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       zshcompwid - zsh completion widgets

       The  shell's  programmable  completion  mechanism can be manipulated in two ways; here the
       low-level features supporting the newer, function-based mechanism are defined.  A complete
       set  of	shell  functions based on these features is described in zshcompsys(1), and users
       with no interest in adding to that system (or, potentially, writing their own --- see dic-
       tionary	entry for `hubris') should skip this section.  The older system based on the com-
       pctl builtin command is described in zshcompctl(1).

       Completion widgets are defined by the -C option to the zle builtin command provided by the
       zsh/zle module (see zshzle(1)). For example,

	      zle -C complete expand-or-complete completer

       defines	a widget named `complete'.  The second argument is the name of any of the builtin
       widgets	that  handle  completions:  complete-word,   expand-or-complete,   expand-or-com-
       plete-prefix, menu-complete, menu-expand-or-complete, reverse-menu-complete, list-choices,
       or delete-char-or-list.	Note that this will still work even if the widget in question has
       been re-bound.

       When this newly defined widget is bound to a key using the bindkey builtin command defined
       in the zsh/zle module (see zshzle(1)), typing that key will call the shell function  `com-
       pleter'.  This  function  is  responsible  for  generating  the possible matches using the
       builtins described below.  As with other ZLE widgets, the  function  is	called	with  its
       standard input closed.

       Once  the  function  returns,  the completion code takes over control again and treats the
       matches in the same manner as the specified builtin widget, in  this  case  expand-or-com-

       Inside  completion  widgets, and any functions called from them, some parameters have spe-
       cial meaning; outside these functions they are not special to the shell in any way.  These
       parameters  are	used  to  pass information between the completion code and the completion
       widget. Some of the builtin commands and the condition codes use  or  change  the  current
       values  of  these parameters.  Any existing values will be hidden during execution of com-
       pletion widgets; except for compstate, the parameters are  reset  on  each  function  exit
       (including nested function calls from within the completion widget) to the values they had
       when the function was entered.

	      This is the number of the current word, i.e. the word the cursor is currently on in
	      the  words  array.  Note that this value is only correct if the ksharrays option is
	      not set.

	      Initially this will be set to the empty string.  This parameter functions like PRE-
	      FIX;  it	contains  a string which precedes the one in PREFIX and is not considered
	      part of the list of matches.  Typically, a string is transferred from the beginning
	      of PREFIX to the end of IPREFIX, for example:


	      causes  the  part  of the prefix up to and including the first equal sign not to be
	      treated as part of a matched string.  This can be done automatically by the compset
	      builtin, see below.

	      As  IPREFIX,  but  for  a suffix that should not be considered part of the matches;
	      note that the ISUFFIX string follows the SUFFIX string.

       PREFIX Initially this will be set to the part of the current word from  the  beginning  of
	      the  word up to the position of the cursor; it may be altered to give a common pre-
	      fix for all matches.

	      This parameter is read-only and contains the quoted string up  to  the  word  being
	      completed.  E.g.	when completing `"foo', this parameter contains the double quote.
	      If the -q option of compset is used (see below), and the original string was  `"foo
	      bar' with the cursor on the `bar', this parameter contains `"foo '.

	      Like QIPREFIX, but containing the suffix.

       SUFFIX Initially this will be set to the part of the current word from the cursor position
	      to the end; it may be altered to give a common suffix for all matches.  It is  most
	      useful  when the option COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set, as otherwise the whole word on the
	      command line is treated as a prefix.

	      This is an associative array with various keys and values that the completion  code
	      uses to exchange information with the completion widget.	The keys are:

		     The  -q  option  of  the compset builtin command (see below) allows a quoted
		     string to be broken into separate words; if the cursor is on  one	of  those
		     words,  that  word  will be completed, possibly invoking `compset -q' recur-
		     sively.  With this key it is possible to test the types  of  quoted  strings
		     which  are  currently broken into parts in this fashion.  Its value contains
		     one character for each quoting level.  The characters are a single quote  or
		     a	double quote for strings quoted with these characters and a backslash for
		     strings not starting with a quote character.  The	first  character  in  the
		     value always corresponds to the innermost quoting level.

