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       zshcontrib - user contributions to zsh

       The  Zsh source distribution includes a number of items contributed by the user community.
       These are not inherently a part of the shell, and some may not be available in  every  zsh
       installation.   The  most  significant of these are documented here.  For documentation on
       other contributed items such as shell functions, look for comments in the function  source

   Accessing On-Line Help
       The  key  sequence ESC h is normally bound by ZLE to execute the run-help widget (see zsh-
       zle(1)).  This invokes the run-help command with the command word from the  current  input
       line as its argument.  By default, run-help is an alias for the man command, so this often
       fails when the command word is a shell builtin or a user-defined function.  By  redefining
       the run-help alias, one can improve the on-line help provided by the shell.

       The  helpfiles utility, found in the Util directory of the distribution, is a Perl program
       that can be used to process the zsh manual to produce a separate help file for each  shell
       builtin	and  for  many other shell features as well.  The autoloadable run-help function,
       found in Functions/Misc, searches for these helpfiles and performs several other tests  to
       produce the most complete help possible for the command.

       There  may  already be a directory of help files on your system; look in /usr/share/zsh or
       /usr/local/share/zsh and subdirectories below those, or ask your system administrator.

       To create your own help files with helpfiles, choose or create a directory where the indi-
       vidual  command help files will reside.	For example, you might choose ~/zsh_help.  If you
       unpacked the zsh distribution in your home directory, you would use the commands:

	      mkdir ~/zsh_help
	      cd ~/zsh_help
	      man zshall | colcrt - | \
	      perl ~/zsh-4.0.6/Util/helpfiles

       Next, to use the run-help function, you need to add lines something like the following  to
       your .zshrc or equivalent startup file:

	      unalias run-help
	      autoload run-help

       The  HELPDIR  parameter	tells  run-help where to look for the help files.  If your system
       already has a help file directory installed, set HELPDIR to the	path  of  that	directory

       Note  that  in  order for `autoload run-help' to work, the run-help file must be in one of
       the directories named in your fpath array (see zshparam(1)).  This should already  be  the
       case  if  you have a standard zsh installation; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/run-help
       to an appropriate directory.

   Recompiling Functions
       If you frequently edit your zsh functions, or periodically update your zsh installation to
       track  the latest developments, you may find that function digests compiled with the zcom-
       pile builtin are frequently out of date with respect to the function source  files.   This
       is  not	usually  a  problem,  because zsh always looks for the newest file when loading a
       function, but it may cause slower shell startup and function loading.  Also, if	a  digest
       file  is explicitly used as an element of fpath, zsh won't check whether any of its source
       files has changed.

       The zrecompile autoloadable function, found in Functions/Misc, can be used to  keep  func-
       tion digests up to date.

       zrecompile [ -qt ] [ name ... ]
       zrecompile [ -qt ] -p args [ -- args ... ]
	      This tries to find *.zwc files and automatically re-compile them if at least one of
	      the original files is newer than the compiled file.  This works only if  the  names
	      stored  in  the compiled files are full paths or are relative to the directory that
	      contains the .zwc file.

	      In the first form, each name is the name of a compiled file or a directory contain-
	      ing *.zwc files that should be checked.  If no arguments are given, the directories
	      and *.zwc files in fpath are used.

	      When -t is given, no compilation is performed, but a return status of  zero  (true)
	      is  set  if there are files that need to be re-compiled and non-zero (false) other-
	      wise.  The -q option quiets the chatty output that  describes  what  zrecompile  is

	      Without the -t option, the return status is zero if all files that needed re-compi-
	      lation could be compiled and non-zero if compilation for at least one of the  files

	      If  the  -p  option is given, the args are interpreted as one or more sets of argu-
	      ments for zcompile, separated by `--'.  For example:

		     zrecompile -p \
				-R ~/.zshrc -- \
				-M ~/.zcompdump -- \
				~/zsh/comp.zwc ~/zsh/Completion/*/_*

	      This compiles ~/.zshrc into ~/.zshrc.zwc if that doesn't exist or if  it	is  older
	      than ~/.zshrc. The compiled file will be marked for reading instead of mapping. The
	      same is done for ~/.zcompdump and  ~/.zcompdump.zwc,  but  this  compiled  file  is
	      marked  for mapping. The last line re-creates the file ~/zsh/comp.zwc if any of the
	      files matching the given pattern is newer than it.

