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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for zshzle (redhat section 1)

ZSHZLE(1)			     General Commands Manual				ZSHZLE(1)

NAME
       zshzle - zsh command line editor

DESCRIPTION
       If  the	ZLE  option  is  set (which it is by default in interactive shells) and the shell
       input is attached to the terminal, the user is able to edit command lines.

       There are two display modes.  The first, multiline mode, is the default.  It only works if
       the  TERM parameter is set to a valid terminal type that can move the cursor up.  The sec-
       ond, single line mode, is used if TERM is invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up, or
       if  the	SINGLE_LINE_ZLE  option is set.  This mode is similar to ksh, and uses no termcap
       sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will be unset by default.

       The parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line editor.  See  Parameters
       Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

KEYMAPS
       A  keymap  in  ZLE contains a set of bindings between key sequences and ZLE commands.  The
       empty key sequence cannot be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one or more names.  If
       all  of	a  keymap's  names are deleted, it disappears.	bindkey can be used to manipulate
       keymap names.

       Initially, there are four keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The `.safe' keymap is special.  It can never  be  altered,  and	the  name  can	never  be
       removed.   However,  it can be linked to other names, which can be removed.  In the future
       other special keymaps may be added; users should avoid using names beginning with `.'  for
       their own keymaps.

       In  addition  to  these	four  names, either `emacs' or `viins' is also linked to the name
       `main'.	If one of the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables contain the string `vi' when
       the  shell  starts up then it will be `viins', otherwise it will be `emacs'.  bindkey's -e
       and -v options provide a convenient way to override this default choice.

       When the editor starts up, it will select the  `main'  keymap.	If  that  keymap  doesn't
       exist, it will use `.safe' instead.

       In  the `.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert, except for ^J (line feed)
       and ^M (return) which are bound to accept-line.	This is deliberately not pleasant to use;
       if you are using it, it means you deleted the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When  ZLE  is reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence that is bound to
       some command and is also a prefix of a longer bound string.  In this case ZLE will wait	a
       certain	time  to  see  if  more characters are typed, and if not (or they don't match any
       longer string) it will execute the binding.  This timeout is  defined  by  the  KEYTIMEOUT
       parameter; its default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if the prefix string is not itself
       bound to a command.

       As well as ZLE commands, key sequences can be bound to other strings,  by  using  `bindkey
       -s'.   When  such  a sequence is read, the replacement string is pushed back as input, and
       the command reading process starts again using these  fake  keystrokes.	 This  input  can
       itself  invoke  further replacement strings, but in order to detect loops the process will
       be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real command being read.

ZLE BUILTINS
       The ZLE module contains three related builtin commands. The  bindkey  command  manipulates
       keymaps and key bindings; the vared command invokes ZLE on the value of a shell parameter;
       and the zle command manipulates editing widgets and allows command line access to ZLE com-
       mands from within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
	      bindkey's options can be divided into three categories: keymap selection, operation
	      selection, and others.  The keymap selection options are:

	      -e     Selects keymap `emacs', and also links it to `main'.

	      -v     Selects keymap `viins', and also links it to `main'.

	      -a     Selects keymap `vicmd'.

	      -M     The first non-option argument is used as a keymap name, and does not  other-
		     wise count as an argument.

	      If  a  keymap  selection	is  required  and none of the options above are used, the
	      `main' keymap is used.  Some operations do not permit  a	keymap	to  be	selected,
	      namely:

	      -l     List  all existing keymap names.  If the -L option is also used, list in the
		     form of bindkey commands to create the keymaps.

	      -d     Delete all existing keymaps and reset to the default state.

	      -D keymap ...
		     Delete the named keymaps.

	      -A old-keymap new-keymap
		     Make the new-keymap name an alias for old-keymap, so that both  names  refer
		     to  the  same  keymap.  The names have equal standing; if either is deleted,
		     the other remains.  If there is already a keymap with the	new-keymap  name,
		     it is deleted.

