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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for zshbuiltins (redhat section 1)

ZSHBUILTINS(1)			     General Commands Manual			   ZSHBUILTINS(1)

NAME
       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
       - simple command
	      See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       . file [ arg ... ]
	      Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment.

	      If  file	does  not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell looks in the
	      components of $path to find the directory containing file.  Files  in  the  current
	      directory  are  not  read  unless  `.' appears somewhere in $path.  If a file named
	      `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled form (created with the
	      zcompile builtin) of file, then commands are read from that file instead of file.

	      If  any  arguments  arg  are  given, they become the positional parameters; the old
	      positional parameters are restored when the file is done executing.  The exit  sta-
	      tus is the exit status of the last command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
	      This  command  does nothing, although normal argument expansions is performed which
	      may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero exit code is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
	      For each name with a corresponding value, define	an  alias  with  that  value.	A
	      trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias expansion.  If
	      the -g flag is present, define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even  if
	      they do not occur in command position.

	      For  each  name with no value, print the value of name, if any.  With no arguments,
	      print all currently defined aliases.  If the -m flag is  given  the  arguments  are
	      taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as
	      glob patterns), and the aliases matching these patterns are printed.  When printing
	      aliases and the -g or -r flags are present, then restrict the printing to global or
	      regular aliases, respectively.  Using `+' instead of `-', or ending the option list
	      with a single `+', prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

	      If  the  -L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable for putting
	      in a startup script.  The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given
	      for which no alias has been defined.

       autoload [ {+|-}UXmt ] [ -wkz ] [ name ... ]
	      Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X, -w, -k and -z.

	      The  flag -X may be used only inside a shell function, and may not be followed by a
	      name.  It causes the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then immedi-
	      ately loaded and executed, with the current array of positional parameters as argu-
	      ments.  This replaces the previous definition of the function.  If no function def-
	      inition is found, an error is printed and the function remains undefined and marked
	      for autoloading.

	      The flag +X attempts to load each name as an autoloaded function, but does not exe-
	      cute  it.   The  exit  status  is zero (success) if the function was not previously
	      defined and a definition for it was found.  This does not replace any existing def-
	      inition  of the function.  The exit status is nonzero (failure) if the function was
	      already defined or when no definition was found.	In the latter case  the  function
	      remains undefined and marked for autoloading.

	      The  flag  +X  may  be combined with either -k or -z to make the function be loaded
	      using ksh-style or zsh-style autoloading, respectively. If neither  is  given,  the
	      current  setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD options determines how the function is loaded.
	      With ksh-style autoloading, the contents of the file will not be	executed  immedi-
	      ately.  Instead,	the function created will contain the contents of the file plus a
	      call to the function itself appended to it, thus given normal ksh  autoloading  be-
	      haviour on the first call to the function.

	      With  the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled with the zcompile
	      builtin, and all functions defined in them are marked for autoloading.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
	      Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified.

       bindkey
	      See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
	      Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.	If  n  is  speci-
	      fied, then break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
	      Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -sLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -sLP ] old new
       cd [ -sLP ] {+|-}n
	      Change  the  current directory.  In the first form, change the current directory to
	      arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not specified.  If arg is  `-',  change  to
	      the  value of $OLDPWD, the previous directory.  Otherwise, if a directory named arg
	      is not found in the current directory and arg does not begin with a  slash,  search
	      each  component  of  the	shell parameter cdpath.  If no directory is found and the
	      option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a parameter named arg exists whose value begins with
	      a slash, treat its value as the directory.  In that case, the parameter is added to
	      the named directory hash table.

	      The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name  of
	      the current directory, and tries to change to this new directory.

	      The  third  form	of  cd extracts an entry from the directory stack, and changes to
	      that directory.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack entry by  counting
	      from  the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argu-
	      ment of the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the
	      meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

	      If  the  -s  option is specified, cd refuses to change the current directory if the
	      given pathname contains symlinks.  If the -P option is  given  or  the  CHASE_LINKS
	      option  is set, symbolic links are resolved to their true values.  If the -L option
	      is given symbolic links are followed regardless of the  state  of  the  CHASE_LINKS
	      option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command simple command
	      See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       comparguments
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
	      See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
	      See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
	      See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
	      Resume  the  next  iteration  of	the enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat
	      loop.  If n is specified, break out of n-1 loops and resume at  the  nth	enclosing
	      loop.

       declare
	      Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -v ] [ arg ... ]
	      With  no arguments, print the contents of the directory stack.  If the -v option is
	      given, number the directories in the stack when printing.  Directories are added to
	      this  stack  with  the pushd command, and removed with the cd or popd commands.  If
	      arguments are specified, load them onto the  directory  stack,  replacing  anything
	      that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

       disable [ -afmr ] name ...
	      Temporarily  disable  the  named	hash  table  elements.	The default is to disable
	      builtin commands.  This allows you to use an external command with the same name as
	      a  builtin command.  The -a option causes disable to act on aliases.  The -f option
	      causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r options causes disable to act  on
	      reserved words.  Without arguments all disabled hash table elements from the corre-
	      sponding hash table are printed.	With the -m flag the arguments are taken as  pat-
	      terns  (which should be quoted to prevent them from undergoing filename expansion),
	      and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching  these  pat-
	      terns are disabled.  Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
	      Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their
	      status, and will not complain if you try to exit an  interactive	shell  with  them
	      running or stopped.  If no job is specified, disown the current job.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
	      Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one.	If the -n
	      flag is not present, print a newline at the end.	 echo  recognizes  the	following
	      escape sequences:

	      \a     bell character
	      \b     backspace
	      \c     suppress final newline
	      \e     escape
	      \f     form feed
	      \n     linefeed (newline)
	      \r     carriage return
	      \t     horizontal tab
	      \v     vertical tab
	      \\     backslash
	      \0NNN  character code in octal
	      \xNN   character code in hexadecimal