	      Without the -p option, zrecompile does not create  function  digests  that  do  not
	      already exist, nor does it add new functions to the digest.

       The  following  shell loop is an example of a method for creating function digests for all
       functions in your fpath, assuming that you have write permission to the directories:

	      for ((i=1; i <= $#fpath; ++i)); do
		if [[ $dir == (.|..) || $dir == (.|..)/* ]]; then
		if [[ -w $dir:h && -n $files ]]; then
		  if ( cd $dir:h &&
		       zrecompile -p -U -z $zwc $files ); then

       The -U and -z options are appropriate for functions in the default zsh installation fpath;
       you may need to use different options for your personal function directories.

       Once  the digests have been created and your fpath modified to refer to them, you can keep
       them up to date by running zrecompile with no arguments.

   Keyboard Definition
       The large number of possible combinations of keyboards,	workstations,  terminals,  emula-
       tors,  and  window  systems  makes it impossible for zsh to have built-in key bindings for
       every situation.  The zkbd utility, found in Functions/Misc, can help you  quickly  create
       key bindings for your configuration.

       Run zkbd either as an autoloaded function, or as a shell script:

	      zsh -f ~/zsh-4.0.6/Functions/Misc/zkbd

       When you run zkbd, it first asks you to enter your terminal type; if the default it offers
       is correct, just press return.  It then asks you to press a number of  different  keys  to
       determine  characteristics  of your keyboard and terminal; zkbd warns you if it finds any-
       thing out of the ordinary, such as a Delete key that sends neither ^H nor ^?.

       The keystrokes read by zkbd are recorded as a definition for an	associative  array  named
       key, written to a file in the subdirectory .zkbd within either your HOME or ZDOTDIR direc-
       tory.  The name of the file is composed from  the  TERM,  VENDOR  and  OSTYPE  parameters,
       joined by hyphens.

       You  may  read this file into your .zshrc or another startup file with the "source" or "."
       commands, then reference the key parameter in bindkey commands, like this:

	      source ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.zkbd/$TERM-$VENDOR-$OSTYPE
	      [[ -n ${key[Left]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Left]}" backward-char
	      [[ -n ${key[Right]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Right]}" forward-char
	      # etc.

       Note that in order for `autoload zkbd' to work, the zkdb file must be in one of the direc-
       tories  named  in  your fpath array (see zshparam(1)).  This should already be the case if
       you have a standard zsh installation; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/zkbd to an  appro-
       priate directory.

   Dumping Shell State
       Occasionally  you may encounter what appears to be a bug in the shell, particularly if you
       are using a beta version of zsh or a development release.  Usually  it  is  sufficient  to
       send  a description of the problem to one of the zsh mailing lists (see zsh(1)), but some-
       times one of the zsh developers will need to recreate your environment in order	to  track
       the problem down.

       The  script  named  reporter, found in the Util directory of the distribution, is provided
       for this purpose.  (It is  also	possible  to  autoload	reporter,  but	reporter  is  not
       installed  in  fpath by default.)  This script outputs a detailed dump of the shell state,
       in the form of another script that can be read with `zsh -f' to recreate that state.

       To use reporter, read the script into your shell with the `.'  command  and  redirect  the
       output into a file:

	      . ~/zsh-4.0.6/Util/reporter > zsh.report

       You  should  check the zsh.report file for any sensitive information such as passwords and
       delete them by hand before sending the script to the developers.  Also, as the output  can
       be  voluminous,	it's  best  to wait for the developers to ask for this information before
       sending it.

       You can also use reporter to dump only a subset of the shell  state.   This  is	sometimes
       useful for creating startup files for the first time.  Most of the output from reporter is
       far more detailed than usually is necessary for a startup file, but the aliases,  options,
       and zstyles states may be useful because they include only changes from the defaults.  The
       bindings state may be useful if you have created any of your own keymaps, because reporter
       arranges to dump the keymap creation commands as well as the bindings for every keymap.