		     This will be set by the completion code to the overall context in which com-
		     pletion is attempted. Possible values are:

			    when completing inside the value of an array parameter assignment; in
			    this case the words array contains the words inside the parentheses.

			    when  completing  the  name  of  a parameter in a parameter expansion
			    beginning with ${.

			    when completing for a normal command (either in command  position  or
			    for an argument of the command).

			    when  completing  inside  a `[[...]]' conditional expression; in this
			    case the words array contains only the words inside  the  conditional

		     math   when  completing  in  a  mathematical environment such as a `((...))'

			    when completing the name of a  parameter  in  a  parameter	expansion
			    beginning with $ but not ${.

			    when completing after a redirection operator.

			    when completing inside a parameter subscript.

		     value  when completing the value of a parameter assignment.

	      exact  Controls  the behaviour when the REC_EXACT option is set.	It will be set to
		     accept if an exact match would be accepted, and will be unset otherwise.

		     If it was set when at least one match equal to the string on  the	line  was
		     generated, the match is accepted.

		     The string of an exact match if one was found, otherwise unset.

		     The  number  of words that were ignored because they matched one of the pat-
		     terns given with the -F option to the compadd builtin command.

	      insert This controls the manner in which a match is inserted into the command line.
		     On  entry	to the widget function, if it is unset the command line is not to
		     be changed; if set to unambiguous, any prefix common to all matches is to be
		     inserted;	if  set  to  automenu-unambiguous,  the  common  prefix  is to be
		     inserted and the next invocation of the completion code may start menu  com-
		     pletion  (due to the AUTO_MENU option being set); if set to menu or automenu
		     menu completion will be started for the matches currently generated (in  the
		     latter  case  this  will happen because the AUTO_MENU is set). The value may
		     also contain the string `tab' when the completion code  would  normally  not
		     really do completion, but only insert the TAB character.

		     On  exit  it  may be set to any of the values above (where setting it to the
		     empty string is the same as unsetting it), or to a number, in which case the
		     match  whose  number is given will be inserted into the command line.  Nega-
		     tive numbers count backward from the last match  (with  `-1'  selecting  the
		     last  match)  and out-of-range values are wrapped around, so that a value of
		     zero selects the last match and a value one more than  the  maximum  selects
		     the  first.  Unless  the  value  of  this	key ends in a space, the match is
		     inserted as in a menu completion, i.e.  without  automatically  appending	a

		     Both  menu  and  automenu	may  also  specify the the number of the match to
		     insert, given after a colon.  For example, `menu:2' says to start menu  com-
		     pletion, beginning with the second match.

		     Note that a value containing the substring `tab' makes the matches generated
		     be ignored and only the TAB be inserted.

		     Finally, it may also be set to all, which makes  all  matches  generated  be
		     inserted into the line.

		     When  the	completion  system  inserts  an unambiguous string into the line,
		     there may be multiple places where characters are missing or where the char-
		     acter  inserted differs from at least one match.  The value of this key con-
		     tains a colon separated list of all these positions,  as  indexes	into  the
		     command line.

		     If  this  is set to a non-empty string for every match added, the completion
		     code will move the cursor back to the previous prompt after the list of com-
		     pletions  has  been  displayed.  Initially this is set or unset according to
		     the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option.

	      list   This controls whether or how the list of matches will be displayed.   If  it
		     is  unset or empty they will never be listed; if its value begins with list,
		     they will always be listed; if it begins with autolist  or  ambiguous,  they
		     will  be  listed  when  the AUTO_LIST or LIST_AMBIGUOUS options respectively
		     would normally cause them to be.

		     If the substring force appears in the value, this makes the  list	be  shown
		     even  if  there is only one match. Normally, the list would be shown only if
		     there are at least two matches.

		     The value contains the substring packed if the LIST_PACKED option is set. If
		     this  substring  is  given for all matches added to a group, this group will
		     show the LIST_PACKED behavior. The same  is  done	for  the  LIST_ROWS_FIRST
		     option with the substring rows.

		     Finally, if the value contains the string explanations, only the explanation
		     strings, if any, will be listed and if it contains messages, only	the  mes-
		     sages  (added with the -x option of compadd) will be listed.  If it contains
		     both explanations and messages both kinds of  explanation	strings  will  be
		     listed.   It  will  be set appropriately on entry to a completion widget and
		     may be changed there.

		     This gives the number of lines that are needed to display the full  list  of
		     completions.   Note  that	to calculate the total number of lines to display
		     you need to add the number of lines needed for  the  command  line  to  this
		     value, this is available as the value of the BUFFERLINES special parameter.

		     Initially	this is set to the value of the LISTMAX parameter.  It may be set
		     to any other value; when the widget exits this value will	be  used  in  the
		     same way as the value of LISTMAX.

		     The number of matches generated and accepted by the completion code so far.