	      The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences.
	      In the latter case, -e flag can be used to enable them.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] {zsh|sh|ksh|csh}
	      Set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as much as  possible.	csh  will
	      never  be  fully	emulated.  If the argument is not one of the shells listed above,
	      zsh will be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the  argument
	      are the same as those used to determine the emulation at startup based on the shell
	      name, see the section `Compatibility' in zshmisc(1) .  If the -R option  is  given,
	      all  options are reset to their default value corresponding to the specified emula-
	      tion mode, except for certain options describing the interactive environment;  oth-
	      erwise,  only  those  options  likely  to cause portability problems in scripts and
	      functions are altered.  If the -L option is given, the  options  LOCAL_OPTIONS  and
	      LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the emulate command and any
	      setopt and trap commands to be local to the immediately surrounding shell function,
	      if any; normally these options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh.

       enable [ -afmr ] name ...
	      Enable  the  named  hash	table elements, presumably disabled earlier with disable.
	      The default is to enable builtin commands.  The -a option causes enable to  act  on
	      aliases.	 The  -f  option  causes enable to act on shell functions.  The -r option
	      causes enable to act on reserved words.  Without arguments all enabled  hash  table
	      elements from the corresponding hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the argu-
	      ments are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements from the
	      corresponding  hash table matching these patterns are enabled.  Enabled objects can
	      be disabled with the disable builtin command.

       eval [ arg ... ]
	      Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the resulting command  in  the
	      current shell process.

       exec simple command
	      See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       exit [ n ]
	      Exit  the  shell	with  the exit code specified by n; if none is specified, use the
	      exit code from the last command executed.  An EOF condition  will  also  cause  the
	      shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
	      The  specified  names  are marked for automatic export to the environment of subse-
	      quently executed commands.  Equivalent to typeset -gx.  If  a  parameter	specified
	      does not already exist, it is created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
	      Do nothing and return an exit code of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -nlrdDfEim ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
	      Select a range of commands from first to last from the history list.  The arguments
	      first and last may be specified as a number or as a string.  A negative  number  is
	      used as an offset to the current history event number.  A string specifies the most
	      recent event beginning with the given string.  All substitutions old=new,  if  any,
	      are then performed on the commands.

	      If  the -l flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on standard output.  If
	      the -m flag is also given the first argument is  taken  as  a  pattern  (should  be
	      quoted) and only the history events matching this pattern will be shown.	Otherwise
	      the editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these history events.   If
	      ename is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used.  If ename is `-', no
	      editor is invoked.  When editing is complete, the edited command is executed.

	      If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent event), or to  -16
	      if  the -l flag is given.  If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or to
	      -1 if the -l flag is given.

	      The flag -r reverses the order of the commands and the flag -n  suppresses  command
	      numbers  when  listing.	Also when listing, -d prints timestamps for each command,
	      and -f prints full time-date stamps.  Adding the -E flag causes  the  dates  to  be
	      printed  as  `dd.mm.yyyy', instead of the default `mm/dd/yyyy'.  Adding the -i flag
	      causes the dates to be printed in ISO8601 `yyyy-mm-dd' format.  With the	-D  flag,
	      fc prints elapsed times.

	      `fc  -R'	reads  the history from the given file, `fc -W' writes the history out to
	      the given file, and `fc -A' appends the history out to the given file.  If no file-
	      name is specified, the $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is added to -R, only
	      those events that are not already contained within the internal  history	list  are
	      added.  If the -I option is added to -A or -W, only those events that are new since
	      last incremental append/write to the history file  are  appended/written.   In  any
	      case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
	      Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job is specified, resume
	      the current job.

       float [ {+|-}EFghlrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ]
	      Equivalent to typeset -E, except that options irrelevant to floating point  numbers
	      are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UXmtu ] [ name ... ]
	      Equivalent to typeset -f.

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
	      Read  the  top  value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell parameter name.
	      Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
	      Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are  omitted,  use  the  positional
	      parameters.   A  valid option argument begins with a `+' or a `-'.  An argument not
	      beginning with a `+' or a `-', or the argument `--', ends the  options.	optstring
	      contains	the  letters  that getopts recognizes.	If a letter is followed by a `:',
	      that option is expected to have an argument.  The options can be separated from the
	      argument by blanks.

	      Each  time  it  is  invoked, getopts places the option letter it finds in the shell
	      parameter name, prepended with a `+' when arg begins with a `+'.	The index of  the
	      next arg is stored in OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

	      The  first  option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning to OPTIND.
	      OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell
	      function.   OPTARG  is not reset and retains its value from the most recent call to
	      getopts.	If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it remains unset,  and
	      the  index  or option argument is not stored.  The option itself is still stored in
	      name in this case.

	      A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option
	      in  OPTARG, and to set name to `?' for an unknown option and to `:' when a required
	      option is missing.  Otherwise, getopts sets name to `?' and prints an error message
	      when  an	option	is  invalid.   The  exit status is nonzero when there are no more
	      options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
	      hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command hash table, and the
	      named  directory	hash  table.  Normally one would modify these tables by modifying
	      one's PATH (for the command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters
	      (for  the  named	directory  hash  table).   The choice of hash table to work on is
	      determined by the -d option; without the option the command hash table is used, and
	      with the option the named directory hash table is used.

	      Given  no arguments, and neither the -r or -f options, the selected hash table will
	      be listed in full.

	      The -r option causes the selected hash table to be  emptied.   It  will  be  subse-
	      quently  rebuilt in the normal fashion.  The -f option causes the selected hash ta-
	      ble to be fully rebuilt immediately.  For the command hash table	this  hashes  all
	      the  absolute  directories in the PATH, and for the named directory hash table this
	      adds all users' home directories.  These two options cannot be used with any  argu-
	      ments.