       As  is  usual with automated tools, if you create a startup file with reporter, you should
       edit the results to remove unnecessary commands.  Note that if you're using the	new  com-
       pletion	system,  you  should  not  dump  the  functions  state to your startup files with
       reporter; use the compdump function instead (see zshcompsys(1)).

       reporter [ state ... ]
	      Print to standard output the indicated subset of	the  current  shell  state.   The
	      state arguments may be one or more of:

	      all    Output everything listed below.
		     Output alias definitions.
		     Output ZLE key maps and bindings.
		     Output  old-style	compctl commands.  New completion is covered by functions
		     and zstyles.
		     Output autoloads and function definitions.
	      limits Output limit commands.
		     Output setopt commands.
	      styles Same as zstyles.
		     Output shell parameter assignments, plus export commands for any environment
		     Output zstyle commands.

	      If the state is omitted, all is assumed.

       With  the  exception of `all', every state can be abbreviated by any prefix, even a single
       letter; thus a is the same as aliases, z is the same as zstyles, etc.

       You should make sure all the functions from the Functions/Prompts directory of the  source
       distribution  are  available; they all begin with the string `prompt_' except for the spe-
       cial function`promptinit'.  You also need the `colors' function from Functions/Misc.   All
       of  these  functions may already have been installed on your system; if not, you will need
       to find them and copy them.  The directory should appear as one of  the	elements  of  the
       fpath  array  (this  should  already be the case if they were installed), and at least the
       function promptinit should be autoloaded; it will autoload the rest.  Finally, to initial-
       ize the use of the system you need to call the promptinit function.  The following code in
       your .zshrc will arrange for this; assume  the  functions  are  stored  in  the	directory

	      fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
	      autoload -U promptinit

   Theme Selection
       Use  the prompt command to select your preferred theme.	This command may be added to your
       .zshrc following the call to promptinit in  order  to  start  zsh  with	a  theme  already

       prompt [ -c | -l ]
       prompt [ -p | -h ] [ theme ... ]
       prompt [ -s ] theme [ arg ... ]
	      Set  or  examine the prompt theme.  With no options and a theme argument, the theme
	      with that name is set as the current theme.  The available themes are determined at
	      run  time;  use the -l option to see a list.  The special theme `random' selects at
	      random one of the available themes and sets your prompt to that.

	      In some cases the theme may be modified by one or more arguments, which  should  be
	      given  after the theme name.  See the help for each theme for descriptions of these

	      Options are:

	      -c     Show the currently selected theme and its parameters, if any.
	      -l     List all available prompt themes.
	      -p     Preview the theme named by theme, or all themes if no theme is given.
	      -h     Show help for the theme named by theme, or for the  prompt  function  if  no
		     theme is given.
	      -s     Set theme as the current theme and save state.

	      Each available theme has a setup function which is called by the prompt function to
	      install that theme.  This function may define other functions as necessary to main-
	      tain the prompt, including functions used to preview the prompt or provide help for
	      its use.	You should not normally call a theme's setup function directly.

       These functions all implement user-defined ZLE widgets (see zshzle(1)) which can be  bound
       to keystrokes in interactive shells.  To use them, your .zshrc should contain lines of the

	      autoload function
	      zle -N function

       followed by an appropriate bindkey command to associate the function with a key	sequence.
       Suggested bindings are described below.

       bash-forward-word, bash-backward-word
       bash-kill-word, bash-backward-kill-word
       bash-up-case-word, bash-down-case-word
	      These work similarly to the corresponding builtin zle functions without the `bash-'
	      prefix, but a word is considered to consist of alphanumeric  characters  only.   If
	      you  wish  to replace your existing bindings with these four widgets, the following
	      is sufficient:

		     for widget in kill-word backward-kill-word \
		     forward-word backward-word \
		     up-case-word down-case-word \
		     transpose-words; do
		       autoload bash-$widget
		       zle -N $widget bash-$widget

	      After inserting an unambiguous string into the command line, the new function based
	      completion  system  may  know about multiple places in this string where characters
	      are missing or differ from at least one of the  possible	matches.   It  will  then
	      place  the cursor on the position it considers to be the most interesting one, i.e.
	      the one where one can disambiguate between as many matches as possible with as lit-
	      tle typing as possible.

	      This  widget  allows  the cursor to be easily moved to the other interesting spots.
	      It can be invoked repeatedly to cycle between all positions reported by the comple-
	      tion system.