	      -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
		     Create  a	new keymap, named new-keymap.  If a keymap already has that name,
		     it is deleted.  If an old-keymap name is given, the new keymap  is  initial-
		     ized to be a duplicate of it, otherwise the new keymap will be empty.

	      To  use a newly created keymap, it should be linked to main.  Hence the sequence of
	      commands to create and use a new keymap `mymap' initialized from the  emacs  keymap
	      (which remains unchanged) is:

		     bindkey -N mymap emacs
		     bindkey -A mymap main

	      Note  that  while `bindkey -A newmap main' will work when newmap is emacs or viins,
	      it will not work for vicmd, as switching from vi insert  to  command  mode  becomes
	      impossible.

	      The following operations act on the `main' keymap if no keymap selection option was
	      given:

	      -m     Add the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected keymap.	Only keys
		     that are unbound or bound to self-insert are affected.

	      -r in-string ...
		     Unbind  the  specified  in-strings  in the selected keymap.  This is exactly
		     equivalent to binding the strings to undefined-key.

		     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

		     When -p is also used, the in-strings specify prefixes.  Any binding that has
		     the given in-string as a prefix, not including the binding for the in-string
		     itself, if any, will be removed.  For example,

			    bindkey -rpM viins '^['

		     will remove all bindings in the vi-insert keymap beginning  with  an  escape
		     character (probably cursor keys), but leave the binding for the escape char-
		     acter itself (probably vi-cmd-mode).  This is incompatible with  the  option
		     -R.

	      -s in-string out-string ...
		     Bind each in-string to each out-string.  When in-string is typed, out-string
		     will be pushed back and treated as input to the line  editor.   When  -R  is
		     also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

	      in-string command ...
		     Bind  each  in-string  to	each  command.	 When  -R  is used, interpret the
		     in-strings as ranges.

	      [ in-string ]
		     List key bindings.  If an in-string is specified, the binding of that string
		     in  the  selected	keymap	is displayed.  Otherwise, all key bindings in the
		     selected keymap are displayed.  (As a special case, if the -e or  -v  option
		     is used alone, the keymap is not displayed - the implicit linking of keymaps
		     is the only thing that happens.)

		     When the option -p is used, the in-string	must  be  present.   The  listing
		     shows  all  bindings  which  have	the  given  key sequence as a prefix, not
		     including any bindings for the key sequence itself.

		     When the -L option is used, the list is in the form of bindkey  commands  to
		     create the key bindings.

       When  the -R option is used as noted above, a valid range consists of two characters, with
       an optional `-' between them.  All characters between the two  specified,  inclusive,  are
       bound as specified.

       For either in-string or out-string, the following escape sequences are recognised:

       \a     bell character
       \b     backspace
       \e, \E escape
       \f     form feed
       \n     linefeed (newline)
       \r     carriage return
       \t     horizontal tab
       \v     vertical tab
       \NNN   character code in octal
       \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
       \M[-]X character with meta bit set
       \C[-]X control character
       ^X     control character

       In all other cases, `\' escapes the following character.  Delete is written as `^?'.  Note
       that `\M^?' and `^\M?' are not the same, and that (unlike emacs), the bindings `\M-X'  and
       `\eX'  are entirely distinct, although they are initialized to the same bindings by `bind-
       key -m'.

       vared [ -Aache ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ] name
	      The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit buffer, and the line editor
	      is invoked.  When the editor exits, name is set to the string value returned by the
	      editor.  When the -c flag is given, the parameter is created if it doesn't  already
	      exist.   The  -a	flag may be given with -c to create an array parameter, or the -A
	      flag to create an associative array.  If the type of an existing parameter does not
	      match the type to be created, the parameter is unset and recreated.

	      If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters as defined in $IFS
	      will be shown quoted with a backslash, as will backslashes themselves.  Conversely,
	      when the edited text is split into an array, a backslash quotes an immediately fol-
	      lowing separator character or backslash; no other special handling of  backslashes,
	      or any handling of quotes, is performed.

	      Individual elements of existing array or associative array parameters may be edited
	      by using subscript syntax on name.  New elements are  created  automatically,  even
	      without -c.