		     On entry to the widget this will be set to the number of the match of an old
		     list of completions that is currently inserted into the command line. If  no
		     match has been inserted, this is unset.

		     As  with  old_list,  the  value  of  this key will only be used if it is the
		     string keep. If it was set to this value by the widget and there was an  old
		     match  inserted  into  the  command line, this match will be kept and if the
		     value of the insert key specifies that another  match  should  be	inserted,
		     this will be inserted after the old one.

		     This is set to yes if there is still a valid list of completions from a pre-
		     vious completion at the time the widget is invoked.  This	will  usually  be
		     the case if and only if the previous editing operation was a completion wid-
		     get or one of the builtin completion functions.  If there is  a  valid  list
		     and  it  is  also	currently  shown  on the screen, the value of this key is

		     After the widget has exited the value of this key is only used if it was set
		     to  keep.	 In  this  case the completion code will continue to use this old
		     list.  If the widget generated new matches, they will not be used.

		     The name of the parameter when completing in a subscript or in the value  of
		     a parameter assignment.

		     Normally  this  is set to menu, which specifies that menu completion will be
		     used whenever a set of matches was generated using pattern matching.  If  it
		     is  set to any other non-empty string by the user and menu completion is not
		     selected by other option settings, the code will instead insert  any  common
		     prefix for the generated matches as with normal completion.

		     Locally controls the behaviour given by the GLOB_COMPLETE option.	Initially
		     it is set to `*' if and only if the option is set.   The  completion  widget
		     may  set  it to this value, to an empty string (which has the same effect as
		     unsetting it), or to any  other  non-empty  string.   If  it  is  non-empty,
		     unquoted  metacharacters on the command line will be treated as patterns; if
		     it is `*', then additionally a wildcard `*' is assumed at the  cursor  posi-
		     tion; if it is empty or unset, metacharacters will be treated literally.

		     Note  that  the  matcher specifications given to the compadd builtin command
		     are not used if this is set to a non-empty string.

	      quote  When completing inside quotes, this contains the quotation  character  (i.e.
		     either  a	single	quote,	a  double quote, or a backtick).  Otherwise it is

		     When completing inside single quotes, this is  set  to  the  string  single;
		     inside  double quotes, the string double; inside backticks, the string back-
		     tick.  Otherwise it is unset.

		     The redirection operator when completing in a redirection position, i.e. one
		     of <, >, etc.

		     This  is  set to auto before a function is entered, which forces the special
		     parameters mentioned above (words, CURRENT,  PREFIX,  IPREFIX,  SUFFIX,  and
		     ISUFFIX)  to  be  restored to their previous values when the function exits.
		     If a function unsets it or sets it to any other string,  they  will  not  be

	      to_end Specifies	the occasions on which the cursor is moved to the end of a string
		     when a match is inserted.	On entry to a widget function, it may  be  single
		     if this will happen when a single unambiguous match was inserted or match if
		     it will happen any time a match is inserted (for example,	by  menu  comple-
		     tion; this is likely to be the effect of the ALWAYS_TO_END option).

		     On exit, it may be set to single as above.  It may also be set to always, or
		     to the empty string or unset; in those cases the cursor will be moved to the
		     end of the string always or never respectively.  Any other string is treated
		     as match.

		     This key is read-only and will always be set  to  the  common  (unambiguous)
		     prefix the completion code has generated for all matches added so far.

		     This  gives  the position the cursor would be placed at if the common prefix
		     in the unambiguous key were inserted, relative to the value of that key. The
		     cursor  would  be	placed	before the character whose index is given by this

		     This contains all positions where characters in the unambiguous  string  are
		     missing  or  where  the  character inserted differs from at least one of the
		     matches.  The positions are given as indexes into the string  given  by  the
		     value of the unambiguous key.

	      vared  If  completion  is  called while editing a line using the vared builtin, the
		     value of this key is set to the name of the parameter given as  an  argument
		     to vared.	This key is only set while a vared command is active.

       words  This array contains the words present on the command line currently being edited.

       compadd [ -akqQfenUl12C ] [ -F array ]
       [ -P prefix ] [ -S suffix ]
       [ -p hidden-prefix ] [ -s hidden-suffix ]
       [ -i ignored-prefix ] [ -I ignored-suffix ]
       [ -W file-prefix ] [ -d array ]
       [ -J name ] [ -V name ] [ -X explanation ] [ -x message ]
       [ -r remove-chars ] [ -R remove-func ]
       [ -D array ] [ -O array ] [ -A array ]
       [ -M match-spec ] [ -- ] [ words ... ]

	      This builtin command can be used to add matches directly and control all the infor-
	      mation the completion code stores with each possible match.  The	return	value  is
	      zero if at least one match was added and non-zero if no matches were added.