	      Edit the command line using your visual editor, as in ksh.

		     bindkey -M vicmd v edit-command-line

	      This function implements the widgets history-beginning-search-backward-end and his-
	      tory-beginning-search-forward-end.  These commands work by first calling the corre-
	      sponding	builtin  widget  (see `History Control' in zshzle(1)) and then moving the
	      cursor to the end of the line.  The original  cursor  position  is  remembered  and
	      restored	before	calling the builtin widget a second time, so that the same search
	      is repeated to look farther through the history.

	      Although you autoload only one function, the commands to use it are  slightly  dif-
	      ferent because it implements two widgets.

		     zle -N history-beginning-search-backward-end \
		     zle -N history-beginning-search-forward-end \
		     bindkey '\e^P' history-beginning-search-backward-end
		     bindkey '\e^N' history-beginning-search-forward-end

       incarg Typing  the  keystrokes for this widget with the cursor placed on or to the left of
	      an integer causes that integer to be incremented by one.	 With  a  numeric  prefix
	      argument,  the  number is incremented by the amount of the argument (decremented if
	      the prefix argument is negative).  The shell parameter incarg may be set to  change
	      the default increment something other than one.

		     bindkey '^X+' incarg

	      This  allows incremental completion of a word.  After starting this command, a list
	      of completion choices can be shown after every character you type,  which  you  can
	      delete  with  ^H or DEL.	Pressing return accepts the completion so far and returns
	      you to normal editing (that is, the command line is not immediately executed).  You
	      can  hit	TAB  to  do  normal  completion,  ^G  to abort back to the state when you
	      started, and ^D to list the matches.

	      This works only with the new function based completion system.

		     bindkey '^Xi' incremental-complete-word

	      This function allows you type a file pattern, and see the results of the	expansion
	      at  each	step.	When you hit return, all expansions are inserted into the command

		     bindkey '^Xf' insert-files

	      This set of functions implements predictive typing  using  history  search.   After
	      predict-on, typing characters causes the editor to look backward in the history for
	      the first line beginning with what you have typed so far.  After predict-off, edit-
	      ing  returns  to	normal for the line found.  In fact, you often don't even need to
	      use predict-off, because if the line doesn't match something in the history, adding
	      a  key performs standard completion, and then inserts itself if no completions were
	      found.  However, editing in the middle of a line is liable to  confuse  prediction;
	      see the toggle style below.

	      With the function based completion system (which is needed for this), you should be
	      able to type TAB at almost any point to advance the cursor to the next  ``interest-
	      ing''  character position (usually the end of the current word, but sometimes some-
	      where in the middle of the word).  And of course as soon as the entire line is what
	      you want, you can accept with return, without needing to move the cursor to the end

	      The first time predict-on is used, it creates several additional widget functions:

		     Replaces the backward-delete-char widget.	You do	not  need  to  bind  this
		     Implements  predictive  typing  by replacing the self-insert widget.  You do
		     not need to bind this yourself.
		     Turns off predictive typing.

	      Although you autoload only the predict-on function, it is  necessary  to	create	a
	      keybinding for predict-off as well.

		     zle -N predict-on
		     zle -N predict-off
		     bindkey '^X^Z' predict-on
		     bindkey '^Z' predict-off

	      This function may replace the insert-last-word widget, like so:

		     zle -N insert-last-word smart-insert-last-word

	      With  a numeric prefix, it behaves like insert-last-word, except that words in com-
	      ments are ignored when INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS is set.

	      Otherwise, the rightmost ``interesting'' word from the previous  command	is  found
	      and  inserted.  The default definition of ``interesting'' is that the word contains
	      at least one alphabetic character, slash, or backslash.	This  definition  may  be
	      overridden by use of the match style.  The context used to look up the style is the
	      widget name, so usually the context is :insert-last-word.  However,  you	can  bind
	      this function to different widgets to use different patterns:

		     zle -N insert-last-assignment smart-insert-last-word
		     zstyle :insert-last-assignment match '[[:alpha:]][][[:alnum:]]#=*'
		     bindkey '\e=' insert-last-assignment

       The  behavior  of  several of the above widgets can be controlled by the use of the zstyle
       mechanism.  In particular, widgets that interact with the  completion  system  pass  along
       their context to any completions that they invoke.