	      The -m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be quoted)
	      and the elements of the hash table matching those patterns are  printed.	 This  is
	      the only way to display a limited selection of hash table elements.

	      For  each  name  with a corresponding value, put `name' in the selected hash table,
	      associating it with the pathname `value'.  In the command hash  table,  this  means
	      that  whenever  `name' is used as a command argument, the shell will try to execute
	      the file given by `value'.  In the named directory  hash	table,	this  means  that
	      `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

	      For  each  name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the hash table,
	      checking what the appropriate value is in the normal manner for  that  hash  table.
	      If an appropriate value can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

	      The  -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by explicit
	      specification.  If has no effect if used with -f.

	      If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the form  of	a
	      call to hash.

       history
	      Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}ghilrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ]
	      Equivalent  to  typeset -i, except that options irrelevant to integers are not per-
	      mitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
	      Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is omitted.  The -l flag
	      lists  process IDs, and the -p flag lists process groups.  If the -r flag is speci-
	      fied only running jobs will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs
	      are  shown.   If the -d flag is given, the directory from which the job was started
	      (which may not be the current directory of the job) will also be shown.

	      The -Z option replaces the shell's argument and environment space  with  the  given
	      string, truncated if necessary to fit.  This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1))
	      listings.  This feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name ] job ...
       kill [ -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
	      Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs or processes.   Sig-
	      nals  are  given	by  number  or by names, without the `SIG' prefix.  If the signal
	      being sent is not `KILL' or `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT' signal if it
	      is  stopped.   The argument job can be the process ID of a job not in the job list.
	      In the third form, kill -l, if sig is not specified the signal  names  are  listed.
	      Otherwise,  for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.
	      For each sig that is a signal number or a number representing the exit status of	a
	      process  which  was  terminated  or  stopped  by a signal the name of the signal is
	      printed.

       let arg ...
	      Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the section `Arithmetic Evalua-
	      tion'  for  a  description  of arithmetic expressions.  The exit status is 0 if the
	      value of the last expression is nonzero, and 1 otherwise.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
	      Set or display resource limits.  Unless the -s flag is  given,  the  limit  applies
	      only  the  children  of  the  shell.   If  -s is given without other arguments, the
	      resource limits of the current shell is set to the previously set  resource  limits
	      of the children.

	      If  limit  is  not specified, print the current limit placed on resource, otherwise
	      set the limit to the specified value.  If the -h flag is	given,	use  hard  limits
	      instead of soft limits.  If no resource is given, print all limits.

	      resource can be one of:

	      addressspace
		     Maximum amount of address space used.
	      aiomemorylocked
		     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations.
	      aiooperations
		     Maximum number of AIO operations.
	      cachedthreads
		     Maximum number of cached threads.
	      coredumpsize
		     Maximum size of a core dump.
	      cputime
		     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
	      datasize
		     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
	      descriptors
		     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
	      filesize
		     Largest single file allowed.
	      maxproc
		     Maximum number of processes.
	      maxpthreads
		     Maximum number of threads per process.
	      memorylocked
		     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
	      memoryuse
		     Maximum resident set size.
	      resident
		     Maximum resident set size.
	      sockbufsize
		     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
	      stacksize
		     Maximum stack size for each process.
	      vmemorysize
		     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

	      Which  of  these resource limits are available depends on the system.  resource can
	      be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.

	      limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

	      nh     hours
	      nk     kilobytes (default)
	      nm     megabytes or minutes
	      [mm:]ss
		     minutes and seconds

       local [ {+|-}AEFLRUZahilrtux [n]] [ name[=value] ] ...
	      Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are  not  permitted.	 In  this
	      case  the  -x  option does not force the use of -g, i.e. exported variables will be
	      local to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting  of  the
	      watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
	      Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
	      See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       popd [ {+|-}n ]
	      Remove  an  entry  from the directory stack, and perform a cd to the new top direc-
	      tory.  With no argument, the current top entry is removed.  An argument of the form
	      `+n'  identifies	a  stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the
	      dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of  the  form  -n	counts	from  the
	      right.   If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this con-
	      text are swapped.

       print [ -bnrslzpNDPoOicm ] [ -un ] [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
	      With no flags or with the flag `-', the arguments are printed on the standard  out-
	      put  as  described  by  echo,  with  the following differences: the escape sequence
	      `\M-x' metafies the character x (sets the highest bit), `\C-x' produces  a  control
	      character  (`\C-@'  and  `\C-?'  give the characters NUL and delete), and `\E' is a
	      synonym for `\e'.  Finally, if not in an escape sequence, `\' escapes the following
	      character and is not printed.

	      -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

	      -R     Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process escape sequences unless
		     the -e flag is given.  The -n flag suppresses the	trailing  newline.   Only
		     the -e and -n flags are recognized after -R; all other arguments and options
		     are printed.

	      -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see zsh-
		     zle(1).

	      -m     Take  the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it from
		     the argument list together with subsequent arguments that do not match  this
		     pattern.

	      -s     Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output.

	      -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

	      -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces.

	      -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

	      -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

	      -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

	      -i     If given together with -o or -O, sorting is performed case-independently.

	      -c     Print the arguments in columns.

	      -un    Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

	      -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

	      -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces.

	      -D     Treat  the  arguments  as directory names, replacing prefixes with ~ expres-
		     sions, as appropriate.

	      -P     Perform prompt expansion (see zshmisc(1)).

       pushd [ arg ]
       pushd old new
       pushd {+|-}n
	      Change the current directory, and push the old current directory onto the directory
	      stack.   In  the	first  form,  change the current directory to arg.  If arg is not
	      specified, change to the second directory on the stack (that is, exchange  the  top
	      two  entries), or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if there is
	      only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is interpreted as it would be  by  cd.
	      The meaning of old and new in the second form is also the same as for cd.