	      The completion code breaks the string to complete into seven fields in the order:


	      The  first  field is an ignored prefix taken from the command line, the contents of
	      the IPREFIX parameter plus the string given with the -i option. With the -U option,
	      only  the string from the -i option is used. The field <apre> is an optional prefix
	      string given with the -P option.	The <hpre> field is a string that  is  considered
	      part of the match but that should not be shown when listing completions, given with
	      the -p option; for example, functions that do filename generation might  specify	a
	      common path prefix this way.  <word> is the part of the match that should appear in
	      the list of completions, i.e. one of the words given at the end of the compadd com-
	      mand  line.  The	suffixes  <hsuf>,  <asuf>  and	<isuf> correspond to the prefixes
	      <hpre>, <apre> and <ipre> and are given by the options -s, -S and -I, respectively.

	      The supported flags are:

	      -P prefix
		     This gives a string to be inserted before the given words.  The string given
		     is  not  considered  as part of the match and any shell metacharacters in it
		     will not be quoted when the string is inserted.

	      -S suffix
		     Like -P, but gives a string to be inserted after the match.

	      -p hidden-prefix
		     This gives a string that should be inserted into the command line before the
		     match  but  that  should  not  appear  in the list of matches. Unless the -U
		     option is given, this string must be matched as part of the  string  on  the
		     command line.

	      -s hidden-suffix
		     Like `-p', but gives a string to insert after the match.

	      -i ignored-prefix
		     This  gives  a string to insert into the command line just before any string
		     given with the `-P' option.  Without `-P' the string is inserted before  the
		     string given with `-p' or directly before the match.

	      -I ignored-suffix
		     Like -i, but gives an ignored suffix.

	      -a     With  this  flag  the  words  are	taken as names of arrays and the possible
		     matches are their values.	If only some elements of the arrays  are  needed,
		     the words may also contain subscripts, as in `foo[2,-1]'.

	      -k     With  this  flag  the words are taken as names of associative arrays and the
		     possible matches are their keys.  As for -a, the words may also contain sub-
		     scripts, as in `foo[(R)*bar*]'.

	      -d array
		     This  adds  per-match  display strings. The array should contain one element
		     per word given. The completion code will  then  display  the  first  element
		     instead  of the first word, and so on. The array may be given as the name of
		     an array parameter or directly as a space-separated list of words in  paren-

		     If  there	are  fewer display strings than words, the leftover words will be
		     displayed unchanged and if there are more display strings	than  words,  the
		     leftover display strings will be silently ignored.

	      -l     This option only has an effect if used together with the -d option. If it is
		     given, the display strings are listed one per line, not arrayed in columns.

	      -J name
		     Gives the name of the group of matches the words should be stored in.

	      -V name
		     Like -J but naming a unsorted group. These are in	a  different  name  space
		     than groups created with the -J flag.

	      -1     If  given	together with the -V option, makes only consecutive duplicates in
		     the group be removed. If combined with the -J option, this  has  no  visible
		     effect.  Note  that  groups with and without this flag are in different name

	      -2     If given together with the -J or -V option, makes all  duplicates	be  kept.
		     Again, groups with and without this flag are in different name spaces.

	      -X explanation
		     The  explanation  string will be printed with the list of matches, above the
		     group currently selected.

	      -x message
		     Like -X, but the message will be printed even if there are no matches in the

	      -q     The suffix given with -S will be automatically removed if the next character
		     typed is a blank or does not insert anything, or if the suffix  consists  of
		     only one character and the next character typed is the same character.

	      -r remove-chars
		     This is a more versatile form of the -q option.  The suffix given with -S or
		     the slash automatically added after completing directories will be automati-
		     cally  removed  if  the  next  character typed inserts one of the characters
		     given in the remove-chars.  This string is parsed as a characters class  and
		     understands the backslash sequences used by the print command.  For example,
		     `-r "a-z\t"' removes the suffix if the next character typed inserts a lower-
		     case  character  or  a  TAB,  and `-r "^0-9"' removes the suffix if the next
		     character typed inserts anything but a digit. One extra  backslash  sequence
		     is  understood  in  this  string: `\-' stands for all characters that insert
		     nothing. Thus `-S "=" -q' is the same as `-S "=" -r "= \t\n\-"'.