	      If  the  -p flag is given, the following string will be taken as the prompt to dis-
	      play at the left.  If the -r flag is given, the following string gives  the  prompt
	      to  display at the right.  If the -h flag is specified, the history can be accessed
	      from ZLE. If the -e flag is given, typing ^D (Control-D) on an  empty  line  causes
	      vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -I
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -N ] args ...
       zle    The zle builtin performs a number of different actions concerning ZLE.  Which oper-
	      ation it performs depends on its options:

	      -l [ -L | -a ]
		     List all existing user-defined widgets.  If the -L option is used,  list  in
		     the form of zle commands to create the widgets.

		     When combined with the -a option, all widget names are listed, including the
		     builtin ones. In this case the -L option is ignored.

		     If at least one string is given, nothing will be printed but the return sta-
		     tus  will	be  zero  if  all  strings  are  names of existing widgets (or of
		     user-defined widgets if the -a flag is not given) and non-zero if	at  least
		     one string is not a name of an defined widget.

	      -D widget ...
		     Delete the named widgets.

	      -A old-widget new-widget
		     Make  the	new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that both names refer
		     to the same widget.  The names have equal standing; if  either  is  deleted,
		     the  other  remains.  If there is already a widget with the new-widget name,
		     it is deleted.

	      -N widget [ function ]
		     Create a user-defined widget.  If there is already a widget with the  speci-
		     fied  name,  it  is overwritten.  When the new widget is invoked from within
		     the editor, the specified shell function is called.  If no function name  is
		     specified, it defaults to the same name as the widget.  For further informa-
		     tion, see the section Widgets in zshzle(1).

	      -C widget completion-widget function
		     Create a user-defined completion widget named widget. The completion  widget
		     will  behave like the built-in completion-widget whose name is given as com-
		     pletion-widget. To generate the completions,  the	shell  function  function
		     will be called.  For further information, see zshcompwid(1).

	      -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
		     Redisplay	the command line; this is to be called from within a user-defined
		     widget to allow changes to become visible.  If a display-string is given and
		     not  empty,  this	is  shown  in the status line (immediately below the line
		     being edited).

		     If the optional strings are given they are listed below the  prompt  in  the
		     same way as completion lists are printed. If no strings are given but the -c
		     option is used such a list is cleared.

		     Note that this option is only useful for widgets that do  not  exit  immedi-
		     ately  after  using  it because the strings displayed will be erased immedi-
		     ately after return from the widget.

		     This command can safely be called outside user defined widgets;  if  zle  is
		     active,  the display will be refreshed, while if zle is not active, the com-
		     mand has no effect.  In this case there will usually be no other  arguments.
		     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

	      -M string
		     As  with the -R option, the string will be displayed below the command line;
		     unlike the -R option, the string will not be put into the	status	line  but
		     will  instead  be	printed  normally  below the prompt.  This means that the
		     string will still be displayed after the widget returns (until it	is  over-
		     written by subsequent commands).

	      -U string
		     This pushes the characters in the string onto the input stack of ZLE.  After
		     the widget currently executed finishes ZLE will behave as if the  characters
		     in the string were typed by the user.

		     As  ZLE  uses  a  stack,  if  this option is used repeatedly the last string
		     pushed onto the stack will be processed first.  However, the  characters  in
		     each  string  will  be  processed	in  the order in which they appear in the
		     string.

	      -I     Unusually, this option is only useful outside ordinary widget functions.  It
		     invalidates  the current zle display in preparation for output; usually this
		     will be from a trap function.  It has no effect if zle is not active.   When
		     a	trap exits, the shell checks to see if the display needs restoring, hence
		     the following will print output in such a way as not  to  disturb	the  line
		     being edited:

			    TRAPUSR1() {
				# Invalidate zle display
			      zle -I
				# Show output
			      print Hello
			    }

		     Note  that there are better ways of manipulating the display from within zle
		     widgets.  In general, the trap function may need  to  test  whether  zle  is
		     loaded  before using this method; if it is not, there is no point in loading
		     it specially since the line editor will not be active.