	      The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the directory list.  An argu-
	      ment of the form `+n' identifies a stack entry by counting from  the  left  of  the
	      list  shown  by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form `-n'
	      counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of  `+'  and
	      `-' in this context are swapped.

	      If  the option PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the directory stack will be printed after a
	      pushd is performed.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
	      Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
	      Print the absolute pathname of the current working directory.  If the -r or the  -P
	      flag  is	specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option is set and the -L flag is not given,
	      the printed path will not contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rzpqAclneEt ] [ -k [ num ] ]
	[ -un ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
	      Read one line and break it into fields using the characters in $IFS as  separators,
	      except  as  noted below.	The first field is assigned to the first name, the second
	      field to the second name, etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If
	      name is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

	      -r     Raw  mode: a `\' at the end of a line does not signify line continuation and
		     backslashes in the line don't quote the  following  character  and  are  not
		     removed.

	      -q     Read  only one character from the terminal and set name to `y' if this char-
		     acter was `y' or `Y' and to `n' otherwise.  With this flag  set  the  return
		     value  is	zero only if the character was `y' or `Y'.  Note that this always
		     reads from the terminal, even if used with the -p or -u or -z flags or  with
		     redirected input.	This option may also be used within zle widgets.

	      -k [ num ]
		     Read  only  one  (or  num)  characters.  All are assigned to the first name,
		     without word splitting.  This flag is ignored when -q is present.	Input  is
		     read  from  the terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option may
		     also be used within zle widgets.

		     Note that num must be in the argument word that follows -k, not in the  same
		     word.  See -u.

	      -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name,
		     without word splitting.  Text is pushed onto the stack with  `print  -z'  or
		     with  push-line  from the line editor (see zshzle(1)).  This flag is ignored
		     when the -k or -q flags are present.

	      -e
	      -E     The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard output.  If the  -e  flag
		     is used, no input is assigned to the parameters.

	      -A     The  first  name is taken as the name of an array and all words are assigned
		     to it.

	      -c
	      -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion
		     (specified with the -K flag to compctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words
		     of the current command are read. If the -l flag is given, the whole line  is
		     assigned  as  a  scalar.	If  both  flags are present, -l is used and -c is
		     ignored.

	      -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on is read.  With -l,
		     the  index of the character the cursor is on is read.  Note that the command
		     name is word number 1, not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
		     the line, its character index is the length of the line plus one.

	      -un    Input is read from file descriptor n, where n is a single digit and must not
		     be separated from -u by any whitespace.

	      -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

	      -t     Test if input is available before attempting to read;  if	none  is,  return
		     status  1	and do not set any variables.  This is not available when reading
		     from the editor buffer with -z, when called from within completion  with  -c
		     or  -l,  with  -q which clears the input queue before reading, or within zle
		     where other mechanisms should be used to test for input.

		     Note that read does not attempt to alter the  input  processing  mode.   The
		     default  mode is canonical input, in which an entire line is read at a time,
		     so usually `read -t' will not read anything until an entire  line	has  been
		     typed.   However,	when  reading from the terminal with -k this is automati-
		     cally handled; note that only availability of the first character is tested,
		     so that e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second character.  If the
		     first argument contains a `?', the remainder of  this  word  is  used  as	a
		     prompt on standard error when the shell is interactive.

	      The value (exit status) of read is 1 when an end-of-file is encountered, or when -c
	      or -l is present and the command is not called  from  a  compctl	function,  or  as
	      described for -q.  Otherwise the value is 0.

	      The  behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z flags is undefined.
	      Presently -q cancels all the others, -p cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z
	      cancels both -p and -u.

	      The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
	      Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
	      Causes  a  shell	function  or  .  script to return to the invoking script with the
	      return status specified by n.  If n is omitted, the return status is  that  of  the
	      last command executed.

	      If  return  was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the effect is different
	      for zero and non-zero return status.  With zero status (or after an implicit return
	      at  the  end of the trap), the shell will return to whatever it was previously pro-
	      cessing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as interrupted  except  that
	      the return status of the trap is retained.  Note that the numeric value of the sig-
	      nal which caused the trap is passed as the first argument, so the statement `return
	      $((128+$1))' will return the same status as if the signal had not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ] [ arg ... ]
	      Set  the options for the shell and/or set the positional parameters, or declare and
	      set an array.  If the -s option is given, it causes the specified arguments  to  be
	      sorted  before assigning them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if
	      -A is used).  With +s sort arguments in descending order.  For the meaning  of  the
	      other  flags,  see  zshoptions(1).   Flags  may  be  specified by name using the -o
	      option.

	      If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing the given args.  if
	      +A  is used and name is an array, the given arguments will replace the initial ele-
	      ments of that array; if no name is specified, all arrays	are  printed.	Otherwise
	      the  positional  parameters are set.  If no arguments are given, then the names and
	      values of all parameters are printed on the standard output.  If the only  argument
	      is `+', the names of all parameters are printed.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
	      Set  the options for the shell.  All options specified either with flags or by name
	      are set.	If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently set  are
	      printed.	If the -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
	      be quoted to protect them from filename expansion),  and	all  options  with  names
	      matching these patterns are set.

       shift [ n ] [ name ... ]
	      The  positional  parameters  ${n+1} ... are renamed to $1 ..., where n is an arith-
	      metic expression that defaults to 1.  If any names are given then the  arrays  with
	      these names are shifted instead of the positional parameters.

       source file [ arg ... ]
	      Same  as	.,  except  that  the  current directory is always searched and is always
	      searched first, before directories in $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
	      Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it receives a SIGCONT.
	      Unless the -f option is given, this will refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
	      Like  the system version of test.  Added for compatibility; use conditional expres-
	      sions instead (see the section `Conditional Expressions').

