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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for rdist (redhat section 1)

RDIST(1)			     General Commands Manual				 RDIST(1)

       rdist - remote file distribution client program

       rdist  [ -DFn ] [ -A num ] [ -a num ] [ -d var=value ] [ -l <local logopts> ] [ -L <remote
       logopts> ] [ -f distfile ] [ -M maxproc ] [ -m host ] [ -o distopts ] [ -t timeout ] [  -p
       <rdistd-path> ] [ -P <transport-path> ] [ name ...  ]

       rdist -DFn -c name ...  [login@]host[:dest]

       rdist -Server

       rdist -V

       Rdist  is  a  program  to maintain identical copies of files over multiple hosts.  It pre-
       serves the owner, group, mode, and mtime of files if possible and can update programs that
       are  executing.	Rdist reads commands from distfile to direct the updating of files and/or
       directories.  If distfile is `-', the standard input is used.  If no -f option is present,
       the  program looks first for `distfile', then `Distfile' to use as the input.  If no names
       are specified on the command line, rdist will update all  of  the  files  and  directories
       listed  in  distfile.   Otherwise,  the	argument  is taken to be the name of a file to be
       updated or the label of a command to execute. If label and  file  names	conflict,  it  is
       assumed to be a label.  These may be used together to update specific files using specific

       The -c option forces rdist to interpret the remaining arguments as a small distfile.   The
       equivalent distfile is as follows.

	    ( name ... ) -> [login@]host
		 install   [dest] ;

       The  -Server option is recognized to provide partial backward compatible support for older
       versions of rdist which used this option to put rdist  into  server  mode.   If	rdist  is
       started	with  the -Server command line option, it will attempt to exec (run) the old ver-
       sion of rdist.  This option will only work if rdist was compiled with the location of  the
       old rdist (the path /usr/bin/oldrdist is used on Red Hat linux) and that program is avail-
       able at run time.

       Rdist can use either the rcmd(3) function call or run an arbitrary transport program  such
       as rsh(1c) to access each target host.  The method used is selected at compile-time.  How-
       ever, if the later method is used, the transport program can be specified at  run-time  on
       the  command  line  with the default being rsh(1c).  If the rsh(1c) method is used and the
       target host is the string localhost and the remote user name is the same as the local user
       name, rdist will run the command

	      /bin/sh -c rdistd -S

       Otherwise rdist run will run the command

	      rsh host -l remuser rdistd -S

       where  host  is	the  name of the target host, remuser is the name of the user to make the
       connection as and, rdistd is the rdist server command on the target host as  shown  below.
       To  use a transport program other than rsh(1c) use the -P option.  Whatever transport pro-
       gram is used, must be compatible with the above specified  syntax  for  rsh(1c).   If  the
       transport  program  is  not,  it should be wrapped in a shell script which does understand
       this command line syntax and which then executes the real transport program.

       Here's an example which uses ssh(1) as the transport:

	      rdist -P /usr/local/bin/ssh -f myDistfile

       If the rcmd(3) method is used, then rdist makes the connection to the target  host  itself
       and  runs the rdistd server program as shown below.  The default, and preferred method, is
       to use rsh(1c) to make the connection to target hosts.  This allows rdist to be run  with-
       out being setuid to ``root''.

       On each target host Rdist will attempt to run the command

	      rdistd -S


	      <rdistd path> -S

       if  the	-p  option was specified.  If no -p option is included, or the <rdistd path> is a
       simple filename, rdistd or <rdistd path> must be somewhere in the $PATH of the  user  run-
       ning rdist on the remote (target) host.

       -A num Set  the	minimum number of free files (inodes) on a filesystem that must exist for
	      rdist to update or install a file.

       -a num Set the minimum amount of free space (in bytes) on a filesystem that must exist for
	      rdist to update or install a file.

       -D     Enable copious debugging messages.

       -d var=value
	      Define var to have value.  This option is used to define or override variable defi-
	      nitions in the distfile.	Value can be the empty string, one name,  or  a  list  of
	      names surrounded by parentheses and separated by tabs and/or spaces.

       -F     Do not fork any child rdist processes.  All clients are updated sequentially.

       -f distfile
	      Set  the	name of the distfile to use to be distfile .  If distfile is specified as
	      ``-'' (dash) then read from standard input (stdin).

       -l logopts
	      Set local logging options.  See the section MESSAGE LOGGING for details on the syn-
	      tax for logopts.