		     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

	      widget [ -n num ] [ -N ] args ...
		     Invoke the specified widget.  This can only be done when ZLE is active; nor-
		     mally this will be within a user-defined widget.

		     With the options -n and -N, the current numerical argument will be saved and
		     then restored after the call to widget; `-n num' sets the numerical argument
		     temporarily to num, while `-N' sets it to the default, i.e. as if there were
		     none.

		     Any further arguments will be passed to the widget.  If it is a shell  func-
		     tion, these are passed down as positional parameters; for builtin widgets it
		     is up to the widget in question what it does with them.  Currently arguments
		     are only handled by the incremental-search commands, the history-search-for-
		     ward and -backward and the corresponding functions prefixed by vi-,  and  by
		     universal-argument.   No  error  is  flagged if the command does not use the
		     arguments, or only uses some of them.

		     The return status reflects the success or failure of the  operation  carried
		     out  by  the  widget, or if it is a user-defined widget the return status of
		     the shell function.

		     A non-zero return status causes the shell to beep	when  the  widget  exits,
		     unless  the BEEP options was unset or the widget was called via the zle com-
		     mand.  Thus if a user defined widget requires an immediate beep,  it  should
		     call the beep widget directly.

       With no options and no arguments, only the return status will be set. It is zero if ZLE is
       currently active and widgets could be invoked using this builtin command and  non-zero  if
       ZLE is not active.

WIDGETS
       All actions in the editor are performed by `widgets'.  A widget's job is simply to perform
       some small action.  The ZLE commands that key sequences in keymaps are  bound  to  are  in
       fact widgets.  Widgets can be user-defined or built in.

       The standard widgets built in to ZLE are listed in Standard Widgets below.  Other built-in
       widgets can be defined by other modules (see zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two
       names:  its  normal  canonical name, and the same name preceded by a `.'.  The `.' name is
       special: it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This makes the widget available  even
       when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined widgets are defined using `zle -N', and implemented as shell functions.  When
       the widget is executed, the corresponding shell function  is  executed,	and  can  perform
       editing	(or  other) actions.  It is recommended that user-defined widgets should not have
       names starting with `.'.

USER-DEFINED WIDGETS
       User-defined widgets, being implemented as shell functions, can execute any  normal  shell
       command.  They can also run other widgets (whether built-in or user-defined) using the zle
       builtin command.  The standard input of the function is closed to  prevent  external  com-
       mands  from unintentionally blocking ZLE by reading from the terminal, but read -k or read
       -q can be used to read characters.  Finally, they can examine  and  edit  the  ZLE  buffer
       being edited by reading and setting the special parameters described below.

       These  special parameters are always available in widget functions, but are not in any way
       special outside ZLE.  If they have some normal value outside ZLE, that value is	temporar-
       ily  inaccessible,  but will return when the widget function exits.  These special parame-
       ters in fact have local scope, like parameters created in a function using local.

       Inside completion widgets and traps called while  ZLE  is  active,  these  parameters  are
       available read-only.

       BUFFER (scalar)
	      The entire contents of the edit buffer.  If it is written to, the cursor remains at
	      the same offset, unless that would put it outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES
	      The number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer currently displayed on screen
	      (i.e.  without  any  changes to the preceding parameters done after the last redis-
	      play).

       CURSOR (integer)
	      The offset of the cursor, within the edit buffer.  This is in the range 0 to $#BUF-
	      FER,  and is by definition equal to $#LBUFFER.  Attempts to move the cursor outside
	      the buffer will result in the cursor being moved to the appropriate end of the buf-
	      fer.

       HISTNO (integer)
	      The current history number.

       KEYS (scalar)
	      The keys typed to invoke this widget, as a literal string.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
	      The name of the last widget that was executed.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
	      The  part  of  the  buffer  that lies to the left of the cursor position.  If it is
	      assigned to, only that part of the buffer  is  replaced,	and  the  cursor  remains
	      between the new $LBUFFER and the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
	      Like CURSOR, but for the mark.