	      This  style  is used by the incremental-complete-word widget. Its value should be a
	      pattern, and all keys matching this pattern will cause the widget to stop incremen-
	      tal  completion  without	the  key  having any further effect. Like all styles used
	      directly by incremental-complete-word, this style is looked up  using  the  context

	      The incremental-complete-word and insert-and-predict widgets set up their top-level
	      context name before calling completion.  This allows one to define  different  sets
	      of  completer  functions for normal completion and for these widgets.  For example,
	      to use completion, approximation and correction for normal  completion,  completion
	      and  correction  for  incremental completion and only completion for prediction one
	      could use:

		     zstyle ':completion:*' completer \
			     _complete _correct _approximate
		     zstyle ':completion:incremental:*' completer \
			     _complete _correct
		     zstyle ':completion:predict:*' completer \

	      It is a good idea to restrict the completers used in prediction, because	they  may
	      be  automatically invoked as you type.  The _list and _menu completers should never
	      be used with prediction.	The _approximate,  _correct,  _expand,	and  _match  com-
	      pleters  may  be used, but be aware that they may change characters anywhere in the
	      word behind the cursor, so you need to watch carefully that the result is what  you

       cursor The insert-and-predict widget uses this style, in the context `:predict', to decide
	      where to place the cursor after completion has been tried.  Values are:

		     The cursor is left where it was when completion finished, but only if it  is
		     after  a  character  equal  to  the one just inserted by the user.  If it is
		     after another character, this value is the same as `key'.

	      key    The cursor is left after the nth occurrence of the character just	inserted,
		     where  n  is  the number of times that character appeared in the word before
		     completion was attempted.	In short, this has the effect of leaving the cur-
		     sor  after  the  character  just typed even if the completion code found out
		     that no other characters need to be inserted at that position.

	      Any other value for this style unconditionally leaves the cursor	at  the  position
	      where the completion code left it.

       list   When  using  the	incremental-complete-word  widget, this style says if the matches
	      should be listed on every key press (if they fit on the screen).	Use  the  context
	      prefix `:completion:incremental'.

	      The insert-and-predict widget uses this style to decide if the completion should be
	      shown even if there is only one possible completion.  This is done if the value  of
	      this  style  is  the  string  always.   In this case the context is `:predict' (not

       match  This style is used by smart-insert-last-word  to	provide  a  pattern  (using  full
	      EXTENDED_GLOB syntax) that matches an interesting word.  The context is the name of
	      the widget to which smart-insert-last-word  is  bound  (see  above).   The  default
	      behavior of smart-insert-last-word is equivalent to:

		     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:]/\\]*'

	      However, you might want to include words that contain spaces:

		     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:][:space:]/\\]*'

	      Or include numbers as long as the word is at least two characters long:

		     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*([[:digit:]]?|[[:alpha:]/\\])*'

	      The above example causes redirections like "2>" to be included.

       prompt The  incremental-complete-word  widget  shows the value of this style in the status
	      line during incremental completion.  The string value may contain any of	the  fol-
	      lowing substrings in the manner of the PS1 and other prompt parameters:

	      %c     Replaced  by  the	name of the completer function that generated the matches
		     (without the leading underscore).

	      %l     When the list style is set, replaced by `...' if the list of matches is  too
		     long  to  fit on the screen and with an empty string otherwise.  If the list
		     style is `false' or not set, `%l' is always removed.

	      %n     Replaced by the number of matches generated.

	      %s     Replaced by `-no match-', `-no prefix-', or an empty string if there  is  no
		     completion matching the word on the line, if the matches have no common pre-
		     fix different from the word on the line, or if there is such a  common  pre-
		     fix, respectively.

	      %u     Replaced  by the unambiguous part of all matches, if there is any, and if it
		     is different from the word on the line.

	      Like `break-keys', this uses the `:incremental' context.

	      This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its value  is  treated
	      similarly  to the one for the break-keys style (and uses the same context: `:incre-
	      mental').  However, in this case all keys matching the pattern given as  its  value
	      will stop incremental completion and will then execute their usual function.

       toggle This  boolean  style  is	used by predict-on and its related widgets in the context
	      `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard  `true'  values,  predictive  typing  is
	      automatically  toggled off in situations where it is unlikely to be useful, such as
	      when editing a multi-line buffer or after moving into the middle of a line and then
	      deleting	a  character.	The  default  is  to  leave prediction turned on until an
	      explicit call to predict-off.