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for the shell  and  for  processes  run
	      from the shell.

       trap [ arg [ sig ... ] ]
	      arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect it from immediate evaluation
	      by the shell) to be read and executed when the shell receives sig.  Each sig can be
	      given  as  a  number or as the name of a signal.	If arg is `-', then all traps sig
	      are reset to their default values.  If arg is the empty string, then this signal is
	      ignored by the shell and by the commands it invokes.

	      If  sig  is  ZERR  then arg will be executed after each command with a nonzero exit
	      status.  If sig is DEBUG then arg will be executed after each command.  If sig is 0
	      or  EXIT and the trap statement is executed inside the body of a function, then the
	      command arg is executed after the function completes.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and  the
	      trap  statement is not executed inside the body of a function, then the command arg
	      is executed when the shell terminates.

	      The trap command with no arguments prints a list of commands associated  with  each
	      signal.

	      Note  that  traps  defined  with the trap builtin are slightly different from those
	      defined as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the latter have their own function  environment
	      (line  numbers,  local variables, etc.) while the former use the environment of the
	      command in which they were called.  For example,

		     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

	      will print the line number of a command executed after it has run, while

		     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

	      will always print the number zero.

       true [ arg ... ]
	      Do nothing and return an exit code of 0.

       ttyctl -fu
	      The -f option freezes the tty, and -u unfreezes it.  When the  tty  is  frozen,  no
	      changes made to the tty settings by external programs will be honored by the shell,
	      except for changes in the size of the screen; the shell will simply reset the  set-
	      tings  to  their	previous  values  as  soon as each command exits or is suspended.
	      Thus, stty and similar programs have no effect when the  tty  is	frozen.   Without
	      options it reports whether the terminal is frozen or not.

       type [ -wfpams ] name ...
	      Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AEFLRUZafghilrtuxm [n]] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}LRUZrux ] SCALAR[=value] array
	      Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

	      A  parameter  is	created  for  each name that does not already refer to one.  When
	      inside a function, a new parameter is created  for  every  name  (even  those  that
	      already exist), and is unset again when the function completes.  See `Local Parame-
	      ters' in zshparam(1).  The same rules apply  to  special	shell  parameters,  which
	      retain their special attributes when made local.

	      For  each  name=value  assignment,  the  parameter name is set to value.	Note that
	      arrays currently cannot be assigned in typeset expressions, only scalars and  inte-
	      gers.

	      For  each remaining name that refers to a parameter that is set, the name and value
	      of the parameter are printed in the form of an assignment.  Nothing is printed  for
	      newly-created  parameters, or when any attribute flags listed below are given along
	      with the name.  Using `+' instead of minus to introduce an attribute turns it off.

	      If the -T option is given, exactly two (or zero) name arguments  must  be  present.
	      They  represent a scalar and an array (in that order) that will be tied together in
	      the manner of $PATH and $path.  In other words, an  array  present  in  the  latter
	      variable appears as a scalar with the elements of the array joined by colons in the
	      former.  Only the scalar may have an initial value.  Both the scalar and the  array
	      may  otherwise be manipulated as normal.	If one is unset, the other will automati-
	      cally be unset too.  There is no way of untying  the  variables  without	unsetting
	      them,  or  converting the type of one of them with another typeset command; +T does
	      not work, assigning an array to SCALAR is an error, and assigning a scalar to array
	      sets it to be a single-element array.  Note that both `typeset -xT ...' and `export
	      -T ...' work, but only the scalar will be marked for export.

	      The -g (global) flag is treated specially: it means that	any  resulting	parameter
	      will  not  be  restricted to local scope.  Note that this does not necessarily mean
	      that the parameter will be global, as the flag will apply to any existing parameter
	      (even  if unset) from an enclosing function.  This flag does not affect the parame-
	      ter after creation, hence it has no effect when listing  existing  parameters,  nor
	      does the flag +g have any effect except in combination with -m (see below).

	      If no name is present, the names and values of all parameters are printed.  In this
	      case the attribute flags restrict the display to only those  parameters  that  have
	      the  specified attributes, and using `+' rather than `-' to introduce the flag sup-
	      presses printing of the values of parameters  when  there  is  no  parameter  name.
	      Also,  if  the  last  option is the word `+', then names are printed but values are
	      not.

	      If the -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as patterns (which  should  be
	      quoted).	 With  no attribute flags, all parameters (or functions with the -f flag)
	      with matching names are printed.	Note that -m is ignored if no patterns are given.
	      If  the  +g  flag  is  combined with -m, a new local parameter is created for every
	      matching parameter that is not already local.  Otherwise -m applies all other flags
	      or  assignments  to the existing parameters.  Except when assignments are made with
	      name=value, using +m forces the matching parameters to be printed,  even	inside	a
	      function.

	      If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present or the +m form was
	      used, each parameter name printed is preceded by a list of the attributes  of  that
	      parameter  (array,  association,	exported, integer, readonly).  If +m is used with
	      attribute flags, and all those flags are introduced with +, the matching	parameter
	      names are printed but their values are not.

	      The following attribute flags may be specified:

	      -A     The  names  refer to associative array parameters; see `Array Parameters' in
		     zshparam(1).

	      -L     Left justify and remove leading blanks from value.   If  n  is  nonzero,  it
		     defines  the  width of the field; otherwise it is determined by the width of
		     the value of the first assignment.  When the parameter is	expanded,  it  is
		     filled  on the right with blanks or truncated if necessary to fit the field.
		     Leading zeros are removed if the -Z flag is also set.

	      -R     Right justify and fill with leading blanks.  If n is nonzero if defines  the
		     width  of the field; otherwise it is determined by the width of the value of
		     the first assignment.  When the parameter is expanded,  the  field  is  left
		     filled with blanks or truncated from the end.