       NUMERIC (integer)
	      The  numeric  argument.  If no numeric argument was given, this parameter is unset.
	      When this is set inside a widget function, builtin  widgets  called  with  the  zle
	      builtin  command	will use the value assigned. If it is unset inside a widget func-
	      tion, builtin widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
	      The number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of bytes which have  already
	      been  typed  and can immediately be read. On systems where the shell is not able to
	      get this information, this parameter will always have a value of zero.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
	      In a multi-line input at the secondary prompt, this  read-only  parameter  contains
	      the contents of the lines before the one the cursor is currently in.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
	      The  part  of  the  buffer that lies to the right of the cursor position.  If it is
	      assigned to, only that part of the buffer  is  replaced,	and  the  cursor  remains
	      between the old $LBUFFER and the new $RBUFFER.

       WIDGET (scalar)
	      The name of the widget currently being executed.

STANDARD WIDGETS
       The  following  is a list of all the standard widgets, and their default bindings in emacs
       mode, vi command mode and vi insert  mode  (the	`emacs',  `vicmd'  and	`viins'  keymaps,
       respectively).

       Note  that  cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three keymaps; the shell assumes
       that the cursor keys send the key sequences  reported  by  the  terminal-handling  library
       (termcap  or terminfo).	The key sequences shown in the list are those based on the VT100,
       common on many modern terminals, but in fact these are not necessarily bound.  In the case
       of  the	viins keymap, the initial escape character of the sequences serves also to return
       to the vicmd keymap: whether this happens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT  parameter,  see
       zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
	      Move  backward  one  word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank charac-
	      ters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
	      Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
	      Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
	      Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning of the  line,  move
	      to the beginning of the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
	      Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line, move to the end of
	      the next line, if any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
	      Move to the end of the line.  If an argument is given to this command,  the  cursor
	      will be moved to the end of the line (argument - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
	      Move forward one word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
	      Move  to the end of the current word, or, if at the end of the current word, to the
	      end of the next word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
	      Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
	      Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the next occurrence of  it  in  the
	      line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
	      Read  a  character from the keyboard, and move to the position just before the next
	      occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
	      Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the previous occurrence  of  it  in
	      the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
	      Read  a character from the keyboard, and move to the position just after the previ-
	      ous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
	      Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
	      Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move to the beginning of the next word.  The editor's idea of a word  is	specified
	      with the WORDCHARS parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
	      Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
	      Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
	      Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (`) (unbound)
	      Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
	      Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
	      Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
	      Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move  to	the beginning of the buffer, or if already there, move to the first event
	      in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
	      Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning of the buffer, move
	      to the previous history line.

       beginning-of-history
	      Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
	      Move  down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, move to the next
	      event in the history list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
	      Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, move to the  next
	      event in the history list.  Then move to the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
	      Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, search forward in
	      the history for a line beginning with the first word in the buffer.

	      If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument  is
	      taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
	      Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
	      Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the current line up to the
	      cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Move to the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to the last event  in  the
	      history list.

       end-of-line-hist
	      Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the buffer, move to the next
	      history line.

       end-of-history
	      Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
	      Fetch the history line specified by the numeric argument.   This	defaults  to  the
	      current history line (i.e. the one that isn't history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Search  backward incrementally for a specified string.  The search is case-insensi-
	      tive if the search string does not have uppercase letters and no	numeric  argument
	      was  given.  The string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of
	      the line.

	      A restricted set of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.   An  inter-
	      rupt  signal,  as  defined by the stty setting, will stop the search and go back to
	      the original line.  An undefined key will have the same effect. The supported func-
	      tions  are: backward-delete-char, vi-backward-delete-char, clear-screen, redisplay,
	      quoted-insert,  vi-quoted-insert,  accept-and-hold,  accept-and-infer-next-history,
	      accept-line and accept-line-and-down-history.

	      magic-space  just  inserts  a  space.   vi-cmd-mode  toggles between the `main' and
	      `vicmd' keymaps; the `main' keymap (insert mode) will be selected initially.   his-
	      tory-incremental-search-backward	will  get  the next occurrence of the contents of
	      the mini-buffer.	 history-incremental-search-forward  inverts  the  sense  of  the
	      search.	vi-repeat-search  and  vi-rev-repeat-search are similarly supported.  The
	      direction of the search is indicated in the mini-buffer.