	      This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related	widgets  in  the  context
	      `:predict'.   If	set to one of the standard `true' values, these widgets display a
	      message below the prompt when the predictive state is toggled.  This is most useful
	      in combination with the toggle style.  The default does not display these messages.

       There  are  a large number of helpful functions in the Functions/Misc directory of the zsh
       distribution.  Most are very simple and do not require documentation here, but a  few  are
       worthy of special mention.

       colors This  function  initializes  several  associative arrays to map color names to (and
	      from) the ANSI standard eight-color terminal codes.  These are used by  the  prompt
	      theme system (see above).  You seldom should need to run colors more than once.

	      The  eight  base	colors	are:  black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan, and
	      white.  Each of these has codes for foreground and background.  In  addition  there
	      are  eight  intensity attributes: bold, faint, standout, underline, blink, reverse,
	      and conceal.  Finally, there are six codes used to negate attributes:  none  (reset
	      all  attributes  to  the	defaults),  normal (neither bold nor faint), no-standout,
	      no-underline, no-blink, and no-reverse.

	      Some terminals do not support all combinations of colors and intensities.

	      The associative arrays are:

	      colour Map all the color names to their integer codes, and  integer  codes  to  the
		     color  names.  The eight base names map to the foreground color codes, as do
		     names prefixed with `fg-', such as `fg-red'.   Names  prefixed  with  `bg-',
		     such  as `bg-blue', refer to the background codes.  The reverse mapping from
		     code to color yields base name for foreground codes and  the  bg-	form  for

		     Although  it  is a misnomer to call them `colors', these arrays also map the
		     other fourteen attributes from names to codes and codes to names.

		     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape sequences	that  set
		     the  corresponding  foreground text properties.  The fg sequences change the
		     color without changing the eight intensity attributes.

		     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape sequences	that  set
		     the  corresponding background properties.	The bg sequences change the color
		     without changing the eight intensity attributes.

	      In addition, the scalar parameters reset_color and bold_color are set to	the  ANSI
	      terminal	escapes  that turn off all attributes and turn on bold intensity, respec-

       fned name
	      Same as zed -f.  This function does not appear in the zsh distribution, but can  be
	      created by linking zed to the name fned in some directory in your fpath.

       is-at-least needed [ present ]
	      Perform a greater-than-or-equal-to comparison of two strings having the format of a
	      zsh version number; that is, a string of numbers and text with  segments	separated
	      by  dots	or  dashes.  If the present string is not provided, $ZSH_VERSION is used.
	      Segments are paired left-to-right in the two strings with leading non-number  parts
	      ignored.	If one string has fewer segments than the other, the missing segments are
	      considered zero.

	      This is useful in startup files to set options and other state that are not  avail-
	      able in all versions of zsh.

		     is-at-least 3.1.6-15 && setopt NO_GLOBAL_RCS
		     is-at-least 3.1.0 && setopt HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
		     is-at-least 2.6-17 || print "You can't use is-at-least here."

       nslookup [ arg ... ]
	      This  wrapper  function  for the nslookup command requires the zsh/zpty module (see
	      zshmodules(1)).  It behaves exactly like the standard nslookup except that it  pro-
	      vides  customizable  prompts  (including	a  right-side  prompt)	and completion of
	      nslookup commands, host names, etc. (if you use the function-based completion  sys-
	      tem).  Completion styles may be set with the context prefix `:completion:nslookup'.

	      See also the pager, prompt and rprompt styles below.

	      See `Accessing On-Line Help' above.

       zed [ -f ] name
	      This  function  uses  the  ZLE  editor  to edit a file or function.  It rebinds the
	      return key to insert a line break, and adds bindings for `^X^W' in the emacs keymap
	      and `ZZ' in the vicmd keymap to accept (and therefore write, in the case of a file)
	      the edited file or function.  Keybindings are otherwise the standard ones;  comple-
	      tion is available, and styles may be set with the context prefix `:completion:zed'.

	      Only one name argument is recognized (additional arguments are ignored).	If the -f
	      option is given, the name is taken to be that of a function;  if	the  function  is
	      marked  for  autoloading, zed searches for it in the fpath and loads it.	Note that
	      functions edited this way are installed into the current	shell,	but  not  written
	      back to the autoload file.