       -L logopts
	      Set  remote  logging  options.  logopts is the same as for local logging except the
	      values are passed to the remote server (rdistd).	See the section  MESSAGE  LOGGING
	      for details on the syntax for logopts.

       -M num Set the maximum number of simultaneously running child rdist processes to num.  The
	      default is 4.

       -m machine
	      Limit which machines are to be updated. Multiple -m arguments can be given to limit
	      updates to a subset of the hosts listed in the distfile.

       -n     Print the commands without executing them. This option is useful for debugging dis-

	      Specify the dist options to enable.  distopts is a comma separated list of  options
	      which are listed below.  The valid values for distopts are:

	      verify Verify  that  the	files are up to date on all the hosts. Any files that are
		     out of date will be displayed but no files will  be  changed  nor	any  mail

	      whole  Whole  mode.  The	whole  file name is appended to the destination directory
		     name.  Normally, only the last component of a name  is  used  when  renaming
		     files.  This will preserve the directory structure of the files being copied
		     instead of flattening the directory structure. For example, rdisting a  list
		     of  files	such  as /path/dir1/f1 and /path/dir2/f2 to /tmp/dir would create
		     files   /tmp/dir/path/dir1/f1   and   /tmp/dir/path/dir2/f2    instead    of
		     /tmp/dir/dir1/f1 and /tmp/dir/dir2/f2.

	      noexec Automatically  exclude  executable  files	that  are in a.out(5) format from
		     being checked or updated.

		     Younger mode. Files are normally  updated	if  their  mtime  and  size  (see
		     stat(2))  disagree.  This	option	causes rdist not to update files that are
		     younger than the master copy.  This can be used to prevent newer  copies  on
		     other  hosts  from  being	replaced.  A warning message is printed for files
		     which are newer than the master copy.

		     Binary comparison. Perform a binary comparison and update files if they dif-
		     fer rather than comparing dates and sizes.

	      follow Follow symbolic links. Copy the file that the link points to rather than the
		     link itself.

		     Ignore unresolved links.  Rdist will  normally  try  to  maintain	the  link
		     structure of files being transferred and warn the user if all the links can-
		     not be found.

	      chknfs Do not check or update files on target host that reside on NFS filesystems.

		     Enable check on target host to see if a file resides on a read-only filesys-
		     tem.  If a file does, then no checking or updating of the file is attempted.

	      chksym If  the target on the remote host is a symbolic link, but is not on the mas-
		     ter host, the remote target will be left a symbolic link.	This behavior  is
		     generally	considered a bug in the original version of rdist, but is present
		     to allow compatibility with older versions.

	      quiet  Quiet mode. Files that are being modified are normally printed  on  standard
		     output. This option suppresses this.

	      remove Remove  extraneous  files.  If  a directory is being updated, any files that
		     exist on the remote host that do not  exist  in  the  master  directory  are
		     removed.	This is useful for maintaining truly identical copies of directo-

		     Do not check user ownership of files that already exist.  The file ownership
		     is only set when the file is updated.

		     Do  not  check group ownership of files that already exist.  The file owner-
		     ship is only set when the file is updated.

		     Do not check file and directory permission modes.	The  permission  mode  is
		     only set when the file is updated.

		     Do  not  descend  into  a	directory.  Normally rdist will recursively check
		     directories.  If this option is enabled, then any files listed in	the  file
		     list in the distfile that are directories are not recursively scanned.  Only
		     the existence, ownership, and mode of the directory are checked.

		     Use the numeric group id (gid) to check group ownership instead of the group

		     Use  the  numeric	user id (uid) to check user ownership instead of the user

		     Save files that are updated instead of removing them.  Any target file  that
		     is updates is first rename from file to file.OLD.

	      sparse Enable  checking  for  sparse  (aka  wholely) files.  One of the most common
		     types of sparse files are those produced by ndbm(3).  This option adds  some
		     additional  processing  overhead  so  it  should only be enabled for targets
		     likely to contain sparse files.

       -p <rdistd-path>
	      Set the path where the rdistd server is searched for on the target host.

       -P <transport-path>
	      Set the path to the transport command to be used.  This is normally rsh(1c) but can
	      be any other program - such as ssh(1) - which understands rsh(1c) command line syn-
	      tax and which provides an appropriate connection to the remote  host.   The  trans-
	      port-path  may  be a colon seperated list of possible pathnames.	In this case, the
	      first component of the path to exist is used.  i.e.  /usr/ucb/rsh:/usr/bin/remsh	,

       -t timeout
	      Set the timeout period (in seconds) for waiting for responses from the remote rdist
	      server.  The default is 900 seconds.