	      Any multi-character string that is not bound to one of  the  above  functions  will
	      beep  and interrupt the search, leaving the last found line in the buffer. Any sin-
	      gle character that is not bound to one of the above functions,  or  self-insert  or
	      self-insert-unmeta, will have the same effect but the function will be executed.

	      When  called from a widget function by the zle command, the incremental search com-
	      mands can take a string argument.  This will be treated as a string of keys, as for
	      arguments  to  the bindkey command, and used as initial input for the command.  Any
	      characters in the string which  are  unused  by  the  incremental  search  will  be
	      silently ignored.  For example,

		     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

	      will  search  backwards  for  forceps, leaving the minibuffer containing the string
	      `forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Search forward incrementally for a specified string.  The search	is  case-insensi-
	      tive  if	the search string does not have uppercase letters and no numeric argument
	      was given.  The string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning  of
	      the  line.   The	functions  available  in the mini-buffer are the same as for his-
	      tory-incremental-search-backward.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the first word in the buf-
	      fer.

	      If  called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is
	      taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
	      Search backward in the history for a specified string.  The string may  begin  with
	      `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

	      A  restricted  set of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.	An inter-
	      rupt signal, as defined by the stty setting,  will stop the search.  The	functions
	      available  in  the  mini-buffer  are:  accept-line,  backward-delete-char, vi-back-
	      ward-delete-char, backward-kill-word, vi-backward-kill-word,  clear-screen,  redis-
	      play, quoted-insert and vi-quoted-insert.

	      vi-cmd-mode  is  treated	the  same as accept-line, and magic-space is treated as a
	      space.  Any other character that is not bound to self-insert or  self-insert-unmeta
	      will beep and be ignored. If the function is called from vi command mode, the bind-
	      ings of the current insert mode will be used.

	      If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument  is
	      taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Search  forward in the history for a line beginning with the first word in the buf-
	      fer.

	      If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument  is
	      taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
	      Search  forward  in  the history for a specified string.	The string may begin with
	      `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line. The functions  available  in
	      the  mini-buffer are the same as for vi-history-search-backward.	Argument handling
	      is also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Search in the history list for a line matching the current one and fetch the  event
	      following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Insert  the last word from the previous history event at the cursor position.  If a
	      positive numeric argument is given, insert that word from the end of  the  previous
	      history  event.  If the argument is zero or negative insert that word from the left
	      (zero inserts the previous command word).  Repeating this command replaces the word
	      just inserted with the last word from the history event prior to the one just used;
	      numeric arguments can be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
	      Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
	      Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
	      Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, move to  the  previous
	      event in the history list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
	      Move  up	a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, move to the previous
	      event in the history list.  Then move to the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
	      Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, search backward in the
	      history for a line beginning with the first word in the buffer.

	      If  called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is
	      taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
	      Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
	      Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the current line up to  the
	      cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its original position.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
	      Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
	      Enter insert mode after the current cursor position, without changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
	      Delete the character behind the cursor, without changing lines.  If in insert mode,
	      this won't delete past the point where insert mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
	      Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
	      Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
	      Kill the word behind the cursor, without going past the point where insert mode was
	      last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
	      Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the cursor position to the
	      endpoint of the movement.  Then enter insert mode.  If the  command  is  vi-change,
	      change the current line.

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
	      Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
	      Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Like  copy-prev-word,  but  the  word  is  found	by  using  shell parsing, whereas
	      copy-prev-word looks for blanks. This makes a difference when the  word  is  quoted
	      and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
	      Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the cursor position to the
	      endpoint of the movement.  If the command is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
	      Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
	      Delete the character under the cursor, without going past the end of the line.