	      -U     For  arrays (but not for associative arrays), keep only the first occurrence
		     of each duplicated value.	This may also be set for colon-separated  special
		     parameters  like  PATH  or  FIGNORE, etc.	This flag has a different meaning
		     when used with -f; see below.

	      -Z     Right justify and fill with leading zeros if the first  non-blank	character
		     is a digit and the -L flag has not been set.  If n is nonzero it defines the
		     width of the field; otherwise it is determined by the width of the value  of
		     the first assignment.

	      -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array parameter may be created this
		     way, but it may not be assigned to in the typeset statement.  When  display-
		     ing, both normal and associative arrays are shown.

	      -f     The  names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No assignments can be
		     made, and the only other valid flags are -t, -u and -U.  The flag	-t  turns
		     on execution tracing for this function.  The -u and -U flags cause the func-
		     tion to be marked for autoloading; -U also causes alias expansion to be sup-
		     pressed  when  the function is loaded.  The fpath parameter will be searched
		     to find the function definition when the function is first  referenced;  see
		     the section `Functions'.

	      -h     Hide: only useful for special parameters (those marked `<S>' in the table in
		     zshparams(1)), and for local parameters with the  same  name  as  a  special
		     parameter,  though  harmless  for	others.   A  special  parameter with this
		     attribute will not retain its special effect when made  local.   Thus  after
		     `typeset -h PATH', a function containing `typeset PATH' will create an ordi-
		     nary local parameter without the usual behaviour  of  PATH.   Alternatively,
		     the local parameter may itself be given this attribute; hence inside a func-
		     tion `typeset -h PATH' creates an ordinary local parameter and  the  special
		     PATH  parameter  is not altered in any way.  It is also possible to create a
		     local parameter using `typeset +h special', where the local copy of  special
		     will  retain  its	special properties regardless of having the -h attribute.
		     Global special parameters loaded from  shell  modules  (currently	those  in
		     zsh/mapfile  and  zsh/parameter) are automatically given the -h attribute to
		     avoid name clashes.

	      -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not display the value of the parame-
		     ter when listing parameters; the display for such parameters is always as if
		     the `+' flag had been given.  Use of the parameter is in other respects nor-
		     mal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is specified by name, or
		     by pattern with the -m option.  This is on by default for the parameters  in
		     the  zsh/parameter  and zsh/mapfile modules.  Note, however, that unlike the
		     -h flag this is also useful for non-special parameters.

	      -i     Use an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero it defines the out-
		     put arithmetic base, otherwise it is determined by the first assignment.

	      -E     Use  an  internal double-precision floating point representation.	On output
		     the variable will be converted to scientific notation.  If n is  nonzero  it
		     defines the number of significant figures to display; the default is ten.

	      -F     Use  an  internal double-precision floating point representation.	On output
		     the variable will be converted to fixed-point decimal  notation.	If  n  is
		     nonzero  it defines the number of digits to display after the decimal point;
		     the default is ten.

	      -l     Convert the result to lower case whenever the parameter  is  expanded.   The
		     value is not converted when assigned.

	      -r     The given names are marked readonly.

	      -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning to the shell.  This
		     flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see above.

	      -u     Convert the result to upper case whenever the parameter  is  expanded.   The
		     value  is	not  converted	when assigned.	This flag has a different meaning
		     when used with -f; see above.

	      -x     Mark for automatic export to the environment of subsequently  executed  com-
		     mands.   If  the  option  GLOBAL_EXPORT  is set, this implies the option -g,
		     unless +g is also explicitly given; in other words the parameter is not made
		     local  to	the  enclosing function.  This is for compatibility with previous
		     versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ -SHacdflmnpstv [ limit ] ... ]
	      Set or display resource limits of the shell and the processes started by the shell.
	      The value of limit can be a number in the unit specified below or the value `unlim-
	      ited'.  By default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is  given  use
	      hard  limits  instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is given together with the -H
	      flag set both hard and soft limits.  If no options are used, the	file  size  limit
	      (-f)  is assumed.  If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources
	      are printed.  When more than one resource values are printed  the  limit	name  and
	      unit is printed before each value.

	      -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
	      -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
	      -d     K-bytes on the size of the data segment.
	      -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
	      -l     K-bytes on the size of locked-in memory.
	      -m     K-bytes on the size of physical memory.
	      -n     open file descriptors.
	      -s     K-bytes on the size of the stack.
	      -t     CPU seconds to be used.
	      -u     processes available to the user.
	      -v     K-bytes on the size of virtual memory.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
	      The  umask  is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or a symbolic value
	      as described in chmod(1).  If mask is omitted, the current value is  printed.   The
	      -S  option  causes the mask to be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask
	      is printed as an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the permissions  you
	      specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied) to the users specified.

       unalias
	      Same as unhash -a.

       unfunction
	      Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfm ] name ...
	      Remove  the  element named name from an internal hash table.  The default is remove
	      elements from the command hash table.   The  -a  option  causes  unhash  to  remove
	      aliases.	 The  -f  option causes unhash to remove shell functions.  The -d options
	      causes unhash to remove named directories.  If the -m flag is given  the	arguments
	      are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all elements of the corresponding hash
	      table with matching names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
	      The resource limit for each resource is set to the hard limit.  If the -h  flag  is
	      given  and  the  shell has appropriate privileges, the hard resource limit for each
	      resource is removed.  The resources of the shell process are only changed if the -s
	      flag is given.

       unset [ -fm ] name ...
	      Each  named  parameter is unset.	Local parameters remain local even if unset; they
	      appear unset within scope, but the previous value  will  still  reappear	when  the
	      scope ends.