	      -R remove-func
		     This is another form of the -r option. When a suffix has been  inserted  and
		     the  completion  accepted, the function remove-func will be called after the
		     next character typed.  It is passed the length of the suffix as an  argument
		     and  can  use  the special parameters available in ordinary (non-completion)
		     zle widgets (see zshzle(1)) to analyse and modify the command line.

	      -f     If this flag is given, all of the matches built from  words  are  marked  as
		     being the names of files.	They are not required to be actual filenames, but
		     if they are, and the option LIST_TYPES is set, the characters describing the
		     types of the files in the completion lists will be shown. This also forces a
		     slash to be added when the name of a directory is completed.

	      -e     This flag can be used to tell the completion code that the matches added are
		     parameter	 names	 for   a   parameter   expansion.   This  will	make  the
		     AUTO_PARAM_SLASH and AUTO_PARAM_KEYS options be used for the matches.

	      -W file-prefix
		     This string is a pathname that will be prepended  to  each  of  the  matches
		     formed  by  the  given  words  together  with any prefix specified by the -p
		     option to form a complete filename for testing.  Hence it is only useful  if
		     combined with the -f flag, as the tests will not otherwise be performed.

	      -F array
		     Specifies an array containing patterns. Words matching one of these patterns
		     are ignored, i.e. not considered to be possible matches.

		     The array may be the name of an array parameter or a list	of  literal  pat-
		     terns  enclosed  in parentheses and quoted, as in `-F "(*?.o *?.h)"'. If the
		     name of an array is given, the elements of the array are taken as	the  pat-

	      -Q     This  flag  instructs the completion code not to quote any metacharacters in
		     the words when inserting them into the command line.

	      -M match-spec
		     This gives local match specifications as  described  below  in  the  section
		     `Matching	Control'.  This  option may be given more than once. In this case
		     all match-specs given are concatenated with spaces between them to form  the
		     specification  string  to	use.   Note that they will only be used if the -U
		     option is not given.

	      -n     Specifies that the words added are to be used as possible matches,  but  are
		     not to appear in the completion listing.

	      -U     If this flag is given, all words given will be accepted and no matching will
		     be done by the completion code. Normally this is used in functions  that  do
		     the matching themselves.

	      -O array
		     If this option is given, the words are not added to the set of possible com-
		     pletions.	Instead, matching is done as usual and all of the words given  as
		     arguments	that  match  the string on the command line will be stored in the
		     array parameter whose name is given as array.

	      -A array
		     As the -O option, except that instead of those  of  the  words  which  match
		     being  stored  in	array, the strings generated internally by the completion
		     code  are	stored.  For  example,	with  a  matching  specification  of  `-M
		     "L:|no="',  the string `nof' on the command line and the string `foo' as one
		     of the words, this option stores the string `nofoo' in  the  array,  whereas
		     the -O option stores the `foo' originally given.

	      -D array
		     As  with  -O,  the  words	are not added to the set of possible completions.
		     Instead, the completion code tests whether each word in turn matches what is
		     on the line.  If the n'th word does not match, the n'th element of the array
		     is removed.  Elements for	which  the  corresponding  word  is  matched  are

	      -C     This  option  adds  a  special match which expands to all other matches when
		     inserted into the line, even those that are added after this option is used.
		     Together  with  the -d option it is possible to specify a string that should
		     be displayed in the list for this special match.  If no string is given,  it
		     will  be shown as a string containing the strings that would be inserted for
		     the other matches, truncated to the width of the screen.

	      --     This flag ends the list of flags and options. All arguments after it will be
		     taken as the words to use as matches even if they begin with hyphens.

	      Except  for  the	-M flag, if any of these flags is given more than once, the first
	      one (and its argument) will be used.

       compset -p number
       compset -P [ number ] pattern
       compset -s number
       compset -S [ number ] pattern
       compset -n begin [ end ]
       compset -N beg-pat [ end-pat ]
       compset -q
	      This command simplifies modification of the special parameters,  while  its  return
	      value allows tests on them to be carried out.

	      The options are:

	      -p number
		     If  the  contents	of the PREFIX parameter is longer than number characters,
		     the first number characters are removed from it and appended to the contents
		     of the IPREFIX parameter.

	      -P [ number ] pattern
		     If  the  value of the PREFIX parameter begins with anything that matches the
		     pattern, the matched portion is removed from PREFIX and appended to IPREFIX.