       delete-word
	      Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
	      Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
	      Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
	      Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
	      Move to the first non-blank character on the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
	      Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.  If already on the end  of  the  line,
	      kill the newline character.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
	      Kill from the cursor back to wherever insert mode was last entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
	      Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
	      Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
	      Move  to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches the one under the
	      cursor.  If the cursor is not on a bracket character, move  forward  without  going
	      past the end of the line to find one, and then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
	      Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
	      Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case
	      Read a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case of all characters from
	      the cursor position to the endpoint of the movement.  If the  movement  command  is
	      vi-oper-swap-case, swap the case of all characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
	      Insert  the contents of the kill buffer before the cursor.  If the kill buffer con-
	      tains a sequence of lines (as opposed to characters), paste it  above  the  current
	      line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
	      Insert  the  contents of the kill buffer after the cursor.  If the kill buffer con-
	      tains a sequence of lines (as opposed to characters), paste it  below  the  current
	      line.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Insert  the next character typed into the buffer literally.  An interrupt character
	      will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
	      Display a `^' at the cursor position, and insert the next character typed into  the
	      buffer literally.  An interrupt character will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
	      Quote  the current line; that is, put a `'' character at the beginning and the end,
	      and convert all `'' characters to `'\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
	      Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
	      Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
	      Repeat the last vi mode text modification.  If a count was used with the	modifica-
	      tion,  it  is  remembered.   If  a count is given to this command, it overrides the
	      remembered count, and is remembered for future uses of this command.  The cut  buf-
	      fer specification is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
	      Replace the character under the cursor with a character read from the keyboard.

       self-insert  (printable characters) (unbound) (printable characters and some control char-
       acters)
	      Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Insert a character into the buffer after stripping the meta bit and  converting  ^M
	      to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
	      Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
	      Swap the case of the character under the cursor and move past it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Exchange	the  two  characters  to  the  left of the cursor if at end of line, else
	      exchange the character under the cursor with the character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Exchange the current word with the one before it.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
	      Unindent a number of lines.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Remove the text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring, and  yank  the  new  top.   Only
	      works following yank or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
	      Read  a  movement  command  from	the keyboard, and copy the region from the cursor
	      position to the endpoint of the movement into the kill buffer.  If the  command  is
	      vi-yank, copy the current line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
	      Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
	      Copy  the region from the cursor position to the end of the line into the kill buf-
	      fer.  Arguably, this is what Y should do in vi, but it isn't what it actually does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
	      Start  a	new  numeric  argument,  or  add  to   the   current   one.    See   also
	      vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.   This  only works if bound to a key sequence ending
	      in a decimal digit.

	      Inside a widget function, a call to this function treats the last key  of  the  key
	      sequence which called the widget as the digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
	      Multiply	the argument of the next command by 4.	Alternatively, if this command is
	      followed by an integer (positive or negative), use that as  the  argument  for  the
	      next  command.  Thus digits cannot be repeated using this command.  For example, if
	      this command occurs twice, followed immediately by forward-char, move forward  six-
	      teen  spaces; if instead it is followed by -2, then forward-char, move backward two
	      spaces.

	      Inside a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. `zle universal-argument num',
	      the numerical argument will be set to num; this is equivalent to `NUMERIC=num'.

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
	      In a menu completion, insert the current completion into the buffer, and advance to
	      the next possible completion.

       complete-word
	      Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at the end  of  the  line,
	      list possible completions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
	      Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
	      Attempt shell expansion on the current word.  If that fails, attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
	      Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
	      List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
	      List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
	      Perform  history expansion and insert a space into the buffer.  This is intended to
	      be bound to space.