	      Without  -f, name is the path name of the file to edit, which need not exist; it is
	      created on write, if necessary.

       zcp [ -finqQvw ] srcpat dest
       zln [ -finqQsvw ] srcpat dest
	      Same as zmv -C and zmv -L, respectively.	These functions do not appear in the  zsh
	      distribution,  but  can  be created by linking zmv to the names zcp and zln in some
	      directory in your fpath.

       zkbd   See `Keyboard Definition' above.

       zmv [ -finqQsvw ] [ -C | -L | -M | -p program ] [ -o optstring ] srcpat dest
	      Move (usually, rename) files matching the pattern  srcpat  to  corresponding  files
	      having names of the form given by dest, where srcpat contains parentheses surround-
	      ing patterns which will be replaced in turn by $1, $2, ... in dest.  For example,

		     zmv '(*).lis' '$1.txt'

	      renames `foo.lis' to `foo.txt', `my.old.stuff.lis' to  `my.old.stuff.txt',  and  so

	      The  pattern is always treated as an EXTENDED_GLOB pattern.  Any file whose name is
	      not changed by the substitution is  simply  ignored.   Any  error  (a  substitution
	      resulted	in  an empty string, two substitutions gave the same result, the destina-
	      tion was an existing regular file and -f was not given) causes the entire  function
	      to abort without doing anything.


	      -f     Force  overwriting  of  destination files.  Not currently passed down to the
		     mv/cp/ln command due to vagaries of implementations (but you can use -o-f to
		     do that).
	      -i     Interactive:  show each line to be executed and ask the user whether to exe-
		     cute it.  `Y' or `y' will execute it, anything else will skip it.	Note that
		     you just need to type one character.
	      -n     No execution: print what would happen, but don't do it.
	      -q     Turn  bare  glob  qualifiers  off:  now  assumed  by default, so this has no
	      -Q     Force bare glob qualifiers on.  Don't turn this on unless you  are  actually
		     using glob qualifiers in a pattern.
	      -s     Symbolic, passed down to ln; only works with -L.
	      -v     Verbose: print each command as it's being executed.
	      -w     Pick  out	wildcard parts of the pattern, as described above, and implicitly
		     add parentheses for referring to them.
	      -M     Force cp, ln or mv, respectively, regardless of the name of the function.
	      -p program
		     Call program instead of cp, ln or mv.  Whatever it does, it should at  least
		     understand  the  form `program -- oldname newname' where oldname and newname
		     are filenames generated by zmv.
	      -o optstring
		     The optstring is split into words and passed down verbatim to the cp, ln  or
		     mv command called to perform the work.  It should probably begin with a `-'.

	      For  more  complete  examples  and other implementation details, see the zmv source
	      file, usually located in one of the directories named in your fpath,  or	in  Func-
	      tions/Misc/zmv in the zsh distribution.

	      See `Recompiling Functions' above.

       zstyle+ context style value [ + subcontext style value ... ]
	      This  makes  defining styles a bit simpler by using a single `+' as a special token
	      that allows you to append a context name to the previously used context name.  Like

		     zstyle+ ':foo:bar' style1 value1 \
			   + ':baz'	style2 value2 \
			   + ':frob'	style3 value3

	      This  defines `style1' with `value1' for the context :foo:bar as usual, but it also
	      defines `style2' with `value2' for  the  context	:foo:bar:baz  and  `style3'  with
	      `value3'	for  :foo:bar:frob.  Any subcontext may be the empty string to re-use the
	      first context unchanged.

	      The zed function sets this style in context `:completion:zed:*' to turn off comple-
	      tion  when  TAB is typed at the beginning of a line.  You may override this by set-
	      ting your own value for this context and style.

       pager  The nslookup function looks up this style in the context `:nslookup'  to	determine
	      the program used to display output that does not fit on a single screen.

	      The  nslookup  function  looks  up this style in the context `:nslookup' to set the
	      prompt and the right-side prompt, respectively.  The usual expansions for  the  PS1
	      and RPS1 parameters may be used (see zshmisc(1)).

zsh 4.0.6				 August 14, 2002			    ZSHCONTRIB(1)
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