       -V     Print version information and exit.

       Rdist uses a collection of predefined message facilities that each contain a list of  mes-
       sage  types specifying which types of messages to send to that facility.  The local client
       (rdist) and the remote server (rdistd) each maintain their own copy of what types of  mes-
       sages to log to what facilities.

       The  -l	logopts  option to rdist tells rdist what logging options to use locally.  The -L
       logopts option to rdist tells rdist what logging options to  pass  to  the  remote  rdistd

       The form of logopts should be of form


       The valid facility names are:

	      stdout Messages to standard output.

	      file   Log  to  a  file.	 To  specify  the  file name, use the format ``file=file-
		     name=types''.  e.g.  ``file=/tmp/rdist.log=all,debug''.

	      syslog Use the syslogd(8) facility.

	      notify Use the internal rdist notify facility.  This facility is used  in  conjunc-
		     tion  with  the  notify  keyword  in a distfile to specify what messages are
		     mailed to the notify address.

       types should be a comma separated list of message  types.   Each  message  type	specified
       enables	that  message  level.  This is unlike the syslog(3) system facility which uses an
       ascending order scheme.	The following are the valid types:

	      change Things that change.  This includes files that are installed  or  updated  in
		     some way.

	      info   General information.

	      notice General  info  about  things  that change.  This includes things like making
		     directories which are needed in order to  install	a  specific  target,  but
		     which are not explicitly specified in the distfile.

	      nerror Normal errors that are not fatal.

	      ferror Fatal errors.

		     Warnings about errors which are not as serious as nerror type messages.

	      debug  Debugging information.

	      all    All but debug messages.

       Here is a sample command line option:

	      -l stdout=all:syslog=change,notice:file=/tmp/rdist.log=all

       This  entry will set local message logging to have all but debug messages sent to standard
       output, change and notice messages will be sent to syslog(3), and  all  messages  will  be
       written to the file /tmp/rdist.log.

       The  distfile contains a sequence of entries that specify the files to be copied, the des-
       tination hosts, and what operations to perform to do the updating. Each entry has  one  of
       the following formats.

	      <variable name> `=' <name list>
	      [ label: ] <source list> `->' <destination list> <command list>
	      [ label: ] <source list> `::' <time_stamp file> <command list>

       The first format is used for defining variables.  The second format is used for distribut-
       ing files to other hosts.  The third format is used for making lists of	files  that  have
       been  changed  since  some  given  date.  The source list specifies a list of files and/or
       directories on the local host which are to be used as the master  copy  for  distribution.
       The  destination  list  is  the list of hosts to which these files are to be copied.  Each
       file in the source list is added to a list of changes if the file is out of  date  on  the
       host  which is being updated (second format) or the file is newer than the time stamp file
       (third format).

       Labels are optional. They are used to identify a command for partial updates.

       Newlines, tabs, and blanks are only used as separators and are otherwise ignored. Comments
       begin with `#' and end with a newline.

       Variables  to  be  expanded begin with `$' followed by one character or a name enclosed in
       curly braces (see the examples at the end).

       The source and destination lists have the following format:

	    `(' <zero or more names separated by white-space> `)'

       These simple lists can be modified by using one level of  set  addition,  subtraction,  or
       intersection like this:

	    list '-' list
	    list '+' list
	    list '&' list

       If additional modifications are needed (e.g., ``all servers and client machines except for
       the OSF/1 machines'') then the list will have to be explicitly constructed in steps  using
       "temporary" variables.

       The  shell  meta-characters  `[', `]', `{', `}', `*', and `?'  are recognized and expanded
       (on the local host only) in the same way as csh(1).  They can be escaped with a backslash.
       The  `~'  character  is also expanded in the same way as csh but is expanded separately on
       the local and destination hosts.  When the -owhole option is used with a  file  name  that
       begins with `~', everything except the home directory is appended to the destination name.
       File names which do not begin with `/' or `~' use the destination user's home directory as
       the root directory for the rest of the file name.

       The command list consists of zero or more commands of the following format.