		     Without the optional number, the longest match is taken, but  if  number  is
		     given,  anything up to the number'th match is moved.  If the number is nega-
		     tive, the number'th longest match is moved. For example, if PREFIX  contains
		     the  string  `a=b=c', then compset -P '*\=' will move the string `a=b=' into
		     the IPREFIX parameter, but compset -P 1 '*\='  will  move	only  the  string

	      -s number
		     As  -p,  but transfer the last number characters from the value of SUFFIX to
		     the front of the value of ISUFFIX.

	      -S [ number ] pattern
		     As -P, but match the last portion of SUFFIX and transfer the matched portion
		     to the front of the value of ISUFFIX.

	      -n begin [ end ]
		     If  the  current  word  position  as  specified  by the parameter CURRENT is
		     greater than or equal to begin, anything up to the begin'th word is  removed
		     from  the	words array and the value of the parameter CURRENT is decremented
		     by begin.

		     If the optional end is given, the modification is done only if  the  current
		     word  position  is  also  less than or equal to end. In this case, the words
		     from position end onwards are also removed from the words array.

		     Both begin and end may be negative to count backwards from the last  element
		     of the words array.

	      -N beg-pat [ end-pat ]
		     If  one of the elements of the words array before the one at the index given
		     by the value of the parameter CURRENT matches the pattern beg-pat, all  ele-
		     ments  up to and including the matching one are removed from the words array
		     and the value of CURRENT is changed to point to the same word in the changed

		     If  the  optional	pattern end-pat is also given, and there is an element in
		     the words array matching this pattern, the parameters are modified  only  if
		     the index of this word is higher than the one given by the CURRENT parameter
		     (so that the matching word has to be after the cursor). In  this  case,  the
		     words starting with the one matching end-pat are also removed from the words
		     array. If words contains no word matching end-pat, the testing and modifica-
		     tion is performed as if it were not given.

	      -q     The  word	currently being completed is split on spaces into separate words,
		     respecting the usual shell quoting conventions.   The  resulting  words  are
		     stored in the words array, and CURRENT, PREFIX, SUFFIX, QIPREFIX, and QISUF-
		     FIX are modified to reflect the word part that is completed.

	      In all the above cases the return value is zero  if  the	test  succeeded  and  the
	      parameters  were	modified  and  non-zero  otherwise.  This  allows one to use this
	      builtin in tests such as:

		     if compset -P '*\='; then ...

	      This forces anything up to and including the last equal sign to be ignored  by  the
	      completion code.

       compcall [ -TD ]
	      This  allows  the  use  of completions defined with the compctl builtin from within
	      completion widgets.  The list of matches	will  be  generated  as  if  one  of  the
	      non-widget  completion function (complete-word, etc.)  had been called, except that
	      only compctls given for specific commands are used. To force the code to	try  com-
	      pletions	defined  with  the  -T	option	of  compctl and/or the default completion
	      (whether defined by compctl -D or the builtin default) in the  appropriate  places,
	      the -T and/or -D flags can be passed to compcall.

	      The return value can be used to test if a matching compctl definition was found. It
	      is non-zero if a compctl was found and zero otherwise.

	      Note that this builtin is defined by the zsh/compctl module.

       The following additional condition codes for use within the [[ ... ]] construct are avail-
       able in completion widgets.  These work on the special parameters.  All of these tests can
       also be performed by the compset builtin, but in the case of the condition codes the  con-
       tents of the special parameters are not modified.

       -prefix [ number ] pattern
	      true if the test for the -P option of compset would succeed.

       -suffix [ number ] pattern
	      true if the test for the -S option of compset would succeed.

       -after beg-pat
	      true if the test of the -N option with only the beg-pat given would succeed.

       -between beg-pat end-pat
	      true if the test for the -N option with both patterns would succeed.

       It  is  possible by use of the -M option of the compadd builtin command to specify how the
       characters in the string to be completed (referred to here as the command line)	map  onto
       the characters in the list of matches produced by the completion code (referred to here as
       the trial completions). Note that this is not used if the command  line	contains  a  glob
       pattern	and the GLOB_COMPLETE option is set or the pattern_match of the compstate special
       association is set to a non-empty string.

       The match-spec given as the argument to the -M option (see `Builtin Commands' above)  con-
       sists of one or more matching descriptions separated by whitespace.  Each description con-
       sists of a letter followed by a colon and then the  patterns  describing  which	character
       sequences  on  the  line  match	which  character  sequences in the trial completion.  Any
       sequence of characters not handled in this fashion must match exactly, as usual.

       The forms of match-spec understood are as follows. In each case, the form with  an  upper-
       case  initial  character retains the string already typed on the command line as the final
       result of completion, while with a lowercase initial character the string on  the  command
       line is changed into the corresponding part of the trial completion.

