		 opt (disk)
	 /		 /			 any other disk
	 /usr		 /usr
	 /usr$		 /usr			 /usr/opt

       A datestamp expression is a range expression where we only match the prefix.  Leading ^ is
       removed. Trailing $ force an exact match.

	 20001212-14  match all dates beginning with 20001212, 20001213 or 20001214
	 20001212-4   same as previous
	 20001212-24  match all dates between 20001212 and 20001224
	 2000121      match all dates that start with 2000121 (20001210-20001219)
	 2	      match all dates that start with 2 (20000101-29991231)
	 2000-10      match all dates between 20000101-20101231
	 200010$      match only 200010

       James da Silva <jds@cs.umd.edu>
       University of Maryland, College Park

       amadmin(8), amcheck(8), amcheckdb(8), amcleanup(8), amdd(8), amdump(8), amflush(8), amget-
       conf(8), amlabel(8), ammt(8), amoverview(8), amplot(8), amrecover(8),  amreport(8),  amre-
       store(8), amrmtape(8), amstatus(8), amtape(8), amtoc(8), amverify(8), amverifyrun(8)


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