	      `install'     <options>	 opt_dest_name `;'
	      `notify'	    <name list>  `;'
	      `except'	    <name list>  `;'
	      `except_pat'  <pattern list>`;'
	      `special'     <name list>  string `;'
	      `cmdspecial'  <name list>  string `;'

       The  install  command  is  used to copy out of date files and/or directories.  Each source
       file is copied to each host in the destination list.  Directories are  recursively  copied
       in  the	same way.  Opt_dest_name is an optional parameter to rename files.  If no install
       command appears in the command list or the destination name is not specified,  the  source
       file  name  is used.  Directories in the path name will be created if they do not exist on
       the remote host.  The -o distopts option as specified above under OPTIONS,  has	the  same
       semantics  as  on the command line except they only apply to the files in the source list.
       The login name used on the destination host is the same as the local host unless the  des-
       tination name is of the format ``login@host".

       The notify command is used to mail the list of files updated (and any errors that may have
       occurred) to the listed names.  If no `@' appears in the name,  the  destination  host  is
       appended to the name (e.g., name1@host, name2@host, ...).

       The  except  command  is used to update all of the files in the source list except for the
       files listed in name list.  This is usually used to copy everything in a directory  except
       certain files.

       The  except_pat	command  is like the except command except that pattern list is a list of
       regular expressions (see ed(1) for details).  If one of the patterns matches  some  string
       within  a file name, that file will be ignored.	Note that since `\' is a quote character,
       it must be doubled to become part of the regular expression.  Variables	are  expanded  in
       pattern list but not shell file pattern matching characters.  To include a `$', it must be
       escaped with `\'.

       The special command is used to specify sh(1) commands that  are	to  be	executed  on  the
       remote  host  after  the  file  in name list is updated or installed.  If the name list is
       omitted then the shell commands will be executed for  every  file  updated  or  installed.
       String  starts  and ends with `"' and can cross multiple lines in distfile.  Multiple com-
       mands to the shell should be separated by `;'.  Commands are executed in the  user's  home
       directory  on  the host being updated.  The special command can be used to rebuild private
       databases, etc.	after a program has been updated.  The	following  environment	variables
       are set for each special command:

       FILE   The full pathname of the local file that was just updated.

	      The full pathname of the remote file that was just updated.

	      The basename of the remote file that was just updated.

       The  cmdspecial command is similar to the special command, except it is executed only when
       the entire command is completed instead of after each file is updated.  The list of  files
       is  placed in the environment variable $FILES.  Each file name in $FILES is separated by a
       `:' (colon).

       If a hostname ends in a ``+'' (plus sign), then the plus is stripped off  and  NFS  checks
       are disabled.  This is equivalent to disabling the -ochknfs option just for this one host.

       The following is a small example.

	      HOSTS = ( matisse root@arpa)

	      FILES = ( /bin /lib /usr/bin /usr/games
			    /usr/lib /usr/man/man? /usr/ucb /usr/local/rdist )

	      EXLIB = ( Mail.rc aliases aliases.dir aliases.pag crontab dshrc
			    sendmail.cf sendmail.fc sendmail.hf sendmail.st uucp vfont )

	      ${FILES} -> ${HOSTS}
			    install -oremove,chknfs ;
			    except /usr/lib/${EXLIB} ;
			    except /usr/games/lib ;
			    special /usr/lib/sendmail "/usr/lib/sendmail -bz" ;

	      /usr/src/bin -> arpa
			    except_pat ( \\.o\$ /SCCS\$ ) ;

	      IMAGEN = (ips dviimp catdvi)

	      /usr/local/${IMAGEN} -> arpa
			    install /usr/local/lib ;
			    notify ralph ;

	      ${FILES} :: stamp.cory
			    notify root@cory ;

       TMPDIR Name of temporary directory to use.  Default is /tmp.

       distfile       - input command file
       $TMPDIR/rdist* - temporary file for update lists

       sh(1), csh(1), stat(2), rsh(1c), rcmd(3)

       If the basename of a file  (the last component in the pathname) is ".", then rdist assumes
       the remote (destination) name is a directory.  i.e.  /tmp/.  means that /tmp should  be	a
       directory on the remote host.

       The following options are still recognized for backwards compatibility:

	      -v -N -O -q -b -r -R -s -w -y -h -i -x

       Source files must reside on the local host where rdist is executed.

       Variable expansion only works for name lists; there should be a general macro facility.

       Rdist aborts on files which have a negative mtime (before Jan 1, 1970).

       If  a  hardlinked file is listed more than once in the same target, then rdist will report
       missing links.  Only one instance of a link should be listed in each target.

4.3 Berkeley Distribution		  June 13, 1998 				 RDIST(1)

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