	      Here,  lpat  is  a  pattern that matches on the command line, corresponding to tpat
	      which matches in the trial completion.

	      These letters are for patterns that are anchored by another  pattern  on	the  left
	      side. Matching for lpat and tpat is as for m and M, but the pattern lpat matched on
	      the command line must be preceded by the pattern lanchor.  The lanchor can be blank
	      to  anchor  the match to the start of the command line string; otherwise the anchor
	      can occur anywhere, but must match in both the command line  and	trial  completion

	      If  no  lpat  is	given  but  a ranchor is, this matches the gap between substrings
	      matched by lanchor and ranchor. Unlike lanchor, the ranchor only needs to match the
	      trial completion string.

	      The  b  and  B forms are similar to l and L with an empty anchor, but need to match
	      only the beginning of the trial completion or the word on the command line, respec-

	      As  l,  L,  b and B, with the difference that the command line and trial completion
	      patterns are anchored on the right side.	Here an empty ranchor and  the	e  and	E
	      forms force the match to the end of the trial completion or command line string.

       Each  lpat,  tpat or anchor is either an empty string or consists of a sequence of literal
       characters (which may be quoted with a backslash), question marks, character classes,  and
       correspondence  classes;  ordinary  shell patterns are not used.  Literal characters match
       only themselves, question marks match any character, and character classes are  formed  as
       for globbing and match any character in the given set.

       Correspondence  classes are defined like character classes, but with two differences: they
       are delimited by a pair of braces, and negated classes are not allowed, so the  characters
       !  and  ^  have no special meaning directly after the opening brace.  They indicate that a
       range of characters on the line match a range of characters in the trial  completion,  but
       (unlike	ordinary character classes) paired according to the corresponding position in the
       sequence. For example, to make any lowercase letter on the line	match  the  corresponding
       uppercase letter in the trial completion, you can use `m:{a-z}={A-Z}'.  More than one pair
       of classes can occur, in which case the first class before the = corresponds to the  first
       after it, and so on.  If one side has more such classes than the other side, the superflu-
       ous classes behave like normal  character  classes.   In  anchor  patterns  correspondence
       classes also behave like normal character classes.

       The pattern tpat may also be one or two stars, `*' or `**'. This means that the pattern on
       the command line can match any number of characters in the trial completion. In this  case
       the  pattern  must  be anchored (on either side); in the case of a single star, the anchor
       then determines how much of the trial completion is to be included --- only the characters
       up  to  the  next  appearance  of  the  anchor will be matched. With two stars, substrings
       matched by the anchor can be matched, too.


       The keys of the options association defined by the parameter module are the  option  names
       in  all-lowercase  form, without underscores, and without the optional no at the beginning
       even though the builtins setopt and unsetopt understand option names with  uppercase  let-
       ters,  underscores,  and the optional no.  The following alters the matching rules so that
       the prefix no and any underscore are ignored when trying to match  the  trial  completions
       generated  and  uppercase letters on the line match the corresponding lowercase letters in
       the words:

	      compadd -M 'L:|[nN][oO]= M:_= M:{A-Z}={a-z}' - \

       The first part says that the pattern `[nN][oO]' at the beginning (the empty anchor  before
       the  pipe  symbol) of the string on the line matches the empty string in the list of words
       generated by completion, so it will be ignored if present. The second part does	the  same
       for  an underscore anywhere in the command line string, and the third part uses correspon-
       dence classes so that any uppercase letter on the line matches the corresponding lowercase
       letter  in the word. The use of the uppercase forms of the specification characters (L and
       M) guarantees that what has already been typed on the command line (in particular the pre-
       fix no) will not be deleted.

       Note  that the use of L in the first part means that it matches only when at the beginning
       of both the command line string and the trial completion. I.e., the string  `_NO_f'  would
       not  be	completed  to `_NO_foo', nor would `NONO_f' be completed to `NONO_foo' because of
       the leading underscore or the second `NO' on the line which makes the  pattern  fail  even
       though they are otherwise ignored. To fix this, one would use `B:[nN][oO]=' instead of the
       first part. As described above, this matches at the beginning  of  the  trial  completion,
       independent  of	other  characters or substrings at the beginning of the command line word
       which are ignored by the same or other match-specs.

       The second example makes completion case insensitive.  This is just the	same  as  in  the
       option example, except here we wish to retain the characters in the list of completions:

	      compadd -M 'm:{a-z}={A-Z}' ...