	      Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset by using subscript
	      syntax on name, which should be quoted (or the entire command prefixed with noglob)
	      to protect the subscript from filename generation.

	      If  the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted)
	      and all parameters with matching names are unset.  Note that this  cannot  be  used
	      when unsetting associative array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part
	      of the pattern.

	      unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
	      Unset the options for the shell.	All options specified either  with  flags  or  by
	      name  are  unset.  If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently
	      unset are printed.  If the -m flag is given the arguments  are  taken  as  patterns
	      (which  should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob patterns),
	      and all options with names matching these patterns are unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
	      Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is not given then  all	currently
	      active  child processes are waited for.  Each job can be either a job specification
	      or the process ID of a job in the job table.  The exit status from this command  is
	      that of the job waited for.

       whence [ -vcwfpams ] name ...
	      For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a command name.

	      -v     Produce a more verbose report.

	      -c     Print the results in a csh-like format.  This takes precedence over -v.

	      -w     For  each name, print `name: word' where word is one of alias, builtin, com-
		     mand, function, hashed, reserved or none, according as name  corresponds  to
		     an  alias, a built-in command, an external command, a shell function, a com-
		     mand defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word, or is  not  recognised.
		     This takes precedence over -v and -c.

	      -f     Causes  the contents of a shell function to be displayed, which would other-
		     wise not happen unless the -c flag were used.

	      -p     Do a path search for name even if it is an alias, reserved word, shell func-
		     tion or builtin.

	      -a     Do  a  search for all occurrences of name throughout the command path.  Nor-
		     mally only the first occurrence is printed.

	      -m     The arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted), and the  information
		     is displayed for each command matching one of these patterns.

	      -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free pathname as well.

       where [ -wpms ] name ...
	      Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpams ] name ...
	      Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
	      This  builtin command can be used to compile functions or scripts, storing the com-
	      piled form in a file, and to examine files  containing  the  compiled  form.   This
	      allows faster autoloading of functions and execution of scripts by avoiding parsing
	      of the text when the files are read.

	      The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a compiled file.  If only
	      the  file  argument  is  given, the output file has the name `file.zwc' and will be
	      placed in the same directory as the file.  The shell will load  the  compiled  file
	      instead  of  the normal function file when the function is autoloaded; see the sec-
	      tion `Autoloading Functions' in zshfunc(1) for  a  description  of  how  autoloaded
	      functions are searched.  The extension .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

	      If  there  is at least one name argument, all the named files are compiled into the
	      output file given as the first argument.	If file does not end in .zwc, this exten-
	      sion  is	automatically appended.  Files containing multiple compiled functions are
	      called `digest' files, and are intended to be used as elements of  the  FPATH/fpath
	      special array.

	      The second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled definitions for all
	      the named functions into file.  For -c,  the  names  must  be  functions	currently
	      defined  in  the shell, not those marked for autoloading.  Undefined functions that
	      are marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in which case the
	      fpath  is searched and the contents of the definition files for those functions, if
	      found, are compiled into file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both  defined
	      functions  and  functions marked for autoloading may be given.  In either case, the
	      functions in files written with the -c or -a option will be autoloaded  as  if  the
	      KSH_AUTOLOAD option were unset.

	      The  reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with different options
	      is that some definition files for autoloading define multiple functions,	including
	      the  function  with the same name as the file, and, at the end, call that function.
	      In such cases the output of `zcompile -c' does not include the additional functions
	      defined  in the file, and any other initialization code in the file is lost.  Using
	      `zcompile -a' captures all this extra information.

	      If the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used as patterns and  all
	      functions  whose	names  match one of these patterns will be written. If no name is
	      given, the definitions of all functions currently defined or marked  as  autoloaded
	      will be written.

	      The  third  form,  with the -t option, examines an existing compiled file.  Without
	      further arguments, the names of the original files compiled  into  it  are  listed.
	      The first line of output shows the version of the shell which compiled the file and
	      how the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by mapping it  into  mem-
	      ory).   With  arguments,	nothing  is output and the return value is set to zero if
	      definitions for all names were found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the def-
	      inition for at least one name was not found.

	      Other options:

	      -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

	      -R     When  the	compiled  file	is read, its contents are copied into the shell's
		     memory, rather than memory-mapped (see -M).  This happens	automatically  on
		     systems that do not support memory mapping.

		     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions, it is often desir-
		     able to use this option; otherwise the whole file,  including  the  code  to
		     define functions which have already been defined, will remain mapped, conse-
		     quently wasting memory.

	      -M     The compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory when read. This is  done
		     in  such a way that multiple instances of the shell running on the same host
		     will share this mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is  given,  the  zcompile
		     builtin decides what to do based on the size of the compiled file.

	      -k
	      -z     These  options  are used when the compiled file contains functions which are
		     to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the function will be autoloaded as if  the
		     KSH_AUTOLOAD  option  is not set, even if it is set at the time the compiled
		     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will be  loaded  as  if
		     KSH_AUTOLOAD  is  set.   If  neither of these options is given, the function
		     will be loaded as determined by the setting of the  KSH_AUTOLOAD  option  at
		     the time the compiled file is read.

		     These  options may also appear as many times as necessary between the listed
		     names to specify the loading style of all following  functions,  up  to  the
		     next -k or -z.

		     The  created  file  always contains two versions of the compiled format, one
		     for big-endian machines and one for small-endian machines.   The  upshot  of
		     this  is  that the compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
		     mapped, only one half of the file is actually used (and mapped).

       zformat
	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
	      Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading of  modules  while
	      the  shell  is running (`dynamical loading') is not available on all operating sys-
	      tems, or on all installations on a particular operating system, although the  zmod-
	      load command itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules built
	      into versions of the shell executable without dynamical loading.