       menu-complete
	      Like complete-word, except that menu completion is  used.   See  the  MENU_COMPLETE
	      option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
	      Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
	      Perform  menu  completion,  like menu-complete, except that if a menu completion is
	      already in progress, move to the previous completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
	      When a previous completion displayed a list below the prompt, this  widget  can  be
	      used to move the prompt below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Push the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and execute it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
	      Execute the contents of the buffer.  Then search the history list for a line match-
	      ing the current one and push the event following onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
	      Finish editing the buffer.  Normally this causes the buffer to  be  executed  as	a
	      shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the the buffer stack.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
	      Enter  command  mode;  that  is,	select the `vicmd' keymap.  Yes, this is bound by
	      default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
	      Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.	This is for vi users without  the  mental
	      capacity to keep track of their caps lock key (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
	      Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       describe-key-briefly
	      Reads a key sequence, then prints the function bound to that sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Exchange the cursor position with the position of the mark.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Read  the  name  of  an editor command and execute it.  A restricted set of editing
	      functions is available in the mini-buffer.  An interrupt signal, as defined by  the
	      stty   setting,	will  abort  the  function.  The  allowed  functions  are:  back-
	      ward-delete-char, vi-backward-delete-char, clear-screen, redisplay,  quoted-insert,
	      vi-quoted-insert,   backward-kill-word,	vi-backward-kill-word,	 kill-whole-line,
	      vi-kill-line, backward-kill-line, list-choices, delete-char-or-list, complete-word,
	      accept-line, expand-or-complete and expand-or-complete-prefix.

	      kill-region   kills  the	last  word,  and  vi-cmd-mode  is  treated  the  same  as
	      accept-line.  The space and tab characters, if not bound to one of these functions,
	      will  complete  the name and then list the possibilities if the AUTO_LIST option is
	      set.  Any other character that is not bound to  self-insert  or  self-insert-unmeta
	      will beep and be ignored.  The bindings of the current insert mode will be used.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Pop the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the cursor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
	      If there is no # character at the beginning of the buffer, add one to the beginning
	      of each line.  If there is one, remove a # from each line that has one.  In  either
	      case,  accept  the  current  line.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for
	      this to have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
	      If there is no # character at the beginning of the current line, add one.  If there
	      is  one,	remove	it.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for this to have
	      any usefulness.

       push-input
	      Push the entire current multiline construct onto the buffer stack and return to the
	      top-level  (PS1)	prompt.   If  the current parser construct is only a single line,
	      this is exactly like push-line.  Next time the editor starts up or is  popped  with
	      get-line,  the  construct will be popped off the top of the buffer stack and loaded
	      into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Push the current buffer onto the buffer stack and clear the buffer.  Next time  the
	      editor  starts  up,  the	buffer will be popped off the top of the buffer stack and
	      loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line-or-edit
	      At the top-level (PS1) prompt, equivalent  to  push-line.   At  a  secondary  (PS2)
	      prompt,  move  the  entire current multiline construct into the editor buffer.  The
	      latter is equivalent to push-input followed by get-line.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
	      Redisplays the edit buffer.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Abort the current  editor  function,  e.g.  execute-named-command,  or  the  editor
	      itself, e.g. if you are in vared. Otherwise abort the parsing of the current line.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Push  the  buffer  onto  the  buffer stack, and execute the command `run-help cmd',
	      where cmd is the current command.  run-help is normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
	      Specify a buffer to be used in the following command.  There are	35  buffers  that
	      can  be specified: the 26 `named' buffers "a to "z and the nine `queued' buffers "1
	      to "9.  The named buffers can also be specified as "A to "Z.

	      When a buffer is specified for a cut command, the text being cut replaces the  pre-
	      vious  contents  of  the	specified buffer.  If a named buffer is specified using a
	      capital, the newly cut text is appended to the buffer instead of overwriting it.

	      If no buffer is specified for a cut command, "1 is used, and the contents of "1  to
	      "8 are each shifted along one buffer; the contents of "9 is lost.

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
	      Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Set the mark at the cursor position.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       undefined-key
	      This  command  is  executed when a key sequence that is not bound to any command is
	      typed.  By default it beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Incrementally undo the last text modification.

       redo   Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (u) (unbound)
	      Undo the last text modification.	If repeated, redo the modification.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Print the character under the cursor, its code as an octal, decimal and hexadecimal
	      number,  the current cursor position within the buffer and the column of the cursor
	      in the current line.

       where-is
	      Read the name of an editor command and and print the listing of key sequences  that
	      invoke the specified command.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
	      Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command `which-command cmd'.
	      where cmd is the current command.  which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
	      If the last command executed was a digit as part of an argument, continue the argu-
	      ment.  Otherwise, execute vi-beginning-of-line.

zsh 4.0.6				 August 14, 2002				ZSHZLE(1)


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