       This  makes  lowercase letters match their uppercase counterparts.  To make uppercase let-
       ters match the lowercase forms as well:

	      compadd -M 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}' ...

       A nice example for the use of * patterns is partial word completion. Sometimes  you  would
       like  to  make  strings like `c.s.u' complete to strings like `comp.source.unix', i.e. the
       word on the command line consists of multiple parts, separated by a dot in  this  example,
       where each part should be completed separately --- note, however, that the case where each
       part of the word, i.e. `comp', `source' and `unix' in this example,  is	to  be	completed
       from separate sets of matches is a different problem to be solved by the implementation of
       the completion widget.  The example can be handled by:

	      compadd -M 'r:|.=* r:|=*' \
		- comp.sources.unix comp.sources.misc ...

       The first specification says that lpat is the empty string, while anchor is a dot; tpat is
       *,  so  this can match anything except for the `.' from the anchor in the trial completion
       word.  So in `c.s.u', the matcher sees `c', followed by the empty string, followed by  the
       anchor  `.',  and  likewise  for the second dot, and replaces the empty strings before the
       anchors, giving `c[omp].s[ources].u[nix]', where the last part of the completion  is  just
       as normal.

       With   the   pattern   shown   above,   the   string  `c.u'  could  not	be  completed  to
       `comp.sources.unix' because the single star means that no dot (matched by the anchor)  can
       be  skipped.  By  using	two  stars  as in `r:|.=**', however, `c.u' could be completed to
       `comp.sources.unix'. This also shows that in some cases, especially if  the  anchor  is	a
       real  pattern,  like a character class, the form with two stars may result in more matches
       than one would like.

       The second specification is needed to make this work when the cursor is in the  middle  of
       the  string  on	the command line and the option COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set. In this case the
       completion code would normally try to match trial completions that end with the string  as
       typed  so  far, i.e. it will only insert new characters at the cursor position rather then
       at the end.  However in our example we would like the code to recognise matches which con-
       tain  extra  characters after the string on the line (the `nix' in the example).  Hence we
       say that the empty string at the end of the string on the line matches any  characters  at
       the end of the trial completion.

       More generally, the specification

	      compadd -M 'r:|[.,_-]=* r:|=*' ...

       allows one to complete words with abbreviations before any of the characters in the square
       brackets.  For example, to complete veryverylongfile.c  rather  than  veryverylongheader.h
       with the above in effect, you can just type very.c before attempting completion.

       The  specifications  with  both	a  left and a right anchor are useful to complete partial
       words whose parts are not separated by some special character. For example, in some places
       strings	have  to  be  completed  that  are formed `LikeThis' (i.e. the separate parts are
       determined by a leading uppercase letter) or maybe one has to complete strings with trail-
       ing numbers. Here one could use the simple form with only one anchor as in:

	      compadd -M 'r:|[A-Z0-9]=* r:|=*' LikeTHIS FooHoo 5foo123 5bar234

       But with this, the string `H' would neither complete to `FooHoo' nor to `LikeTHIS' because
       in each case there is an uppercase letter before the  `H'  and  that  is  matched  by  the
       anchor.	Likewise,  a  `2'  would not be completed. In both cases this could be changed by
       using `r:|[A-Z0-9]=**', but then `H' completes to both `LikeTHIS' and `FooHoo' and  a  `2'
       matches the other strings because characters can be inserted before every uppercase letter
       and digit. To avoid this one would use:

	      compadd -M 'r:[^A-Z0-9]||[A-Z0-9]=** r:|=*' \
		  LikeTHIS FooHoo foo123 bar234

       By using these two anchors, a `H' matches only uppercase `H's that  are	immediately  pre-
       ceded  by  something  matching the left anchor `[^A-Z0-9]'. The effect is, of course, that
       `H' matches only the string `FooHoo', a `2' matches only `bar234' and so on.

       When using the completion system (see zshcompsys(1)), users can	define	match  specifica-
       tions  that  are  to  be  used for specific contexts by using the matcher and matcher-list
       styles. The values for the latter will be used everywhere.

       The first step is to define the widget:

	      zle -C complete complete-word complete-files

       Then the widget can be bound to a key using the bindkey builtin command:

	      bindkey '^X\t' complete

       After that the shell function complete-files will be invoked after  typing  control-X  and
       TAB. The function should then generate the matches, e.g.:

	      complete-files () { compadd - * }

       This function will complete files in the current directory matching the current word.

zsh 4.0.6				 August 14, 2002			    ZSHCOMPWID(1)
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