	      Without arguments the names of all currently loaded  binary  modules  are  printed.
	      The  -L option causes this list to be in the form of a series of zmodload commands.
	      Forms with arguments are:

	      zmodload [ -i ] name ...
	      zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
		     In the simplest case, zmodload loads a binary module.  The module must be in
		     a	file  with a name consisting of the specified name followed by a standard
		     suffix, usually `.so' (`.sl' on HPUX).   If  the  module  to  be  loaded  is
		     already  loaded and the -i option is given, the duplicate module is ignored.
		     Otherwise zmodload prints an error message.

		     The named module is searched for in the same way a command is,  using  $mod-
		     ule_path  instead of $path.  However, the path search is performed even when
		     the module name contains a `/', which it usually does.  There is no  way  to
		     prevent the path search.

		     With  -u,	zmodload  unloads  modules.  The same name must be given that was
		     given when the module was loaded, but it is not necessary for the module  to
		     exist  in	the filesystem.  The -i option suppresses the error if the module
		     is already unloaded (or was never loaded).

		     Each module has a boot and a cleanup  function.   The  module  will  not  be
		     loaded  if its boot function fails.  Similarly a module can only be unloaded
		     if its cleanup function runs successfully.

	      zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
	      zmodload -d name dep ...
	      zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
		     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.	The modules named
		     in  the  second  and  subsequent  arguments will be loaded before the module
		     named in the first argument.

		     With -d and one argument, all dependencies for that module are listed.  With
		     -d and no arguments, all module dependencies are listed.  This listing is by
		     default in a Makefile-like format.  The -L option changes this format  to	a
		     list of zmodload -d commands.

		     If  -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If only one argument
		     is given, all dependencies for that module are removed.

	      zmodload -ab [ -L ]
	      zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
	      zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
		     The -ab option  defines  autoloaded  builtins.   It  defines  the	specified
		     builtins.	When any of those builtins is called, the module specified in the
		     first argument is loaded.	If  only  the  name  is  given,  one  builtin  is
		     defined,  with  the same name as the module.  -i suppresses the error if the
		     builtin is already defined or autoloaded, regardless of which module it came
		     from.

		     With -ab and no arguments, all autoloaded builtins are listed, with the mod-
		     ule name (if different) shown in parentheses after the builtin name.  The -L
		     option changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

		     If  -b  is  used together with the -u option, it removes builtins previously
		     defined with -ab.	This is only possible if the builtin is not  yet  loaded.
		     -i  suppresses  the  error  if  the  builtin  is  already	removed (or never
		     existed).

	      zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
	      zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
	      zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
		     The -ac option is used  to  define  autoloaded  condition	codes.	The  cond
		     strings give the names of the conditions defined by the module. The optional
		     -I option is used to define infix condition names. Without this option  pre-
		     fix condition names are defined.

		     If  given	no  condition names, all defined names are listed (as a series of
		     zmodload commands if the -L option is given).

		     The -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded conditions.

	      zmodload -ap [ -L ]
	      zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
	      zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
		     The -p option is like the -b and -c options,  but	makes  zmodload  work  on
		     autoloaded parameters instead.

	      zmodload -af [ -L ]
	      zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
	      zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
		     The -f option is like the -b, -p, and -c options, but makes zmodload work on
		     autoloaded math functions instead.

	      zmodload -a [ -L ]
	      zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
	      zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
		     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

	      zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
		     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules; if the  -A  option
		     is  also  given,  module  aliases	corresponding  to loaded modules are also
		     shown.  With arguments only the return status is set to zero if all  strings
		     given  as	arguments  are	names of loaded modules and to one if at least on
		     string is not the name of a loaded module.  This can be used to test for the
		     availability  of  things  implemented by modules.	In this case, any aliases
		     are automatically resolved and the -A flag is not used.

	      zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
		     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given, define modalias to
		     be  an  alias  for the module module.  If the module modalias is ever subse-
		     quently requested, either via a call to zmodload or  implicitly,  the  shell
		     will attempt to load module instead.  If module is not given, show the defi-
		     nition of modalias.  If no arguments are  given,  list  all  defined  module
		     aliases.	When  listing, if the -L flag was also given, list the definition
		     as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

		     The existence of aliases for modules is completely  independent  of  whether
		     the  name	resolved  is actually loaded as a module: while the alias exists,
		     loading and unloading the module under any alias has exactly the same effect
		     as  using	the resolved name, and does not affect the connection between the
		     alias and the resolved name which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by
		     redefining the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the first resolved name
		     is itself an alias) are valid so long as these are  not  circular.   As  the
		     aliases  take the same format as module names, they may include path separa-
		     tors:  in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the path  named
		     to  exist as the alias will be resolved first.  For example, `any/old/alias'
		     is always a valid alias.

		     Dependencies added to aliased modules are actually  added	to  the  resolved
		     module;  these  remain  if  the  alias is removed.  It is valid to create an
		     alias whose name is one of the standard shell modules and which resolves  to
		     a	different  module.  However, if a module has dependencies, it will not be
		     possible to use the module name as an alias as the module	will  already  be
		     marked as a loadable module in its own right.

		     Apart  from  the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload command anywhere
		     module names are required.  However, aliases will not be shown in	lists  of
		     loaded modules with a bare `zmodload'.

	      zmodload -R modalias ...
		     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as a module alias via
		     zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any was not defined, an error  is  caused
		     and the remainder of the line is ignored.

	      Note  that zsh makes no distinction between modules that were linked into the shell
	      and modules that are loaded dynamically. In both cases this builtin command has  to
	      be  used to make available the builtins and other things defined by modules (unless
	      the module is autoloaded on these definitions). This is true even for systems  that
	      don't support dynamic loading of modules.

       zparseopts
	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
	      See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

zsh 4.0.6				 August 14, 2002			   ZSHBUILTINS(1)


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